AN EVALUATION OF COMMUNICATION PROCESSES AT OCEANIC BANK INT’L PLC (CALABAR MAIN BRANCH) AND RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO HOW THE COMMUNICATION

PROCESS AND CULTURE CAN BE IMPROVED.

ADEWUSI ADEROGBA OLADIRAN
STUDENT ID NO: 15347961 A PROJECT REPORT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT LAUREATE ONLINE EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE MODULE: MANAGING PEOPLE

AND AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL, UK JANUARY, 2009
CERTIFICATION

I certify that Adewusi Aderogba Oladiran carried out this research under my supervision, he has satisfied the necessary conditions necessary for the completion of the module “Managing People” in partial fulfillment of the degree of “Masters of Business Administration” in the department of Business Administration, School of Management, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

________________________________ PAUL PFITZPATRICK (INSTRUCTOR) Managing People _________________________________ Date

Department Of Business Administration School Of Management University Of Liverpool United Kingdom.

DEDICATION

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With utmost thankfulness, this project is dedicated to God who has given me the strength, wisdom, knowledge and understanding to complete this module, in Him alone will I trust.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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My first thanks goes to God, the almighty that made everything possible, he is worthy of praise. I wish to say a big thank you to my wife Mrs. C.U. Aderogba Adewusi with whom I study both day and night. My sincere appreciation also goes to all my colleagues in Oceanic Bank International Plc where I work presently, my classmates in the University of Liverpool (managing people module) and to all my friends all over the world. You all have been an unforgettable part of my life especially in completing this project. My parents, brother and sisters are also appreciated for being there for me. Every other person that contributed to this project is hereby recognized as a substantial part of my life. May God be your help forever. (Amen)

ABSTRACT In the Calabar Main branch of Oceanic Bank International Plc, questionnaires were served to a cross section of all staff that can be

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divided into the following groups: Marketing staff, Operations staff, Tellers, Bulk Tellers, Drivers, Security and Corps members. The questions raised focused on the communication processes at OCEANIC BANK INTERNATIONAL PLC, using Calabar Branch as a case study. Influences of types and forms of communication were analyzed through the responses of the various groups of staff of the bank. Questionnaire responses were later converted into percentages for further evaluation of communication processes at Oceanic Bank, Calabar Main Branch. The resulting data was also analyzed using the graphical representation as supported by Microsoft Excel worksheets. It was observed that various departments communicated differently using different set of forms of communication. Majority of the staff believes that Oceanic Bank Calabar Main branch could have a better communication processes than what it is right now.

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 TABLE 2

USE OF MEMO HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION

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TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 UPWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION BUSYNESS READINESS TO COMMUNICATE EMAIL PREFERENCE CHAT ENGINE PREFERENCE USE OF BANK’S INTRAMAIL TIME WASTERS HOPE FOR BETTER COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION RATING FEEDBACK RATING LIST OF GRAPHS GRAPH 1 GRAPH 2 GRAPH 3 GRAPH 4 USE OF MEMO HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION UPWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION 6 .

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………….GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH GRAPH 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 BUSYNESS READINESS TO COMMUNICATE EMAIL PREFERENCE CHAT ENGINE PREFERENCE USE OF BANK’S INTRAMAIL TIME WASTERS HOPE FOR BETTER COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION RATING FEEDBACK RATING TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………… Certification………………………………………………………………………………….. List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………. Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………. Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………….. Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 .

..CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………………………… CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………….0 9-10 11-13 14-15 16-31 32-38 39-43 44 KEYS……………………………………………………………………. AND GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS…………………………. its businesses have recorded massive and notable achievements in the financial industry. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS. CHAPTER SIX RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION…………………………………. APPENDIX 1. DATA. REFERENCES……………………………………………………………. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………….. SURVEY QUESTIONS……………………………………………..0 2.. 45 46-53 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION OCEANIC BANK (Calabar Main Branch) Oceanic Bank International Plc is a Nigerian Bank that is rated as one of the best banks in Nigeria.. The bank has 379 8 .

a nod. between superiors and subordinates. The regional branch situated in the heart of Calabar Metropolis has more than 100 staff members running its affairs. it can also be said that communication can be distorted if the right channels are not followed. Considering the branch’s business at the moment. as a case study it will provide a sample of the processes of communication inherent in the bank’s day to day activities. Oceanic bank has a vision which is “think Banking. the Bank has pursued this vision for a long time by using the popular mission statement “To provide excellent and comprehensive services to all our customers in a friendly environment. having a huge chunk of the public sector. it is a very profitable bank in the state. think Oceanic”. The branch also thrives well in Treasury and Finance Investments serving all microfinance banks in Cross River State and providing the services of a banker’s bank for the smaller financial institutions and banks that cannot directly approach the Central bank for banking services. between colleagues and between the company and its customers. It is also notable that communication is a cycle that can never be complete without a feedback. it can be in the form of a signal. an action. and also has some branches outside the shores of the country. More levels of 9 . In every organization there must be a feedback between employees and management. If communication is described as above. private sector and retail banking funds.branches in Nigeria. using qualified personnel with appropriate technology” COMMUNICATION Communication can be described as the art of passing an intended and encoded message through a medium to a receiver who will utilize the message for the achievement of the initial intent. a gesture. The sender might not be successful in getting the receiver to do what he is supposed to do if there is a break down in communication. Calabar Main is one of the regional branches of the south-south zone of the bank. Thus we can’t talk about communication without talking about the feedback. a response or anything that signifies the understanding of the initially encoded message. Feedback is very essential in communication.

