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LA LENGUA, LA LETRA. EL TERRITORIO (O L¡\ CRISIS DE t.os
ESTUDIOS LITERARIOS COLONI¿\ LES) Walter D. Mignolo
Tlre Universit,v of Michigan Las historias de la literatura hispano,/latino anrericana nos leglrou urtil imagen del período colonial quc dificulr6 (si no impidió) orierrrar la reflexión sobre obras que no fueran escritas en castellano, cons¡der¿rdas litcrarias ¡'qu.' expresaran o representaran, dc alguna nranera, cierta "experiencia americ¿ln¿t". Los criterios que fundar.ón esta imagen fueron el idiomático, el literario -v el cultural. El supuesto de que la literatura colonial ES l¡ litcratura escritn eu castellano en/sobre América, de tan simple parece inctrestionable. Las corricntrs literarias en la América hispánica(1949)de Pedro Henriquez Ureña inrponen urlil pauta que se naturaliza y expresa de ésta nranera crl Enrique Anderson Inrtrerl
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Nisiquicra nos ocuparenos de los fenómenos culturirh:s prósirnos
a la lite

ratura: folklore. oratoria, periodisnro, lilosolia, cririca...Cuando rro podanros menos de dctenernos cn ulr cscritor sin proptisitrts litcrarios buscaremos su lado tnd.r íntino ¡'personol. l-itcrnturo, sólo literatura. Y la literatura que vailws a cstudiar es la quc. cn ,.luérico. sc escribió cn espotiol. No ígnoranws lo iuportancin dc los tnasos rlc ittdíos. Pero. EN UNA HISTORIA DE LOS LrSt)S /:.YP/tl'.S/l'r).S

DE L.4 LENGUA IiSPAÑOLA EN Alll:RtC.1. t'orrrstonlt'
escuchar solauenle a quiencs se eipresaro,t crr csTrariol. Por la tlisrrra razón no nos refcriremos a los cscritores quc rracicron cn Hispanoamérica pero escribieron en latin (Raf:rel Landiviir). en frc¡rcés (córno Jules Superviellc) ó en inglés (córno \'.1-1. I{udson). I'onryoco o los que escrib¡eron, sí, en e spañol. ¡tero sitr e.rpt'ritncit

si bien los cstudios pioneros dedicados al neolatín se deben a los hcrmanos Gabriel y Alfonso Méndez plancarlc (1937.'' Íi#"' 'ElllFF wAL. son indiscutiblementc los eruditos cstudios de Ignacio osorio Romero los que sitúan cl neolatln cn la csccna dc las letras coloniales (Osorio Romero. un esfuerzo por racionalizar ¡.. nos evita abu¡rdar en los conrentarios que resaltatl al Contfaste entre ambos proycctos. en una visión de mayor alcrncc histórico. Ambos empeños surgen pues. ). tlc manera acrítica. en cambio. La restricción dc laS letraS colortiales a los L I tcxtos escritos en castellano respondc a la ideologia v punto de lista de h I rradición colonizadora.el de B_cagiaflasror sobre el Angel Maria Garibay hizd dc los múltiples estudios anteriores sobre los poetas y prosistas indígenas hasta escribir la Historia de la literatüra. la scñala Osorio Romero cn éstas palabras: El nucvo ihtcrés por el neolatín mexicano--no podemos olvidar Ios La segunda oricntación es un estuerzo por justiticar y racionalizar ll1 atribución dc propiedades estéticas o cxpresivas a un conjunto de te\tos cu)'l relevancia cultural noS reSulta [oy obyia aunque no st¡S rasgos literarios. Pienso que la paulatina to¡rra de conciencia de la comptejidad cultural y lingüística del rnodelo quc ofrccc la colonia. Micntras c¡trc los primcros continúarl. hjar una identidad narrativ<iEla conquista (Pastor. a quicnes clevaron las lcnguas vulgares a la catcgoria literaria' Su uso durantc la colonia. L¡ . La conflucncia en el interés por cl neolatín y por la letras ind[genas. sin nccesario valor estético.27ss). la lrcrcncia dc Mcnéndcz y l)clayo (1E77) transplantanrjo cl tloracio en lispaña a un México qttc cs csctrcialnrentc una colonia agrícgla (Cabricl Méndcz Plancarte. Digo "naturalmentc" porquñii$iária prestar atención a los estudios del ncolatln durantc el México colonial y a los estudios quc sacan a luz la Ladifcrcncia cntrccl proycctoclc los lrcrmanos l)llrtcartc y clquc rcirrici¡r Osr¡rit¡ ROmero cs dc naturalcza idcológica. pasado-surgió casi simultáneamente m*itorios trabajos de Joaquin Garcia lcazbalceta en el lireraria delFEñ!á-miento histó-rico cn América (Pupo-W¡llqs¡. por un4 parte. En Pupo-Walker encorrtranros t¡¡l denodado esfuerzo por justificar las propicclades literarias eD los escritos tlc Garcilaso de la Vega ( 1982a. dc coujugar to imaginario y lo retórico cg¡ lo literario y e[ pensamiento histórico (1982b.'haccn del período colonial un modclo idcal tarrto para la rcflexión sobre culturas y lcnguas en contacto como dcl espectro de interacciones discürsivas. La lectura conjunta de éste párratb con e I de A¡rderson lmbert. dlr acttrlrliclittl l juicio sc picnlcn (l9E3a1 I l-12) lc¡s vlrlorcs qt¡c a su Si bicn es incucstionable el hccho dc quc una hisroria de los usos dcl castcllano cn Amórica se linritc a las obras cscritas cn castellano. que paso a resumir. discursr'r )..l:N(¡rr/r. rcprcsentaban. t941. 1983). l9E2a y 1982b)' de Noé cstudios dc EnriqEgupp--Iklker sobre Garcilaso de la Vcga y sobre la vocación et a la actualización que siglo Jirrik sobre colón (Jitrik. Dc csta manera. las más de las veccs fi¡c sinrultáneoi pcro' también. va más alla de lo escrito (puesto que importan las tradiciones orales y las escrituras no atfabéticas) y dc lo escrito en castcllano por hispanoillnruyo que esramos presenciando un €!!bjp de paradigma a cuya conccptuáiización intcnra conrribuir este árticulJ Veo cuatrdófr!¡tecioncs cntrc los cstudios que contribuyen a examinar la imagcn hcredada de la literatura colonial. t983a y 1983b). a quienes considcraron que la pcrlr:cción liternriir sc endontraba en la expresiÓn l¿rtina clirsica. antes citado (a la cual invi¡o al lector).ttrl{ l). 1980. y de fundir el ernpleo dc técnicas narrativas literarias en el discurso historio-eráfico con [a naturalezl . por parte de los investigadores. l8l7). 1949) litcratura náhuatl cuando las investigacioncs literarias se circunscribían al castcllano.ndhuatl (1953-1954). en l¡ I ideologia y punro de vista dc la tradición quc surgc dc los esconrbros del proceso I cotonizador. r. Al mismo tiempo. 1976. finalmentc. l2-11).'o il lcnguil custcllana' Anlbas corricntcs fincaban sus raíces en la historin v lu tradición.e nosolros y cnrplcaron nucstra lcngua (conro ltaul Groussac).64ss. Por cl conrrarioftanto la cornptejidad idionrática dc las colonias como la confrontación dc culfuras basadas en la oralidad y sociedades'basadas en la escritura. cl scgurrdo trata dc rcvisar críticamcntc la h*cncia latina junto a la castcllana en la formación dcl México colonial. MtCNOt_O atneriuttta(con'ro Vcntura <Jc la Vcga). de una misma motivación: recupcrar una tradición. pasa dcsapercibida. La primcra orientaciólomicnza antes dc 1980 pero. 1946). la tetnpratla contribución al tenra de José Manuel Rivas Sacconi (Rivas Sacconi.crisis" det subtitulo alude al reconocimicnto. et dominio de los textos escritos en castellano y con valor literario va dejando paso al dominio de textos escritos en orras lenguns y a las transcripciones de relatos orales. Cito: La cuhura que los cspañolcs introduicrolr a c:iiali ticrras quc c//o'r significativamcnte llamaron Nucva Españ:r tenía dos cxprcsicrnes: una en lctrgua latina )'o!. Rccordemos. se ha ido nranifestando cn un conjunto de estudios guc comienzan a publicarsc alrededor de 1980. l98l). no por cllo los cs(iiclios litcrarios sobrc cl pcríodo colonial debcn linlitarsc a los usos dcl casicllano cn cl Nuevo Mundo. La apcrtura que señala Osorio tros sitúa. LA l. naturalmente. En cstc co¡ltexto son ilustrativos los 2. 80ss).r\ parl cl ntcxicttno rlc lroy. que la relevancia de la circulación de discursos en el Nuevo Mundo y entre el Nuevo Mundo y Europa para la comprensión dct pcríodo. cl latín ¡" cl castellano encarnaron a los Dioscuros qtrc tctrian que vivir y nrorir alternativamente ( 1983a.justilicar cl "origen" de la literatura hispanoamericana cn el siglo XVI. E¡r cantbio incorpornrcnros a nucstra historia a los cxtranjcros quc vit'icron eü\. t979. por otra.

{r-- libro de PJulne (q"¡¡¡et 1986). El conocimicnto dc los principios gcn..".ttudio de W. I dicotomía entrc cl géncro épico a historiojráfico no debe necesari". conscrvan.. cl criterio idiomático no sólo elinrinó la considcración dc los tcxtos cn lenguas indígenas. I 1988)' Por otro lado. contribuye ir recordar el dc Franklirr. se prcocupa por encontrar en esa gencraridad dcr discurso narrativo cl ¡¡gn¡anto en quc cmcrgc la concicncia csrérica y culturar que lc otorga al discurso narrativo de la coriquista una especiricidad riteraria y americana ( 1983' 45lss).*to or. técnicas del análisis ritcrario hacla el anárisis de discursos no-literarios. . . ta n. I Elidg. MICNOLO t.rericana" o de los "discursos dcl periodo.qrigrlt4cióq. I)or otro . La cdiciín de Nuevo uónica y buen gobierno dcJohn Murra ¡' Rolcna Adorno ( 1982). raranrcntc invocó'ios autorcs indig!:nas. I del discurso historiográfico. dcclica los ¡rrirucros .¡ distintas configuraciones según los situen¡os en cl corrtcxto de l.luan Carlos ft reconstruir los principios gencrales quc guían la organización discursiva durantc l cl período colonial fuc también sugcrida por wañer Mignoro oistinguienoo ia I configuración discursiva historiográfica dc la ritcrará y recono-cicndo to \ cxistencia. A ra vez.r. 1979). I que rcgían la producción y la rectura dc discursos cnrre er siglo XVI y er xvrrr.. Franklin sobre los desctrbridores. colonial".. principalnrente para criticar sus incohcrcncias. y los numerosos estudios que Adorno le ha dedicado a Guanrárr Poma y que culminan en su reciente libro (Adorno. l9El. cr postulado de una.\tos c.scritos cn otras lcnguas que el castellano. Los rcclanros por contemplar el "contexto histórico" a los qrrc estamos acostumbrados no son rnás que la elección de UN contcrto (lc dcscripción que clige el inv"stigador y pretende que no lra sido clegido por ellclla sino cFado por su agente anóltimo. ) rigen distintos tipos y configuraciones discursivas (Mignolo 19g2. t.riro.". "cscritura latinoanrcricana. O'Gorman (1960).r. po.el marco de los usos dcl castellano cn América c lirgresar en la compleja estructura mental dc las culturas precoloutbinas (Adorno 1982) y en la red de interacciones senrióticas de las colonins dcl Nuevo Q) El primer caso puede ilustrarse con el eicnrolo dc . 1'l:Rru1 ()R¡o . lcso).r "litcllrtura Jl ttispano-.o. En J¡trik pcrcibinros un significativo canrbio dc cxpresión. trazala historia de la historiografía indiana y le dedica algunas páginas al autor indígcna. el anátisis de la cscrirura de ra hisiori-a desde el pun. le_T. ras norr¡as . / orscursrva y ra ambigücdad genéric4de la Elegía de varones Ilustret de tnttiás.atendei aqucuo quc no ts cspecífico sino gcnérico (i.. publicado durante los primeros años de la transfornración disciplirrirria que vengo bosquejando. la cámpiejidad investigador. La consecuencia más notablc cs la dc ampliar cl horizontc Americano y proyectan las . cxploradores y conquistadores. impulsarnos a decidir por er uno o por cl otro sino a accptarlo como u n . _cstá Hechos de Don Garcla Hurtado de Mendoza..^ t.o i. La noción dc litcratura quc oricntó la sclccción dc tcNtos )' I rrtor. Analizado el texro a la r-uz de los principios gcncrales quc t 3' La tercera orientación ha puesto de rclievc. por un lado. pitarciló r.0r¡.litcratura lrispanoanrcrica'a"r y u'csfucrzo por cncontrar en corón ros rasgos dc una "cscrilura" (que incluyc tanto ro escrito en casteilano como ..siJaá ¿¿ Mundo.dcl período colonial" las interaccioncs discursivas adquicrcu mayor relevancia quc las frontcras idiomática)La naturalcza dc los protrlcnras quc dcseemos investigar o dc los tcxtos que dccidanros (rc)interprctar tcndnin .rt. r¡rü { de la historia dc la cscritura permitió confrontar ras formas ¿.t40 wAl-'rEl( ¡).r*. estudiando las cartas de Colón ¡. Por razoncs que podcrnos irrragiuar. de la disciplina incruycndo en ella una amplia gama dc discursos cuyo estaturo litcrario no vaya de suyo. clcsclc cl punto dc vistir dcl "discursos. de Juan dc castellano.litcraria dc ésre últirno (r982b. cn el articulo citado. Suárcz de Figueroa.Cortés y prcstarrdo grarr atención a las tcsis de E.litarcllo (1. I participa dc la naturaleza dc ambos. ra rccicntc y por cllo nrcnos dcfinida. Tanto lu dcscripción y la explanación de acontecinrienros y situacioncs discursivas conro la intcrpretación de tcxtos individualcs neccsita dc un "contcxto dc descripción" cuya configuración no la ha cstablecido la Historia sino quc la postula o eligc cl (158a) dc Baltazar de obrcgón (pitarcllo. El estudio de Hulrne (como el Franklin). Estcvc Barba. act para?igma antcrior. mal castellano y su orgullo nativo (p.la posibilidad dc considerar (c.r dcl pcríodo colonial.a Sajorur comienza.c. ticncn cn conrrin ll propicdad clc ll¡rr'¡ar la I atención sobrc las frontcras dc la lcngua y la cultura castcllana cn la culturn dcl I Nucuo Mundo.. El recic¡rtr' 6iEl . erploradorc. f is¡q.') Bcatriz Pastor opra por. por otro. pero no nrenciona a Guaman Poma.c.. lado. colonizadorcs (Franklin. rgss). {981b)..N(¡rJA. la Historia. dcbcmos salir d. sino quc bloqucó.escncia amcricana que se manifestaría áesdc lós primeror.iÁ. t:1. sin enrbargo. Mariátegui se ocupa de Garcilaso de la Vega y de Espinoza ñlcdrano ll buscar las raíces de la litcratura peruana en la colonia. lc ha pcrmitido cmpr-endcr un cs.i. pero que queda fuera de nuestros propósitos erplorar.s -r' 4. de tex-tos cuya "unidad" resurta de ra compaginación de nbrr* qu.litcratura. Miariátegui ( 1929) y de Francisco Esteve Barba ( 1964) frentc a Guanrán Portra cle Ayala.] \ pasado en sociedades orales con las dc las socicdadcs con cscritura alfabétíca (Mignolo 198 la. Estos cstudios ticnen dos clemcntos en común: crean un cspacio crítico y reflexivo sobre la naturareza de lo ritcrario y ro 0rispano/taiino¡ cultural "latinoarncricana" (que incruye "hispanoamcricana.onr. 198ó)." q"Ji. hacen intposiblc ignorar la obra como hacen nccesario encontrarlc un lugar en cl canrpo de estudio. Io que hay de I común más que de espccífico cn cada discurso y. Para hacerlo..li't R^. por su parte.tudio dc configuración discuniva cn la obra dc c.A r. por un lado.').ru"i. Cuarto Matquez de Cañeteúe f ¡¡ y cn la Historia de los dcscubrimientos onttguos y rhoderios de\la Nueva'Españo configuraban cl sistcma discursivo de ra época. el estudirr elc [:rilrklin pasó desapcrcibido cn los cstudios dc Ia literatura dcl Nuevo N{unclo. el orscurso narrativo).475-481).99 ha mosrrado cn un detallado análiiis. por su partc. en vez de . dcdicado en su nrayor purte a h Arnérir.lsi dcsdc cl punto dc vista dc la "lircratr¡ra hispanoamericana" el idipma inrpohc ya unas frontcras.r"-¡r. Las invcstigaciones de lo que llamaré la cuarta.

