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WILLIAM PENN
1644L 1718
New light thrown on the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, through heretofore unpublished documents in

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IfltIM I 1 Vi%V ii RIO lU 141
Frankford, Philadelphia 24, Pa. AN EXHIBITION of holograph letters and autograph documents, selected from source materials in the Blumhaven Collection, including: William Penn; His father, Sir Admiral Penn; His Sons, Thomas and John Penn; his wife, Hannah Penn; His Cousin, William Markham, Deputy Governor; His surveyor general, Thomas Holme; His deputy governor, Charles Gookin. Reproduction of Penn's original circular letter and letter to the Earl of Sunderland. William Franklin writes a letter.

WILLIAM PENN
1644- 1718 New light thrown on the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania through heretofore unpublished documents in AN EXHIBITION of holograph letters and autographed documents, selected from source materials in the Blumhaven Collection, including: William Penn; His father, Sir Admiral Penn; His Sons, Thomas and John Penn; His wife, Hannah Penn; His Cousin, William Markham, Deputy Governor; His surveyor general, Thomas Holme; His deputy governor, Charles Gookin. Reproduction of Penns original circular letter and letter to the Earl of Sunderland. William Franklin writes a letter. Published by THE BLUMHAVEN LIBRARY

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A Wrathful Penn by Herman Blum --------------3 Letter from Wm. Penn ----------------7 Thomas Holme by Dr. John C. Mendenhall--

9

Precious Wm. Penn Deed By Edna Randolph Worrell---- 12 Markham Deed A Penn Mystery -17 18

Admiral Penn Letter -----------------21 Penn's Letter to Pemberton -------------23 Thomas Penn Letter --------------------27 AND GALLERY 4651 Leiper St., Frankford, Philadelphia 24, Pa. Original Source Material on History, American and European, the Sciences, Religion and Literature, has been organized here in such a way as to afford a better understanding of today's world problems. Historians and research workers are invited to use these facilities. Inspection of the Library and its materials may be made any time, by appointment only, except during the months of July, August and September. During these summer months a branch Blumhaven Library is open in Bethlehem, New Hampshire. Thomas and John Penn Agreement-----28 Charles Gookin Letter -----------------30 Hannah Penn Letter ----------------- 32 Blumhaven Library by Eugene L. Pollock ----------- 34 Herman Blum, a Biography by Bernard Davis ------------ 38 Were Quaker Scalps Immune? -------- 41 Blumhaven Notes ---------------------- 47 Bibliography ------------------------48

WILLIAM PENN
1644L 1718
New light thrown on the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, through heretofore unpublished documents in

1

(1111111

IfltIM I 1 Vi%V ii RIO lU 141
Frankford, Philadelphia 24, Pa. AN EXHIBITION of holograph letters and autograph documents, selected from source materials in the Blumhaven Collection, including: William Penn; His father, Sir Admiral Penn; His Sons, Thomas and John Penn; his wife, Hannah Penn; His Cousin, William Markham, Deputy Governor; His surveyor general, Thomas Holme; His deputy governor, Charles Gookin. Reproduction of Penn's original circular letter and letter to the Earl of Sunderland. William Franklin writes a letter.

Credits
The Blumbaven Library acknowledges with thanks the cooperation and advice of Miss Mabel Zahn, Mr. Gordon T. Banks, Mr. Bernard Davis, Mr. T. Henry Walnut, Mr. Eugene L. Pollock, Miss Helen E. Moore, Mr. Omar Shelicross and Dr. John C. Mendenhall. Thanks are due to Mr. R. N. Williams, 2nd, director of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, for permission to reproduce the fine portrait of Admiral Sir William Penn. Special mention is due Messrs. Dave and Uhrey Orans for their work on Engravings.

And an orchid to Janet Blum, my B. W., critic and canny collector. Ever alert, it was Mrs. Blum who snatched the Penn-Pemberton letter from obscurity and made it possible for the Blumhciven library to acquire it. —HERMAN BLUM.

Free Copies to Institutions
One copy of this monograph will be mailed free to any Historical Society, Library or Institution, upon application. Additional copies are available at the rate of 50c per copy. The entire proceeds of such sales are pledged and will be turned over to the National Society of Autograph Collectors to help defray its research work in American history.

Copyright, 1950, by Herman Blum No part of this may be reproduced without permission of Blumhaven Library and Gallery

A WRATHFUL PENN
No Appeaser, He Resists Lord Baltimore's Aggression
By HERMAN BLUM espite history's characterization of William Penn as a sweet and peaceable Quaker, evidence revealed in a heretofore unpublished letter, shows that he forcefully resisted Lord Baltimore's encroachments. If the William Penn letter of 1685, reveals one thing more clearly than anything else, it shows that Penn's controversy with Lord Baltimore, of the neighboring Maryland colony, was of a far more serious nature than historians have led us to believe. The four-page letter, in Penn's own handwriting, not only throws light upon his unaffected piety, faith, and benevolence, but indicates that, while he counseled his followers to be "slow to wrath and difference," he himself was adequately wrathful and took stern measures to resist the encroachments of Lord Baltimore's agents upon Penn's colonists in the southern part of his province. In this connection, it is well to bear in mind that shortly after the original grant of Pennsylvania, William Penn had secured from the Duke of York an additional cession of land, in order that his province might have access to the ocean by way of the Delaware River. This territory called The Three Lower Counties, now the state of Delaware, and bordering on the province of Maryland, was plainly coveted by Lord Baltimore. Baltimore's "Shamefull Action" A little more than a year before Penn wrote his letter to Pemberton, one of his trusted lieutenants in the province of Pennsylvania, he had appointed Thomas Holme,' William Welch, and Thomas Lloyd as a committee to look into the actions of Lord Baltimore and "to draw up a declaration to hinder his illegal proceedings." The "proceedings" to be hindered were threats of Lord Baltimore's agents that un!ess Penn's colonists acknowledged Lord Baltimore to be their "propriator," their lands would be seized. The hope expressed in Penn's letter to Pemberton that the "shamefull action of Baltimore, do not draw

D

a storm upon our River," undoubtedly spurred his committee to take vigorous steps to counteract the coercion and pressure tactics of Baltimore's agents. "Ye Shooting at Newcastle" The controversy is highlighted and emphasized in Penn's own letter when he refers to "ye shooting at Newcastle, a thing yl grieved me." Penn also cautioned Pemberton to "beware of G. Hutchinson," who had "writt maliciously to E. Billing." Concluding his remarks and reflecting Penn's resentment of this violation of the rights of his settlers is this significant statement, "he betrays ye country, show him no favour in our government." There can be no doubt that the letter, written from London, August 26, 1685, and reproduced herein, specifically refers to Penn's territorial dispute with Lord Baltimore. Also that the controversy grieved and outraged the pacific Penn. But that the quarrel had reached the "shooting stage," as indicated by Penn's reference to "ye shooting at Newcastle," is a distinctly new revelation in the saga of William Penn! It also shows that Penn could and would stand up and fight for his rights and did so along practical lines. From the remarks in Penn's letter and his positive acts, it is now amply evident, that our Quaker leader was no appeaser and a pacifier only when his rights were scrupulously respected! Although Penn mentions his return to America in the following spring, actually he did not arrive in Pennsylvania again until 1699, or fourteen years later. He remained here until 1701, when he returned to England to oppose a bill in Parliament for converting his province into a Crown Colony. He never returned to America thereafter and died in England in 1718.
* This is the same Thomas Holme, Surveyor General, discussed in Dr. Mendenhall's able article in this monograph.

Phineas Pemberton, to whom the letter is addressed, emigrated from England to Pennsylvania with his family in 1682. He purchased a large estate in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, on the Delaware River, and was appointed by Penn, Registrar and Clerk of the Courts, and later as a member of the Provincial Council. Pemberton was considered by Penn one of the ablest administrators in the Province. The Yardleys, Yawneys, Beaks, Biles and Rowlands mentioned by Penn in his letter are familiar names in eastern Pennsylvania and are believed to have been ancestors of families carrying these names, living in Pennsylvania today. Penn's Chirography Letter writing in the 17th century was a deliberate and serious undertaking, limited to men of learning. Penn, of course, was welllearned and distinguished as a preacher and writer. Still, his chirography leaves much to be desired and cannot be recommended as an example for present-day schoolboys. His handwriting requires the utmost diligence to decipher. His use of abbreviations* as a time-saving device, to shorten his labor of

A romantic and youthful Penn.

Steel Engraving of WILLIAM PENN
First published by Wotton & Jarvis, of London in 1822.
Engraved by J. Sartain from the original picture in the possession of the Historical Society of Penna. and printed from life in 1666.

writing, is quite understandable. The date mark on the letter clearly shows effort to save handwriting. It is brevity itself: "London, 26.8 mo. 85." Peculiarities in spelling do not necessarily mean misspelled words. In the great organic instrument of government, the first Charter to the people of Pennsylvania of 1682 and in his pamphlet** describing his Province andproposed political institutions, which he distributed in Europe to attract settlers, there are many quaintly spelled words. While in the body of Penn's Charter of Liberties, Pennsylvania is spelled "Pennfilvania" on the back of this document there appears the following: "No 1 25 April 1682 Wm Penn's Charter of Liberties for PenfIlvania"—two "n's" in one, one "n" in the other and both spelled with an "i." In his Pemberton letter conspicuous examples of odd spelling will be noted—"Generali" spelled with two "il's." "Lett"—two "F's"; 'Sett"—two "T's"; "Selfe"; "oblidging" with a "d" in it, etc. The word "yl" frequently used was an idiom of various connotations, such as "our", "that", "it", etc. No special mention need be made of the use of a letter equivalent to our "f" for an "s", as that was common in both printing and writing of that period. The punctuation may be called phonetic, a space here, a pause there, a curlique here, a capital letter there! Frugal in Greetings In his letter of 1685, William Penn uses the closing salutation "Thy true Friend," but in his equally famous letter to Sir Henry Chichley written "15-12 mo. 82" he closes "Thy very true Frd."—Just one more letter than in the closing salutation to Ph Pemberton. In other words, to compensate for the added word "very," he abbreviated the word "Friend," reducing it to "Frd." Also note in Penn's letter how utterly frugal he was even with his opening salutation to Phineas Pemberton, addressing him as "Dear Ph Pemberton." Penn's signature, always legible and bold was "WM Penn." The signature in full— William Penn—is practically non-existent. Abbreviations do not by any means complete the list of Penn's labor saving devices.
* ''K's" for King's. "Lord Balt." for Baltimore. ''Wi mischief" for woeful mischief. ''Writt" for written. ** Facsimile of this appears elsewhere.

4

Admittedly there were no rubber stamps used in 1682, for the obvious reason that rubber, as we know it, had not been invented. But a hard block, similar to the wood cuts used in printing, could have had a facsimile of a signature carved on it and after smearing it with ink, used as a rubber stamp. I encountered recently a fascinating engraved deed (these deeds were usually hand written). this engraved deed was signed "WM Penn" —an authentic looking signature, but beyond a doubt definitely stamped on the paper with some instrument. The deed had other signatures, but these were clearly hand written with quill pen and ink and contrasted sharply with Penn's stamped signature. Penn's $80,000 Real Estate Deal There is little need in a sketch of this nature to disclose the many colorful facets of William Penn's career. Exhaustive historical material has been written and rewritten about him. It is not a new slant, but pertinent to mention that King Charles II, of England, owed to William Penn's father, an admiral in the Royal British Navy, the sum of £ 16,000 ($80,000). In lieu of this debt, which the King owed his father, William Penn asked for, and was given a grant of land in the New World. The letters patent issued to Penn vested in him perpetual proprietorship in a domain of about 45,000 square miles. The transfer of the territory for the cancellation of a debt is an understandable real estate deal. William Penn was probably the greatest of the founders of American Colonies. He made liberal concessions to the settlers in what he called "the holy experiment." In addition to recognizing freedom of worship and freedom of speech, he accorded the settlers numerous rights to participate in the government, although as proprietor and governor of the new territory, Penn was invested by the Charter with both executive and legislative powers. Shortly after his arrival in America in September, 1682, Penn concluded the treaty with the Indians, famous in art and story. Thereafter he set to work to increase the population of his colony by inducing immigrants from Germany, Holland, and Scandinavia to settle here. Among other pledges, he offered safe asylum from persecution and a haven to all those seeking religious freedom.
* See his autographed letter elsewhere in this book.