Since organizations are networks of people. This will go a long way in maximizing the input of every staff and management for the generation of highly qualitative output. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.communication exists in every corporation. the human capital here needs to communicate in order to perform the banking tasks necessary for Oceanic Bank’s goal which is very explainable in its vision and mission statement above. Oceanic Bank is an organization that provides banking services to the general public through its resources. this is a very vital point because no organization can survive without effective communication. this is exactly the case here. these varies according to different authors. this evaluation will look into the processes of communication in Oceanic Bank and how the processes can be improved to get the best in favor of the Bank. Veechio (2006) defined communication as “the exchange of messages between persons for the purpose of constructing 10 . Thus. its businesses and its staff members.1 WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? There are many definitions of communication. these people need to communicate with each other to perform the tasks necessary for the realization of organizational goals.

It is a way of conveying what the sender wants to achieve to the second party who needs to achieve it. 2. touch.2 BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION There are various barriers that can act against effective communication. it was noted from various works that communication does not only occur between persons. questioning. it was mentioned that communication process requires a vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing. singing and sometimes tone of voice 2. paralanguage. they are: 1. these barriers can be individual related or organization related. analyzing. Same care extends to all the parties involved in any communication so that the required results alone will be achieved.T and Gramsbergen-Hoogland Y. Writing which includes scribbling.P made it clear that individual barriers and organization barriers to communication are made up of the following: 11 . listening. Corroborating other sources. Auditory which includes speaking. In his core concepts of Organizational behavior vecchio R. drawing etc Van der Molen H. Nonverbal which includes physical means. there must be a transfer of substance from one person to the other. (2005) stressed the need for the all the parties communicating to be actively involved.common meanings”. images. requests and many more. sign language. in the same book he described it as the creation of mental image in the mind of a receiver in exactly the same detail as intended by the sender. writing. instructions. such as body language. they showed that with the help of basic communication skills all different types of conversation can be held. and evaluating. It is evident from his definition that before it can be said that communication took place. plans. It further explained that there are three necessary means of communication. there can never be collaboration and cooperation between staff members. The care to communicate well starts with the initiator of the communication process and ends only when a feedback has been received in respect of the message conveyed. An open source of information (Wikipedia) describes communication as the process to impart information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium. speaking. observing. it also takes place within oneself. eye contact 3. the substance could be in the form of ideas. Without effective communication.

It is also a problem because communication should be a two way thing. respect and faith in the source or origin of such communication. Very large organizations may find it difficult to communicate because of the size and number of employees involved in the communication process. Information overload is a serious barrier to effective communication. all the above itemized factors have been seen to affect effective communication in one way or the other. employees may tend to respond to mails and memos without really understanding what they are supposed to do when they are under pressure to respond to many mails. Same is applicable when the credibility and perception of communication is not of good standing. Information overload diminishes the significance of organizational communication and thus must be a point of concern for organizations that must do well. because of lack of trust. Time pressures and organizational climate are also barriers that hinder effective communication in organizations. from top to bottom and bottom to top. In the case where it is just from the superiors to the subordinate. it cannot bring effective change because it is one sided and there won’t be proper feedback. Many managers prefer to communicate with the supervisors of groups or teams. It is 12 . this is a situation where more than necessary information that can be easily processed by an individual is being directed towards such persons in the organization. memos and other inquiries. this is a big problem working against effective communication from subordinates to superiors. This is another area where the largeness of the organization might be of utmost significance.INDIVIDUAL BARRIERS Differences in status The credibility of the source Perceptual biases ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS Information overload Time Pressures Organizational climate Technology Well explained. what comes out of this is that the person gets bored with the information and might not even have the urge to read and understand what information is meant to achieve. the effect of the communication is already jeopardized at the initial stages.

“Someone with high communication competence would be better than others at determining whether an email. Vecchio (2006:306) 2. telephone call. Communication Competence is a person’s ability to identify appropriate communication patterns in a given situation and to achieve goals by applying that knowledge. 3. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY To evaluate the communication processes at Oceanic Bank int’l plc (Calabar main branch). By By By By By By using the appropriate language practicing empathic communication encouraging feedback developing a climate of trust using the appropriate media encouraging effective listening. These areas will further be visited in the course of the project report to improve the communication processes of Oceanic Bank Int’l Plc.possible that information gets distorted before getting to the last employee. 4. 5. or personal visit would be the best approach to convey a message to an employee” McShane and VonGlinow (2003) After reading various texts on Communication. 2. the workforce of the branch was divided into seven groups: 13 . 6. this brings us to a significant term in communication.3 COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE There is no doubt that communication is necessary for effective productivity in any organization. one can summarize that Communication processes in organizations can be improved in following ways: 1.