'.cl <lesptazarnicii6-TeElEililE6tu¿üdijl literatura hispano/latinoamericana capirulos :t tófricos <lc lu cultur¡r . haccr para delcitar) se diferenciaba de gramua ¡.¿ literalura se rodean de nuevos sentidos aTlGiáblecerse una relación de silgÚ-süa-inlrp-lpoesial*y--bella.ftjt{ l)..ff fi :'r.95). cjcrnÉiói.. la inragen de literatura a la quc toditr'ía cstamos acostumbrados. dcl caribc para lucgo consflgrarsc r tópicos dc l¡ cultura . . DE LÁ LETRA el apartado fV rcuns los resultado. cl cmplco del mísmo vocablo (granratología) por Jacqucs Dcrrida ffi síngularízación dc la cscrirura alfabética.::i:) ' .wAt. por otro. Mientras qus cerl Aristóteles nos acostunrbramos a pcnsar la historia conro complemcnto dc la pocsía y con Jakobson las distintas funcioncs del lcnguaje como contplemento dc la función poética. distinguida dc la voz y dc otras formas de cscritura. Tanto la lingüistica co¡no la gramatologi*n (en las vcrsiorrcs dc Ciclb í-J Dcrrida) nos invitan a rcvisar la inragcn cultural dc la noción dc litcratura I rcgrcsar a la cuestión fundamcntal de la letra. nos invita a meditar sobre las condiciones de eristcncia de la fijación gráfica dcl h v f AL DISCURSO. iomó ¿¡j. Ml(iN(. La idea de literatura i..43).'angloantcricana". sc indcpendiza dc él conducicndo a la invcnción dc trucvas estrategias discursivas..let¡as". la expresión "bcllas letra.'. perccpciórr e intuiciti¡r dc llr bellcza (E. El centro de atención se desplain dc la literatura (en el sentido de "belles lettrcs") a discurso (en sentido gramatológico) en relación con . El apartado I I sc consagra a elucidar cl dominio dc los estudios literarios y sus consecuencias para la conliguración de árcas. Un doble desplazamicnto quc nos lleva dcsde la idea dc litcratura ¡ impuesta por una tradición cultural al concepto de literatura forjado en una \v prácrica disciplinaria (Mignolo. ryrl ilustrar. También. se funde con aeslhesis (sensación. letra del alfabeto).l-o a elucidar el problcma dc la idenridad cuitural y a distinguir la imagen de identidad forjada por los miembros de una conruniúad culturat de la descripción de esa imagen por partc de los practicantcs dc una actividad disciplinaria. La acurnulació¡r tle esras transformacioncs rodrrnTffin.lftos limites dc la noción dc "litcratura hispano/ratinoamericnn¡. por un larJo.str(tctt¡ra lir gcncratr l¿rs <Jivcrsa..hispanoanrcricana."?l. del nrociificador "hispanoanrericana".nrpuesta por ta traclición culturaly que todavia fornla partede nucstra vída cotídiana 1t se rcmonta alsiglo XVIII cuando los vocablos /clr.rcdaria compuesto por ln lct¡o v su complcmcnto Ia oralidad y las escrituras no-olfabiticas. sonido' grito. I del griego gra.'"". Mientras que en la antigua Grecia "poesia" (poiesli.1790').. de consrituirsc in signos y rcpresentanles de otras cosas quc no son signos) y proponer que toda nranifcstación es un signo cuya para designar una disciplina surgida de la crítica a la lingúística prcguntar pot cl qué.g. Así. grammo (signo cscríro. Ambos compartcn la justificar un dcsplazanricnro en ta designación del área de estudio de la "f itcratura hispano/latinoamericana colonial" a "los discursos coloniales". un signo escrito que significa un sonido). 1983). flna_lmcntc.Crítica de lJuicio. Kant. Los vocablJs d e rcÑ¿.nua. llamado) como de las frormas dc escritura no alfabéti a. vocablos con los que designaban las unidades del discurso oral ¡' escrito. mientras que las scgundas establecen el contcxto dcscriprivo dc la epigrafia y dc la palcografia (Gclb.. la cscritt¡r¡r ylr no cs ¡rrivilcgio rlc lo lingiiistierr sino la condición mismn dc la significación (p. 1969. percepción. en cste contcxto.:. Amlos_¡pin:trEq$ltP-¡9s. La f l¡s posíbilidades clel dominio del discurso (en scntido lógico) que elinrina. el univcrso <lel discurso (en scrrtido lógico) qr. dc las escrituras no-alfabéticas y de los discursos en i<Jiomas distintos del castellano. TI. vox. la oralidad y las ascrituras no alfabéticas. la oralidad y las divcrsas formas de escritura de las cultur¡s precolombinas.. rios inuiran a cxaminar cl alcun. a la vcz que sc indcpendiza dc la voz.x[T:i]ru. la imagen del dominio de estudio que acabo de sugerir. la lctra se indcpcndiza dc otras formas dc cxprcsión grálica configuranrlo un I rlominio dc iuternccioncs cn el quc cl discurso es prisioncro dcl objeto cn cl quc s9J rransnrilen los siguos: cl tibrg (Mignolo.s posihili<lltlc. u¡r I espacio quc bicn podría con. 1987). 1967. cuándo y dónde. en la quc sc funJa la lingüística (según Saussure) y los signo-s gráficos en los que se funda la gramg!fugía (según¡3el¡t corno también la ir¡ndación misma dc las disciplinas cientilicas cuya condición de existencia es la cscritura alfabética. otros. cl I II -Eitos qr:ocuf. Ar desrituir la liniüisricr v ra escritura arfabética de su privilcgio semiótico (e. ai discurso dc la cofonia.' t¡rcíanrra dcsignan y discñan.nociones dc litcralura y dc su cspccificidad cultural. en entredicho la disrinción cnrre la lengua hablada. I Asi. ha dado lugar a sugcrir la nócesidad dc una disciplina (la _ El vocablo "üt¡¡¡g¡+e" proviene dc.s <lc significación su rgc dcla tti/crcnclr¡.una lctra dcl alfabeto. en el contexto intelectual de la ¡nodernidad. la literatura (cn cl sentido de la producción discursiva escrita) t a su coñplemento. Las primcras prcguntas citableccn el contexto tcórico dc la gramatologfa.6fl) y cu-v¡r c.22-23).s de los dos antcrioics para ltu<'llo (p. hacer y hacer mimético.sidcrarse como c[ do¡ninio dc los csturlios lituarios." Algunos dc elios cxigen una rcvisión de l' nocíón dc "literatura". cl discurrir oral y. en cl cncusntro.[ctra" (littera.TJ.:::y. intuición) para convertirsc en sensación. Las consecuencias de un tal desplazanriento dcl do¡ni¡tio de estudio son rclcvantes no sólo para la disciplina misnra sino también para un árca cspecilica de estudio corno lo es la literatura colonial pn el Nucvo N'lundo.s. plnné. un rlncón privilegiado dcl dominio de estudio pronrovido al rango dc universalidad (Derrida. En su sentido I primigcnio designa la ¿scritura alfabétíca y ta distinguc tanto de lavoz@honé. por otra parte. La lctra fija.i'"1.1gonjglgdj_O9r cl "discurso" v p do colórial. Mi propósito en las páginas quc sigucn cs cl dc construir una imagcn crcl árca dc esfudio que nos despcgue de las icstriccioncs inrpuéstas por lai.s" (acuñada e n el siglo XVlll) crca la sinoninrin entre "letra" y "discurso" y singulariza un tipo particular dc discursos por sus rasgos de bcllcza que no tardan en iclentil'icarse colr lir alrtiguo noción de "poesía" y engendrar. y el dcjustilicar la necesidad de incluir en ella el ámbito cle la oralidad.

tq4 WALTER D. cn cfecto. roa tr0r ñ É ¡ü F tt 5 c ll il*l-.. Havelock (1963) nos recuerdan quc los diálogos.*.qgc la:. nrinesis y pho¿i vcrtiéndolas c¡r cl corrtcxto de poiesis. previamente.í.0¡ ¡t6 [!lc IO0 tr!o ts ru ril l{ . r!{ tsl lt00 * *" tfif* ra.1.. and that it cannot be properly read apart from the litcrary form in which it is expressed. Leamos cstas opinioncs de Ednronson: sobre el Popol Vuh: Irt t5 tta td ln ¡¡i ¡¡ry¡ tutr mr0 ftl A /\ i' ttfi ¡t0o ¡ r¡0 taoo I I ¡s 1. ancicnt and modcrn.las prcocupacioncs dc una socicdad que está vivicndo el conflicto cntrc la oralidad y la escritura. cn cl cual ¡as musas son las guardianas de la mcmoria (mncmosune) y conservadoras I E . r00). l9ó3... Cclb./ t00 Ctñlotl. común a los seres humanos. r"n:t!ci9Le_t_1 . letra escrita. marcos discursivos) asociados hoy al vocrl¡lo "litcratura".. guiará nuestra conccpción dc los cstudios dc áreas asi como nuestra interpretación dc actividades. como dijc./iI:*. pr¡mariamcntc. docs not dimish its importancc.lqr! I t¡¡ ¡dttl rc rñn I | {tq rrlU I I n¡ua I ñ(r In.r.. lruic¡r ilr -. a otro nivcl.e. pero no fuentes de inspiración poetica para captar la bclleza. La idea de poiesis que en Aristóteles se expresa en estreclra rclación con la de mitnesis manticne. a un nivcl. ¡at ct¡t¡¡ l. ocsthesís y gmnña. Si bicn esta caracter¡stica es. una estrccha relación con nnemosunc (Havelock.. The Popul Vultis in poetry and cannot be accurately undcrstood in prose. discurso) que elaboramos como miembros y practicantcs en actividades disciplinarias. m tü ¡ao tqr ñ0r0 tu$ft t0 hct La acumulación y transformación dc scntidos en torno al vocablo "l¡teratura" para conceptualizar una actividad quc.. conocinrientos que han rcprimido las cstrcchas relacioncs cntrc ¡orcsu. crrn itu¡ ts I i' I ¡arl¡[¡ | ' !F lr ll¡ l Ai li | il¡. MIGNOLO ronf igr¡ra el cucrpo dc conocimicntos (c. ¡r¡{ I .. It is entircly composcd in parallclistic (i.100 dcl pasado. rcflcxionar y crear una imagcn del primcro.g..liosos familiarizados con la teoria de la literatura y con las reevaluaciones dc la oralidad y de la escritura. ancfactos y acontecimientos semióticos dcl árca quc cstudicmos.r. { ti u 0 n n l6 {0 t& t00 tn ctoilvat 0tvt!0a¡trlt tm tq t!0 Figura l'(1. i' rec i. itt | i ir r ilñf il * f "tt* . en un dominio de intcraccioncs y. É ¡ta lr0 !6 aft 100 ¡o H I til W '0 ú la n tm It is my conviction that thc Popol Vuh is primary a work of litcraturc.. Si aceptamos. sc limita a cierto dominio dc interacciones discursivas y sc descmpcña en sociedadcs con cscritura alfabética cs un buen cjemplo dc un fcnómcno gcncral quc caraclcrízaa los seres humanos: la capacidad de participar. sino también lo cstuvicron antropólogos e historiadorcs. I In( I ¡r( C¡¡f3l ft¡ x0l r¡¡c r¡0! qá | 4! ifl[w xa lú ¡trtl . That this form is gcneral to Middlc Amcrica (and evcn beyond) and that it is common to Quiché discoursc.tr. Las lecturas de Platón hechas por E...en tomo a la pocsía ticncn. semantic) couplets. la conccptualización dc la "litcratura" en cambio sc limita a aquellas sociedades y culturas quc han creado un dominio de interacción por mcdio dela letra esüita(ver Figura l)... cn su contcxto inmcdiato. 1952) La presuposición dc quc un discurso que se manifiesta por medio de repeticiones y acoplamientos paralelos es "literatura" sorprenderá hoy a los estu.-u¡ ¡*. No sólo los estudiosos de la literatura sc vicron mal oricntados por una noción regional y cultural (no teórica) del domiriio dc cstudio.e. El desplazamiento de la noción de litcratura que compartimos como micmbros y participantcs cn la vida social y cultural hacia la noción dc literatura (i.