A scarce portrait of Wm. Penn, showing the Proprietor as he looked in later years. From the Print by I. Hall after the Picture by West
Under the Superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge London, Publifhed by Charles Knight, Ludgate Street

As part of his intensive advertising campaign, he had published in London a "letter" or circular, of which one of the original copies is in the Blumhaven Library. It is reproduced elsewhere in this book. In this pamphlet, Penn glowingly describes the advantages and attractive features of his colony to prospective settlers. This circular demontrates that Penn was clearly a master salesman and no novice at publicity and/or propaganda. The Admiral's Dying Words No revealment of Penn's character is quite equal to the famous "dying words" of his father, the admiral. This appeared in the tract "No cross, No crown" which was part of Penn's previously banned writing, "The Sandy Foundation Shaken." For publication of this unorthodox religious exhortation, the Bishop of London had Penn imprisoned in the Tower of London. I deem it a privilege to quote it here, as it is of permanent interest to all students of William Penn. (Continued on page 22)

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A LETTER FROM WM PENN
Denies Report He is Dead
My Kind Friends; o Kindnefs of yours by the Ship Thomas and Anne, doth much oblige me; for by It I perceive the Intereft you take In my Health and Reputation, and the prolperous Beginnings of this Province, which you are fo kind as to think may much depend upon them. In return of which, I have lent you a long Letter, and yet containing as brief an Account of MyfeIf, and the Affairs of this Province, as I have been able to make. In the firft place, I take notice of the News you fent me, whereby I find fome Perfons have had 10 little Wit, and fo much Malice, as to report my Death, and to mend the matter, dead a Jefuill too. One might have reafonably hop'd, that this DUtance, like Death, would have been a protection agalnft Spite and Envy; and indeed, Abfence being a kind of Death, ought alike to fecure the Name of the Abfent as the Dead; becaufe they are equally unable as fuch to defend themfelves: But they that intend Mifehief, do not ufe to follow good Rules to effect it. However, to the great Sorrow and Shame of the Inventors, I am Itill alive, and No Jefult, and I thank God, very well: And without Injuftice to the Authors of this, I may venture to infer, That they that wilfully and faifly Report, would have been glad it had been So. But I perceive, many Idle Stories have been invented fince my Departure from England, which perhaps at this time are no more Alive, than I am Dead. But if I have been Unkindly ufed by fome I left behind, me, I found Love and Refpect enough where I came; an univerfal kind Welcome, every fort in their way. For here are lome of feveral Nations, as well as divers Judgments; Nor were the Natives wanting in this, for their Kings, Queens and Great Men both vifited and prefented me; to whom I made fuitable Returns, &c. The NATIVES I shall confider in their PerIons, Language, Manners, Religion and Government, with my fence of their Original. For their Perfons, they are generally tail, ftreight, well-built, and of fingular Proportion; they tread ftrong and clever, and moftly walk with a lofty Chin: Of Complexion, Black, but by defign, as the Gypfies in England: They greafe themfelves with Bears-fat clarified, and ufing no defence againft Sun or Weather, their skins muft needs be fwarthy: Their Eye is littie and black, not unlike a ftraight-look't Jew: The thick Lip and flat Nofe, fo frequent with the Eaft-Indians and Blacks, are not common to them; for I have feen as comely European. like faces among them of both, as on your fido the Sea; and truly an Italian Complexion hath not much more of the White, and the Nofes of feveral of them have as much of the Roman. Of their Cuftoms and Manners there is much to be laid; I will begin with Children. So foon as they are born, they wafh them in Water, and while very young, and in cold Weather to chufe, they Plunge them in the Rivers to harden and embolden them. Having wrapt them in a Clout, they lay them on a ftraight thin Board, a little more than the length and breadth of the Child, and fwadle it falt upon the Board to make It ftralght; wherefore all Indians have fiat Heads; and thus they carry them at their Backs. The Children will go very young, at nine Moneths commonly; they wear only a Imall Clout round their Wafte, till they are big; if Boys, they go a Fifhing till ripe for the Woods, which is about Fifteen; then they Hunt, and after having given fome Proofs of their Manhood, by a good return of Skins, they may Marry, elfe it is a shame to think of a Wife. The Girls ftay with their Mothers, and help to hoe the Ground, plant Corn and carry Burthens; and they do well to ufe them to that Young, they muft do when they are Old; for the Wives are the true Servants of their Husbands: otherwife the Men are very affectionate to them. When the Young Women are fit for Marriage, they wear fomething upon their Heads for an Advertifement, but fo as their Faces are hardly to be feen, but when they pleafe: The Age they Marry at, if Women, is about thirteen and fourteen; if Men, feventeen and eighteen; they are rarely elder. If an European comes to fee them, or calls for Lodging at their Houfe or Wigwam, they give him the belt place and firft cut. If they come to vifit us, they falute us with an ltah, which is as much as to fay, Good be to you, and let them down, which is moftly on the Ground, clofe to their Heels, their Legs upright; may be they fpeak not a word more, but obferve all Paffages: If you give them any thing to eat or drink, well, for they will not ask; and be it little or much, if it be with Kindnefs, they are well pleafed, elfe they go away fullen, but fay nothing.

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7

Thefe poor People are under a dark Night in things relating to Religion, to be fure, the Tradition of it; yet they believe a God and Immortality, without the help of Metaphyficks; for they fay, There is a great King that made them, who dwells in a glorious Country to the
Southward of them, and that the Souls of the

higher Manifeftation: What good then might

good Ihaft go thither, where they thall live again. Their Worfhip confifts of two parts, Sacrifice and Cantico, Their Sacrifice is their firft Fruits; the firft and fatteft Buck they kill, goeth to the fire, where he is all burnt with a Mournful Ditty of him that performeth the Ceremony, but with fuch marvellous Fervency and Labour of Body, that he will even fweat to a foam. The other part is their Cantico, performed by round-Dances, fometimes Words, fometimes Songs, then Shouts, two being in the middle that begin, and by Singing and Drumming on a Board direct the Chorus: Their Poftures in the Dance are very Antick and differing, but all keep meafure. This is done with equal Earneftnefs and Labour, but great appearance of Joy. In the Fall, when the Corn cometh in, they begin to feaft one another; there have been two great Feftivals already, to which all come that will: I was at one my felf; their Entertainment was a green Seat by a Spring, under fome fhady Trees, and twenty Bucks, with hot Cakes of new Corn, both Wheat and Beans, which they make up in a fquare form, in the leaves of the Stem, and bake them in the Afhes: And after that they fell to Dance. But they that go, mutt carry a fmall Prefent In their Money, it may be fix Pence, which is made of the Bone of a Flfh; the black is with them as Gold, the white, Silver; they call it all Wampum. Ruled by Sachems Their Government Is by Kings, which they call Saehema, and thofe by Succeffion, but always of the Mothers fide; for Inftance, the Children of him that is now King, will not fucceed, but his Brother by the Mother, or the Children of his Sifter, whofe Sons (and after them the Children of her Daughters) will reign; for no Woman inherits; the Reafon they render for this way of Defcent, is, that their iffue may not be fpurious. We have agreed, that in all Differences between us, Six of each fide shall end the matter: Don't abufe them, but let them have Juftice, and you win them: The worft is, that they are the worfe for the Chriftians, who have propagated their Vices, and yielded them Tradition for ill, and not for good things. But as low an Ebb as they are at, and as glorious as their Condition looks, the Chriftians have not outliv'd their fight with all their Pretentious to an

not a good People graft, where there is fo diftinct a Knowledge left between Good and Evil? I befeech God to incline the Hearts of all that come into thefe parts, to out-live the Knowledge of the Natives, by a fixt Obedience to their greater Knowledge of the Will of God; for it were miferable indeed for us to fall under the juft cenfure of the poor Indian Confcience, while we make profeffion of things fo far tranfcendlng. For their Original, I am ready to believe them of the Jewlfh Race, I mean, of the ftock of the Ten Tribes, and that for the following Reafons; firft, They were to go to a Land not planted or known, which to be fure Afia and Africa were, if not Europe; and he that intended that extraordinary Judgment upon them, might make the Paffage not uneafie to them, as it is not impoffible in Itfelf, from the Eafter-moft parts of Afia, to the Wefter-moft of America. In the next place, I find them of like Countenance, and their Children of to lively Refemblance, that a man would think himfelf in Dukes-place or Berry-ftreet In London, when he feeth them. But this is not all, they agree in Rites, they reckon by Moons; they offer their firft Fruits, they have a kind of Feaft of Tabernacles; they are fald to lay their Altar upon twelve Stones: their Mourning a year, Cuftoms of Women, with many things that do not now occur. Two Water Fronts Philadelphia, the Expectation of thofe that are concern'd in this Province, is at laft laid out to the great Content of thofe here, that are any wayes Interefted therein: The Scituation is a Neck of Land, and lieth between two Navigable Rivers, Delaware and Skulkill, whereby it hath two Fronts upon the Water, each a Mile, and two from River to River. Delaware is a glorious River, but the Skulkill being an hundred Miles Boatable above the Falls, and its Courfe North-Eaft toward the Fountain of Sufquahannah (that tends to the Heart of the Province, and both fides our own) It is like to be a great part of the Settlement of this Age. I fay little of the Town it felf, becaufe a P LA T - F OR M will be fhewn you by my Agent, in which thofe who are Purchafers of me, will find their Names and Intereft: But this I will fay for the good Providence of God, that of all the many Places I have feen In the World, I remember not one better feated; fo that it feems to me to have been appointed for a Town, whether we regard the Rivers, or the conveniency of the Coves, Docks, Springs, the loftlnefs and foundnefs of the Land and the Air, held by the People of thefe parts to be very good.

THOMAS HOLME
SurveyorGeneral of Pennsylvania
By JOHN C. MENDENHALL Professor of English at the University of Pennsylvania and Past President of the Historical Society of Frank ford little band of trusted aides< A mong theWilliam Penn in the deveopwho assisted ment of Pennsylvania, one of the most important, but least known, is his Surveyorgeneral, Thomas Holme, whom Penn appointed to that office in 1682. Holme was born in 1624, according to tradition in Ireland; at any rate itis clear that he had close and probably endearing associations with that sister-kingdom of the three, England, Scotland, and Ireland, which had been precariously united under one crown in 1603. To Holme was entrusted the choice and laying out of a site for the capital of the new province, the result being Philadelphia. In the next two or three years Holme himself, either personally or with the assistance of competently chosen aides, surveyed and delivered to William Penn for his signature, the deeds for the land sold off in this greatest of real estate developments, including most of the three original counties, Chester, Philadelphia, and Bucks, so far as the latter had been acquired by treaty from the Indians. These surveys constitute to the present day the foundation for all land titles in the area covered. That includes not less than seven hundred scjuare miles, and almost as many different plots, large and small, of various shapes, though for the most part rectangular. The speed as well as the accuracy of Holme's work was remarkable. In 1687, in London, was published a compilation of all the work alluded to in a splendid "Map of the Improved Parts of Pensilvania." Although Hom and his assistants had, along the riicinal waterways, the advantage of knowledge of the land gained by the Swedes and their associates during a preceding half century of exploration and occupancy, and, inland, that of trails marking the watersheds and streamcrossings developed by the earlier Indian inhabitants, the numerous and prosperous Lenni-Lenapes, or Delawares, with whom Penn, assisted by Holme, made his famous teaties, in general all this vast backcountry was unfathomed wilderness. In addition to determining the physical constitution of Penn's province, Holme also assisted in the framing and operation of Penn's liberal government. For all this, what was his reward? First came, of course, the satsifaction of duty well done. Holme also reserved for himself in a beautiful upland region, just northeast of the present Holmesburg, whose name oddly enough has no direct connection with his own, his Well-spring Plantation, where he loved to sjend what time he could with his married daughters, and where he died in 1695. He was laid to rest in a plot on the Plantation which he had himself chosen as a family burial ground. Around him, as the years went by, were laid many of his descendants, especially the children of his daughter, Hester, and her husband, Silas Crispin. The present Holme Avenue branch of Philadelphia's Northeast Boulevard (renamed about 1920 for Theodore Roosevelt) as it emerges from Pennypack Circle runs nearly through the center of the plantation; a corner of the burial ground comes within a few feet of the northeast side of the thoroughfare a short distance northeast of Holme Circle. There, quietly, the remains lay for more than two centuries. In 1864, a simple but dignified monument was erected over Holme's grave. In 1926, the ground was fenced and put into good order by M. Jacks-n Crispin md his brother, Clarence G. Crispin. Since then, sad changes have taken place. In the absence of adequate policing, and

with the intrusion of waves of alien population who know little if anything and care still less about the hallowed past, the plot has suffered unspeakable desecration. The monument has been overthrown, deep holes have been dug about other stones, toppling them, and many nameless indecencies committed. The Writer of these lines earnestly hopes that they may help in arousing the public to a sense of shame at such conduct, and assist in effective remedial action to repair the desecration and prevent any future recurrence. The inscription on the prostrate Thomas Holme monument is as follows: West side In memory of Thomas Holme, died 1695, aged seventy-one, Surveyor-general of William Penn. He drafted the plan and laid out the City of Philadelphia.