3. j. Email Preference Chat Engine Preference Readiness to communicate Time wasters Hope for better communication Communication rating Feedback rating Horizontal communication Upward communication Downward communication Use of Intramail Use of Memos Busyness 14 . i. The questionnaire focused on getting variable information from the respondents in respect of the following:a. five (5) staff members were chosen at random to respond to structured questions making thirty five (35) respondents in all. 2. d. k. 7. l. h.1. f. The questions were administered in the form of questionnaires. m. 4. g. c. e. b. 6. 5. Marketing Staff Operation Staff Tellers Bulk Tellers Drivers Security Corps Members From each group described above.

The results of the research carried out were summarized under the following types of communication: VERBAL NON VERBAL TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED OTHER RESULTS CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS. DATA AND GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS 4. The data was analyzed using the graphical representation as supported by Microsoft excel sheets.10 VERBAL COMMUNICATION USE OF MEMO 15 . After the data was generated.1 4. the resulting data was then converted into the form of percentages for better understanding while reporting. Other processes of communication that were not captured by the questionnaire were also recorded by carefully observing them at Calabar Main Branch of Oceanic Bank.The dependent and independent variables were carefully rated by the assigning figures to the significance or importance attached to questions answered by the respondents.

00 100.00 0.00 20.00 0.11.00 80.45 7.00 80.00 0.00 20.00 GRAPH 1 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER IO N IV E UR RK ET I RATE ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER NONE RA T DR SE C BU LK O PE GROUP 4.00 0.00 20.00 80.00 100.00 25.30 – 7.00 0.00 80.00 0.00 17.00 22.00 0.15 – 7.00 – 7.29 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 20.11 4.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.86 OFTEN 20.71 RARELY 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.1 FACE TO FACE MEETINGS Dates for branch meetings MONDAY: TUESDAY: WEDNESDAY: STRATEGIC BRANCH MEETING PRAYER MEETING PRAYER MEETING 7.00 0.00 80.45 7.00 0.00 0.00 60.00 20.00 0.45 16 M A CO .00 0.00 NONE 80.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 34.TABLE 1: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL USE OF MEMO ALWAYS 0.14 NEVER 0.00 100.00 0.00 20.00 OTHER 0.

00 0.00 – 7.00 0.00 40.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.57 EVERY MINUTE 20.00 20.00 28.00 40.00 20.00 17.14 EVERY WEEK 0.00 60.00 100.00 0.00 20. 2.00 100.00 40.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 TOTAL 100.2 HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION EVERY SECOND 40. 5.86 OTHER 0.00 100.00 100. 3.00 0.00 60.00 TABLE 2: SECURITY DRIVER TELLER BULK TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL 17 .57 EVERY HOUR 0.11.THURSDAY: PRAYER MEETING 7.00 100.00 0.86 EVERY DAY 40.00 100.00 0.00 22.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.45 FRIDAY: KNOWLEDGE SHARING SESSION 7.00 20.00 0.45 Other meetings that are conducted in the branch include 1.00 0.00 100.00 20.00 20. Departmental meetings Head of Department meetings General meetings Bank wide strategic sessions Occasional training sessions 4.00 20.00 28. 4.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 0.30 – 7.00 0.00 0.

00 40.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.GRAPH 2 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER IO N IV E UR RK ET I RATE EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK OTHER RA T DR SE C BU LK O PE GROUP 4.00 40.00 0.00 TOTAL 100.00 20.00 60.00 0.00 25.00 0.00 0.00 17.71 EVERY WEEK 0.00 40.00 20.00 100.14 OTHER 0.00 20.00 TABLE 3: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL M A CO 18 .00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 20.3 UPWARD COMMUNICATION UPWARD COMMUNICATION EVERY SECOND 0.00 40.00 0.00 20.00 60.00 0.00 22.00 100.00 17.00 0.00 40.11.00 100.86 EVERY HOUR 40.00 0.00 100.14 EVERY DAY 20.00 17.00 20.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 20.00 40.00 100.00 20.00 20.14 EVERY MINUTE 40.00 20.

00 0.00 60.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 20.00 100.00 0.00 60.00 100.00 20.00 40.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 20.00 100.00 20.00 60.00 0.GRAPH 3 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER IO N IV E UR RK ET I RATE EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK OTHER DR RA T SE C BU LK O PE GROUP 4.00 EVERY DAY 40.4 DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION EVERY SECOND 0.00 20.29 EVERY HOUR 20.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 EVERY MINUTE 40.00 0.00 OTHER 0.00 0.00 100.00 40.00 EVERY WEEK 0.00 20.00 40.00 40.29 TOTAL 100.00 TABLE 4: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL M A CO 19 .00 20.00 20.00 14.00 100.00 0.00 0.11.00 34.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 11.00 40.

GRAPH 4 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER IO N IV E UR RK ET I RATE EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK OTHER DR RA T SE C BU LK O PE GROUP 4.12.2 TELEPHONE AFTER WORK HOURS CELL PHONES IN BRANCH All staff possess cell phones 20 M A CO .1 NO OF TELEPHONES IN BRANCH: NITELE LINES = 2 INTERCOMS = 14 4.12.12 TELEPHONE CONVERSATION TELEPHONE DURING WORK HOURS 4.

00 0.29 OFTEN 0.00 0.00 TABLE 5: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL 21 .00 100.00 5.00 0.00 TOTAL 100.00 0.71 RARELY 0.00 0.2 4.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 94.00 80.00 0.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 100.00 OTHER 0.00 0.00 0.4.00 0.00 0.21 NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BUSYNESS BUSYNESS ALWAYS 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 NEVER 0.00 0.00 NONE 0.