Tedlock destaca la expresión "la antigua palabra" ("This is the beginning of rhe Ancient Word. La traducción e interpretación del Popol /l/r propucsra por Tcdtock ( 1985) enfatiza. prosa. por las rribus de la nación quiché. dc Borges. hcrc ín rhis place called Quiché. traduce la primera frase dcl relato ffi"ffi^ffi CCoooo dcstacando [a cxprcsión "antiguas historias" ("Este es el principio dc las '& 5 o . la naturaleza oral del relato no sólo en srr esrn¡crura sino también cn su trasmisión (1983a.qar llamado Quiché. nrira por el balcón enrejado cljuego dc unos chicos senridcsnudos qucprctcrrrl/aa scr lo que nocran ("todos querían scr e[ almuédano. ¡. nadie la corrgregación o la rorre").. en cambio.^ l. plrrllclisnros son utta cxigcrtcia dc l:r c. y no a la universalidad de los valorcs cstético/lítcrirrios quc cl relalo manifes(aria.r.ord.r. ¿'or¡erlrr¡ (quc nadie en el ámbito del Islam "barruntaba lo que querian decir").g. no posecr o desconocer unl lblnlu de interacción gue ésta úl¡ima ha conceptualizado y dado el nonrbre de poesia idc litcratura. Los cónceptos dc pocsía y litcrarura son regionales y pertenecen a la tradición de las socicdades y culturns alfabót icas occidcntales..t o l. más apegado a la ideologia de la escritura. Compa renros: y de su Rccinos: Estc cs el principio de las antiguas historias de cste lu.\¡..A l. 0 Tedlock: This is tl¡e bcginning of rhe Ancient \. 1983c). l. Aquí describiremos y comenzaremos las antiguas historias. sin enrbargo. De cllo no se irrficrc. here in this place called Quiché").rryF- . v clirnina ¡¡¡s rcpeticiones quc dirigerr la atcnción hacia atrár. quc las culturas r¡rcsolrn¡cric¿ulas practicaban o habían descubierto la poesia.l: l l(l\.liN(. "La busca de Aver¡ocs".1/\. Here we sball inscribe.tprcsión oral para ilscgunir lu concxiórr tliscursiva y quc la lctra cscrit¿r i¡¡troducc nt¡cvtrs rlrcclios ¡rara alcauz. el principio y el origen de todo lo que se hizo en la ciudad de Quiché. rve shall inrplant rhe . La opción de [a prinrera tiase revcla los prcsupucstos que guiarán las opciones en la traducción entera del prirrrer párrafo intcrprctación correspondientc.ar cl n¡isnro l'in (c.Y antiguas historias de éstc lugar llamado Quiché"). la fijación cscrita quc dirigc la atcnción lt¿rcia adclantc. lntuyo quc Ednronson ticnc razón cuando sosticnc quc la forma expresiva dcl I'opot lzuft cs un rasgo conrirn dc las culturas ooo d"ffé ooo oo a nrcoanrericanas. Mienrras que Adrián Recir¡os. es un buen ¡nodelo rlc las dificultadcs en comprender dferenles conceptuolizaciones dc actit'idailes scmejantes: Averroes empcñado en traducir a Aristóteles y ofuscado por la imposibilidad de cntender cl sentido de dos palabras. vcrso) cs scrrsato infcrir <lc ústc principio que las repeticionis quc c¡rcontrarnos cn cl l'opol Vuh sr: dcbcn a la busc oral en la quc se realizan las interaccioncs discursivas dc la cultura crr la quc sc narra y trasmite el rclato.{. No cs ni mérito ¡ri dcsmé¡ito de una sociedad quc ha (cnido rru dcsarrollo paralelo a la tradición dc occidcntc. dejando que "historias" nos remita tanto el rclato como a los acontcci¡rricntos. trogcdia. 1983b. r r:r(r\r ¡ r.

l5ss). enfocada cn el nonrbre quc Bicrshorst asigna al litttal ("ghosrsong ritual") esquiva. Sabcmos por un lado. the potcntial and source for cvcrything done in the citadel of Quiché. El proccso quc conducc dc la primera vcrsión cscrita cn idioma quiché hasta las traducciones dc Rccinos pasan<lo por la del padre Fiay Francisco Ximéncz. como cn muchos otros casos. Es notablc también. TII. IDENTIDAD Y TERRITORIALIDAD una filosofia dc la producción verbal forjada sobrc la cxpericncia de las socicdadcs con escritura alfabética.65) accntúa la expresión "oralidad printara" para destacar un tipo de interacción lingüística dificil dc contprender. que cl nrodil'icador se rcemplacc (conro la Arturo Ardao (1980) colcccionó ¡'conrcntó utr tttitttero signilicativo cle estamos acostumbrados desdc introduce al pcnsamicnto de una sociedad sral. Una dcfcnsa. l0' It). habla sido hasta ese momcnto menospreciada(clr. antcrior a [a conquista. que hemos actrñado una rcd metalórica y un léxico infcridos de rtucslra experiencia escriptural. en realidad.146 WALTUR D. al haccrlo. vol. cunnclo J. docunrentos err los quc la idca ¡'lo el nonlbrc dc "¡\nlérica l{ispana". Dicrhorst obscrva quc las piczas denomi¡adas xochitl/cricatl (florcs/cantos) dc los Cortlares i. la mayoría dc las veces. pucdc invocarsc rlucvamcnte aqui. dc las "formas de composición de acuerdo con su dcsignación cn Náhuatl" (1978. [-a critica de León-Portilla ( 1987. cl poscslro . por no ser cscrita.c conscrvar cl vocablo fil<¡solía para designar todo tipo dc pcnsarrricnto o actividad quc podcrnos ascntcjar a la quc cn occidente sc enticnde y dcsigna por tal nornbrc ( 1968). in thc nation of Quiché pcople . retllite u l¿ts sociedades que no poseen ninguna forrna de escritura fonética. DTSCURSO. Sc trata rnirs bicn dc presupuestos que guian la lcctura e ¡ntcrprctación de discursos oralcs conro si fueran textos escritos. 1985' l7)' intuyo qtrc lil distinción entre oralidad y escritura quc sostuvo ¡n i argunrcnto antcrior ( rclcrickr a Edmonson/Tcdlock). xxv). nQf de-v-u-el-ve a Marti) por el ¡rosesivo. quc se construyc sobrc la basc dc la scmcjanza y toma cl lugar dc lo que hoy quisiéramos que fuera una descripción quc cnfatice la difcrcncia. Y fundamentalmcntc. que Garibay era un gran conocedor dc la cultura hclena como así también dc la tradición de las grandes culturas oricntales. lll. l. León-Portilla ha abierto nucvos caminos al cscarbar cn la ctimología de las palabras empleadas por los propios aztecas para referirse a sus intcracciones semióticas. prescntan un cspcctro en cl quc la conscrvación oral del rclato y la corrcspondicntc conccptualieación en la cultura quiché. obtenierrdo ¡si ln la homorcneidad del vocabulario de lá cultura occidental integrado al len!-u?j¡ cxprcsión "nucstra América". Lcón-Portilla (1968) ha racionalizado la neccsidad de éste principio metodológico en conección con cl pcnsamiento y la filosoña. La traducción y cstudios de Tedlock sobre cl Popol Vuh y la cultura quiché son un esfuerzo por restituir los rasgos orales a la vez quc contemplar cl proccso dc fijación y trasmisión cscriptural. MICNOI-O l-A l. p. Sabcmos también quc cstaba atento a la historia dcl alfabcto y dc la cscritura. dcja abicrta la posibilidad de las traduccioncs quc arrastran con ellas la conceptualización de las interaccioncs scmióticas gcncradas por la cscritura. al leer esos documentos. Sin pre[cndcr terciar en la ctiscusiórr sino enrplcarla crr tni propio argumento. xviii). llsta comprobación abre tas puertas hacia un canlpo desconocido que los estudios literarios pucdcn contribuir a cxplorar. quc su obra no sólo tienc el valor dcl cual él mismo es consciente (una primera rccopilación y ordenación de la producción verbal cn náhuatl) sino también cl dc rcscatar una producción cultural quc. "Arlli'ricn Latina" y alguuas otras expre. l'l:Rltll'OnlO Ancient word. bsto es. scgunda de las cautclas anunciadas. 1959) sc podrían hacer' con las cautelas ncccsarias en ambos casos. t-A l-l:-l'll^. Hat'elock (t986. En esa e. Esta racionalización seria aplicable a la obra dc Garibay y al caso dc la producción oral y litcraria.s. E. Las mismas objcciones quc se lc han hccho a Miguel León-Portilla por haber creado una imagen del pensamiento azteca sobre el modeto dc la filosofia griega (Lcón Portilla. No sc trata aqtri dc rrn cmplco ncutro de los vocablos quc podria justificarsc invocatldo la dificuttad tlc cmplear vocablos indigcnas para dcsignar aqucllo quc. o dc la lcgitinr idad <1. cuarldo Ilicrhorst sostiene quc la dolinición"xochitl/ctticatl =poelry" cs cn cl ntcjor clc los casos un concepto débil y cn el peor ttrr cquír'oco.tcxicanos han sido dcfinidas rcpctidanrcnte como pocrna o pocsia ¡' quc tal definición l\rc. Y. sabentos. Por ejcnrplo. cn forma paralcla a la imagen post-rcnaccntista de la cultura gricga.siones equivalcntes a las dos printera. quiero rccordar que oralidad. y nos El modificador "hispano/latino" co¡r que usualntente aconrpañartttls al sustantivo "literatura" pucde analizarse dc tnatrera scntr'jatlte al de cstc illti¡no. sc fija cn la cscritura y. rcconstfuyc una cultura fundamen¡almentc oral en términos de prccolombino" ( 197E. 390ss). No obstante ello. Surge así u¡r discurso cn cl que cl posesilo iru¡rlicir la identiticación con el espacio y con el pasado clc esc espacto.\to. cl accnto quc cl segtrndo ponc'crt r:l hecho quc tales piezas no sean poesías sitto carttos asociados a dcterttlinatlrs formas rituales.tploraciórr nos saldrá al paso cl enfrentanriento de culturas orales y escriptu rales en el N uevo Mundo: e¡tfrerttaru ictlto quc ha sido interpretado. ignorando la diferencia radica I que separa las prinreras de las segundas. podcnros intuir que lr distinción cntre oralidad (canto) y pocsía (cscritura) cstá en jucgo. a[ parecer. Las dificultadcs qus tencmos hoy con la obra dc Garibay cs que la valoración de la cultura náhuatl se hace. a la obra dcl Angel María Garibay. sr'lir¡'i¡t I transforrna desde los prirneros años dcl siglo XIX hasta los últinlos. la mayoria de las veces. Una si¡uación scmejantc a la anterior es la Htstoria de la literatura náhuatl dc Angel Maria Garibay (195a). 1954. invcntada por Angcl M. en suma.liNCUA. Garibay (Dicrhorst. sn este conte. ltos cs propianrcnic filosofia o litcratura pcro quc tto otrstantc sc ascrneja. Es asi que a la vez quc nos brinda prcciosa información y comentario de palabras cmplcadas por los aztecas para designar las mancras dc conservar cl pasado (1980. para nosotros. En cfccto.