South side He became the proprietor of 1600 acres of land in one tract by grant of Penn in 1684 named his "Well Spring Plantation" of which this ground is a part. East side In lieu of a donation in his Will for school purposes, his heirs gave the land on which Lower Dublin Academy is located. North side This stone is erected in 1864 by the following named Trustees of the Lower Dublin Academy, as a mark of respect to the memory of the originator of the School. Benjamin Crispin, George W. Holme, Isaac Pierson, George Fox, Henry Dewees, Samuel C. Willits, Charles T. Harrison, George Wagner, Alfred Enoch, Thomas S ha! cross, Firman D. Ho!me.

Grave of Thomas Holme Neglected
Its condition a reflection on officials charged with its care and maintenance
mericans don't hate their heroes. But they don't always remember them. Historical figures with solid achievement to their credit are forgotten and pushed into oblivion by our short-lived current celebrities. This usually results in neglect, and in the case of the humble memorial to Thomas Holme, the surveyor general under William Penn, of desecration. The appeal of Dr. John C. Mendenhall in his able article on Thomas Holme should be heeded. It is hoped that it will bring prompt and corrective action from our public officials. For photos of the past and present condition of the Holme grave see illustrations herein and note appalling specifications of its condition: The Crispin Cemetery on the Thomas Holme Boulevard, Holmesburg, Philadelphia, some twenty-five years ago, had small head stones scattered, marking the graves of the Crispin family. There were, from the right of the Thomas Holme monu10

A

ment, then standing erect, the following small stones: "S.C." (Silas Crispin I); "T.C. 1749' (Thomas Crispin) and "J.C. 1749" (Jane Crispin, wife of Thomas). Today these gravestones are scattered haphazard around the knocked down Holme monument. They have been rooted up with the cement foundation lump adhering to them. Some are flat on the ground among the litter; others are upside down; some are broken and chipped—all are out of the original position into which they were set. The wire fence surrounding the burial ground is bashed in, the gate unhinged, and tin cans and weeds and charred wood all around. Dr. Charles N. Sturtevant, president of the Historical Society of Franklord, recently made an inspection of the Holme Cemetery and expressed indignation at its condition. The Blumhaven Library

THE HOLME MONU MEN1, from photo taken in 1918. This half-tone cut appeared in the 1918 issue of the papers read before the Historical Society of Frankford as part of an article by the late Walter Brinton. It shows the monument erect.

SHOWING HOLME MONUMENT prostrate and surrounded by debris, tin cans, sticks, and broken stones. This photo was taken on April 15, 1950, by Mr. Thomas Barclay fo The Blumhaven Library.

11

A, PRECIOUS WILLIAM PENN DEED
Being the documentary evidence that John Bunce purchased land in the Province of Pennsylvania from William Penn, owner and Governor, bearing his signature and others of note on September the eighth, 1681
By EDNA RANDOLPH WORRELL receive a letter addressed in an unknown hand, is question-provoking to say the least, and for the most part is turned curiously for several minutes, with the pleasure of savoring the uncertainty, before the envelope is broken open to reveal the writer. When the signature is that of someone of Importance it is a prized possession and kept as a lasting momento. And so with old documents, the collector holding his breath in the hope that the one in his hand bears the magic imprint of his dreams. Such a one came to the attention of a connoisseur' 7 whose private collection of historic letters, signatures and documents in the original, exceeds that of many a public museum. In this case it was the signature of William Penn, (the greatest of Colonial Governors, by the strength and sweetness of his Quaker Faith), that rewarded the analyst's attention, and pronounced the handwriting genuine. To those unaccustomed to reading legal script of more than a century ago, the text is puzzling to decipher, but beautifully executed, to the "n"th degree, if one. may use this small letter in connection with the document without its being confused with another! The parchment on which the deed is written is in almost perfect condition, though yellow with age, and the ink is as black as the typical raven's wing in the text proper, folded inward for protection. The whole is 13 by 18 inches, square at sides, but cut in graceful curves at the top, showing it was made in duplicate, as was the custom, p0512

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sibly on plain paper, so that the edges will fit when placed together, to prove them identical. I The deed opens with the following statement: "THIS INDENTURE made the Eighth Day of September in the year of our Lord One thousand Six hundred and Eighty and One and the Three and Thirtieth of the reig of King Charles over England BEEEN William Penn of Worminghurst in the County of Sussex Esquire of the one part and John Bunce of Marlborough of the County of Wilkes Maulsterl of the other part." Leaving out repetitious phrases it continues: (preceded by curliques) "WITNESS for and in consideration of the sum of live shillings of lawful money of England HATH bargained and sold and by these presents doth bargain and sell Two hundred and fifty x x x xl Acres of Land (every Acre to be as measured and computed according to the dimensions mentioned and appointed in and by the Statute in the three and Thirtieth year of the Reign of King Edward the First)." In passing it is interesting to note that the said king reigned from 1272 to 1307 "Situate lying and being in the Province of PENSILVANIA." This is the original spelling of the name of our State. (One "N" and "I" for "Y.") Continuing the deed we read "the said Twohundred and ififty Acres to be allotted

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*

Mr. Herman Blum. of Blumhaven, Frankford. Historical Society. Maulster is obsolete.

f One of these copies may be seen at the Frankford

and sell out in such places or parts of the said Province and in such manner and at such time or tymes as by Certain Concessions and Constitutions bearing date the Eleventh Day of July last past x x x x§ and signed, .sealed and executed between the said William Penn on the one part and the said John Bunce and other purchasers on the other part." The foregoing leads us to presume that since the purchasers were still in England they were unable to select their acreages until such time as they arrived in Pennsylvania, when their lands could be chosen in a satisfactory manner. This is confirmed by a deed for 500 acres of another purchaser, in March of the same year, that his land was to be afterward selected in the Province. Rental Also Asked—"One Pepper Come" After the legal "To Have and To Hold" section of the deed specifying the transfer of the land in whole and in part to John Bunce, his heirs and so on, in addition to the payment of lawful money of England, a rental is asked "for the term of one full year from the day next before the date hereof for and ensuing and fully to be Complete and ending for and during the said Terme unto the said William Penn and his Heirs the Rent of one pepper Come** only at or upon the last day of the said Terme if the same be lawfully demanded." This was purely a gesture of good will and does not stand alone, being an old English custom, a non-profit gesture of sincerity which took different forms according to one's worldly status. The farmer grew vegetables, so one of his products in smallest quantity was specified; but a more poetic request was made of those who did not live by the soil but enjoyed the beauty and luxury of gardens. Of these "one red rose" was named to be given annually in lieu of rent. This custom in memory of such an authentic demand in West Grove, Pennsylvania, where the Star Rose Garden attracts thousands annually to see the presentation of the rental, is a charming revival of the event. The Rose is received by a lineal descendant of William Penn, and of late the part has
** See deed of John Sharpies in Frankford Historical Society, dated fourth Day of April, 1682.

been taken by a little girl,tt tenth in line from her illustrious ancestor. A tablet placed on a boulder on the property of Samuel Cross, gives the historic background. Erected by the Historical Society of Chester County, it reads as follows: "One Red Rose" if it be Demanded "In 1731 John, Thomas and Richard Penn, Proprietaries granted 5000 Acres To William Penn, Grandson of The Founder of Pennsylvania, Subject To The Rental Of "One Red Rose On The Twenty-fourth Day Of June Yearly If The Same Be Demanded." In The Year 1742 William Penn Granted l., This Tract To William Allen Subject To His "Paying The Red Rose Aforesaid Yearly." In 1748 William Allen Sold 53½ Acres Of This Tract To Samuel Cross. Again the Rental Terms Included Payment Of One Red Rose." The prosaic growing of vegetables does not lend itself to pageantry, but payment of rent by a rose has set a precedent that might lead to an interesting anniversary of a rental instituted by William Penn for "one pepper Come on demand" more than two centuries and a half ago. The novel "One Red Rose Forever," by Mildred Jordan again brings the queen of flowers to the fore when Baron Stiegel, originator of the coveted Stiegel Glass, deeded a building site to the German Lutheran Church, in Manheim, Philadelphia County, in 1770, (named for his home city in Germany), for which he asked "one red rose forever" on the first day of June each year, or on demand. The revival of late years has been picturesque, in dress, equipages and ceremonies, bringing to life the customs of "ye olden times." But to read romance into the simple wording of a deed to John Bunce, is not alone its function, for, through the signatures of the original proprietor, the witnesses and its recorder, we may reconstruct the beginnings of our American heritage. On the bottom of the deed the parchment was cut toward the center to form two strips which were inserted into a slit on which Penn's seal was stamped in red wax, his signature appearing just to the left. The custom of slitting such legal papers was a usual procedure, King James II using the right lower
it The child is little Miss Amy Penn-Gaskell Hall, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peon-Gaskell Hall.

13

Exceptionally fine sheepskin deed, with seal attached (not shown in reproduction) entirely hand written and signed Wm Penn. If is in the collection of Miss Edna R. Worrell, who describes if in her article. 14

corner of his legal documents for the cut ends with seal of yellow wax. Penn often abbreviated his first name, and as it appears on the deed all the letters are the same size, WM standing for William, and one tall "e" and two "n's" are as high as the capital P. Five shillings,—about a dollar and a quarter in our currency, for two hundred and fifty acres of land seems like a pittance, but the idea of the sale was to make the land accessible "in a commendable desire to enlarge our English Empire, and promote commodities as may be a benefit to us and our Dominion as also to reduce Natives by gentle and just manners to love civil society and Christian religion." This was the statement of Charles II, when deeding the Province to Penn. In other words colonization was the main object in making Pennsylvania a popular venture. The names of the witnesses who signed, sealed and delivered the deed whose signatures are on the reverse side of the document, are in their order William Haig, Harbt Springett, J. S. Swinton and Tho Coxe, "Tho" standing for Thomas, the "s" seldom being used in those days as now. According to Egle's History of Pennsylvania, William Haig was one of the Commissioners appointed by Penn to Precede him to the new country, lay out a town and treat with the Indians. He was a London merchant and sailed from that city in October, 1681, only a month after the signing of the Bunce deed. The grant to Penn dated March 4th, 1681, shows that little time elapsed in colonization. We also find Haig's name, to which a final "e" had been added on Penn's Provincial Council,—a part of the General Assembly—to execute the laws of the Colony, and on a special committee "Relative to the Bu'ning of Woods and Marshes, Marking of Cattle, Bounds and Fences etc" a most important assignment, on which Thomas Holme's name also appearsJt We also find that Harbt was a close relative of William Penn's first wife Gulielma Maria Spriggett, whose marriage occurred early in 1672. She was the daughter of Sir William Spriggett "a young woman whom a virtuous disposition joined to a comly personage, rendered well accomplished." Penn thought well of his wife's kin and gave him responsible offices in the new country. He
fl Proud's History of Pennsylvania.