00 100.00 0.00 BAD 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 GRAPH 6 0.00 20.00 0.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 60.00 0.GRAPH 5 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER IO N IV E UR RK ET I RATE ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER NONE RA T DR SE C BU LK O PE GROUP 4.00 100.00 0.22 READINESS TO COMMUNICATE READINESS TO COMMUNICATE EXCELLENT 100.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 0.71 VERY GOOD 0.00 0.00 85.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 40.00 0.00 100.00 14.00 0.00 0.00 TOTAL 100.00 0.29 GOOD 0.00 FAIR 0.00 60.00 0.00 100.00 OTHER 0.00 0.00 TABLE 6: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 UR RATE M A CO EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RP ER FAIR BAD OTHER IO N RA T IV E RK ET I M A DR SE C BU LK O PE CO 22 GROUP .00 100.

4.23 BODY LANGUAGE Observed eye contact amongst staff Security Driver Teller Bulk Teller= Operations Marketing Corper = Good = Good = Not good enough Not good enough = Not good enough = Good = Good 23 .

00 OTHERS 0.00 100.00 40.00 0.00 40.4.00 100.00 60.00 0.00 GRAPH 7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 22.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.14 YAHOO HOTMAIL 0.00 20.00 0.00 100.00 0.86 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 0.31 TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED COMMUNICATION EMAIL PREFERENCE EMAIL PREFERENCE INTRAMAIL 100.00 60.00 100.00 TOTAL 100.00 40.00 INTRAMAIL YAHOO HOTMAIL OTHERS IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG AR KE TI RP ER CO TABLE 7: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 UR RATE SE C BU LK O PE RA T DR IO N IV E 24 GROUP M .3 4.00 77.00 0.

86 OTHERS 0.4.00 40.00 100.00 2.00 40.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.32 CHAT ENGINE PREFERENCE CHAT ENGINE PREFERENCE COMMUNICATOR 100.00 100.00 60.00 100.00 2.00 0.00 0.86 TOTAL 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 20.00 0.00 100.00 20.00 60.00 71.00 TABLE 8: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER GRAPH 8 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG UR AR KE TI RP ER IO N IV E RATE (%) COMMUNICATOR YAHOO MESSENGER HOTMAIL OTHERS RA T DR SE C CO BU LK O PE GROUP M 25 .86 HOTMAIL 0.43 YAHOO MESSENGER 0.00 100.00 100.00 22.00 0.00 40.00 100.00 0.00 80.00 0.00 0.

86 TOTAL 100.71 OFTEN 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 TABLE 9: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER TOTAL GRAPH 9 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG UR RK ET I RP ER IO N IV E RATE (%) ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER RA T DR SE C BU LK O PE M A CO 26 GROUP .00 60.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 40.33 USE OF BANK’S INTARMAIL USE OF BANK’S INTRAMAIL ALWAYS 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 20.00 40.86 RARELY 0.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 40.00 0.00 0.00 60.00 0.00 42.00 100.00 0.57 NEVER 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 22.00 OTHER 100.00 20.00 25.00 8.4.00 100.00 0.00 40.00 100.00 0.00 20.

00 40.00 68.4 4.00 100.41 OTHERS TIME WASTERS TABLE 10: TIME WASTERS SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 IT Y R UR IV E YES 100.00 60.43 TOTAL 100.00 100.4.00 100.00 40.00 60.00 100.00 YES NO RATE (%) TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG RK ET I DR RA T SE C BU LK O PE M A CO RP ER IO N 27 GROUP .00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.57 GRAPH 10 NO 0.00 100.00 60.00 0.00 100.00 60.00 40.00 31.00 40.

00 0.00 100.00 94.00 GRAPH 11 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 IT Y R LL ER S TE LL ER NG UR AR KE TI RP ER IO N IV E RATE (%) YES NO RA T DR TE SE C BU LK O PE CO 28 GROUP M .4.00 100.00 20.00 80.00 100.00 5.00 100.00 100.00 20.42 HOPE FOR BETTER COMMIUNICATION TABLE 11: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER HOPE FOR BETTER COMMUNICATION YES 100.00 100.00 100.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 100.29 NO 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.71 TOTAL 100.00 0.

00 0.00 40.00 40.00 20.00 5.00 28.00 20.00 20.00 100.00 20.43 FAIR 0.00 EXCELLENT 20.00 100.00 0.00 80.57 GRAPH 12 31.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.71 TOTAL 100.00 40.00 40.00 100.00 25.00 100.00 20.00 0.00 0.4.00 40.00 0.00 20.43 COMMUNICATION RATING TABLE 12: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER COMMUNICATION RATING VERY GOOD GOOD 80.00 20.71 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R TE LL ER S TE LL ER NG UR AR KE TI RP ER IO N IV E RATE (%) EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD DR RA T SE C BU LK O PE CO 29 GROUP M .00 60.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.57 BAD 0.00 100.00 20.00 8.00 80.00 100.00 0.00 20.00 0.