su Centro Escondido. Eipresiones conro .. necesariamcntc identificarse con e[ sentido de territorialídad..A l.A l.que está desde0 ó 9 grados septentrional: dejando a una parte en una tabla toda la tierra é islas de la rnar del Nórte. a nivet dcl grupo construimos dcscriptivarncntc y una cniidad que llantamos "nosotros" y quc situantos en relación a un espacio a cs decir.adas). ¡984.(Libro de Chilan Balan de Clwnn't'el' ufO.criollos.. Es suficientc para mi argumento un ejemplo de cada uno de los tipos. lliltl{l ll)Rlo l¡.A. Xhantacay es su nombrc. La idcntidad social y cultural una tfadición compartida. l57l-74' itálicas agreg. por respuestas a la pregunta sobrc la idcntidad dc lo hispano/latinoamericano lo tanto de su literatura. Cuando la identil'icación ocurre. que lo de la parte del norte. como vulgarme¡rte dccitnos' _ Henros rotulado nucstra obra BIBI-IOTECA MEXICANA r¡ 'rca . la sociologia."ff lF|llF*. está en el Oriente' EI chacalpucté es el árbol de ellos' Suyos con el zapotc rojo y los bejucos rojos. un . Durante el pcrüdo colonial tcncnros al menos tres tipos de constr.la tierra que está por descubrir para Quiviria y parte setentrional' se v¡ ensanchando de mancra que parece ó debe ser tanta conro la del mediodia o más [.liN(il. La ncgra nochc es su casa' El frijol negro es su frijol' El haba negra es su lraba. quc nos pertnite conscrvar nucstra cohcrencia opcracional iinguistica y nucsrra a¿aptación en cl dominio dcl lcnguajc lMaturana y Varcla.). y la otra mitad al nrediodía.la picrtra dcl Norrc' l-a Matfrc Coá' Los pavos Cclba Bianca cs cl Ccntro invisitrlc dc Sut' lvluccn blanc¡rs son sus l¡abas' l:l maíz' frf rn.splcit dclimitado por fronreras una succsión de acontecimicntos que llega hasta "nosotros").ucción l) El Señor del Sur es el tronco del lijane del Gran es el Uc' Naturaleza parece quízo dividir y cortar el contincnte !' ticrra la descubierta de lai tndias. quc óstc cslc apartado nrc ¡ntcrcsan las rcl¡rcioncs ct¡trc cl tliscurso y la ntancra cn fija. como nombrc que dcsigna una entidad pero que no deberia El pc<lcrnul bla¡rco cs la sagrar. en el segundo. eldiscurso que construyo como miembro de una cultura se idcntifica con el discurso que construyo como practicantc dc una disciplina. cn dc un grupO humano se construyc <lcscriptiva¡Dente en un discurso que lo sitúa gcográl'icas y cronológicas (c. rnicntras que a nivel dcl in<livi<luo construimos dcscriptivamentc una cntidad quc llamamoi "yo".Anrérica Latina" o . la nrexicana o boreal'y la peruana o meridional' por henros dejaclo intacta esta última en nuestra BIBLIOTECA' muchas razones. a un tcrritorio.J. l. aunque cs posible encontraf casos frontcrizos quc compfican la tipología. por el itsnro ó angostura que lrarl cn tierra desde el Nombre de Dios a Panamá. tiansnritc y transforura el sc¡rtinricnto y cl scntído clc idcntidad que nninra a todo grupo ht¡nr¡no. 3) Aunque el Nuevo Mundo abarca. lil.g. El nraiz' negro y acaracolado cs Ncgra gt camote de pezórr ncgro cs su camote' l-os pavos ncgros nrul. Los pavos rojos de cresta amarül4qo-q¡us p-a-vgs. . El pucté anrarillo es su árbolAmarillo es su camote. etc. la literaruroiogia.o l.. En cfccto. la dc los nativo. rn:riz rojo Y tostado su lrritiz-. es la construcción discursiva y conceptual mediante el cual el grupo se rcpresenta como lo que crec que es. cs la picdra dcl Ponicntc l-a lr'ladrc C-clbl st¡ ci su Cen¡ro Escondi<lo. quc hay dcsde aquclla altura para el norte' con nontbre de Indias iet Norte y á la otra parte del nrediodia' todo lo que ha¡' el desde la dicha atiura de 8 grados y costa de Tierra firme hasta Estrecho de Magallanes. Y tronco dcl linaje de Ah Puch' Nucvc rios los guardaban. fa de los conquistadores y colonizadores y. Amarillos sorr sus pavos' El frijol de es su frijol. cottto una apropiación territorial y.li l'l(4. Ml(iNol. en comparación.. 1980)' 2) territorial: la ds las culturas nativo-indígenas. dcjando la nritad de las Indias a la parte de I norte. y lo que dc adclante sc descubriere' cor¡ nonúre de Indios tlel ntediotlía (López de Velasco. desde et punto de vista que construye descriptivanrente un .] y asi la divisió nde todo Ia tierra de las indias' por naluraleza y Por caso parcce la nuis cómodo que puecle ser por el 'Nombre de Dioi y Pananú.ot son sus pavos' Las lrabas lrlanco su maiz. tradición cs una conliguración cultural que hace que cl grupo sea lo que es. En el primer caso. han sido víctimas de csta yuxtaposición' El scntimicnto y cl scntido de la idcntidad del grupo es inseparable de la rcflexión y conceptualización del pasado. El pedcrnal amarillo cs la picdra del Sur' La Madrc Cclba Amarilta cs su Centro Escondido. "*"tilla "rf "Libro de los linajcs"' Antonio Mediz Botlo. "Tradición" nos ¡emitc tanto a ¡os elementos inconscicntes quc comparten los miembros dc una comunidad como a la reflexión consciente quc la comunidad hace de ese pasado. Iil pcdcrnal negro son sus pavos. dcsde el punto de vista de un discurso que construye descriptivamente un "nosotros".. Las y.F i 118 wAl-l'lill l). un linajc.'Anrérica Hispana" pucdcn cnrplearsc.. Nueve montañas los guardaban' El pcdcrnal rojo cs la sagrada picdra de I h Chac Mucen Cob' La Madre Celba Roja. [.é1" (cl discurso dc varias disciplinas como la historia. 152).. finalmcntc. que aunquc lo descubierto y pobtado de la parte dc Tierra firnre y Pirú' es mucho más. El- dos Américas.

l¡odcltlos. )'con quatro o cinco colegiales. colonización es. en tcpcculco.tprcsión "litcratura indianir" cnrplcada ¡ror Céspcdcs rlcl Castillo ( lgft5: 107) ¡rara rclcrirsc it l-a Aruuconu y a otros cjcnrplt¡s colorlialcs cs ccrc¿ln¿t. Corr la edición dc Icazbalccta. cl scgundo en castellano y el tercero en latin. lrl. como a menudo lo hacen historiadores o socióiogos. haberlo remitido al contexto de los usuarios y haberlo dcspojado de su necesidad histórica.¡r1.¡ voroil$ cnt¿liros que rmbicndo nocitro cn ru Anérica Jcptcnlrionot o visto la luz cn otro. regiones dominadas por reyes exranjiros..a c. el indicado titulo. En conscc¡¡g¡rpia*F La "invención dc América" cs un caso dc apropiación semántica y de construcción territorial que ignora y rcprime aquel que yo existia y qúc la invención oculta.nuy rqro o ningún tato. originalntcnte. Tres de éstos diálogos. que al fin de cuenta to guc aale. Erróneo sería dccir.r. l.r sc llamaban lndias occidentalcs cs en realldad ioy el caribe o también A mérica Latina. escriben alguno coso no intporla en qrró l. (Eguiara y Egurcn.l'titt t). cscogidos cntrc todos nruy habiles en su lertgua. En su enormc esfucrzo por traducir y fijar en la escritura alfabética el discrrrso de una sociedad oral. Sahagún se enfrenta a la cucstión de la lengua que dcscribc de csta nlanera: El governador co¡r los alcaldes. I l:l{ltl I()ltl(} t5t . cstá dcclarada cn su y refrcndada por la costumbre geográfica. la tcrritorialidad prc-colombina ni la de los criollos dcl sigtó xvttt. sino tos juegos..' en un espacio gcográf¡co que dctermine cl scntido y cl scntimicnto de tcrritorialidad. la ltirginia. "Artlérica Latirra" no aparccc cn nirrgtrno dc ltts cjcnrplos ilnteriorüs. a la mexicina. l3-ó5)tlcpcrrtlcr¡i(lcl c(tntoxtodcctnplcoycle ll¡rosicitirltlc intcntaremos abarcarlos bajo biblioteca incluímos igualmcntc a Ios venezolanos. nre scnalaron hasta ocho.1 nr. una cu"riión d. la Luisiana y el Canada o Nueva Francio. por la ¡r¡ltrtralcza y cl ¡irntrito clc l¡¡ litcrattlrlt littítto¡rlllcticit¡lit (¡\tlit 19S5. Las cxprcsioncs y los nombrcs propios n'o tienen un sentido independicntc dc quien los cmpleg y dependienti dc lo que dc cste aspecto para la conceptualización de tas relacioncs cntre discurso y scntido de territorialidad.ror quc dcsclc cl punto tlc visti¡ tlc la corrstruccltirr tcrlitoriul clc l) a l)l la cxprusión "litcratura latinoanrcricana" no ticnc ningún iri. repggl. . l'en las coasas dc sus antiguallas: con los quales. c) La cuestión de la lcngua está cstrcchanrentc ligada a ln cuestión b) Conro cs obvio. con las cuales t¿ne¡nos . tlejaremos . t944.NOt. en virtud dc la cual sc dcsigna a toda esrá región con cl calificativo dc mcxicana.o hisrtt'io de lo. también escritos en /clrir. la Nueva Inglatcrra.r. una vez más. ¡65 ¡¡svimicntos dc indepcndencia. política y eclesiásticamcnte. que si bicn cn lo demás pertcncccn a la América mcridional o pciuana. El primcr tcxto cstá escrito. es [¡n sustantiyo cotllpllcsto cquivalelltc a "Latinoarrrérica".l(t) wAt.le lodo la Carolina. "A¡nérica Latirla" cs el nontbrc adnlititlo cn divcrsas riisciplinas para dcsignar utta vasta nlacro-área arltropogcográfica.prápiación tcrritorial. a pesar d¿ haberse producido en csras partes de la América Seplentrional. tro obstlttttc. al cotrcc¡rto territorial lrispiinico 't. estos notnbrcs cotnienzan a forjarse después ¿.uptor *"jnti¿o. Históricamente..lil l{^.^ l. tcrritorial.j]l .g. Cuando Cervantes de Salazar se traslada al Nuevo lvf undo.lrN(itlA. y cuyos libros desconoccmos casi en absoluto.oii . pero cuyo tema no cs la ciudad de México o str Universidad. pertenecc a dos tcrritorios: cl de las colonias española en cl Nuevo Mundo y el de las naciones independientes. TODOS TRILINGUIS: por es¡racio de un año ¡' al-eo nras encerrados. impresas o inéditos enconinadas ol progrcso y fonrcnto de lo fc . la inmensa contribución de o'corman es la de haúer despegado el nombre de la cosa. ustitr la colotlia *.- . tomado el nombrc dc su fanrosa y principal ciudad.rt. En esta l-ingüisticanrcntc. designan. cn estc contcx¡o. una dc sus múltiplcs tareas es la de editar los Ditílogos de Luis Vivcs. n:lfticipantc o <lc obscrvador dc quióll ln lbnuulc.r lugorcs. no han sido incorporados en esta edición. Los cuatro restantes. escritos en latin. Dos ejemplos ilustran la irnportancia 07551. csrán adscritos. y cliollo. La obra de Cervantes de Salazar. tales nonrbrcs y cxpresione.rtutliot ¡. sujctandonos nosotros a dicha costur¡1bre y hibiendo dc ¡ratar de los escritores gue florecieron en la América Boreal. El caso cs scmcjantc para "Flispanoanrérica" que se tbrnta dc url sustantivo adjetivado "Anlérica hispana". por ser su diócesis una de las sufragáneas de la lglcsia de ta Española o Católica de Sanro Domingo.s han sidO y son crnpleados por varias generacioncs de intclectuales post-indepcndentistas para construir su propio ntarco territorial.t a ella pr su resiiencia o c. cl hecho dc quc no hay nada. la de los cxploradores y colonizadores hispánicos que no sc superpone. He aquí los comcntarios quc me sugieren cstos cjemplos: a) La tcsis de Edmundo o'Gorman ( 1952) sobrc la ínvcnción de América pone de relicve.c*'¡t¿t i'irrrr. l. cn idioma quiclté. Sc fornra de un sustantivo sinrplc adjetivirclo "Ar¡érica lati¡ta".'cscncial. Culturalu'rente .rtc. p(. . idionra: y crr esp eciol cle aquellos que se han dcstacado ¡tor tus hccios insignes o por cuolquier clase tle obros.. En 1545 Ambrosio de Morales expresa el conflicto c¡rtrc cl latin y el castcllano y defiendc la imposición del prinrero sobre el segundo. Un segundo ejenrplo lo constituye la obra de Sahagún. la literatura mexicana e hispano/latinoamericana ha ganado urra nueva obra.A l. La razón dc haber llanrado nlcxicana a esta BIBLTOTECA.tccc.r.. ni reemplaza. en este scntido. agregándole algunos dc su propia cosecha. La "invención dé América" una construcción semántica dei tipo 2.v pietlocl catótico.. La misma lógica afecta la fornlación de "lndoantérica" o "tberoanrérica". fueron traducídos al castellano ¡' editados por Joaquin Carcía Icazbalccta cn 1875. o diez prirrcipales. 1984). En cambio. Mt(.