was the signer of the Code of Laws agreed upon by William Penn and others of the Government of the Colonies, and his name may also be found on the list of those on the General Assembly. His grant of land was where Fairmount is now located, and his name appeared on the old maps. Since no mention is made of the names of J. S. Swinton and Thomas Coxe, it is possible that they did not emigrate with the others and stayed in England. Again turning over the precious document we hnd it was recorded in Philadelphia 25 'mo 83 -- 16 -- and signed by Thomas Lloyd, 11 84 Master of the Rolls. Below and to the side is Job 53. The date as noted means that the recording took place on the 25th of January, which was then the 11th month of the year, since New Year was celebrated on March 1st. Naming both the years 83 and 84, was for the benefit of those who reckoned that the year began in January. The changing of the beginning of the year was not official however until 1752 and was established by the English Parliament, to conform to the Gregorian Calendar. The Latin derivation of some of the names of months was under the Julian Calendar, October meaning the eighth month which is now the tenth, December the tenth month is now the twelfth. The signature of Thomas Lloyd, as well as Penn's is a collector's item. In Proud's History of Pennsylvania, the first authentic publication, whose data was gathered from notes from Caleb Pusey written in 1682, the following footnote says "Caleb Pusey, who. was long in the Council, and one of the first. settlers says 'It may not be amis also to le mention, that when the Governor left. us the first time in 1684, he left his power of Government, in the hands of five Commissioners, of whom our worthy friend Thomas Lloyd was President; who afterward for several years was Deputy Governor." This all appears in the antiquated writing of the day, which is most convincing. Still on the subject of Lloyd's appointment, the latter being preiding officer of almost all the assemblies to which he was either appointed or elected, wanted to be discharged from the burden, but his colleagues, writing to Penn, then in England, said that a suitable person could
15

not be found in his room. "The proprietary appears to have been sensible of it by his manner of writing, at different times to his friends in the province, expressing his ardent desire for prosperity and reside in it himself," in one of which to Thomas Lloyd, about this time are the following expressions, viz—"no honor, no interest, or pleasure in the world shall be as to live and die among you; and though to my grief my stay is prolonged on private and publick accounts, depend upon it Philadelphia is my worldly delight and end of places on earth. "Now, though I have to please thee, giving thee a quietus from all publick business, my intention is to constitute thee Deputy Governor, and two, in the character of assistants; either of whom and thyself to be able to do all as fully as I can do." In a nut shell, Penn knew a good man when he had him, and while appearing to consider Lloyd's wish to resign, gave him a more distinguished assignment. Through these important channels, the small parchment containing the unknown name of John Bunce, a world of information regarding our state and its administration comes to light. Little commentaries in the Code of Laws also make interesting reading. For instance, the Master of Rolls, to which Governor Penn first appointed Thomas Lloyd, stipulated that the person in charge was to receive "the sum of one pence a line for recording deeds and statutes in the Province. Such was to be written in a fair, easy and Close hand, to be paid by the Publick With parchment." The word "Close," beginning with a capital letter shows Quaker thrift, guarding against siDreadinq words to increase the number of lines. The "parchment" was evidently thrown in to prevent unseemly charge. We know by these rules that Mr. Lloyd received twenty-seven pence for John Bunce's deed. That he conducted himself at all times to the satisfaction of his associates may be gathered from a comment in Watson's Annals, which states: "Thomas Lloys Deputy to William Penn, was a most excellent man, and a scholar and a Christian." Among his associates were such outstanding early citizens as Edward Shippen, Daniel Pastorious, William Markham (Deputy Governor, before Penn's arrival), Thomas Wynne, John Cadwallader,
T6

and such local celebrities as Richard and Nicholas Waln, John Hart, of Philadelphia County alone. Others prominent from surrounding counties were Thomas Langhorn and William Yardly after whom towns were named.—all of whom belonged on the Pennsylvania Assembly. These fine associations were shared with William Haig and Harbert Spriggett. Thomas Story and Thomas Chalkley may be added to the list as the greatest Quaker preachers of the times. Chalkley's home is still standing (1950) near Frankford. The last inspection of the Deed, gives it a personal value, since we find a second signature of William Penn on the back, proving that he had handled it. A little note at one side in his own hand reads: WM Penn's lease for one year to Jno Bunce for 250 acres. Written on an exposed fold the words are faint from being unprotected, but the penmanship is firm and unmistakenably that of "the party of the first part." The Bunce property on Thomas Holme's map is not definitely specified, but the name is listed with some forty others at the top, as owners. The name historically hasgone into oblivion and the deed might have been lost had not a son married the daughter of Richard Worrell, of Byberry and Oxford, according to a family Genealogy, written by R. P. Garsed. The distaff side of the family held all that related to their forebears in loving respect, and kept them for future generations. As "keeper of the keys," the first bride, passed the precious document on to the succession of daughters, the family names changing with their marriages, finally reaching the hands of Miss Sarah C. Leake, and through her to the father of the present owner, bearing the original maternal name. From this we find that the deed has been in the family two hundred and forty-two 4 years, from the marriage that took place 5-1110

1712 "at ye pubhick meeting house of friends in Oxford Township, several ifriends being present," and from the time that Governor Penn affixed his signature with his ancient quill, two hundred and fifty and nine..

EARLY PENNSYLVANIA DEED on Vellum

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Deed reduced to half size. Seal (actual size) consists of two layers of vellum with strap in between attached with embossing to signature of Wm. Markham.

Original deed in I3lurnhaven Library

17

A PENN MYSTERY
Was an original of the most famous of all William Penn letters destroyed by fire?
In the Sotheby & Co. London sale of Jan- for sale in Philadelphia, it was catalogued as uary 24th, 1950, Maggs Bros., Ltd., acting as being theproperty of Miss Agnes M. Craig agents for the Blumhaven Library, bought a and was described as "PROBABLY THE MANUSCRIPT COPY of a William Penn MOST PRECIOUS WILLIAM PENN letter to the Earl of Sunderland, dated Phila- LETTER, FROM THE STANDPOINT OF AMERICAN INTEREST, EVER delphia, July 28, 1683. This manuscript copy of the Penn letter WRITTEN, CERTAINLY THE MOST IMPORTANT PENN LETTER EVER is now part of the Blumhaven collection. Both Sotheby and Maggs have an interna- OFFERED AT PUBLIC SALE IN AMERtional reputation of impeccable and correct ICA." representation of all pertinent facts about any Thirteen years after the sale of this Penn documents they sell. In the Sotheby cata- letter for $11,000.00 or in 1941, the Kolb logue the Penn item was listed as follows: Estate put it up for sale at a Morley auction. "MS copy of an important William Penn At that time, in 1941, the document brought letter to the Earl of Sunderland, 3 pp. folio, $1,600.00 and it was bought by the Gabriel giving detailed description of the Colony of Wells, of New York, mentioned in the Public Pennsylvania, endorsed 'Copied from the Ledger item above. original letter in William Penn's handwriting The manuscript copy of the Penn-Sunderwhich was formerly in the possession of the land letter of 1683, which was sold by SotheRt. Honble. Charles Watkin Wynne but by, of London, in January, 1950, agrees absowas afterwards (with other valuable MSS.) lutely in text, spelling and punctuation with consumed by fire.'" the transcript and facsimile of the PennThe manuscript copy was written in fine Sunderland original autograph letter that was meticulous Spencerian type of handwriting, printed in the Freeman sales catalog of 1928, on paper watermarked 1850. upon which Col. Kolb relied in purchasing In the March 18th, 1928, issue of the the important document. Philadelphia Public Ledger appeared the folAccording to Maggs Bros., Ltd., of London, this manuscript copy came to Sotheby lowing item: from the collection of Miss Barbara WhitCcl. Kolb admits buying field. She was a descendant of William Osborn (d. 1820), who was her great-great Penn letter for $11,000 grandfather, and agent to the Penn family at Gabriel Wells Reveals He Stayed Stoke Poges, England. When was the "Sotheby" manuscript copy Away to Keep Price Down made? The watermark date of 1850 on the The mystery of who paid $11,000 paper, is of course, no proof that it was writthrough an agent at a recent Philadelphia auction for a seven-page letten in 1850. When was the Penn letter ter by William Penn has been solved. destroyed by fire? Colonel Louis J. Kolb has told his Was there a fire? Where? The person friends he bought the document. who copied the Penn letter says there was a At first Gabriel Wells, New York fire which 'consumed" the original letter collector, was believed to be the unwritten in Penn's own handwriting. known purchaser, but Mr. Wells, a What was the purpose of the endorsement visitor here last week, said he reconcerning the destruction of the original frained from attending the sale, not wishing his bids to run up the price. document by fire? The point of interest here When the famous Penn letter was offered lies in the fact that there is no question as to
18

the authenticity of the Penn letter Col. Kolb article is reprinted in another periodical, purchased in 1928 and which was subse- "THE FRIEND," where the same text apquently acquired by itspresent owner. Thus, pears in volume 7, the 3rd month 15, 1834, the endorsement must have been caused by no. 23, pages 178-179. Was the publication of the Penn letter in one of three reasons: (1) a desire by the copyist to enhance the value of his copy by 1834, made from the Kolb letter, which may deceitfully intimating that the original was have come to Miss Craig from Pickering, or destroyed by fire. (2) An honest but hardly from the one which may have been destroyed believable mistake. (3) There was a second by fire? Which original Penn letter did Col. Kolb original holograph copy of the letter which was kept by Penn and that there was a fire buy,—the one that William Penn sent to the in which this copy was burned. Earl of Sunderland or the one that was kept Obviously, the collector who now owns the for his files? Was it so unusual for Penn to Penn letter sold by the Kolb Estate in 1941, make a "kept" copy of one of --his letters? has every right to be proud and satisfied that Obviously it was not done on every iëtterhe possesses an original document of histor- but on important communications, may there ical importance. Nothing said here reflects not have been produced two holographs? or is intended to reflect upon the authenticity The Blumhaven Library offers no concluor value of this Penn letter. sive answers to these questions; nor does it However, without detracting from the im- presume to express an opinion. An autograph portance of the document extant, might not detective might find this an intriguing subthis question be raised: ject for research. Were there two original William Penn The Blumhaven Library contents itself 1eters identical in text, in Penn's own hand- with the statement that it has the manuscript writing? One that was sent to the Earl of copy ol this William Penn letter and it is a Sunderland and one that William Penn kept mighty interesting document which again for reference? Could one of these copies. in demonstrates that the Quaker founder of Penn's own handwriting, have been sold to Pennsylvania was first and foremost a master Col. Louis J. Kolb and the other one, "for- salesman. As part of his campaign to attract merly" in the possession of the Rt. Honorable settlers to his Colony, Penn wrote to his Wynne, been destroyed "with other valuable friend and patron, the Earl of Sunderland, MSS" by fire? under date of July 28th, 1683, describing in The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has great detail the newly founded Colony of in its collection a typewritten copy of this Pennsylvania and a lush promised land, did Penn letter to the Earl of Sunderland. It Penn paint the new Colony! Among other was given to the Society by B. F. Stevens and things he refers, strangely enough, as tie did Brown, of London, but the exact date of its in the Pemberton letter appearing elsewhere being received is at present unknown. It is in this booklet, to "Ye unkindness of my on old bond paper, and has an old fashioned neighbor ye Lord Baltimore." He writes that, with the help of God and clasp which appears to be of considerable age. Moreover, it is an exact copy of the manu- his noble friends, he "will show a province script copy Blumhaven Library purchased at in 7 years equal to his neighbors of 40 years the Sotheby sale in London in 1950, even to planting." In great detail he'describes the the extent of the endorsement that the orig- province. Philadelphia is "the fown plot, a inal from which it had been copied had been mile long and two deep, has a navigable river in the possession of the Rt. Hon. Chas. Wat- on each side;' etc. "There is built about 80 kins Wynne, but had been consumed by fire. homes and I have settled at least 300 farms Furthermore, this very same letter of Penn contiguous to it." The many varieties of trees to Sunderland was reprinted in two maga- that are found are enumerated, the wild life zines, first: THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGA- of the forests, including fish, oysters, wild ZINE, New Series, Volume 1, January, 1834, fruit and flowers. "I have had better venison, published by Pickering, of London, on pages bigger, more tender, as fat as in England. 41 and 42 the letter is completely printed. Turkeys of ye wood I have had of 40 and. 50 The note states that the printing is the first pound weight. Fish in abundance, esDeciafly publication from copy in the possession of of shad and Rock, which are here and excel"our publisher, Mr. Pickering." This very lent fish; also monstrous oysters." 19

Vice Admiral of England durLng the lalerregirnen in the Virnres obainpd over the Dutch in I653 & 1654; for which he was invesfrd with aGo]dChain and iMethib ttokJamafra and was chosen 1eniber for Weymouth in 1655.