00 5.00 0.71 TOTAL 100.00 100.00 0.00 EXCELLENT 20.00 20.00 20.00 100.00 20.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 40.00 0.29 BAD 0.00 20.00 100.00 14.00 0.00 0.00 GRAPH 13 31.00 40.44 FEEDBACK RATING TABLE 13: SECURITY DRIVER BULK TELLER TELLER OPERATIONS MARKETING CORPER FEEDBACK RATING VERY GOOD 80.00 100.00 0.00 0.43 FAIR 0.00 20.00 40.00 0.14 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 IT Y R RATE (%) EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD TE LL ER TE LL ER NG AR KE TI RP ER IO N IV E FAIR BAD UR DR RA T S SE C BU LK O PE CO 30 GROUP M .43 GOOD 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 100.4.00 100.00 17.00 40.00 80.00 40.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 31.

They do not have intra-mails like operations and marketing staff 3. From the graph it is very evident that the drivers generates more memos on paper than every other group. They must always justify repairs and maintenance of their vehicles 2.1.CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION VERBAL COMMUNICATION 5.1 Use of Memo The graphical analysis of data showed that more drivers. This peculiarity may have come from the following: 1.1 31 . They receive more queries which they have to respond to 5. one would have expected that drivers will use less memos in communication since they are on lower levels of educational background and even lower grades in the office. operations staff and marketing staff utilized memo for communication.

2.1. Other meetings are also observed in cases of emergencies. This area needs to be improved upon so that some staff members will not wake up one day to accuse the branch management of not properly carrying them along on vital issues 5. Calabar Main branch meets briefly on daily basis before the day’s job commences. The only problem here is that meetings have to be concluded within a short while. 32 . This can be explained from the angle that they have more time to be in meetings than every other group. operations staff might not have time to communicate amongst themselves because they are always busy responding to the requests of customers and certain operational instructions from head office. bank or even in any other applicable areas. This can easily be understood because apart from operations and marketing staff. the reason been that staff needs to quickly go back to work to attend to issues. This made it possible for the staff members to discuss problem or opportunity areas in order to proffer solutions to them. corpers and bulk tellers generate the least memos in the branch compared with the tellers.1.The security men.2.2 Face to Face 5.2 Horizontal Communication Communication between colleagues is more amongst the marketing staff than every other group of staff. Sometimes certain key staff are observed to leave meetings because the meeting was still on and they need to go and open the branch or to attend to other customer issues.1.1 Branch Meetings The branch was observed to be involved in face to face communication in the following ways through meetings where every member of staff see themselves and information can be passed quickly amongst staff about any new development in the branch. tellers were also provided with intra-mail logon ids for easy online communication. All the staff of Oceanic Bank. the Monday and Friday meetings are very compulsory. 5.

and can be explained with the need for them to constantly exchange information on security issues that occur in the branch. 5. this will surely reduce the rate of communication to subordinates 2. tellers and operations staff will communicate more with their superiors but this variation can be based on the fact that operational job functions are rarely new.1. since every group communicated regularly. This is not the case in security departments where others are dished out and feedbacks must always go to the superiors. The number of superiors that might need to give instructions are minimal and they communicate with the supervisors rather than the subordinates themselves.3 Upward Communication Subordinates to superior communication occurs most with the marketing staff while corpers. Tellers and Corpers do not have subordinates. only the bulk tellers were seen to communicate amongst themselves at a reduced rate. From the general picture it is evident that communication is highly necessary amongst colleagues.2. One would believe that bulk tellers. the staff could upgrade himself to a point where he can take certain decisions on the job without taking permissions from his superior. Sometimes this three groups sees the security men and drivers as their subordinates because of the prestigious positions they assume. they can only communicate amongst themselves or to their superiors.1. security men and drivers followed fairly.The security men also communicated well amongst themselves. The Bulk tellers. Though this can mean a lot of things but it can be explained that 1.4 Downward communication The rate of communication from superiors to the subordinates is also observed from the graph to be very minimal in the branch compared to what one would expect.2. this is a wrong notion and must be corrected so as to avoid perceptual biases in the organization 33 . 5.

3 TELEPHONE CONVERSATION TELEPHONE DURING WORK HOURS 5. It was observed that staff members resolved to use their personal cell phones for communication during the work hours so that work can go on effectively.3. the service on the two lines have been so epileptic that they don’t work more than a few days in a month.3. The supervisors take it upon themselves to have all 34 . 5. most times the intercoms at the security gate was reported faulty. The branch have only two NITEL lines. operation staff and the security men received more instructions and communication from their superiors than all other groups 5. staff members sometimes show lackadaisical attitude towards phone call at times. the bill generates a lot of controversies in the Monday meetings almost at all times.Marketing staff. The reason behind this is that branch management focuses so much on the bills to be paid every month. Intercoms are also part of the facilities that make telephone calls easily assessable to staff members. except for the branch manager whose bills are paid by the branch. The bills of the cell phones are paid by individual staff members and thus might not have call credit all the time. this means that some staff might have to stand up to receive calls from other desks. it was discovered that not all tables had intercoms.1.2 TELEPHONE AFTER WORK HOURS All staff of the Calabar main branch of Oceanic Bank possesses personal cell phones which they can use to communicate.1.1.1 The observation of the Calabar Branch of Oceanic Bank showed that Telephone is a great way to communicate even after mails have been sent. the problem can be linked to the inefficiency of the national telecommunication provider NITEL at providing an excellent services to its subscribers. It was discovered that the branch suffers from lack of many facilities because they need to follow up on certain requests made to Head office.