cntrc la co¡rccpción tcrritoriirI ruesoamcrica¡ra c."ai.da aquí claramente cjcnrplilicada. otr¡ cn cl poniente.orr.r"..r. ¿*cribc las lndias Occidentales.a it o" conocirnicntos a la."ruien joi rncdio dc signos no-vcrbalcs.iimpi" cngcndrados a luz por nucstras madres y por nucstros padrcs (A. lil"l'lRRlll)l{lO l5] .. y cada uno dc ellos nlani[estando dístintos espacios terri(orialcs. . y fue a Tulán a donde llcgamos para Rccino.uy"n significatívos del pasado.'"' Ar nalivas.tu A.l rotuf¡¿o¿ "Anáhtracl' . y se rcfura la ligcreza con que escribe (enfasis agregudo)' est¿n didicadas a las antigüedades mesoameric¡nas' E n eI octav o anteloquium se tai cultúras i i rcrri¡orialii^J.. y i. coháxistcn dcsdc el punto óe vista del observador.. EJ tcrrirorio cnrcrgc dc un conjunto de oracioncs descriptivo-narrarivas gue i"i frontcras gcográf-rcas y la selccción de aconticimientos "on.. .\.. territorial. En orientc cstá una que le otorgan Cotón haccn los historiadores y los historiadores dc la litrratura y ¿e la cultura del N ucvo lrlundo.rc .Lo cn Hispano/Latino Amcrica. campo de conocimientos' En er prirncr c. dcl poniente. Estos prinreros nombrcs son los Este capitulo está dedicado a la enseñanz¡ cn lvléxico' En el sigtti(-nte que nos Egurcn comienza a ofrecer los primeros nombres y putltos de rcfe rencia de . letriscconuicrtJcn un prrntt>dc tr:l¡rcnciacnclqucconvcrgut 'r.i. Jasde cl ser Dc cuatro IlugarcsJ llcgaron las gcnres a Tulán. "l el re¡ritorio cstá dgmarcado conformc a lacosmologla mcsoamericana. t.. las intcrrclaciones cntre la organización dci cspacio ysu precolombinas conccbian y rcpresentaban su conccpción tcrritorial qu...l. .:: :.". otro lado dcl mar.ognoscitivos son también.on ¿-.on.u"o q". Egiara y Egtrren la incorpora al scntido quc forjan los criollos' Sietc de sus vcinle anteloquio (esactamcnte un tercio) corrcspondientc "cspesura" histórica mcdiantl las cualcs introducc la traycctoria áe las letras y la cultura desptrés de la llcgada de los cspañoles.vez que suprimiremos la posibílid"a a.la misma soristicáción que las técnicas para mcdir cl ticrnpo.r" . privitegiado en el origen de las letras .. io lcngua es un irnplicito de ra rcrriroriaridad..tritorial il"r." cronistas e historiadores castclla¡ros . ra mcmoria ii ta atribucíén dc nombres .::.u. por un lndo' puntos dc punt. tlc la propia rrirturalczu ¡'crr el .s"ripcion"s qri conslruintos n¡ediantc clla la exprcsan dc nrancra explicita.¿o. producitlo por que cs il la vez una apropiación' cl discurso quc construye un sentido territorial cs castellanos y las constarlics conrparaciones qttc se del pasado de quicnes narran y cxprcsan cl scnrido dc del Me¡norial de Solotti. mientras quc para el iarticipante y miembro de una cultrra si trata de un territorio o una morada cuitural. formas de apropiación.rninció¡r dc un cspacio cn cl quc 5c collstrttyc tttl ¡titsitdrt' a l. dos dc cilos traducidos "rto al castcilaio. En csc proceso Cristóbal Colórr singutat.. gcncralidail dc l*s itltcritccitrncs ll'j. . de allá [egamos nosotros.spcclivos.:fco¿acoirlco" (gran solar donde abunda cl agua) o il. clL podcmos ií ilari"o análisis del mapa ic Teozacoalco hecho hace ya varios años por ^gr"g ÁrfJnso caso (caso.c está Dios.rps.. y otra dond.. l¿ palabra y cl idcogiama.:il"1'.-orop¡"r¡¿n.r. t.cmilo..cn Xibalbay.. . Rccordcnros úna vcz más quc cntrc los nronur.-'.' lcnguas casrcra¡ro r.i funda en una clisposiciórr que la cultura que cjccrrta [a apropiación sc Qtorg¿t' El y parn pcttinsrrl:tres' ¡ir.expuestos en ros tres ejcmpros no sc rxcluycn sino que cocxisten.¡r lu .ontÁr.. tipos: los códicss pictográficos.A l. Las técnicas para mcdir cr Jspacio no habían arcanzado." con la cxpansión y apropiirciórr tcrritt¡rirl c¿tstclla¡ra' "lndits territ. Tu[án. Mejor dicho. cn ei cuaf la represcntac¡ón gcográfica y cronolójica dcl tcrritorio si r*pi.. r949).r.náJi relaciones entre la lcr¡¿.t. cn ras culturas mcsoarncricanas. cl scntido teriitorial de crpresioncs inclígcnas como o sitio).'u".rit.i.f to quc i.o* "u. *... fs cr dc ras cncontramos en los ejemplos anteriorcs. Mientras quc la construcción territorial hispánica se superpone ]' territorial üorra la territorialidad nativa.. d) cada uno dc los conccptos territoriares. poiloscuatro puntos cardinalcs y los transcripción dc díscursos oralcs y su subsccucntc traducción. <Jc Vcl¡sco no puc<lc scr mcnos quc notoria l:l Velasco marca y ororgir scnritlos a hrs fronrcrils gcográficas quc -a'i""rrp"'r¿. 1950).lur" cs el nombri con quc se idcrrtitica cl prrticipantcs cr la cmpresa y desde el punto dc vista dc los araripriOn territorial dc Lópcz lop.t:N(iiJA. antcriorcs y posrcriorcs'a la conquirt. r"tienir"s qr.fir.rio y quc rccnrplazu ctr ii"JJ.]. p"r. colores y.o J" la humanidad . obr. Su leciura de las lndias Occidcr¡t¿rlcs es una tprtrpilciórt iugat que de tciritorial quc sc corresponde con la expansión pcninsular' La lectura En este rslato las frontcras geográficas no cstán especificamentc dclimitadas.rpond.*. Del poniente llegamos a Tulán.. tr. L.. quc sc hnn conscrvado. otra. A csta dcmarcación espacial del territorio se sunra ra tradicíón de ros rinajcs." oricntan hacia su construcció. Sin cmbargo. i"¿¡Ca"". . En otras palabras.pr. desdc cl son.i.rfrFl. dc vista de la construcción re¡riroriar¡aá0.A l-lil1(A...objctos que se haccn corresponder a cada uno de ellos. por consig-uicnte habla cuatro Tulancs [.l.on la construcción tcrrilorial dccimonónica y postindependentisra ocupa ttn tcrritorial. Mientraimantcngamos la literatura y noU úua como objeto dc conocimiento confundircmos ta tcrri¡orialid. scrncjanrcs. Oo. se un iug".ncia. una histt¡ril¡' .. indcpcndicntc dc los idionr¡s rc.. Et rítuto de ese capitulo es el siguiente: En que sc pone de manifiesto la ignorancia de don lr{anuel NÍarti qnt acerca de ia cultura mexicana cn el tienpo conpruclído desdc a ser seííoreada por los esparloles hasta ilrcstto't América contenzó dÍas.rito. "on ""mpo U.r. no nccesariamcnti dc quien participa dc un senrido rcrritorial.. g El rerritorio que construye Egiara y Eguren es de otra naturaleza' La no se mcmoria icrritorial no co¡nienza ya con colón o con coftés (quienes culturas mcncionan et stts Antéloqlia)' sino quc el "origen" se rcmite a las prccolombinas. ros relatos y a.t"s proycctos cognoscitivrts lrr l}tji*".. para construir u11 trucvQ otrjcto <lc conocinlicnto' idcograma v t'""'ll'ercl .

nz"n ¿Es iiteratura latinoanlcricana a publicar en Europa y los Estadcrs ..'ri.que.NGU^. ti*tot en funrano' l'irrlandés' [rancés? Unidos Es Situándonoscnclámbitodelalengua¿Cónropensarporotr¿l frontera partc cl caso dc los chicanos viviendo del otro hdo de la de dc los constituycn un proceso transcultural espccifico'l ¿Y el caso y culturas? hispanoi. por otra efecto micnrras que cl estudio

¡ trtr el cl baribe iispániio-Santb Donringo..1'!rl. otros expliciros como son los dc nacinrienro....lií[:iry:rlrii rt lil. Las proy. 1605).!Í.i . Cuba' Pucrto Ric¡r-ni cn cl quc Caribc frincés-Haiti. nuestro contincnte . cuando vinieron en busca de tierras. cl segundo. los clc ct¡nstltar lit lin los apartados anteriorcs mis propósitos tucron y cl dc sugcri r tr na ""a "..uR D.rrii. nómbrasc aqui cómo llegaron y pcnetraron los ancianos llamados. su lugar dc fama.l! .f dc todos y cada uno de ros pobrados dc todas parrJs dc esta recienre Nueva España (Crónica mexictiyorl. a quicn lc cntrcgo la palabra: Dicesc..'n1?r. mexicanos.:l: Ili-'^'il"'. a ta quc rrcces¡rianrerrrc llcgilnrtrs :il'.'l -.i. En o'Gorman (1952) llcva implícitas las marcas de la identidad..lo CJtiU.1.l. quc cstá cn cl intcrior dJ agua [. cuyos ribros publicados c¡ Madrid....lÍn:[:t. exprcsión quc implica yu .. clde Todorov ( 1982) hacc expricitas las de raoiredad. han hecho cono=ci¿isima oc jr. .."".tff Ifllo"it"''cscribir' ilfr trlr.. cn los cstudios colonialcs mismos.rrlo.ntt.:.. f. holarrdescs.scntc mícntras quc cn el tcxto de López dc Vclasco sc tiate de un prcsente que implica un futuro.t54 w^l"'¡. y cuyos contenidos culturalcs quc ya no cs tie nrinorias' sino qttc en ¿Cómo pensar un problema an urrios de nuestros pirises dc nrayorías. inglcscs rnás tardc para el iortuiueies. Es Egiara y Egurcn convierrc aquc[o quc para cr curopco es "lo otro" cn . Quiero concluir adclantando uu nucvo problcnra ins.-.'. situados ellos también entre dos lenguas dos Mélico con los Estados Unidos.nto qu" fundamcntalm. al dc la al volúmcn en que s" contienen las ponencias v diálogos de Campinhas (Pizarro 1985)' citó: ta Universidad México Tcnochtitlan.'i.ctioncs dc csta repartición nuestro". la que sc constituycrain cabccera hablarrdtr Cuando decintos literatura latinoamcricarla i'cstanlos cjemplo de la literatura de los cottquistatlorcs-cspariolcs' for clso franceses. O. cn el carrizal y se lc llima el tular.'de Europa nó se dcbc tanto a los principios disciptinarios que asume cl investigador sino a la significativo cl hccho de quc ranto en cr Memoriál de sotord como cn riiara y Egurcn cncontremos un énfasis cn cl pasado para fundamcntar cl p. .:o!'. nueva distribución dcl Árca dc conocirrlicrtt..""ncia de la redistribución preguntas foflnuladas por Ana l)iz-rr¡'o """'"1.". aqui a la gran pobtación de la ciudad dc cultura algunos de estos criterios son implícitos. las litcr¿lttll'as dcl Caribe'l ¿Cónro pensar. t'A t-u'l'lr^' lil"l'lillltl-l ()l{lo \ 155 Nueva España y el México de Egurcn no son los mismos que ra Nucva-España y el México dc López de Vclasco.ion¿ y pasar.-.lirnraicl' Sant:r Ltrcia' etc'l . A¡rtonio Rubio y su r-ógica Mexicuna (Lógica ncxic'tto riva cot.^ l. cultura a la cual pcrtenccc o al punro de vista cultural que adopta.. para cr colonizador. siendocuropcos' escribcn sobrc Anrérica'! ["'l de los jcstritas literatura latinoamericana por ejcnrplo la literatura continentc y qtte contienzan :t que en l?ó? son cxpulsados del An¡érica en cl constituir en Europá una espccie de conciencia de la dc los exilia<Jos exterior? t. cn cl tular.' (tuna dura).rn" d"-urc¡"ión tcrritorial.. una identidad que no sc hacc cxplicita cn cl discurso dc los colonizadores porque clla va dc suyo.ür. La cspañblcs y cxtranjcros..n ru iiiroJu.: .son cxplícitos. sictc vcccs rcimpresos en otros rugarcs rtc Eipaña en el iigro p. rranitormación disciplínariarirea dc corrocimie¡rto' dcl . cs la colonización. a ra que ha mcrccido er nombrc de déci¡na musa y ros insigncs clogios de los varoncs más ilustrcs". 1609).] quc cstá dentro dcl agua..1. hoy. las más arriba. una línca tenue pero significativa separa la rerritorialidad cn la quc . "Lo otro" presupone una idcntidad.g.. Estos nombrcs y títulos perte neccn a la bibliotcca mcxicana cn ra medida en quc sc aceptan las trónteras jeográficas establccidas por Eguren y los critcrios a partir dc los cuares sc concibe . Ml(iN0Lo l.. Mcnos aún cl México-Tenochritlan dc Átuara¿o Tczozomoc....tt LtN l)o. cntcs dc Aztlan... historiar o cxplicar' íll'i ^l'["'i"'t' '.tntentar¡i rn univer:¡an Aristotclís Logican. chicomoztoquenscs.. nombrados teochichimccas.nuestra.i.. sc incorpora ar vicjo Mundo.i^..ilt:l$ cl-invcstie_adoi dcl las encon¡ramos rcflejadas. Martinica' Ctrldaltr¡:e-' ntr en últi¡no térrnino cttanclo hlrblanros del Caribe sino también del Caribc holandés-Curazao' Art¡b¡' irispánico.r*o.f. su dcchado. porquc la memoria tcrritoriar cs.n..r"do y dados reiteradamcnlc a las prcnsas más tardc. .. cn ranto que cl primero es la proyccción territoriai hacia cl futuro. cl carrizal del ventarrón. tcrritorial como es el dc las literaturas indigenas'l parte.¡-. Es decir. lugar de asiento dcl "tcnochtli.cparatrlc ffi.La comprensión dc Ia colonia como partc dc "lo mismo" o como "lo otro..o.i#i . ra (iraturcza mcxiccuto dc Dcrnardo dc Balbucna (l6oa) y "'ucsrra monja sor Juana. cl lugar de rcsidencía y la diversidact idiomitica. El Nuevo Mundo.ión ili¿..l. Suiinam-o el inglés-Trinidad.. cuando vinieron a ganar tierras.?.n.