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Admiral Sir William Penn, father of the Founder of Pennsylvania.
—Illustration courtesy of The Historical Society of Penasyleanta

20

Autograph Letter of Admiral Penn, Father of William Penn
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TRANSCRIPT OF ADMIRAL PENN'S DOCUMENT "By virtue of an order from his Royal Highness, James, Duke of York and Albany, Lord High Admiral of England, etc., bearing date the 30th day of April, 1661, these are to pray and require you to enter George Spilsby of his Majesty's Ship the Charity together with privy allowance of wages and victuals for himself and his servant as is usual and proper for boatswains of his Majesty's said ship and for so doing this shall be your warrant Dated the 14 of June 1661. Wm. Penn. Will Batten To Mr. Wm. Sheldon clerk of the Chequer of his Majesty's yard at Woolwich Enter J. W. Original autograph letter in Blumhaven Library
21

(Continued from page 5) "My father," said William Penn, "not long before his death, spoke to me in this manner: "Son William, I would not live over my days again, if I could comm'ãnd them with a wish; for the snares of life aregreatec than the fear of death. Three things I commend unto you: FIRST, let nothing in this world tempt you to wrong your conscience; so you will keep peace at home which will be a feast to you in the day of trouble. Secondly, whatever you design to do, lay it justly and time it seasonably, for that gives security and dispatch. Lastly, be not troubled at disappointments; for, if they may be recovered, do it; if they can't, trouble is in vain. If you cou'd not have helped it, be content; there is often peace and profit in submitting to Providence, for afflictions make wise. If you could have helped it, let not your trouble exceed your instruction for another time. These rules will carry you, with firmness and comfort, through this uncertain world.' The Penn Dynasty The family of William Penn profoundly influenced American events and the destiny of Pennsylvania. Here we havea succession 'London 26th, 8th mo. 1585. Dear Ph Pemberton. My love in the blessed Truth that changes not, salutes thee, thy Wife and Relations, with the Dear and Faithful Friends, whom ye Lord God of our Visitation keep to the glory of his Revered name in yl Land, I do most humbly pray him. Also give my remembrance to ye people in gcnerall, and if they love me, lett them love one another and live in peace and be slow to wrath and difference. These I had a took very kindly, and wish yl all Clarkes had been as respectful to inform me since few of their presidents have done it. The Treatment of G. Lowry to Wm. Dyer ye Kings Inspector or Auditor Generall of ye Customs makes a bad sound here, such as has drawn a Quo-Warranto upon East Jersey already and I wish that on one hand, and the shameftlll action of Balto. in Maryland to ye K's officers on t'other hand, do not draw a storm upon our River too. Wherefore, be wise, few and safe in words, and in behaviour civil and obliging to officers or to any else f o ye Kings. This I write to thee because I value thy prudence and fidelity above thy degree and to ye wiser sort thou mayst communicate 22

of men beginning with: William Penn, the admiral, valiant sailor and confidant of princes, whose services to the English Crown bought Pennsylvania for his Quaker son. William, the son of the admiral, who changed from a courtier and soldier to a Quaker and pacifist a man of boundless energy and benign intentions, but a shrewd politician and great organizer. And his three sons, Thomas, Richard, and John, who became proprietors of Pennsylvania after Penn's death in 1718. These men continued to exercise vast power in the provincial council and carried on the colonization started by their father. Then we have William Penn's first cousin, William Markham, who became Deputy Governor of the Province by Penn's designation and guided the progress of the colony. William Penn, "pro priator and governor of Pensilvania," has left us as a heritage his ideals of a government which would "secure the people from abuse of power" and in which "Liberty without obedience is Confusion and Obedience without Liberty is Slavery."

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Transcript of Wilham Penn's Letter
my Caution. I long to see all your Faces. The Lord God before us, and let us follow him. We have after much patience, cost and paines cast the Lord Bait. and indeed the Lorde did show at last much kindness, as well as Justice, commending my Cause as well as Management for we pleaded our selves. I have been to view a ship with my dear wife, against Spring, Capt. Arnold's, when if God please I hope to sett out. .No more but my dear and true love as before and ever. Thy true Friend, Wm Penn London 26th,8thM. '85 Salute me to T. Jawney, W. Yardley, Wm. Biles, W. Beaks, J. Rowland, thy Father and Grandmother by name. Beware of G. Hutchinson who about ye shooting at Newcastle (a thing vI grieved me) has writt maliciously to E. Billings. Yl does US wi (woeful) mischief. He betrays ye Country to Billing. Show him no favour in our Government. Vale. For Phineas Pemberton, A Member of Provincial neer Pennsberry in Pennsilvania

IN THE BLUMHAVEN LIBRARY
This heretofore unpublished Penn letter is on four pages, well preserved and legible, considering its age
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—Original holograph of thi letter in Blumhaven Library.

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Reduced reproduction of the last page of the Penn letter. This page, in addition to the address, specifying the official title and location of Pemberton 'Near Pennsberry in PensUvania" contained also a characteristic Penn "P.S." referring to "ye shooting at New Castle."

26

THOMAS PENN LETTER
He was a son of Wm. Penn, and member of the Provincial Council, and owned one fourth of the Pennsylvania Proprietorship. Born in England in 1702; died there in 1775.

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Letter signed "Tho Penn is dated May 26 735 Pennsberry, It is an order to James Steer to pay William Smith one years wages in full. Receipted at bottom by James Steel, Phila June 5, 1735. But the signature is a HIS MARKE—a curious marker in two parts.

Original autograph letter in Blumhaven Library

27

Two or William Penn's Sons, Thomas and Jo/in, proprietaries and governors of Pennsylvania, make an agreement

THOMAS PENN

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JOHN

. *"rue and abfolule Profricfarias and Goi'craors in Chief of the Province of Penn(ylVaflIa, and Count;., of New-CafUe, Kent nd Si&* Delaware. To 11 unto whom thefc Prefenu thall come Cii £ r I pi o: W 1i E R E A S 4tion

PENN, ESORS.

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of W Y E, that, in conflderaon of* Sum sof , thyt we would bcAtleafed to gant him a Confirmation to our ale, paid by the fuids,' to lawful, Anignu by ihele Pt&not) (the Receipt whereof herebyacknonn(edgr. and therefore do ncqwt and rever dikbsrgt the hid the yearly &.it-Rmehenein thee mntiond and yglerved. WE HAVE given, granted, relcafed antI cqrmn,1, ailS by theft Prefents, for uour Heirs and ,Sucgeflq, 1)0 wee, and of his Heir, and Alr.gnn. the laid/h ic.-, a.ez u'teu.ncn,4 /.zu-rccA) (a /cntlf .91Land, -.erf grant, r4,ak and confirm, onto he faid.4,w/, /n now lit forth, boaodrd and limited an ,kvefhid With all Mines, Mineral,, Quarries, Mcafee,, Macflies, Savannahs. S*aitipi, Cripplet, Wood,, Underwood,, an the lime are Timber and Trer,, Ways, Waters, Water-Courbe, Luberue., Froth,, Commodities, Advantages. Heredita,na*, and Appurtenances whatfoener thereunto belonging, or to within the Bounds and Limits afoeel-aid [Three fall and clear fifth Part, of all Royal mimes, free from all Dedadeoos and Reprifain foe digging and -ng and I wife h.,Part of the Ore of all other Mine,, delivered at the Pit', Mouth only excepted, nnhereby relernedj and alfo free leave. Right 4sd L, try, to nag lime; rd his Here, and Afllgnn. to hawk, hunt, hOt and fowl, in and upon tht hereby granted Land and P,emifen, or upon any part thereof: liid.i"c tint of Land and t'remife hrrebh granted excepe as before excepted) with their Appurtenances --------- -- the raid TO HAVE AD -bin,,Heir. and Allignn, for evrr TO BE HOLO,a/ _,.–hi, Heirs and Alflgnn, To the only UI, and unto cb-liid -! atoeeid5r in fre and cam 45ttc:faer in eCoont1 of ccel(6rn, Propeietaeiotnf Pon(yloamo. as of our Manor of (u,j,4j€h' DEN of on, nine eli. tit ci' men Sncc.gr by Fealty only, in jet, of all other Service,, YIELDING np PAYING therefyç yeorly a9tn us, ujlileirn and Succen, at the ..—Surling, foe Every Acre of the lime, -r i OIVpan the felt day of Moe-rb in every year. from the flrlt day of March in the laid County, at or value thereof in Coin-Cunat, according as the Exchange (hall then be between our laid province and the city of Lad,,, to Inch peefla or perfons uthall, from time to time be for iii, our appointed to receive thO ts. AND in cali dnoo.payment thereof, within ninety day, next after the fame thall become due, that then it (hall and may be IambI and their Reorient or Receives,, iota and upon the hereby granted land and premiles to re-enter, and the fame to hold and pollef,, utdAhe fgl Q.u-Rsr,t, Meter and Soccvfibn. YO/l4v (one-i •- -accruing by means of fach Non-payment and Reentry, be fall paid and dilchacgvd. W I T 11 ES S and nil the arrears cheeeoi, t.grrhrr with the Clan own Right. uby virtue nfcertain Powers, and Authorities to hiln for this Ina well Prowho,

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Reverse side of Thomas Penn and John Penn document actual size

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Original autograph letter in Blumhaven Library

"Would That Our Enemies Were of the Same Opinion."
The letter of Charles Gookin, Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania, dated 25th of July, 1709, written in Philadelphia, runs 11 /i pages folio and is addressed merely "My Lord." in explaining his inability to raise a quota of men from Philadelphia to serve against the French in Canada, Governor Gookin stated: I have used my utmost endeavors, to prevail with ye Assembly on whome if wholly depended to comply wth. these Commands You will perceive my Lord they excuse themselves on a principle of Religion, wch., as they say, will not suffer them to hear Arms in any case; it were to be wished our enemies were of ye same opinion, but until they are, such sentmt. I presume will not well consist with ye ne:essary duties of Governmt. and therefore I still press on to a complyance to ye utmost of my power. But how unsuccessful soever I have been in this when ever her Majesty shall be further graciously pleased to lay Her commands upon me or yr. Lord p. have occasion to make known to me, Her pleasr. in anything within my power, I shall not doubt but it will fully appear, I have not in any case been accessory to this default.
Original aut'graph manuscript in Elumhaven Library.

Charles Gookin
Charles Gookin bore the title of Colonel and was deputy governor of Pennsylvania under William Penn from 1709 till May, 1717. He was one of Penn's mistakes. He had been appointed because of his supposed wisdom and impressive demeanor. Gookin's term of office was stormy and his relations with the assembly strained from 1714 on. He once removed all the chief justices of New Castle county for doing their duty in an action against his brother-in-law, leaving the county without a magistrate for six weeks. At another time, when the judges of the supreme court at New Castle refused to permit a certain commission of his to be published in court, he sent for one of the judges and kicked him. The breach made by his eccentricities widened until 1717, when, on petition of the council, he was removed.

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Original autograph manuscript in Blumhaven Library

LETTER WRITTEN BY HANNAH PENN, SECOND WIFE OF WILLIAM PENN She was the daughter of Thomas Callowhill, a Bristol merchant and married William Penn. She accompanied her husband to Pennsylvania in 1699, and lived in great style, both in Philadelphia and in Pennsbury Manor, a beautiful estate situated in Bucks county, on the Delaware. After Penns death, during the minority of her children, as sole executrix, she assumed the management of the colonial affairs, performing this difficult task with rare tact and business capacity. Her deputy in Pennsylvania from 1718 till 1727 was Sir William Keith. She died in 1733.

Hannah Penn Honors Her Husband's Commitments
Transcript of Hannah Penn Letter

London, 25th of Febry., 1722 Loving Friend J. Logan. The occasion of the present is upon the aplication of Theodore Colby, who desires yt a warrant may be granted him, for the laying out two thousand, and four, or five hundred acres of land, part of five thousand acres formerly intended to be granted by my late Husband to Coil. Markham. I have had recourse to thy former letter to me about this affaire, and must be of thy opinion, yt that grant ought in justice to be made good,. and therefore I am willing that it should be effectually done. My desire therefore is that thou wilt use thy best endeavours, to transact this matter so, wth the rest concerned, as that both this gentleman, and the daughter, or whoever else have a just claim, under Coll. Markham, for the residue of the 5,000 acres may have right done 'em, and I shall allways be ready to do anything further, yt can be required on my part, to confirm the same, I am wth good wishes for thy s2lf, and family, Thy loving Friend, H. Penn.