2 READINESS TO COMMUNICATE This graph also shows a perception that every member of staff in Oceanic Bank is ready to communicate. this enhances after work communication amongst staff members.3 BODY LANGUAGE It was observed that eye to eye communication between operations staff of the branch and other staff and customers was not good enough. this is not well understood by the concerned staff because they feel that management has not explained to them properly the reasons for this an that their rights are being usurped. 35 . This may be because of work pressure and perceived stress of the groups.1 BUSYNESS The graph here shows with all data agreeing that every member of staff working in the bank is always busy. Sometimes the multiple requests of customers who want to be urgently attended to sometimes mare the proper communication of operations staff with their various customers. From my knowledge of the branch it is true that all staff are always busy. the operations staff.2.the numbers of their subordinates and vice versa. 5. Eye contact which is necessary for effective communication is also not good enough amongst Tellers. Bulk Tellers because they were observed to be very busy during the day. 5. the opinion of groups showed that even though all staff is willing to get new information and work with them. 5. while responding to various requests from customer they do not have time to properly listen to what other colleagues might have to say to them. Tellers and Bulk Tellers are not allowed to receive calls during working hours because the bank management believes that the use of phones might distract them. bulk tellers and drivers are a little behind.2 NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION 5. the only groups of staff that has ample time to play with are the bulk tellers and the marketers. this might have a serious negative effect on communication because of various needs to meet deadlines because of work and time pressures.2.2.

Chatting has been seen to improve the branch productivity in a great way.3 USE OF BANK’S INTRAMAIL The analysis of data showed that only core staff members ie operations and marketing staff utilize the intramail services most.3 The graphical analysis of staff members opinion about intramail showed that every majority of the staff of Oceanic Bank. security men and other groups were also seen to face the same situation at a lesser rate than the operations staff members. ` 5. TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED COMMUNICATION 5. Calabar main prefers to have the bank intramail services rather than yahoo. This is saying to management that there should be a way to improving the number of staff members that are created on the service so that more information can be exchanged by staff members.2 CHAT ENGINE PREFERENCE It was also analysed that majority of staff members prefer to use the bank designed chatting software known as communicator. it will go a long way in helping every staff members to identify with the organization. this is because they are superiors and have more time to read and send emails compared to the other group that are subordinate to them.1 EMAIL PREFERENCE 5. This problem can be solved with a punishment policy directed towards any staff that clogs the network with unnecessary unofficial mails. 36 . if the bank can make this software available to all staff members. The other groups do not enjoy the benefit of this communication innovation. The only problem here is that at times staff members were observed to send junk mails and thereby clog the network. hotmail and other email service providers.3.3. Presently the software is created for only Tellers.Marketers. This is because problems are solved online with the use of chatting software 5.3. operations staff and marketing staff.

Tellers. The security.1 TIME WASTERS Data analysis showed that most staff agreed to wasting time on doing other things other than what they are employed to do during the office hours. the number of time wasters is highly significant in the Bank and may affect the communication effectiveness of the branch. Though few staff signified that they do not waste management time.4 OTHERS 5.4.This is showing a sort of imbalance because if superiors send or read more mails than the subordinates. fun magazines etc. the knowledge gap will continue to increase. Operations staff and Marketing staff unanimously agreed to the fact that despite the busy schedule they still do other things like reading the newspapers. 37 . The superiors might have a problem of information overload whereas the subordinates do not acquire up to the necessary information to stay competitive in the industry 5.

this also points to the fact that even though they might all agree that the intramail and chatting software of the branch is better placed when compared with other software like Yahoo mail and Yahoo messenger. Knowing fully well that communication process does not just talk about verbal communication amongst staff alone. in Oceanic Bank it encompasses the totality of processes that allows exchange of information and instructions between staff and staff as well as between staff and customers.5.4 FEEDBACK RATING The feedback of Oceanic is not excellent. the bank can work on man and that the bank has not exploited all the areas of excellent communication as known by its staff members. 38 . CHAPTER SIX RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION After analyzing and discussing the findings of the project. it is not concluded until a recommendation is made. They still aspire to see some improvements in the bank’s communication processes 5. only a very few percentage of the corpers and bulk tellers rated the bank below average.4. the bank has to be advised on what areas to improve upon or remove so as to better its communication processes. and Msn chat. Hotmail.4. This shows that there is room for improvement. This has further proved beyond all doubts that there is need for a drastic step to be taken in favour of implementing changes in the communication processes of Oceanic Bank.4. 5.3 COMMUNICATION RATING The communication rating of the bank is above average according to results from survey.2 HOPE FOR BETTER COMMUNICATION The members of staff of Oceanic Bank unanimously agreed that they hope for a better communication in the bank. it was a uninanimous decision amongst staff that feedback in Oceanic Bank is not excellent.