. conrcr cxtranjcros rcconoccmos) y transmitimos. Es por esta razón quc tcndcmos a pcnsar. trasnrito (la litcratura hispano/latinoamcricana) como micmbro de una cultura o interesado en ella. cn tanto miembros dc la cultura hispano/latinoamcricana. Mientras quc su prolongación es justificable desde el punto de vista del progranla idcológico de un grupo intelectual reprcsentativo de un amplio sector de la población. I l:r(r(r I 1rK¡r.iif$i'il. y rnuy espccialmentc cn lo concernienre a la tcrritorialidad.A l-ltl l{l\. Lo prirncro es ttna hcrencia cultural construida como tcrritorialidad a la que pertcnccettros (o.iqu. del campo de conocimento que construyo y trasmito como practicante de una disciplina. El estado dc crisis es el de fa tensión erttre anrbos nivcles. MtcNol.". lil.]'lilt f). Ln complejidad dc intcraccioncs scnrióticas I' trrnsaccioncs discursivas tluranlc cl período cc¡lr¡nial nos cnfrc¡lta a utta fascinatrtc suPerposición dc c¡rrstruccíones tcrritorialcs cuya sofisticación simbólica sc achata y sc picrdc culndo.itorialidad como si . conjunto de prácticas discursivas icgulaáas por y mc oculta la difercncia con aqucllo quc la cultura a la quc ncftcncT. La prcocupación por alirmar la identidad cultural latinoamericana frente a la curopea fue una etapa necesaria en la "búsquecla de nuestra expresión" e incvitablc frcnte a Ia callada c imponente idcntidad del colonizador. lo cubrimos con la pritina dcl sr:n(in¡icnto quc mc idcntifica como hispano o lati¡ro atllcricano' Por otra parte. le pcrtcnec¡cran...tirp"no /ratin-oarncric.co .crrcnczco ha reprimido. cabría dccir. Las preguntas enumeradas por pizarro mc llevan a enfatizar un scgundo aspecto quc ha sido ya señalado en los apartados antcriorcr. (Mignolo.Er'. que nuestra útcratura comienza con colón. cuando el investigador es un míembro de la comunidad cuyo propio pasado es el pasado que invesiiga.o ¡-^ l. como practicantc. pero que no tiene varldez como conccpto quc dcsigna la totalidad der árca dc conocimienro de una disciprina. . d cabria decir. p"iii ¿" los discursos dcl pcriodq qqronhr. si la rcspucsta se fgrmula dcsde el punto de vista disciptinario. la cxprcsión _incorpora los textos y las prácticas quc son consistcntcs con la imagen de tef. ... como conocintiento y como difercncia crÍtica con Io printe ro. 1983).a regura """ scctor de un Ias intcraccioncs lipgüfsticas.gn ra mcdid". conia.(rA. Es por csta razón quc cl cjcrcicio crítico dc la próctica estudios ¿iscíplinaría cn las cicncias dc la cu ltu ra (incluyendo cn el conjunto a los litcrarios) cxigc que scpamos distinguir fa coltura quer como miembro.. n¡luralmcntc me constituyc de la disciplina quc.j".modificadá¡ . Para que ella se constituyan en campo de conocimiento es necesario puntualizar la diferencia entrc el canon quc lco ¡. nos pcrmite distinguir cl canon (quc sc nos imponc conlo obligación lecr v transnritir) del campo dc conocinríc¡rto y de investigación (quc se nos importc c(rnlo un deseo o un interés pcrseguir).. 'süs propias ajeno a la intcr¡cciones scmióticas.* la mismi{ad de la cultura a la que o un.w4l.'."'. quc ra cxprcsión citada ticne vilcncia y cg rclevante en cl contcxro dc ra construcción tcrrirorial que inician lo-s criollos y sc cxticndc a lo largo dcr siglo X r X. La literatura (y las tradiciones literarias) fornran parte de lo quc soy. quc la exprcsión rireratura hispano . como lo he sugcrido cn el apartado antcrior. es sin duda. por lo tanto cl mo¿ináal¡:./latinoamcricana cs u'a mancra dc l¡abrar quc no puedc tonrarsc corno ra La cnunrcración quc sosticnc las prcguntas cs cjcnrprar. Se trata de la simple distinción entre autocomprensión (hermenéutica) y conocimiento (epistemología). En cambio. I.naturalmente. cn rugar de srrponer quc hay tal cntidad (en vez de una iiea) y quc tal entidad comicnz" con Colón. Debcmos indagar ct¡ándo surgc la idca dc quc hay tar cosa clmo la ritcratura hispano/latinoam-ericana.ro detcrminadas convcncioncs y nor*ai puede designarse con ei'nombre de literatura hispano/amcricana"? si la respuesta se fórmula desde un punto de vista.¿para quién un rcpensar las prcguntas cnumcradas poi piz". naturalmcnle dcbo cjcrccr crlticamente.te¡ritorial.l:N(. no podemos dar por sentado quc así scan las cosas.". Duiantc cr período colonial la litcratura es una práctica discursiva rclativanrente mcnor y sólo podría conccdcrsc que sca hispano/ratinoamcricana en la medida en quc sc accptc quc por "hispano/latino" cnrcndcmos la presencia dc la cultura curopca y por "amcricano" la contribución dc la culturas indígenas a la contiguración cultural dcl Nucvo Mundo. ' exprcsión quc unifica tan v¿s16 6¿¡1po dc cxpcricncia. Al corpus tcxtual comprcndemos de inmediato que las respucstas pucden darsc dcsdc dos pcrspcctivas. El cmplco dc la exprcsión "discursos en cr pcriodo coroniar" en vez de "litcratura hispanoameritana colonial" no es un capricho sino una nccesidad de scparar la cultura a ra cuar pertcnezco de la discipiina quc practico. comenzamos a consruir lo segundo (según la tesis dc cstc articulo).. seria contraproducente pensar que la tradición en la que nre sítúo incorpora sin diferencia todo el pasado del que me apropio y todo el presente que ignoro o desconozco. r. Dc tal manera gue la pregunta que iubyace a todas las quc conticncn los párrafos citados es algo-asicomo ia siguiinte: . en vez de entender el transplante de la colo-nización curopea en América del Sur. una dclgada linea separa la construcción tirriiorial dc la construcción cognJscitiva lo hiz-o B. cn el gesto cttrocétrtrico rJc apropiación. r" cuestión dc la identidad coir¡o una cucstión vital dc la cuésüón dc la identidad ¿'litcraiura" como una cu&tión analrtici La coionial. crocc sobrc ros géncros.t io.

Pizerro Ana (coordinadora) rt. Elidc (1980).ll(ttico. Mórico._Writing ond R. "Elegio tlc varones ilustc¡ de lulta. Carrcas. iw. 1953. 25-5 l. cuuurun l¡o¡nr'sr rvrrcyo cirdit¡táj. Pittarcllo. in prcss.(. c i Dt l( . (19E2).r. FCE. univcrsiryof Prcss.rittancc in Colonial peru. tzn¿ cd.rexictiyotr. vol' l8' 185-4(x).'lniriLtt. México. Siglo XXl.V. Adorno.. Ardao.. orgaaizationlj socicty.r: Smrll tl' lkhorintl I l¿tr¡t¡c.. lr. Elidc ( I 986). "[.'t¡¿.'l'radición Ci íri¿¿.. probsr. Rom¡r...). (1983).1. Historia dc la literarrru hirporoon rricana. I ll. pucbla.ligrrcl(l9llll). Ong.! rctóric¿ cn Nucva España". Lcón-Portill¿. Jacqucs ( n-21.D): g¿tor¿r. Yalc tlnivcrsit¡ f'rcss.l I 7.sr¡gación Hunanlstico. L¡ l'lab¡rr¡. O¡orio Romcro.nientot aNiguos v nndcrnos dc la Nucvo Españ¿" di Baltasar dc Obrcgón"..".rcustiotr fl'llunitg-'l'hc l\ltx¡ton t. tgnacio (197ó). l9$6. Waltcr D.p.locR^¡rt^ Adorno' R' and Murrl J.f5..Inoocy inrraditionor Sicictir. Mcrhucn. Norrc Dáme León-Portilla'-Migucl ( 1978)."lirllcc:iyrfl. /. songs ol th¿ Az.vco. castillo. No.1i.e_ta cr¡r¡. Año VIr vor.. '/¿' f\lirrrtcz Itl¡t¡rci¡rlc.otina. traducitlo.I. prótógot dc ta Bibtiot¿ca M. !rtl . Mignolo. Caracas. shniotiquc' J.. 109-171. (19671.r. "El mapa dc Tcozzcoarco" .lérico" . in . "El mrndato y la ofrcnda: b Descripcióa de lo ptovinc¡a )' ciudad ¡l¿ Tlascala deDicgo Muñoz Canrargo y las rclacionr's dc ludias" cn Nrrcr'¿ Revisto tft Filología Hiryánica. Syracusc. Madrid.¡r'rr". uoooy' Jrct l9E6). Dispositio. "Cartas.r. ' ( I ?551..t.lrl-¡'. 45-67. Andcrson lmbcrt. l)()rrcrrciil prcscrrtr<la cn cl X Xnro Congrcso tlc l. A.:rc. México.EuropcondthcNativeCoribbcan.^dt-i..22-2]. C¡bricl 11931l.I5 I . ñtjrtrrrrr¡r.. Ascnsio. obras quc Francisco Cervautc¡ tlc Zalazar.lt¡.ra. "Jano o la litcratura ncolatina cn lr. l-J-1 (rccogido cn Cultura Cldsico l. Ausiin. Dcrrida. C¿trld¡ná. ( 198ó).r obrl tle .). cdito¡ I | 9821. I. ( l9ól).:rirrgnfia lnrJinnr".. (1985)... Forstcr ¡r J.¡.a/. \. Onrerio Instirurc fo¡ Studics ot (I Mignolo. cdición. t994.TER t). Guatnon. Nov I lavcn./r ('rr. Literouro tlel Mático ontiguo. Ignacio (1980).Mcxicí. Dc la gratnmotologie. .lTüipny. 15.¡¡lc uoúron.. 7 cnso¡'os dc inerprctaciót tk la rculidocl paruana. Norrc Damc.. Juan dc Brocar. Adorno. ificrurkr. (1984). Ls Editions dc Minuit. Krisrcva.Rómulo Gállcgos.Cuadcrnos Am. :t:111". (l98lb). Cotanizctrs and Seutc¡s. ( 1982/81). (l98la). \.v Coloniol I'eriod.sociar dcr hu¡naniino espoio! (rswr gm¡. lnsriruto dc fnvcstigacioncs llistóricas..-Typosraphia in Acadibus Aulhore cditioni cjusdcm Bibliorheca dcsrinada. Osorio Ronrcro. i

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r'luun¿¡y .l'l'/ Mórico..t.\.lrtr¡r dc (-i.('. I l5. dcl irri a"rrnop of Ha¡vard univcrsiry Education. P¡oceedirrys of the conlerencc "Thc Book iu the . Ponom¡na. Qricago. Middlc Amcrican R"T11./fa Indiana.lrrllr ( 1571. Lat content. Frmcisco (1964). Florcsta de gratndlica. ¿.4. (t 1979). Ousis. rtrlilrlrcrl."Una nucva intcrprctilción rlc krs oftlrc tarl.trcn Gohicrno".lohn Ca¡tc¡ llrosn Library. cn llisroia ¿e la literoturo llispanoanrcrican¿ (Cpocn Coloniull. "El mctiltc¡to lristoriográfico y lr lrist. Ong. l'térico. Céspcdcs dcl . li. 9eÍ]9y: 9:'l:1j.*. Grossmann. tvlésico. Not'cnlbcr l9N5).f. Hcnriqucz Urcña. tgnacio (1986). 19671.p. vlll. Wa ltcr D. "Conrprcnsión hcrnlcnéulica ) ctlntl'lcrxiírn lc(ilic¡l" /i"rirl¿ !:jt.11. I alcmán porJurn C. iamuaJg". E7-lM (tc."ll discorso s¡oriografico di Cristobal Sr¡art'z rlr l:igtrur.rion: Nat¡rc Anfuan éhion¡cret r. (1987). ll. Ncw Oricans.. C¡sn tlc ks Anré¡icas. SranforJ Uniucrsiiy-p-¡ll' Caso.i.17.. crón icas y rclacionc. O¡ono Romcro. Egiarr y Egurcn. Pcdro dc lrléxico.. (cn prcnsa).rii.-(1914 Los tros eies d.ecs. tJNAltl. r'li . 5-l l. 1915.clil5c¡'... G¡cdos. UNAlvl.Jnivcrsidad Auróno¡na dc pucbr¿. y Varcla. London.y. R¡f. El Colcg¡o Pitt¡rcllo. E¡ic A. Waltcr D.ll?12). "La lcngul. Alvarado Ts¿ozónroc. 2.ó*i.matorosii.1¡rrlrltl. Tutanc únivcrsity. Angcl Marfa (19541. Literarura. Wa ttcr D..li los CukchiquLlar.. in lh'cltov l¿'tlou Gorcia Hurtodo dc cnorlo llorquó. t'ron oror io rrritten El¡rcs. Eugcnio (1960). Anlrico tlispónica.. H92-l797. ¿lnilcs . 158402. paris. ttlérico. tad. Munro s. Er nova. Havelock. Cantaret Mcxicanos. Hisroria dc una idca dc Ncbrija en España y porrugat. óambridsc'ü. H¡vclock. llolcnÍ (19ü2).México. Francisco ( I 5 461. cn R' Adorno (cd. 96. iolts. Ccrvantes dc Zelazar. J. lJ. [1úsrcr¡.l)grri|l'iin liutyll. "Scicnza/cspcricoza nclla//rrtoria dc los dcscubri. -prc-Hispanic Thorsh¡.\ll. "semióro¿ie a por Manucl Tuñon dc Lara¡. t. univcrsid¿d Nacion¡rl Aurónour0. ican umikcr (edirors). ttutnun fit{ '! e¡rittriolir. Ignacio (19E3)..I 7?.México. Madrid. [lignolo. (lÜ llicrhorst. 2.. lrli¡¡nolo. li'rrinn-t:t'..s. Toronto.¡ltcr t). ( l9E2). Los tettos en lcngua ndhuarl. Estcvc lerba.. lrlúrico.í. prchce to florr.'n¡¡l¿¡¿t llaticanos'! ' l. Madrid. poético )' rc¡órim crl r\flrct¡? España (1521' /7ó7. lirlitt¡rrrl IJnivcrsitrrir. Rcy-Dcbovc cr ó. I l-. 94. (¡986).il"¿ft5!'riirü. (ito1¡ro|irt l.nniril ilr Soluti. j.tis oml l)i. "La cscritura tlc la historin y llr histtrrir rtc ll cscritur:t". 4/ 5.'rc.¡ll ¡lL llt lultul'..Pctcr(1986l. Madrid.it) (l:d...rtiiliil o h nrcvt narmtita mcsicono. Thc Univcrsity of Michigan. Arhambra. Edmondson. Espoña(dirigida Dcrrida. Cíóniro /. !fi¡¡g¡¡a ¿¿ la litentura ndhuatl. in Studi tti lrtt. J7.1|ilil