Being convinced that Thomas Colby had a just claim, in accordance with a grant given him by her late husband, William Penn, Hannah expresses opinion that grant in justice ought to be made and, so orders. The "Coll. Markham'' mentioned in letter, was William Penn's first cousin and deputy governor. A Markham Deed is reproduced on page 17.

THE BLUMHAVEN LIBRARY

Sectional view of the Autograph Room, showing Washington, Lincoln and Jefferson Letters and Prints.

VWAMitI]1VM!11 *11 [II H eretofore, every library andto be cold, im-sents endless the nooks longcrannies search gallery which hours and years of I have visited have appeared throughout and of the
personal repositories of literary, historical, New and Old worlds. How many miles of and artistic treasures. Some of these walled travel were made, what adventures, thrills, in objects had much warmth in themselves finds and disappointments were encountered, but in their Fresentation they were spectral. how many lette:s were written, and how If there were more descriptive words for the many telegrams and cables were sent, to Blumhaven collection than library and gal- develop this most amazinc, library is almost lery I would prefer to use them, for the impossible to conceive. With all this, Mr. precious objects gathered together by Mr. Blum modestly adds, the collection is far Blum and the way in which they are shown from complete. represent a true labor of love. The enthusiasm in the collecting of these It is evident that such a collection repre- outstanding pieces is reflected in their dis34

BY EUGENE L. POLLOCK

play. One is immediately impressed with the warmth and depth in the background Mr. Blum has asscmbled for his remarkable possessions. My first visit to Blumhaven seemed a matter of minutes, although my watch indicated three hours. Here I saw letters, documents, relics and books that in themselves formed a part of the very foundation of life as we live it today. Many are the actual authority for historical and clerical fact.. The Blumhaven collection may be roughly divided into three groups (a) an outstanding panorama of early Bibles and incunabula, (b) an autograph collection of historical personages including representation from every President of the United States, colonial and Revolutionary figures, and signers of the Declaration of Independence, (c) first editions of literary works, early magazines and newspapers and reference books. (a) The magnificent Hieronymus S. Epistolae et Tractatus, printed in Venice by Andreas Torresanus, in 1488. This is the famous Saint Jerome tract, its earliest known translation into Latin. The Saint Jerome translation of the Bible (der heilige Hieronymus) of 1514, the first to reach America. The Epistolae Hieronymus (St. Jerome's Epistles) Venice, Doninus Pincius, 1496. The first edition of the King James Version of the English Bible, 1640, magnificently bound in gold thread embroidered velvet. The ILISTINI Extrogi Pompeii, 1559. The "Bishops" holie Bible, 1568, printed by Darlow and Moule, first edition, "Conteynyng the oldoe Teftament and the newe." The Great Biblia Sacra, Antwerp, 1657. The Antwerpiae Biblia Latina of 1570. The Vinnegar Bible, 1717, famed for its beauty and notorious for its inaccuracy. The Ephrata, Pennsylvania, "Blutische" Martyr German Bible, 1747. The three editions of Christopher Sauer's historical Bible, 1743, 1764, 1776, the first to be printed in German in America. The Robert Aitken tible (1781-82), the first to be printed in English in America. A leaf from St. Jerome's Vulgate Bible,— Manuscript on uterine vellum by a Dominican Monk written 1240 A.D. The famous "Bug Bible," known by that designation through the rendering "bugges"

in Psalm XCI, "imprynted" at London by Jhon Daye . . . and William Seres, in 1549. Psalmorum Dauidis (Psalms of David) in Latin and Greek by Stephanus in 1575. The Bible, that is the Holy Scriptv'rers imprinted at London, Christopher Barker, 1599. Incunabula—some rare 15th and 16th century Latin and German books, original bindings and fine specimens of the early printing art. Some examples . of beautiful manuscripts written in Latin, German, and French—all on vellum, some illustrated by noted artists. Among them: The Officia varia et Hymni, 1516. Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis, 1534, Flemish. Livre D'HEurespar A. Dc Bonde. . This is a manuscript on vellum, exquisitely illustrated, sold inlaid lettering. It was presented by the "Ladies of France" to the wife of the Comte de Chambord, in 1876. It is a monumental work, all lettering by hand, elaborately bound and signed by the artist, who spent twentyfive years of laboring upon the book. Also an actual coin of the Bible, "The Widow's Mite"—the coin mentioned in the New Testament in Luke, Chap. 21, Verse 2. An authentic example of this rare bronze coin. A vellum document by King Robert Bruce, of Scotland, being a royal charter with Great Seal attached to the famous soldier, Sir William Oliphant, circa 1326. These Incunabula Nowhere Else in America StilIwell's second census of 15th century books in the United States, Canada and Mexico does not list the following incunabula: 1. Bonaventura. Soliloquium, Guy Marchant, Paris, 1497. 2. Houppelanda, Guillermus. De immortalitate animae. Tolouse, Paris, 1499. 3. Niger, Franciscus. Ars Epistolandi. Speyer, 1498. 4. Stella clericorum. Devener, 1495. The above very rare incunabula, on vellum, were recently acquired by Blumhaven from an Alpine monastery, in Switzerland, and are exhibited in this country for the first time since their publication, 450 years ago. The autograph lit of the Presidents of the United States is a complete one. The collection includes either autograph letter signed, (ALS), letter signed (LS), typewritten letter signed (TLS), or document signed (DS).
35

There are significant letters from George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, James Madison, Jam'm Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, U. S. Grant, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Franklin Roosevelt. There is also a holograph letter of William Henry Harrison, who died in office after serving only thirty days as President. Supplementing the Presidential auto graphs, is a series of first edition biographical volumes including the magnificent set of "American Statesmen," first and second series, together 40 volumes, published in Boston, 1898-1916. A superb autograph of the subject of each biography is inserted in each book. This includes works on Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris, Gouverneur Morris, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Charles Sumner, Samuel Adams, John Jay, John Marshall, Louis Cass, Albert Gallitin, Thomas H. Benton, Thaddeus Stevens, Salmon P. Chase, John Sherman, James G. Blaine, Thomas B. Reed, William H. Seward, John Hay, and many others. There are also first editions on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and original material on Abraham Lincoln, plus a complete autobiographical listing of world famous characters from all ages. Among the early newspapers is a 1757 issue of the London Chronicle or Universal Evening Post; the Columbian Centennial of Boston of 1798; the London Observator of 1684. The Prairie Farmer of 1847—one of the very earliest agricultural publications of the Midwest, issued from Chicago; Lippincott's Magazine; the Story Teller magazine. Early issues of Puck with celebrated political cartoons. Collection of early children's books. Books on mythology; almanacs. Among the Washington items is a curiosly enigmatic letter in Washington's own handwriting expressing anxiety to receive a "Tin box" that Joshua Sands was to deliver him from Philadelphia; a Washington ALS written in camp at Cambridge, Massachusetts, March 1st, 1776, to General Artemas Ward immediately before the seizure of Dorchester Heights and the bombardment which resulted in the British evacuation; two locks

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of hair authenticated to be George Washington's. Among the Jefferson items is the celebrated secret message of President Jefferson to his Ambassador "Mr. Short" in London setting forth his formula for deciphering his confidential messages and explaining the use of a series of numerals in strange combinations. A facsimilie of this Jefferson letter appears in full in the Princeton University forthcoming series of books entitled "The Jefferson Papers," by Dr. Julian P. Boyd, Lyman H. Butterfield, and staff. There is also among Lincoln's fine autograph letters an exciting forgery of one of Lincoln's better known letters. Among the letters are some shedding an amusing sidelight on some of the great of America. A hurriedly composed letter by Ben Franklin indicates that minutes were precious in its sending for the author of Poor Richard's Almanac crossed out and added words to save rewriting. A beautifully sculptured hand of Abraham Lincoln made from life by the artist Volk, in 1860, the year of his election, is an outstanding object among the innumerable outstanding objects of the Blumhaven collection. A Washington autograph letter signed to Michael Hillegas, written from Mount Vernon, July 17, 1785, concerning a suit which Washington had "depending in Washington County, in Pennsylvania." A letter by Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution, in which he applies the provocative for "Son of a --" to the subject of his ire—a very early and rare use of this. The complete Day Book as kept by the law office of Millard Fillmore in East Hamburgh, Erie County, New York, from 1815 to 1830, containing letters by and to this future President of the U. S. with references of historical data, and the legal activities and lists of clients and services rendered. A hithertoo unexplored group of documents for research workers. A 78-page hand written letter of denial by James McHenry, revolutionary surgeon who became Secretary of War under President Washington, on charges of misappropriation of funds in the War Department. Autograph manuscript signed. First editions and original data on the First World War—Reports from General John J. Pershing, Secretary of War Newton G. Bak:

36

er; Colonel Edward A. House—official reports, with plates of the Battlefields of the War—reports of the Department of National Defense of Great Britain and Canada, original dispatches and battle maps of Sir Douglas Haig, of the British Army; Reports of Marshal! Foch and His Memoirs; Naval Reports; American and British and other source material on the great conflict. Extensive runs of such out-of-print American magazines as Godey's Ladies Book, 18401871; Peterson's magazines, 1850- 1865; Graham's magazines in the 1860's; The Museum; The Ladies Repository, Sartain's magazine; Union Magazine, Leslie's, Harper's, and Atlantic magazines, ranging from 1850 to 1880; also a complete run of the Annual Register, or view of history, politics, and literature, from 1758 to 1799.

son, marked Private, dated December 18, 1842. Jackson upholds the administration and personal character of Martin Van Buren and excoriates his political enemies in colorful Jacksonian phraseology. ". . . . my confidence in the rectitude of Mr. V. B. (s) administration can be set forth, the gra titude of the American Democracy disyed, played, by restoring him to that situation from which he was expelled BY FRAUDS THE MOST DIRE, CALUMNIES. THE MOST UNFOUNDED & VILE; & HUMBUGGERY MOST DISGRACEFUL TO OUR NATIONAL CHARACTER... "Martin Van Buren, the statesman, patriot and pure republican, always sustaining the constitution . . deserves the confidence of the democracy of these United States—HE HAS NEVER PROVED FALSE TO THEM." The WIT's MAGAZINE or Compleat ReA William Howard Taft letter to the pository of Mirth, Humour and Entertain- former Philadelphia Rabbi, Dr. Isaac Landment, published in London—a run of issues man, in which the President takes a strong from January, 1784, to May, 1785—an early position on inter-faith relations and mentions example of illustrated sophisticated ribaldry. the Ford Controversy on this subject. Recent acquisitions to the Autograph ColAn autograph letter of President John lection of the Library are: Tyler to Daniel Webster. A stirring Andrew Jackson letter, comAn order of Stephen Girard, dated 1829, pletely handwritten and signed by the sev- upon City Treasurer Thomas Phipps, of enth President. It is to Major A. J. Donald Philadelphia.

1kI
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Blurnhaven Library

HERMAN BLUM
By BERNARD DAVIS
Chairman and Director, National Philatelic Museum, President, Northwood Textile Mills t has been my good fortune, for over three decades, to watch the career of a man whose industry and imagination have earned for him the respect of his fellow textile manufacturers, and whose home, presided over by his colorful and distinguished helpmate, Mrs. Janet Blum,'' has become the center of political, theatrical, and cultural life in Frankford, Philadelphia. Herman Blum is a perfect example of the famous saying, "Happy is the man who has a hobby, because he has two worlds to live in." Ever since I can remember, his journalistic flare and his desire to be heard, made him a man to cope with, either at business meetings or social gatherings I have been connected with the arts throughout my lifetime and have been in contact with people who find genuine pleasure in cultivating painting, sculpture, and other mediums of self-expression. Herman Blum is one of these. In a humbler spirit than exalted personages like the amateur painter, Winston Church, Herman Blum has been painting for a pastime without attracting attention. For a long time, I have been urging him to hold a public exhibition of his latest crop of water colors. But he has a surprisingly extensive gallery and facilities for showing his paintings in his own home and library, and prefers to keep his works there for the enjoyment of his friends and family. Herman has developed a good sense of color and interest in a multitude of subjects. But most of all, I like his works that have a feeling of selftaught Early American primitive painters and of a group of artists like Henry Rousseau, Bombois and Bauchamp in
*She is currently the president of The Business and Professional Women's Club, of Philadelphia. and secretary, City Republican Women's Club.