More staff to be employed to ease the work pressure 6. Crowd control mechanisms must be adopted 7. This will help the branch to have a complete communication and feedback process because issues already discussed will not bother the meetings again once they have been concluded. 39 . Once in a while Senior management should communicate directly with lower cadre staff to boost their morale. some highlights were made and they include: HIGHLIGHTED PROBLEM AREAS 1. 3. Another way to improve on the short meetings is by having more meetings fixed at intervals when staff member will not need to hurry out. monthly or yearly thing. The telephone lines should be attended to regularly a. This could be a bi-weekly. Lower cadre staff should be encouraged to say their minds since they might add value too. it is essential for the bank to arrange for consistent follow up on all action points that were discussed in the meeting. Each department should have a direct line c. Staff to be encouraged to pick up phone calls before the third ring e. Branch should not focus too much on telephone bills d.Therefore to be able to discuss the recommendations properly. Follow up on short meetings 2. All tables must have intercoms b. 4. Email addresses and chat logons should be created for all the branch staff to enhance a better sense of belonging FOLLOW UP ON SHORT MEETINGS Looking at the short time of having face to face discussions and meetings in the bank. Staff should be allowed to use their phones during office hours so that they don’t feel like slaves but they must be trained on how to use it without disturbing the primary goal for which they are in the organization 5.

THE TELEPHONE LINES SHOULD BE ATTENDED TO REGULARLY ALL TABLES MUST HAVE INTERCOMS It has become imperative to provide intercoms for all the tables in the branch. This is also a way to improve readiness to communicate because it will break down the believe that management does not recognize the efforts of lower staff. this will ease communication in all ramification. If they are always allowed to keep quiet while the seniors continually disagree to agree without any input from the younger generation of bankers. ONCE IN A WHILE SENIOR MANAGEMENT SHOULD COMMUNICATE DIRECTLY WITH LOWER CADRE STAFF TO BOOST THEIR MORALE This is a very important thing in communication. Staff members will not need to rush to a general table to receive calls when customers are in their front. this in its own is a way of training them for the future responsibilities and a way of allowing the branch to exploit new ideas that could come from new Banking minds of such staff. It is good to encourage the lower cadre of staff to say their minds in the meetings. the lower cadre staff members will work better and with greater zeal especially when they receive a Merry Christmas or thank you call from the MD. it is not good enough for management to instruct or converse with the superiors alone. EACH DEPARTMENT SHOULD HAVE A DIRECT LINE Many times branch to branch communication is impaired because when a call comes into the branch. Branch Managers and other supervisors. on staff might be answering a call already 40 .LOWER CADRE STAFF SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO SAY THEIR MINDS SINCE THEY MIGHT ADD VALUE TOO. it might lead to a catastrophe where the branch will be acting on outdated information. Regional Managers.

it is even bad business manners. there is no barrier to communication. MORE STAFF TO BE EMPLOYED TO EASE THE WORK PRESSURE 41 . If staff members are disturbed from using their personal calls. instead mechanisms should be put in place to curb staff from using official lines for personal calls. BRANCH SHOULD NOT FOCUS TOO MUCH ON TELEPHONE BILLS The branch should change the attitude of always complaining about phone bills. STAFF TO BE ENCOURAGED TO PICK UP PHONE CALLS BEFORE THE THIRD RING Picking up ringing phones early enough speaks a lot about the receiver. anything contrary to this is customer unfriendly and can result in haphazard communication between the inter-bank and intra-bank communities. they might tend to look for other ways to communicate with the outside world and thus might not focus on their job or any other communication that’s necessary to move the job forward. Not picking calls on time can result in infighting. It is not good to be penny wise and pound foolish. USE OF CELL PHONES IN THE BANK Staff should be allowed to use their cell phones during office hours so that they don’t feel like slaves but they must be trained on how to use it without disturbing the primary goal for which they are in the organization. doing otherwise irritates the caller/sender. it will ease communication in a great way because the initiator and the receiver will both be happy after the feedback has occurred. Businesses need to call and receive calls from its customers.and the line is engaged. this is not good enough. If staff can pick up there phones before the third ring. sometimes the two NITEL lines might be faulty. All departments should have direct lines that will help with communication so that in case of external information on emergences.

Time pressure is an organizational barrier to communication where there is always too much to do. every staff whether Driver. An uncontrolled crowd makes it difficult for staff to attend to a customer on a one to one basis. Teller. This can reduce the amount of paper being wasted in the generation of memos especially now that the Branch is always talking about cutting cost. Paperless banking is a way of reducing cost in a great way. Corper. It must be noted that too much pressure will result in bad communication because there are too many things to be communicated. one of the ways to improve on this is by employing more qualified hands as the branch grows. Leaving same staff that handles the work when its less to do it when it increases in a hundred fold will be disastrous. instead there should be an arrangement with the telephone services providers to reduce the tariffs by introducing one of their numerous rate reduced packages. The branch should encourage management to build more branches in Calabar while the crowd that remains are managed to get to each available staff one after the other. this can hinder communication in a great way. it is very good to increase the sense of belonging of every member of staff. Operations and Marketing needs to have a sense of belonging by being allowed to enjoy the benefits of having the bank email ids (intramail) and chat ids. 42 . The branch should desist from intimidating its staff with the fact that telephone bills are expensive. Security. Conclusively. CROWD CONTROL MECHANISMS MUST BE ADOPTED The bank became crowded due to its growing business and good perception amongst Nigerians. EMAIL ADDRESSES AND CHAT LOGONS SHOULD BE CREATED FOR ALL THE BRANCH STAFF TO ENHANCE A BETTER SENSE OF BELONGING This cannot be overemphasized. Bulk Teller. This will make staff members to see the reason why they should communicate constructively.