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irh . Hitlotia p¡oblema¡ tlc ta lite¡otu¡o latittoatnericona. prcss P¡css. llnriárcgui. r).h Insriiute.rto dc la confcrr'ncia lcida cn cl sinr¡rosio 7'lr Itistor¡' ef p¡s¡s. Vol Vl dc la colccción Ili¡toria tlc gra.. ó5-Eó. Jitnk'Noé. i

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léxico..lvl. TAeSo ok ofcouncir: The popot vuh olrhc euiché Maya ofGuotemara. Pilt¡rcllo. Invr.ano-util(i.llg76l' origitts ol'wcstun Literoc. Eric A .oni lirlit.-i.P. I lnntonisto¡ llcsicanu lcl rrtkt filúndcz ltl¡rncartc. Rolcna ( 1986). Oralit! and Literacy.t58 wAl. rclacioncs y tl¡tóllotl: los /'rt'. "Sign and thcir trans¡¡ission: thc qucst¡on of thc book in tlrr'Ñcs World".r"".ColonialEncoun¡cr¡. (1983). S¡utli di Lcttcrutura l. The Prescncc of thc l/ord. Transla¡cd from thc Náhuatl w¡rh an inrroductron and coñmcntary.'l'r:rtluccitin tlc Arlri:in llccirtos. XLIll.. -Ad. "Histórica.Fondo dc r¡ Cultura Econónrica. Thc ua ( 197 jui in E¡¡a. Miguel León'Porrilra Edmundoo'cormanlr¿/./r.cornp. El Colcgio dc México.... ha hecho.Cultura llevcona.'|(. 5-18. Tópicos sobrc Cictón en lli.dconot.s lit.ro ( I 9801. Jacqucs ( r97 r). UNAM.lr¡t'rlttt th'lt ttlturu nrifurrll. Hktoriogra.itcrut ur¡ lbcroarucriclnl. Bctlriz. Mcthucn. lirrstcn ( 1980). t944.tó ) Oiorio Romero. ll'16. 'li. Éorcign nnd Conrparative Strr¿ics/Larin Anrcrican Scrics. José Clrlos t92E]. El ¡rincrnucvo corónico y buen gal¡/czro. I. John ( t 985). (. ll. .'r'p¡ot I I isro.i. Gu¡llcrmo (19E5). Cátcdr¡. "'l'hc Lartguagc of llistory ¡r. Waltcr J. 1950. tc\t trx l" t fr.. ¿Quc clasc dc tcxtos srrn góncros'l liunJiril('ilt(ts dc ipolosiit c¡t A ct o I'oót ica. Enriquc (r954). Discr¿rso narrctivo dc lo conquisro lt. cn l:ttud¡os de Cultu¡a Nóhuatl.. Waltcr D.'¡otur¿ hispouo-ancricano. . 2-5ó. Sirntilgo. lbcroAnericona offartí a Ciuseopa /Jcl/úrr'.flrrtillil.). Chicago. ^ .¡rrcllanos: url g$lcrc lcttcrario controvcrso". ry.. tr. Fernantro 1t&l¡. Gcnosis rle la itleo y el uouhre de Anrérica l.ll.l. Gabricl (19461.s dcl dcscuhr inricnto ) dc la corrquista". Waltcr D.t ¡il . 1. . le63). Alfonso_(1949). XLvt¡..rtu..:'ó.rarias en la /ntérica híspdnico. t:. Waltcr J.t.-eñcra dcl fmpcrio. Oncgir (cds.y:: f l9.74|. Bucnos Air¿s. icvista dc Occiden¡a. waltcr D.trlrr/¡ li Ltttt'¡tturt 'ltendoza. Ignacio ( l98l ).lignolo. México. Bicrhorst. 145rE 'i |'."" ¡¡¡. ..crrr¡cicnci:¡rlcurtllrtrol(¡¡ttlccttitt¡t¡¡"t¡tlitlttrtitttl.!t 2tw.c l:t¡cttlcs r Guznrán y las ll istorias dc lndias" . chic¡io ú.{q:f ( l:l9)..'lnw'icos". Edirorial Labor. I Ioracio c[.ihs. Migucl ( 1967¡. 10. 949). Alcalá. Hulmc. t-uir lrligo N4adri$.f ignolo.lu'ük¡isrcna..p.'crnáodcz' Luis(l98ll. Tcres U. Rudolf([1969] lg72).5'.rlos. glosotlo . L¿ Iiteratura lotinoamcricoto cotno lroceso. Psrtor. Thc Itgic olryt¡trry ond th. Madrid. lil tirhol lcl tono¿irrlirrt. Chicago U. MtcNoLo lillil. cambridgc U.Londonznd Ncw Yo¡k. drmbridgc. llulz. filologío.Poma. Bibtiotteca Mcxicoru'ilve-eruditorum historioviroum.lnnlt'.Juan José dc . Junc 1987. Miguct (t9ó6). Móxico. XXl. "La cnseñan¿a dc la rctórica cn cl siglo X

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l novohisparro". Ccnlro dc Estudios Latinoamcricanos . estudios introductorios v vcrsioncs ric rcxros ocTa¡¡v4 L'. Traducsión¡l:lpaño!-dc Agusrín Millarcs C'. poirúa. !U¡gnolo. llibliotcc¡¡ AY¡lcuclt(). Qsorio Romcro.rrr-l\rrtill¡r. Elidc (198a). Editoriar r.

op. Namc. Inc. Mé¡ico' F.l.." 'I'edlock. Dcnnis ( 1983a).Thelvla¡'anBooko.C'rcci'itin. Epirhcr. ltl¡¡rlrid. 261-7 L Tcdlock.unthn. "Word.i Simon and Schustcr. dntentic¡. 198t. Las anriguas llistoría del Quichd. la wcación litcraria del pento.. Botque¡o ltistótico Colonthiano.nicnto histórico en Auy'rico.(1985). Mldrid. /t/ Iatin en Cotonbio. Tzvctan (1962). Tres problcntos de Antrico Itthtu.NOl'() llibliotcc¡rs tlt¡ivcrsi(lt¡ii¡s. in Tftc Spokcn llod ond the llton! of Interyret¿tion.r).rpnleciucnhtstcttos¡kllnrul.l l:R l) ñll(. Enriquc ( 1982b). trarlición. Publicacioncs dcl lnstituto Caro y Cucrvo.C-E' i|n¡nuninno Rivas Sacconi. "Word. Curtr(¡ l:dil(tr (lc Anlériul I I'¡tinl' Irupo-Walkcr. o/r. Dcnnis (1983b).J I ¡ l(l) wAl. Mnrio (i9E0). Todorov. IlumanTcrrito¡iolity. Univcrsity of Pen¡rsylvania fress. lttcntittad. Sign and Rook in Quiché Epistcmologv"' o¡ cit. Ccntro dc Lstudios Latiironrncrimnos "Rómulo Callcgos. Tedlock. Sarnbrrino. Rccinos.A' Pupo-Walkcr. Grcdos. cambridgc tl. du Scuil. Sign and Book in Quiché Epistcmology"' 272-281.Dcnnis. "Beyond Lotoccntrism: Tracc and Voicc Among thc Quiché Ma-ra". cit. sack.281. S. Adrián ( 19601. lranslaror. Dcnnis (l9Elc). Porrtia'litr¿nz¡r. Philadclphia.lad. z4't-260. . I Tcdlock. cil. llistorio. PopolVuh. Robcrr David (1986). José Manucl (1949).' ltl 112. Ia conquóre dc l'Annriqve. I:nriquc(l9ll2.l(ht l/c¡c. Patis. Caracas. Dcnnis ( lgEJc). NervYork. Pdpbl Vuh.fthcDaxnof Li[c. Tcdlock. Bogotú. Nanrc. Epithct. "Crcation and thc Popol Vuh" A Hcrmencutical APproach". Its thcory aad lrrilor¡ london.

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¡ trtr el cl baribe iispániio-Santb Donringo..1'!rl. otros expliciros como son los dc nacinrienro....lií[:iry:rlrii rt lil. Las proy. 1605).!Í.i . Cuba' Pucrto Ric¡r-ni cn cl quc Caribc frincés-Haiti. nuestro contincnte . cuando vinieron en busca de tierras. cl segundo. los clc ct¡nstltar lit lin los apartados anteriorcs mis propósitos tucron y cl dc sugcri r tr na ""a "..uR D.rrii. nómbrasc aqui cómo llegaron y pcnetraron los ancianos llamados. su lugar dc fama.l! .f dc todos y cada uno de ros pobrados dc todas parrJs dc esta recienre Nueva España (Crónica mexictiyorl. a quicn lc cntrcgo la palabra: Dicesc..'n1?r. mexicanos.:l: Ili-'^'il"'. a ta quc rrcces¡rianrerrrc llcgilnrtrs :il'.'l -.i. En o'Gorman (1952) llcva implícitas las marcas de la identidad..lo CJtiU.1.l. quc cstá cn cl intcrior dJ agua [. cuyos ribros publicados c¡ Madrid....lÍn:[:t. exprcsión quc implica yu .. clde Todorov ( 1982) hacc expricitas las de raoiredad. han hecho cono=ci¿isima oc jr. .."".tff Ifllo"it"''cscribir' ilfr trlr.. cn los cstudios colonialcs mismos.rrlo.ntt.:.. f. holarrdescs.scntc mícntras quc cn el tcxto de López dc Vclasco sc tiate de un prcsente que implica un futuro.t54 w^l"'¡. y cuyos contenidos culturalcs quc ya no cs tie nrinorias' sino qttc en ¿Cómo pensar un problema an urrios de nuestros pirises dc nrayorías. inglcscs rnás tardc para el iortuiueies. Es Egiara y Egurcn convierrc aquc[o quc para cr curopco es "lo otro" cn . Quiero concluir adclantando uu nucvo problcnra ins.-.'. situados ellos también entre dos lenguas dos Mélico con los Estados Unidos.nto qu" fundamcntalm. al dc la al volúmcn en que s" contienen las ponencias v diálogos de Campinhas (Pizarro 1985)' citó: ta Universidad México Tcnochtitlan.'i.ctioncs dc csta repartición nuestro". la que sc constituycrain cabccera hablarrdtr Cuando decintos literatura latinoamcricarla i'cstanlos cjemplo de la literatura de los cottquistatlorcs-cspariolcs' for clso franceses. O. cn el carrizal y se lc llima el tular.'de Europa nó se dcbc tanto a los principios disciptinarios que asume cl investigador sino a la significativo cl hccho de quc ranto en cr Memoriál de sotord como cn riiara y Egurcn cncontremos un énfasis cn cl pasado para fundamcntar cl p. .:o!'. nueva distribución dcl Árca dc conocirrlicrtt..""ncia de la redistribución preguntas foflnuladas por Ana l)iz-rr¡'o """'"1.". aqui a la gran pobtación de la ciudad dc cultura algunos de estos criterios son implícitos. las litcr¿lttll'as dcl Caribe'l ¿Cónro pensar. t'A t-u'l'lr^' lil"l'lillltl-l ()l{lo \ 155 Nueva España y el México de Egurcn no son los mismos que ra Nucva-España y el México dc López de Vclasco.ion¿ y pasar.-.lirnraicl' Sant:r Ltrcia' etc'l . A¡rtonio Rubio y su r-ógica Mexicuna (Lógica ncxic'tto riva cot.^ l. cultura a la cual pcrtenccc o al punro de vista cultural que adopta.. para cr colonizador. siendocuropcos' escribcn sobrc Anrérica'! ["'l de los jcstritas literatura latinoamericana por ejcnrplo la literatura continentc y qtte contienzan :t que en l?ó? son cxpulsados del An¡érica en cl constituir en Europá una espccie de conciencia de la dc los exilia<Jos exterior? t. cn cl tular.' (tuna dura).rn" d"-urc¡"ión tcrritorial.. una identidad que no sc hacc cxplicita cn cl discurso dc los colonizadores porque clla va dc suyo.ür. La cspañblcs y cxtranjcros..n ru iiiroJu.: .son cxplícitos. sictc vcccs rcimpresos en otros rugarcs rtc Eipaña en el iigro p. rranitormación disciplínariarirea dc corrocimie¡rto' dcl . cs la colonización. a ra que ha mcrccido er nombrc de déci¡na musa y ros insigncs clogios de los varoncs más ilustrcs". 1609).] quc cstá dentro dcl agua..1. hoy. las más arriba. una línca tenue pero significativa separa la rerritorialidad cn la quc . "Lo otro" presupone una idcntidad.g.. Estos nombrcs y títulos perte neccn a la bibliotcca mcxicana cn ra medida en quc sc aceptan las trónteras jeográficas establccidas por Eguren y los critcrios a partir dc los cuares sc concibe . Ml(iN0Lo l.. Mcnos aún cl México-Tenochritlan dc Átuara¿o Tczozomoc....tt LtN l)o. cntcs dc Aztlan... historiar o cxplicar' íll'i ^l'["'i"'t' '.tntentar¡i rn univer:¡an Aristotclís Logican. chicomoztoquenscs.. nombrados teochichimccas.nuestra.i.. sc incorpora ar vicjo Mundo.i^..ilt:l$ cl-invcstie_adoi dcl las encon¡ramos rcflejadas. Martinica' Ctrldaltr¡:e-' ntr en últi¡no térrnino cttanclo hlrblanros del Caribe sino también del Caribc holandés-Curazao' Art¡b¡' irispánico.r*o.f. su dcchado. porquc la memoria tcrritoriar cs.n..r"do y dados reiteradamcnlc a las prcnsas más tardc. .. cn ranto que cl primero es la proyccción territoriai hacia cl futuro. cl carrizal del ventarrón. tcrritorial como es el dc las literaturas indigenas'l parte.¡-. Es decir. lugar de asiento dcl "tcnochtli.cparatrlc ffi.La comprensión dc Ia colonia como partc dc "lo mismo" o como "lo otro..o.i#i . ra (iraturcza mcxiccuto dc Dcrnardo dc Balbucna (l6oa) y "'ucsrra monja sor Juana. cl lugar de rcsidencía y la diversidact idiomitica. El Nuevo Mundo.ión ili¿..l. Suiinam-o el inglés-Trinidad.. cuando vinieron a ganar tierras.?.n.