I

France and Keene, Picken and many others in the United States. Some of them have been called Sunday painters, and the Museum of Modern Art not only has a complete gallery of such paintings, but published recently an interesting book encouraging the natural native talents of our artists. It must have been a great sense of relaxation for a textile tycoon, in making the type of fabrics that require styling ability, color sense and decorative application, to develop

HERMAN BLUM

38

his hobby primarily in landscape painting. His water color sketches are mostly done in the White Mountains in New Hampshire, where as a lover of the great outdoors, he spends his summers. His prolific production Of water colors is combined with his quest for interesting objects, antiques, stampless historical covers, autographs and documents. His collection impresses one as a sincere attempt to preserve the profound knowledge of the past, to honor those poineers of research and science and the founders of our Republic, who, in the march of time, from the dark ages to the present day, have kept the torch of liberty blazing. Herman Blum became associated with other bibliophiles, historians and collectors, and out of these happy contacts has grown a project of substantiai proportions. The project is a unique library in which several specialized subjects all receive primary attention. He has the ability of combining his interest in rare documents with etchings, photographs and numismatic material in the form of commemorative medals. Such combination affords opportunity even to a novice to become keenly interested in any given subject. I have watched from his humble beginning his purchases of really rare documents, some of which would be eagerly sought by Historical Museums and Libraries throughout the land. It is strange how his desire to get historical data for exotic textile designs made him visit numerous museums and galleries and develop an interest in the historical periods. One can readily see that textiles and the designing of textiles go back to the very early history and antedate even incunabula, in which Herman Blum has finally become engrossed. After arranging his summer home in New Hampshire, where he could pursue his hobbies, he finally took his spacious residence in the famous old residential section of Frankford, made drastic structural changes in the house, and turned it into a haven for his collection of rare editions, autograph letters, wills, documents and deeds, and an extraordinary collection of famous Bibles. His paramount interest is Americana, with documentary material on every president of the United States and numerous Revolutionary and Colonial figures; a wide range of sacred literature, with special emphasis on Bibles of American origin, and a bearing on American

history; hooks and manuscripts of the 14th to 18th centuries. Persona!ly, I am very much interested in the historical background that Frankford offers to the City of Philadelphia and believe that the Blumhaven Library will grow and become an integral part of our cultural life. From my very early days in Frankford I was privileged to know the late Mr. Thomas Creighton, the first President of the Frankford Historical Society, and with keen interest have pursued the studies that have broug,ht to light the interesting episodes of the City of Philadelphia, and particularly in the early days, the Borough of Frankford. I will now return to my task, as a lifelong friend of Herman Blum, to delve into his past. Having been a friendly competitor in weaving the same type of tapestries and other skillfully designed fabrics, I have been able to get close to him and know of his early background. His first employment was with the Chicago & Northwestern R. R. Co., as section foreman of a track repair crew in the Chippewa Section of Wisconsin, at the age of 15. At 16, after a short summer course in a Normal School, he was given a teacher's certificate and taught school in Daub County, Wisconsin. This was a one-room log cabin country school, with grades from primary through the seventh. During the Spanish American War he was the wholesale Circulation Agent for the Chicago Tribune from Eau Claire, Wis., to St. Paul, Minn., with a crew of some 20 kids selling papers under him. While at the University of Wisconsin, he was college correspondent of the Madison Democrat, Milwaukee Sentinel and Chicago Tribune. His college heroes were his professors, John R. Commons, Political Science; Richard T. Ely, Economics; D. C. Munroe, history; Charles R. Van Hise, geology. Their subjects fascinated him. And for these professors, he got reams of publicity in the Chicago and New York papers which didn't hurt their reputation. Before the days of University Press Bureaus, even a very shy professor relished a good headline in The Chicago Tribune or Milwaukee Journal, particularly when it was concerning something that he had said, discovered and done. And Herman fed these "stories" to the papers, at space rates, and
39

used the proceeds to pay his tuition and other college expenses.. After college he served as a reporter on the staff of the St. Louis. Republic and later on the New York Evening Mail. His business career started in Chicago with a harness and saddlery manufacturer; later with a suspender and men's belt factory in Philadelphia; later in Middletown, N. Y., and finally in Philadelphia with the Craftex Mills, of which he is now Chairman of the Board. During World War I he was one of the assistants to Bashford Dean, Curator of the armor division of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, where the Army Ordnance developed body protecting armor and helmets. The linings for these helmets were made in a pilot plant under his supervision. He is the author of a number of booklets: "Color Fastness in Textiles," "The Story of Rayon," "The American Gobelin Tapestry," "Basic Styling of Furniture Fabtics," etc. "What's the big idea behind your library project," I asked Herman, recently. His reply is worth quoting: "I have always held scholars in awe. Our pioneers of learning—sages, saints, scientfsts,

historians—knew such a lot, but had pitifully poor means of imparting it to others. Our means of disseminating information today, are vastly better, but still inadequate. I doubt very much if real knowledge penetrates to. a greater proportion of our population now, than it did in ancient times. In an atomic age, any effort to preserve, classify and pass on our accumulated knowledge, is vitally important and worth undertaking." To my friend, Herman, I extend best wishes in his new most serious undertaking. It is a good thing for a man who has given so many years in useful occupation, as a manufacturer of textiles, to take life in a more relaxed fashion, by reducing his hours of toil in his office and spending more and more time both in Frankford and Philadelphia on cultural pursuits. Everyone should envy the man who prepares himself for such a life by being a student all his life, an artist and now a historian and bibliophile. Let Blumhaven Library, which will show continuous progress and grow under his skillful guidance, become a permanent monument to the man who made such an imprint upon his community!

41)

THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE AND TECHNICAL INSTITUTE OF TEMPLE UNIVERSITY

PRESENTING

1jew TWO-YEAR COLLEGE PROGRAMS
For Semi-Professional Occupations Leading to the Degrees of:
• ASSOCIATE IN TECHNOLOGY • ASSOCIATE IN BUSINESS • ASSOCIATE IN ARTS

44

Temple University Community College
PHILATELIC INSTITUTE -EVENING DIVISION

Announcement
Course
Basic

Philately, Philately 1 -E

This course considers such problems as buying stamps advantageously, grading stamps as to condition and value, the anatomy of the stamp, forgeries, the tools of the philatelist, methods of specialization, and the mounting, writing up and exhibiting of a collection. Stress will constantly be laid on the knowledge which distinguishes the active and well-informed collector. Registrants will receive the privileges of free admission to Philatelic Museum exhibits and use of the Museum Library. Credit Two semester hours. Only undergraduate credit can be given. For information write to Mr. John Freehafer, National Philatelic Museum, Broad and Diamond Sts., Philadelphia 22, Pa. Instructor Mr. John Freehafer, Lecturer in Philately, Temple University; Librarian of National Philatelic Museum and Associate Editor, National Philatelic Museum Bulletin. Place of Meeti ng National Philatelic Museum, Broad and Diamond Sts,, Philadelphia 22. Time One night a week, 7:30- 9:30P.M., for fifteen weeks. Fees The total cost of the course is $18.00 ($9.00 per semester credit hour), payable by check or money order drawn to the order of Temple University. Full fees are charged for non-credit (auditing) students. Fees are payable at the time of registration. Students not interested in taking the course for credit need no special background although the class will be presumed to be post-high school level.

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WERE, QUAKER SCALPS IMMUNE FROM THE INDIANS W
illiam Franklin writes a letter to the editor of The London Chronicle, or Universal Evening Post, of September 17, 1757. He defends the Quakers against "Calumnies and Falsehoods"..
"S I R, "In your Paper of the 9th Inftant, I obferve the following Paragraph, viz. 'The laft Letters from Philadelphia bring Accounts of the Scalping the Inhabitants of the Back Provinces by the Indians: At the fame Time the Difputes between the Governor and the Affembly are carried to as great a Height as ever, and the Meffages fent from the Affembly to the Governor, and from the Governor to the Affembly, are expreffed in Terms which give very little Hopes of a Reconciliation. The Bill to ralfe Money is clogged, fo as to prevent the Governor from giving his Confent to it; and the Obftinacy of the Quakers in the Affembly Is such, that they will In no Shape alter it: So that, while the Enemy is in the Heart of the Country, Cavils prevent any Thing being done for its Relief.—Mr. Denny is the third Governor with whom the Affembly has had thefe Difputes within a few years.'

Places, has not been able to fecure its Inhabi. tants from Scalping by the Indians; who coming fecretly in very fmall Parties fkulking in the Woods, muft fometimes have it in their Power to furprize and deftroy Travellers, or fingle Families fettled in fcattered Plantations, notwithftanding all the Care that can poffibly be taken by any Government for their Protection. Centinels pofted round an Army, while ftanding on their Guard, with Arms in their Hands, are often kill'd and fcalped by Indians. How much eafier muft it be for fuch an Enemy to deftróy a Ploughman at Work in his Field?

Instructions Cause Disputes
That the Inhabitants of the Frontiers of Pennfylvania are not Quakers, were in the Beginning of the War fupplied with Arms and Ammunition by the Affembly, and have frequently defended themfelves, and repelled the Enemy, being withheld by no Principle from Fighting. That the Difputes between the late and prefent Governors, and the Affembly of Pennfylvania, were occafloned, and are continued, chiefly by new Inftructions from the Proprietors to thofe Governors, forbidding them to pafs any Laws to raife Money for the Defence of the Country, unlefs the Proprietary Eftate, or much the greateSt Part of it, was exempted from the Tax to be raifed by Virtue of fuch Laws, and other Claufes inferted in them, by which the Privileges long enjoyed by the People, and which they think they have a Right to, not only as Pennfylvanians, but as Englifhmen, were to be extorted from them, under their prefent Diftreffes. The Quakers, who, tho' the flrft Settlers, are now but a fmall Part of the People of Pennfylvania, were concerned in thofe Difputes only as Inhabitants of the Province, and not as Quakers; and all the other Inhabitants join in oppofing thofe Inftructions, and contending for their Rights, the Proprietary Officers and Dependants only excepted, with a few of Such as they can Influence.

Not Founded on Truth

As this Paragraph, like many others heretofore publifhed in the Papers, is not founded on Truth; but calculated to prejudice the Public againft the Quakers and People of Pennfylvania, you are defired to do that injured Province fome Juftice, In publifhing the following Remarks; which would have been Lent you fooner, had the Paper come fooner to my Hands. That the Scalping of the Frontier Inhabitants by the Indians is not peculiar to Pennfylvania, but common to all the Colonies, in Proportion as their Frontiers are more or lefs extended and expofed to the Enemy. That the Colony of Virginia, in which there are very few, if any Quakers, and none in the Affembly, has loft more Inhabitants and Territory by the War than Pennfylvania. That even the Quakers Are Generous Colony of New York, with all its own Forces, a great Body of New-England Troops enThat though fome Quakers have Scruples camp'd on its Frontier, and the regular Army againft bearing Arms, they have when moft under Lord Loudoun, pofted in different numerous in the Affembly, granted large Sums Original copy of London Chronicle of 1757 in Blumhaven Library 41

for the King's life (as they expreffed It) which have been applied to the Defence of the Province; for Inftance, in 1755, and 1756, they granted the Sum of 55,000 1. to be raifed by a Tax on Eftates real and perfonal, and 30,000 1. to be raifed by Excite on Spirituous Liquors; befides near 10,000 1. in Flour, &c. to General Braddock and for cutting his Roads, and 10,000 1. to General Shirley in Provifions for the New England and New-York Forces, then on the Frontiers of New York. That however, to remove all Pretence for Reflection on their Sect, as obftructing military Meafures In Time of War, a Number of them voluntarily quitted their Seats In Affembly, In 1756; others requofted their Friends not to chute them In the enfuing Election, nor did any of that Profeffion ftand as Candidates, or requeft a Vote for themfelves at that Election, many Quakers refufing even to vote at all, and others voting for fuch Men as would, and did, make a confiderable Majority in the Houfe, who were not Quakers; and yet four of the Quakers, who were nevertheless chofen, refufed to ferve, and Writs were iffued for new Elections, when four others, not Quakers, were chofen In their Places; that of 36 Members, the Number of which the Houfe confifts, there are not at the moft above 12 of that Denomination, and thofe fuch as are well known to be for fupporting the Government in Defence of the Country, but are too few, if they were againft fuch a Meafure, to prevent it.

fence of the Country, without any Affiftance from the Crown, than is done perhaps by any other Colony in America; there having been, foon after the War broke out, the following Forts, erected at the Province Expence, in a Line to cover the Frontier, viz. Henfhaw's Fort on Delaware, Fort Hamilton, Fort Norris, Fort Allen, Fort Franklin, Fort Lebanon, Fort William Henry, Fort Auguftus, Fort Halifax, Fort Granville, Fort Shirley, Fort Littleton, and Shippenfburg Fort, befides feveral fmaller Stockades and Places of Defence.