Organizational behaviour “Emerging Realities for the Workplace Revolution” ISBN 0-07-247008-9. L and Von Glinow M. REFERENCES McShane S. Boston. “Organizational Behaviour – core concepts” ISBN 13:978-0-324-32249-1. UK. this can be achieved if all the above are put into existence. 6th edition.Having said all these. Thompson South Western 43 . McGraw-Hill Higher Education Vecchio R. 2nd edition. I agree with most of Oceanic Bank Calabar staff that a lot can still improve in the branch’s communication processes. (2006).P. A (2003).

Emerald Insight Staff. Available from: The University Of Liverpool online Library. Emerald Group Publishing Ltd [Online]. Routledge [Online]. “Interpersonal Communication” ISBN 9780415181075. Available from: The University of Liverpool online Library. Accessed on: 30th November 2008 Van der Molen H. (2005). NY : Psychology Press [Online]. 2008 Wikipedia(n. Available from: The University Of Liverpool online Library.0 KEYS The key used for assigning figures to the responses from the questionnaire is below: KEY 44 . Accessed: 9 December 2008.d). Accessed on: 30th November 2008 Hartley Peter (1999).org/wiki/Communication. APPENDICES 1. “Communication in organizations: basic skills and conversation models” ISBN10 : 0-203-00829-4.T and Gramsbergen-Hoogland Y. (2004).wikipedia. “Communcation” [Online] Available from: th http://en. New York. “Communication strategies” ISBN 9781846632693. Accessed on 10th December.

All information given are used only for analytical and research purposes.0 SURVEY QUESTIONS (QUESTIONNAIRE) QUESTIONNAIRE Note: This questionnaire is served to you by a student of the University of Liverpool. to research on various communication systems available and adopted by corporate organizations.RESPONSE EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD RESPONSE EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK RESPONSE ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER RESPONSE IMMEDIATELY 24 HOURS NEXT DAY NEXT WEEK NEVER ASSIGNED 5 4 3 2 1 ASSIGNED 5 4 3 2 1 ASSIGNED 5 4 3 2 1 ASSIGNED 5 4 3 2 1 2. 45 . Please be very sincere so that research can be effective.

Are you a staff of Oceanic Bank? Yes No 2.PLEASE TICK AS APPROPRIATE 1. Which branch are you? ____________________________________________________ __________ 4. What tribe are you? HAUSA IBO YORUBA 6. If No. How often do you communicate with your colleagues EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE 46 . If yes what department are you? ____________________________________________________ __________ 3. What is your grade level? CONTRACT PIT AO ASSISTANT MGR MANAGER OFFICER DEPUTY MGR SENIOR MANAGER AND ABOVE 5.

EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK OTHERS (PLEASE SPECIFY) 7. How do you communicate EMAIL CHAT MEMO TELEPHONE 47 . How often do you communicate with your subordinates EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK OTHERS (PLEASE SPECIFY) 8. How often do you communicate with your superiors EVERY SECOND EVERY MINUTE EVERY HOUR EVERY DAY EVERY WEEK 9.

NO How often do you use the bank chat software ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 12. Do you have a Personal Computer to work with? YES 11. How often do you respond or initiate memos to other branches ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER 48 .FACE TO FACE OTHERS (PLEASE SPECIFY) 10. How often do you use the banks intramail ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 13.

Describe how busy you are in the office ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 15. Which of these do you prefer? Oceanic Bank Intramail service Yahoo. Hotmail or other free email service Other (Please Specify) 16.OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 14. What is your reaction when a new mail comes in? READ IT IMMEDIATELY READ IT LATER READ IF AFTER TODAY NEVER READ IT DELETE IT IMMEDIATELY 49 . Which of this do you prefer Bank Communicator Yahoo Chat MSN Chat Skype Chat 17.

How many superiors do you report to directly 1 2 3 3 10 MORE THAN 10 20.18. Do you get mails directly from Head Office 50 . How many subordinates report to you directly 1 2 3 3 10 MORE THAN 10 21. How many superiors does your direct boss report to 1 2 3 3 10 MORE THAN 10 22. Do you respond to unnecessary mails Yes No 19.

How often does your boss shout at you ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 27.Yes 23. No How often does your direct boss shout at you Have you ever shouted at your boss Yes No 25. How often do you shout at your boss ALWAYS OFTEN RARELY NEVER OTHER (PLEASE SPECIFY) 26. 24. How early do you respond to emails Immediately After 1-24 hrs The next day The next week Never 51 .

Where do you read? (Please specify) _______________________________________________________ __________ 32. Newspaper. Do you read magazines. No How can the communication system in Oceanic Bank be improved. _______________________________________________________ __________ 30. newspapers or other sources of information Yes 29. If No. (Please write your suggestion) 52 .28. Do you like the present state of communication facilities available to you presently Yes 33. Do you think No Oceanic Bank can have a better communication system Yes 34. Do you Read in the office Yes No 31. If yes. Specify the No magazine. or other informational material you enjoy reading.

Rate the communication in Oceanic Bank EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD 36._______________________________________________________ __________ 35. Rate Feedback in Oceanic Bank EXCELLENT VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD 53 .