A. Definition of Speaking Syakur (1987: p.

5) states that speaking is a complex skill because at least it is concerned with the component of pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and fluency. Thornbury (2005: p. 4) define that speaking is interactive and requires the ability to cooperate in the management of speaking turns. It implies that speaking is an interacting activity where the speaker have to be able to manage the speaking turns when to speak and when to stop for instance. Based on Nunan (2003), what is meant by "speaking" is to: 1. Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns. 2. Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language. 3. Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter. 4. Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. 5. Use language as a means of expressing values and judgements. 6. Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. Mackey Bygate (1997: p. 5) summarizes that speaking is oral expression involving not only … the use of the right sound in the right patterns or rhyme and intonation, but also the choice of the words and the inflections in the right order to convey the right meaning. Based on the explanation above, it can be conclude that speaking is orally complex activity that interactive and requires the ability to producing English speech in right patterns by selecting appropriate words and sentences, and delivering them in correct pronunciation and good management of speech.

What to test in speaking  Pronunciation (Intonation and stress)  Vocabulary  Grammar  Fluency  Organization INDICATORS CONTROL Indicators Pronunciation      Theory Support Syakur (1987: p. 5) Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary fluency Use word and sentence stress. 5)    The use of right sound (vocabulary) The use of right patterns (grammar) The use of right rhyme and intonation Nunan ( 2003) .B. audience. intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language (pronunciation )  Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting. situation and subject matter (vocabulary)   Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence (organization) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. which is called as fluency (fluently) Mackey Bygate (1997: p.

5) . situation and subject matter (vocabulary)   Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence (organization) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. 5)      Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Fluency Use word and sentence stress. intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language (pronunciation )  Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting. 5)    Grammar The use of right sound (vocabulary) The use of right patterns (grammar) The use of right rhyme and intonation (pronunciation) Syakur (1987: p.(pronunciation) Vocabulary Syakur (1987: p. which is called as fluency (fluently) Mackey Bygate (1997: p. 5)      Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Fluency The use of right sound (vocabulary) Nunan (2003) Mackey Bygate (1997: p. audience.

situation and subject matter (vocabulary) . intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language (pronunciation )  Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting.  Fluency The use of right patterns (grammar) The use of right rhyme and intonation (pronunciation) Syakur (1987: p. audience. 4)  the management of speaking turns (organization) Nunan (2003)  Use word and sentence stress. which is called as fluency (fluently) Nunan (2003) Organization Thornbury (2005: p. situation and subject matter (vocabulary)   Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence (organization) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. audience. intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language (pronunciation )  Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting. 5)      Pronunciation Grammar Vocabulary Fluency Use word and sentence stress.

2000: p. Bernstein et the at Brown. 147 Underhill (1987) Brown. 147 Brown. 149 . How to test in speaking The phonepass phonepass test has supported Townshend et al. Giving a personal information 2. Hypothesizing about future action Brown. 2004 It is remarkable that research on the al. Telling a story from the pictures 8. Suggesting a gift and supporting one’s choice 4. 151 Brown. Recommending a place to visit and supporting one’s choice 5... Describing a daily routine 3. Cascallar & Bernstein. 159 Brown. 2000: p. Giving directions 6. 2000: p. 2000: p. which is called as fluency (fluently) C. Describing a favorite movie 7.cued tasks Question and answer Giving instruction and directions 1. 161 Lazaraton and Wagner (1996) Dialogue completion tasks and Oral Brown.  Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence (organization) Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses. 2000: p. 1998. 2000: p. 200. 2000 construct validity of its repetition tasks not just for a test-taker’s phonological ability but also for discourse and over all production ability Directed response tasks Read aloud tasks questionnaires Picture.

Giving an opinion 13. Simulation Suggests. they increase the selfconfidence of hesitant students. Describing an important news event 12. In role-play activities. the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Defining a technical term 14. Describing information in a graph and speculating about its implications 15. Hypothesizing about preventive action 10. Making a telephone call 11. which means they do not have to take the same responsibility. because in role play and simulation activities.9. Giving details about something Interview Games Oral proficiency interview Oral presentation Role Play Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. 1984 . They have to express it in oral language. Harmer (1984 Harmer. they will have a different role and do not have to speak for themselves.

and tell them that students will do an interview like on the audio material c. Ask to the students where they go on holiday and what they like to do b.Interview Audio Travelers Styles Speaking focus Procedure of activity 1. which places are the most interesting to you? : asking and answering questions : . Introduce the vocabulary and the expression that usually be used in the interview 2. In group. In the city. Warm up a. In the countryside. which places are the most important for a good holiday? Why?  Good shop and restaurants  Galleries and museum  Café and mall  Others (mention) 2. The guidance material 1. the content is the question guidance for interview d. Ask what they most people like to do on holiday c. Students is divide into group with 3-4 students per group. Main Activity a. Listening to the audio material carefully b. Items Activity 1. student take a turn as the interviewer and the informant to get the information based on the question guidance e. Teacher give the copy of material for each group.D. Some of the students demonstrate the interview in front of the class 3.

and asking helpful question : . Where do you usually spend the most of your holiday time?  In the countryside  In the city  On the beach  Others (mention) 5. What is your idea o f the perfect holiday? Activity 2. Warm up a. On the beach. Ask and tell the students about the expression that usually used in conversation about advice : giving advice. What do you like doing the most on holiday? 6. what do you usually spend the most time doing?  Swimming in the sea  Lying in the sun  Doing water sports  Others (mention) 4.Role Play Audio Family Tension Speaking focus Procedure of activity 1. Forest  Mountains  Rivers  Others (mention) 3.

Give them the case of role play d. Pronunciation Aspect Poor pronunciation. You are a parent. 1. Native-like. 3. You are a parent with teenage son does not respect you.telling story Ask the students to share their experience on their last holiday E. All of your children grown up and left home to live in other cities. many repetitions of certain dictions and terms Adequate range of vocabulary. The guidance material a. Practice it in front of the class 3. slight foreign accent. Listen to the audio material b. 2. incorrect stress and intonation pattern. No. 1. Gives your son advice to not to do that. mostly correct stress and intonation pattern. 3. quite various dictions and terms used in communication Good and wide range of vocabulary appropriately 14-20 7-13 Score Scale 1-6 18-25 10-17 Score Scale 1-9 . slight foreign accent Vocabulary Aspect Poor vocabulary. some slips on stress and intonation patterns. strong foreign accent Adequate pronunciation. Main activity a. never visit you and never repay your phone calling. 2. b.2. Scoring rubric No. The neighborhood gives the advice to the children to not do something like that. Divide the students into some groups with 2-3 students per group c. Activity 3. does not help at home and argue a lot and your daughter start to copy him.

Fluency Aspect Very hesitant and brief utterances. use controlled fillers and pauses during the speech. use of some cohesive devices 3. produce too many fillers and pauses during speech 2. Grammar Aspect Mistake in basic grammar. no or very limited cohesive devices used 2. use long turns 21-30 11-20 Score Scale 1-10 10-17 Score Scale 1-9 . use very effective and appropriate fillers and pauses during the speech. use short turns 3. but hesitantly ad briefly. produce 18-25 completely cohesive sentences by using various cohesive devices No. Occasional grammar slips. Easy and effective communication. Virtually no grammar mistakes. 1. 1.used. Get ideas across. sometimes difficult to understand. occasional use of wrong tenses in expressing certain meaning. frequently use of wrong tenses in expressing certain meaning. use of various dictions and terms in communications No.