Increased Armaments
And at Philadelphia, 15 Iron Cannon, 18 Pounders, were laft Year purchafed in England, and added to. the 50 they had before, either mounted on their Batteries, or ready to be mounted, befides a Train of Artillery, being new Brats Field Pieces, 12 and 6 Pounders, with all their Appurtenances in - extreme good Order, and a Magazine ftored with Ammunition, a Quantity of large Bomb-fhells, and above 2000 new Small Arms lately procured, excluflvo of thofe In the Hands of the People. They have likewife this Summer fitted out a 20 Gun Province Ship of War, to fcour the Coaft of Privateers, and protect the Trade of that and the neighbouring Provinces. The above are Facts, confiftent with the Knowledge of the Subfcriber, who but lately left Philadelphia, Is now In London, is not, nor ever was, a Quaker, nor writes this at the Requeft of any Quaker, but purely to do Juttice to a Province and People, of late frequently abufed in namelefa Papers and Pamphlets publifhed in England. And he hereby calls upon the Writer of that Article of News to produce the Letters out of which, he fays, he has drawn thofe Calumnies and falfehoods, or to take the Shame to himfelf. WILLIAM FRANKLIN. Penfylvania Coffee-houfe London, Sept. 16, 1757.

Without Crown's Help
The affertion of the News-Writers, "That while the Enemy is in the Heart of the Country, Cavils prevent any Thing being done for its Relief," Is to far from being true: That Firft, the Enemy is not, nor ever was, in the Hearts of the Country, having only molefted the Frontier Settlements by their Parties. Secondly, More is done for the Relief and De-

WILLIAM FRANKLIN was born In Philadelphia In 1729; died in London in 1813. He was an illegitimate son of Dr. Benjamin Franklin. About a year after his birth, his father married, took the child Into his house and brought him up as a son. In 1757 he accompanied Dr.- Franklin to London, where in 1758 he was admitted to the bar. William Franklin was the last of the Royal governors of New Jersey. His adhesion to the Royal cause in the Revolution led to an estrangement between him and his father. 42 -

A PENN WAX SEAL
In Blumhaven Library

This is a heavy thick wax seal, auburn colored, 4 inches in diameter. If is suspended by a gold silk cord from an entirely hand written deed, 33 inches long and 6 inches wide. The deed begins: "WILLIAM PENN, true and absolute proprietary and governor in chief of ye Province of Pensilvania and territories thereunto belonging, to all whom these presents shall come If conveys land from a plot surveyed by Thomas Holme to "Jeremiah Powell of Philada, carpenter. It is signed by Thomas Story, Keeper of the ye Great Seal and Master of ye Rolls for ye said Province and Territories at Philada on the 17th of July' in the twelfth year of ye Reign of our Sovereign Lady Anne Queen of Great Britain A. D. one thousand seven hundred and thirteen' (1713).

EDNA RANDOLPH WORRELL By HELEN F. MOORE
Secretary, National Philatelic Museum
Miss Worrell is the seventh generation of Worrells In America, the first having settled in Frank. ford 1681. She is the daughter of the late T. Worcester Worrell principal of the Bridesburg school for almost forty years. Her mother, Nina Acadia Turner Worrell, was a descendant of Betsy Ross, "1 whom she assisted with other members of the family in forming the Flag House Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1903. She is a member of the Historical Society of Frankford, The Women's Literary Club of Frankford, the Musical Alumni of the University of Pennsylvania together with local charitable organizations. Miss Worrell inherited her musical background from he Revolutionary ancestor, Capt. Demas Worrell, who lei the chOir at Trinity Church, Oxford, in 1769, as well as from her father and grandfather, Thomas B., principal musicians of Frankford in their', day. A graduate of the Universtiy of Pennsylvania Music Department, she has published over a hundred songs and collections for children, together with plays, some of which appeared in the Ladies Home Journal. She founded the Society of Alumni Music Department of the University of Pennsylvania. 'The Willow Plate," a Chinese operetta, and ''Good Neighbor Plays," are among the well known titles of her work. The latter was written when exchange pupils between South America and the United States was featured between the countries. Having always been interested in history, at present she is writing such articles for local publications.

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BLUMHAVEN NOTES
Group inspections of the Blumhaven collection were recently made. On February 17, 1950, The Historical Society of Frankford, Philadelphia, was conducted through the library by Miss Edna R. Worrell. Among thosepresent were: Dr. Charles N. Sturtevant, Miss Caroline W. Smedley, Miss Mabel Corson, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Adamson, Mr. and Mrs. George L. Brown, Dr. Elwood Drake, Dr. John C. Mendenhall, Mr. Horace W. Castor, Dr. Walter J. Benner, Mr. Harry S. Donat, Mr. Oscar Schaeffer, Mr. Benjamin S. Thorp, Mr. Anthony Whitaker, Mrs. Stanley H. Horn, Mrs. George L. Dodson, Jr., Miss Helen Wilson, Miss Marie L. Grew, the Misses Marian and Elizabeth Hilles, Miss Blanche G. Pierce, Mr. and Mrs. James L. Whitaker, Mr. Omar Shallcross, Mr. Stanley H. Horn. On March 28th, the board of directors of the Philadelphia Business and Professional Club, conducted by its program chairman, Mrs. Joana Schlechter, made an inspection of the collection. Among those present were Mrs. Catherine Benedict, Mrs. Margaret Groff, Miss Lilly Leach, Mrs. Catherine Rahn, Miss Isabell Guthrie, Mrs. Hannah Warrington, Mrs. May Peacock, Miss Florence Fulton, Mrs. Carrie Worif, Miss Catherine Falkenstein, Mrs. John J. Troy and Miss Elsie Stauffer. On April 6 the past presidents of the Frankford Women's Club were guests of Mrs. Herman Blum, one of the past presidents. Among those present were Mrs. Ella Fernon, Mrs. Charles N. Sturtevant, Mrs. Jacob Crousse, Mrs. Clifford Fowler, Mrs. William Zanzinger, Mrs. Disney and Mrs. Ross Mills. On April 22nd, 1950, the City History Society of Philadelphia, conducted by its historian, Miss Meria Knight and Mr. Walter F. Estlack, made an afternoon inspection of the Library. Among those present were Dr. Joseph S. Hepburn, Mr. David I. Moore, Mr. George W. Baker, Dr. Walter Woodburn Hyde, Miss Viola Rogers, Miss Marion Haskey Stryker, Mr. Myron A. Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Zuber, Mr. B. Myers, Mrs. Caroline F. Renninger, Mrs. Wilmer A. Adams, Mr. Harry A. Lloyd, Dr. Leonard D. Frescoin, Mrs. Ruth L. Zeller, Miss Anna M. Hettinger, Mr. and Mrs. B. Hoff Knight, Dr. Joseph V. Clothier, Miss Selma Clothier, Mrs. James R. Helms, Mr. George W. Baker, 4th, Miss Virginia Osterlag, Dr. George E. Nietzche, and Mrs. Ida Seder, of Maynard, Mass., visiting guest. Mr. Blum talked on the Christopher Sauer and Ephrata Bibles of Pennsylvania. Great interest, concerning the influence of William Penn upon the early life of Philadelphia, was evoked by Mr. Samuel Price Wetherill, President of the Penn Club, at the reception in honor of His Excellency, Mr. Gabriel Gonzalez Videla, President of Chile. This reception was given by Mr. Edgar S. McKaig, President of the Philadelphia Cornmercial Museum-Convention Hall, at the Union League, on April 27. The Great Books Club of Elkins Park held its session in the Blumhaven Library, on May 16th. Among those present were: Mr. and Mrs. Simmon- J. Seder, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Zeidman; Mr. and Mrs. Robert Greenfield, Mr. and Mrs. Gregory Bry, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Weiss, Mr. and Mrs. Philip Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Ben Loewenstein, Mr. and Mrs. Herman Lefco, Mr. Abe Ulitzski, and Miss Ellin Brooke, of New York. At the Academy of Music concert, given by the Choirs of the "Singing City," on May 8th, the writings of William Penn were featured. These were part of a delightful cantata, composed by Dr. Parks Grant, of Temple University, and were sung by the Fellowship House Choir, Elaine Brown, director; Miss Marjorie Penney, leader. The Cresham Valley Council, headed by its President, Dr. E. Louise Rutherford, and Secretary, Mrs. Paul Schlecter, made a pilimage to the Library on Sunday, May 28th. Sme twenty-five members inspected the books and documents on display in the Library.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Reference books on William Penn in the Blumhaven Library: Samuel M. Janney—Life of William Penn, correspondence and autobiography, 1852. Thomas Clarkson - Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of William Penn, 1849. Bonamy Dobree—William Penn, Quaker and Pioneer, 1932. Arthur Pound—The Penns of Pennsylvania and England, 1932. William Wistar Comfort—William Penn and Our Liberties, 1947. William Penn Tercentenary Committee, Charles F. Jenkins, Chairman—Remember William Penn, 1944. Historical Society of Pennsylvania—Proposed Removal of Remains of William Penn to Philadelphia, 1882. Sydney G. Fisher -The Making of Pennsylvania. Howard M. Jenkins—The Family of William Penn, Founder of Pennsylvania, Ancestry and Descendant, 1899. Sydney George Fisher—The True William Penn, 1907. George E. Ellis—William Penn, Maker of American History, 1904. Friends' Society—Passages from the Life and Writings of William Penn, 1882. M. W.—The Penns and Penningtons of the 17th Century, 1867. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Donald A. Eadzow, Director— Tributes to William Penn, 1644-1944, issued in 1946. Charles S. Keyser—Penn's Treaty, 1882. Swedish Colonial Society-230th Anniversary Celebration of William Penn's Landing. George E. Ellis—Life of William Penn, 1904. Friends Society - Passages from Life and Writings of William Penn, 1882. The Penns and Penningtons of the 17th Century—M. W., 1867. Privately Printed—The Charter of Liberties from William Penn to the Freemen of Pennsylvania. Charles S. Keyser—Penn's Treaty, 1882. Stan. V. Henkels—The Charter of Liberties from William Penn to the Freemen of the Province of Pennsylvania. Donald A. Cadzow, Director, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission—Trecentenary Record, 1644-1944. Swedish Colonial Society and Colonial Society of Pennsylvania - The Landing of William Penn, 230th Anniversary. Schools Committee on Penn Memorials -Penn and the Delaware Indians. Robert Barclay —An Apology for the True Christian Divinity as Preached by the People Called, in Scorn, Quakers. Printed and sold by T. Sowle Raylton and Luke Hinde, London, 1736. Sylvester K. Stevens and Donald H. Kent— Pennsylvania's Historical Heritage, 1947.

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The Historical Society of Frankford

Home of the Historical Society of Frankford, 1507 Orthodox Street (at Penn.) Philadelphia 24, Pa.

CHAS. N. STURTEVANT, M.D., President,

OMAR SHALLCROSS, Curator

CAROLINA W. SMEDLEY, Secretary. ALL HISTORYHAS A BEGINNING IN SOME LOCAL HISTORY.

he Historical Society of Frankford has a rich store of historical data pertaining to the industrial and cultural development of Northeastern Philadelphia from the days of settlement to the present. This, the gateway to our colonial capital in the Keystone State, is the gateway also to the whole of our national history.
The Society welcomes as members all who are interested.

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