. conrcr cxtranjcros rcconoccmos) y transmitimos. Es por esta razón quc tcndcmos a pcnsar. trasnrito (la litcratura hispano/latinoamcricana) como micmbro de una cultura o interesado en ella. cn tanto miembros dc la cultura hispano/latinoamcricana. Mientras quc su prolongación es justificable desde el punto de vista del progranla idcológico de un grupo intelectual reprcsentativo de un amplio sector de la población. I l:r(r(r I 1rK¡r.iif$i'il. y rnuy espccialmentc cn lo concernienre a la tcrritorialidad.A l-ltl l{l\. Lo prirncro es ttna hcrencia cultural construida como tcrritorialidad a la que pertcnccettros (o.iqu. del campo de conocimento que construyo y trasmito como practicante de una disciplina. El estado dc crisis es el de fa tensión erttre anrbos nivcles. MtcNol.". lil.]'lilt f). Ln complejidad dc intcraccioncs scnrióticas I' trrnsaccioncs discursivas tluranlc cl período cc¡lr¡nial nos cnfrc¡lta a utta fascinatrtc suPerposición dc c¡rrstruccíones tcrritorialcs cuya sofisticación simbólica sc achata y sc picrdc culndo.itorialidad como si . conjunto de prácticas discursivas icgulaáas por y mc oculta la difercncia con aqucllo quc la cultura a la quc ncftcncT. La prcocupación por alirmar la identidad cultural latinoamericana frente a la curopea fue una etapa necesaria en la "búsquecla de nuestra expresión" e incvitablc frcnte a Ia callada c imponente idcntidad del colonizador. lo cubrimos con la pritina dcl sr:n(in¡icnto quc mc idcntifica como hispano o lati¡ro atllcricano' Por otra parte. le pcrtcnec¡cran...tirp"no /ratin-oarncric.co .crrcnczco ha reprimido. cabría dccir. Las preguntas enumeradas por pizarro mc llevan a enfatizar un scgundo aspecto quc ha sido ya señalado en los apartados antcriorcr. (Mignolo.Er'. que nuestra útcratura comienza con colón. cuando el investigador es un míembro de la comunidad cuyo propio pasado es el pasado que invesiiga.o ¡-^ l. como practicantc. pero que no tiene varldez como conccpto quc dcsigna la totalidad der árca dc conocimienro de una disciprina. . d cabria decir. p"iii ¿" los discursos dcl pcriodq qqronhr. si la rcspucsta se fgrmula dcsde el punto de vista disciptinario. la cxprcsión _incorpora los textos y las prácticas quc son consistcntcs con la imagen de tef. ... como conocintiento y como difercncia crÍtica con Io printe ro. 1983).a regura """ scctor de un Ias intcraccioncs lipgüfsticas.gn ra mcdid". conia.(rA. Es por csta razón quc cl cjcrcicio crítico dc la próctica estudios ¿iscíplinaría cn las cicncias dc la cu ltu ra (incluyendo cn el conjunto a los litcrarios) cxigc que scpamos distinguir fa coltura quer como miembro.. n¡luralmcntc me constituyc de la disciplina quc.j".modificadá¡ . Para que ella se constituyan en campo de conocimiento es necesario puntualizar la diferencia entrc el canon quc lco ¡. nos pcrmite distinguir cl canon (quc sc nos imponc conlo obligación lecr v transnritir) del campo dc conocinríc¡rto y de investigación (quc se nos importc c(rnlo un deseo o un interés pcrseguir).. 'süs propias ajeno a la intcr¡cciones scmióticas.* la mismi{ad de la cultura a la que o un.w4l.'."'. quc ra cxprcsión citada ticne vilcncia y cg rclevante en cl contcxro dc ra construcción tcrrirorial que inician lo-s criollos y sc cxticndc a lo largo dcr siglo X r X. La literatura (y las tradiciones literarias) fornran parte de lo quc soy. quc la exprcsión rireratura hispano . como lo he sugcrido cn el apartado antcrior. es sin duda. por lo tanto cl mo¿ináal¡:./latinoamcricana cs u'a mancra dc l¡abrar quc no puedc tonrarsc corno ra La cnunrcración quc sosticnc las prcguntas cs cjcnrprar. Se trata de la simple distinción entre autocomprensión (hermenéutica) y conocimiento (epistemología). En cambio. I.naturalmente. cn rugar de srrponer quc hay tal cntidad (en vez de una iiea) y quc tal entidad comicnz" con Colón. Debcmos indagar ct¡ándo surgc la idca dc quc hay tar cosa clmo la ritcratura hispano/latinoam-ericana.ro detcrminadas convcncioncs y nor*ai puede designarse con ei'nombre de literatura hispano/amcricana"? si la respuesta se fórmula desde un punto de vista.¿para quién un rcpensar las prcguntas cnumcradas poi piz". naturalmcnle dcbo cjcrccr crlticamente.te¡ritorial.l:N(. no podemos dar por sentado quc así scan las cosas.". Duiantc cr período colonial la litcratura es una práctica discursiva rclativanrente mcnor y sólo podría conccdcrsc que sca hispano/ratinoamcricana en la medida en quc sc accptc quc por "hispano/latino" cnrcndcmos la presencia dc la cultura curopca y por "amcricano" la contribución dc la culturas indígenas a la contiguración cultural dcl Nucvo Mundo. ' exprcsión quc unifica tan v¿s16 6¿¡1po dc cxpcricncia. Al corpus tcxtual comprcndemos de inmediato que las respucstas pucden darsc dcsdc dos pcrspcctivas. El cmplco dc la exprcsión "discursos en cr pcriodo coroniar" en vez de "litcratura hispanoameritana colonial" no es un capricho sino una nccesidad de scparar la cultura a ra cuar pertcnezco de la discipiina quc practico. comenzamos a consruir lo segundo (según la tesis dc cstc articulo).. seria contraproducente pensar que la tradición en la que nre sítúo incorpora sin diferencia todo el pasado del que me apropio y todo el presente que ignoro o desconozco. r. Dc tal manera gue la pregunta que iubyace a todas las quc conticncn los párrafos citados es algo-asicomo ia siguiinte: . en vez de entender el transplante de la colo-nización curopea en América del Sur. una dclgada linea separa la construcción tirriiorial dc la construcción cognJscitiva lo hiz-o B. cn el gesto cttrocétrtrico rJc apropiación. r" cuestión dc la identidad coir¡o una cucstión vital dc la cuésüón dc la identidad ¿'litcraiura" como una cu&tión analrtici La coionial. crocc sobrc ros géncros.t io.

Pizerro Ana (coordinadora) rt. Elidc (1980).ll(ttico. Mórico._Writing ond R. "Elegio tlc varones ilustc¡ de lulta. Carrcas. iw. 1953. 25-5 l. cuuurun l¡o¡nr'sr rvrrcyo cirdit¡táj. Pittarcllo. in prcss.(. c i Dt l( . (19E2).r. FCE. univcrsiryof Prcss.rittancc in Colonial peru. tzn¿ cd.rexictiyotr. vol' l8' 185-4(x).'lniriLtt. México. Siglo XXl.V. Adorno.. Ardao.. orgaaizationlj socicty.r: Smrll tl' lkhorintl I l¿tr¡t¡c.. lr. Elidc ( I 986). "[.'t¡¿.'l'radición Ci íri¿¿.. probsr. Rom¡r...). (1983).1. Historia dc la literarrru hirporoon rricana. I ll. pucbla.ligrrcl(l9llll). Ong.! rctóric¿ cn Nucva España". Lcón-Portill¿. Jacqucs ( n-21.D): g¿tor¿r. Yalc tlnivcrsit¡ f'rcss.l I 7.sr¡gación Hunanlstico. L¡ l'lab¡rr¡. O¡orio Romcro.nientot aNiguos v nndcrnos dc la Nucvo Españ¿" di Baltasar dc Obrcgón"..".rcustiotr fl'llunitg-'l'hc l\ltx¡ton t. tgnacio (197ó). l9$6. Waltcr D.p.locR^¡rt^ Adorno' R' and Murrl J.f5..Inoocy inrraditionor Sicictir. Mcrhucn. Norrc Dáme León-Portilla'-Migucl ( 1978)."lirllcc:iyrfl. /. songs ol th¿ Az.vco. castillo. No.1i.e_ta cr¡r¡. Año VIr vor.. '/¿' f\lirrrtcz Itl¡t¡rci¡rlc.otina. traducitlo.I. prótógot dc ta Bibtiot¿ca M. !rtl . Mignolo. Caracas. shniotiquc' J.. 109-171. (19671.r. "El mapa dc Tcozzcoarco" .lérico" . in . "El mrndato y la ofrcnda: b Descripcióa de lo ptovinc¡a )' ciudad ¡l¿ Tlascala deDicgo Muñoz Canrargo y las rclacionr's dc ludias" cn Nrrcr'¿ Revisto tft Filología Hiryánica. Syracusc. Madrid.¡r'rr". uoooy' Jrct l9E6). Dispositio. "Cartas.r. ' ( I ?551..t.lrl-¡'. 45-67. Andcrson lmbcrt. l)()rrcrrciil prcscrrtr<la cn cl X Xnro Congrcso tlc l. A.:rc. México.EuropcondthcNativeCoribbcan.^dt-i..22-2]. C¡bricl 11931l.I5 I . ñtjrtrrrrr¡r.. Ascnsio. obras quc Francisco Cervautc¡ tlc Zalazar.lt¡.ra. "Jano o la litcratura ncolatina cn lr. l-J-1 (rccogido cn Cultura Cldsico l. Ausiin. Dcrrida. C¿trld¡ná. ( 198ó).r obrl tle .). cdito¡ I | 9821. I. ( l9ól).:rirrgnfia lnrJinnr".. (1985)... Forstcr ¡r J.¡.a/. \. Onrerio Instirurc fo¡ Studics ot (I Mignolo. cdición. t994.TER t). Guatnon. Nov I lavcn./r ('rr. Literouro tlel Mático ontiguo. Ignacio (1980).Mcxicí. Dc la gratnmotologie. .lTüipny. 15.¡¡lc uoúron.. 7 cnso¡'os dc inerprctaciót tk la rculidocl paruana. Norrc Damc.. Juan dc Brocar. Adorno. ificrurkr. (1984). Ls Editions dc Minuit. Krisrcva.Rómulo Gállcgos.Cuadcrnos Am. :t:111". (l98lb). Cotanizctrs and Seutc¡s. ( 1982/81). (l98la). \.v Coloniol I'eriod.sociar dcr hu¡naniino espoio! (rswr gm¡. lnsriruto dc fnvcstigacioncs llistóricas..-Typosraphia in Acadibus Aulhore cditioni cjusdcm Bibliorheca dcsrinada. Osorio Ronrcro. 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léxico..lvl. TAeSo ok ofcouncir: The popot vuh olrhc euiché Maya ofGuotemara. Pilt¡rcllo. Invr.ano-util(i.llg76l' origitts ol'wcstun Literoc. Eric A .oni lirlit.-i.P. I lnntonisto¡ llcsicanu lcl rrtkt filúndcz ltl¡rncartc. Rolcna ( 1986). Oralit! and Literacy.t58 wAl. rclacioncs y tl¡tóllotl: los /'rt'. "Sign and thcir trans¡¡ission: thc qucst¡on of thc book in tlrr'Ñcs World".r"".ColonialEncoun¡cr¡. (1983). S¡utli di Lcttcrutura l. The Prescncc of thc l/ord. Transla¡cd from thc Náhuatl w¡rh an inrroductron and coñmcntary.'l'r:rtluccitin tlc Arlri:in llccirtos. XLIll.. -Ad. "Histórica.Fondo dc r¡ Cultura Econónrica. Thc ua ( 197 jui in E¡¡a. Miguel León'Porrilra Edmundoo'cormanlr¿/./r.cornp. El Colcgio dc México.... ha hecho.Cultura llevcona.'|(. 5-18. Tópicos sobrc Cictón en lli.dconot.s lit.ro ( I 9801. Jacqucs ( r97 r). UNAM.lr¡t'rlttt th'lt ttlturu nrifurrll. Hktoriogra.itcrut ur¡ lbcroarucriclnl. Bctlriz. Mcthucn. lirrstcn ( 1980). t944.tó ) Oiorio Romero. ll'16. 'li. 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