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Calc II Sample Key: Chapter 8
1. Use the Trapezoidal Method with π = 4 to approximate
β« 3π₯ ππ₯. π
β π 3 β (β1)
=
=1 π

4 π₯
= β1, π₯ = 0, π₯ = 1, π₯ = 2, π₯ = 3 π
(π₯ ) = 3π₯ ; π

βπ
(π(β1) + 2π(0) + 2π(1) + 2π(2) + π(3))
2π
1
= (3 + 2 β 0 + 2 β 3 + 2 β 12 + 27) = 30
2

β« 3π₯ ππ₯ β

(The integral actually equals 28, just in case you were curious.)
2. Use Simpsonβs method with π = 4 to approximate β« π₯ ππ₯ . π
βπ 9β1
=
=2 π

4 π₯
= 1, π₯ = 3, π₯ = 5, π₯ = 7, π₯ = 9 π
(π₯ ) = π₯ ;

β« π₯ ππ₯ β π

βπ
(π(1) + 4π(3) + 2π(5) + 4π(7) + π(9))
3π
2
= (1 + 4 β 27 + 2 β 125 + 4 β 343 + 729) = 1640
3

(The integral actually DOES equal 1640, just in case you were
curious.)

β« ππ₯) β ππ₯ π₯+πΆ π’ =π₯β4 ππ’ = ππ₯ =β« 8(π’ + 4) + 7 8π’ + 39 ππ’ = β« ππ’ = β«(8π’ π’ π’ = 8 ln |π’| β 39π’ + 39π’ + πΆ = 8 ln|π₯ β 4| β )ππ’ 39 +πΆ π₯β4 You can also do this by partial fractions: rewrite the integral as ππ₯ + β« ( ) ππ₯ and solve for π΄ and π΅. . evaluate the given integral. 3. except numerical integration. β« you get π΄ = 8 and π΅ = 39. (Try it on your own.For the remaining problems.) But I think this π’-substitution is easier. You may use any method discussed in class. β« ππ₯ = (β« β = (β« β ππ’ βπ’ β ) β (β« ππ₯) β (β« 1 β1 β π₯ = (β« βπ’ ππ₯ = β« ( ) π’ =1βπ₯ ππ’ = β2π₯ππ₯ ππ₯) ππ’) β (β« 1 ππ₯) β1 β π₯ π₯ + πΆ = β2β1 β π₯ β sin = β2π’ β sin 4.

β« ππ₯ = β« ( 1 1 π’ β π’ +πΆ 7 9 1 1 sin π₯ β sin π₯ + πΆ 7 9 )( ) ππ₯ = β« ( + ) ππ₯ 10 π΄ π΅ = + β 10 = π΄(π₯ + 2) + π΅(π₯ β 3) (π₯ β 3)(π₯ + 2) π₯ β 3 π₯ + 2 There are a few different ways of finding π΄ and π΅. One way: Plug in 3 for π₯: 10 = π΄(5) + π΅(0) β π΄ = 2 Plug in -2 for π₯: 10 = π΄(0) + π΅(β5) β π΅ = β2 So we get: β« ( β ) ππ₯ = 2 ln|π₯ β 3| β 2 ln|π₯ + 2| + πΆ (You could also do this one by completing the square. β«(sin π₯ cos π₯ )ππ₯ π’ = sin π₯ .5.) . ππ’ = (cos π₯ )ππ₯ β«(sin π₯ cos π₯ )(cos π₯ )ππ₯ = β«(sin π₯ )(1 β sin π₯ )(cos π₯ )ππ₯ = β« π’ (1 β π’ )ππ’ = β«(π’ β π’ )ππ’ = = 6.

β« ( β« ) 3 3 ) ππ’ = π’ β 3π’ + 3 ln|π’ + 1| + πΆ π’+1 2 3 π₯ β 3π₯ + 3 ln |π₯ + 1| + πΆ 2 ππ₯ 1 (4 tan π + 4) π₯ = 2 tan π . ππ₯ = 2 sec π ππ 1 2 sec πππ (4 sec π ) 1 1 1 =β« 2 sec πππ = β« ππ 8 sec π 4 sec π 1 1 1 π₯ = β« cos π ππ = sin π + πΆ = ( )+πΆ 4 4 4 βπ₯ + 4 2 sec πππ = β« The last equality comes from a reference triangle: .7. β« β ππ₯ A rationalizing substitution is the way to go: π’ = βπ₯ . β« (3π’ β 3 + = 8. ππ₯ = 3π’ ππ’ β 3π’ ππ’ β« Now use long division. π₯ = π’ .

β«(π₯ sin π₯ )ππ₯ = βπ₯ cos π₯ + 3π₯ sin π₯ + 6π₯ cos π₯ β 6 sin π₯ + πΆ 10. ππ’ = sec π₯ tan π₯ ππ₯ β«(tan π₯ sec π₯ )(sec π₯ tan π₯ )ππ₯ = β«(sec π₯ β 1)(sec π₯ )(sec π₯ tan π₯ )ππ₯ = β«(π’ β 1)π’ ππ’ = β«(π’ β π’ )ππ’ = 1 1 1 1 π’ β π’ + πΆ = sec π₯ β sec π₯ + πΆ 5 3 5 3 . β«(tan π₯ sec π₯ )ππ₯ π’ = sec π₯ . or save yourself some writing and use the tic-tac-toe method.9. β«(π₯ sin π₯ )ππ₯ You can integrate by parts multiple times.

the original integral must diverge. ππ₯ = (3 sec π tan π )ππ ππ₯ . β« ππ₯ = β« ππ₯ + β« ππ₯ You can check either of these integrals first. β« β π₯ = 3 sec π . You MUST split up the integral at the infinite discontinuity.11. Say you check the second one: ππ₯ = lim β« lim β *β β β β« π₯ + = lim β ππ₯ = lim *β β + β β *β3π₯ + = +=β Since this integral diverges. π₯ = 0. WARNING: DO NOT rewrite the original integral as *β3π₯ + and solve it from there. . π₯ > 3 β9 sec π β 9 (3 sec π tan π )ππ β« 3 sec π = β« (β9 sec π β 9) (tan π )ππ = β« (β9 tan π) (tan π )ππ = β«(3 tan π)(tan π )ππ = 3 β«(tan π )ππ = 3 β«(sec π β 1)ππ βπ₯ β 9 = 3(tan π β π ) + πΆ = 3 ( β sec 3 π₯ )+πΆ 3 The last equality comes from a reference triangle. 12. thereβs no need to check the other one.

13. β«(cos 7π₯ β sin 4π₯ )ππ₯ Make use of the following identity: 1 sin(ππ₯ ) cos(ππ₯ ) = [sin(π β π)π₯ + sin(π + π)π₯ ] 2 1 1 β« [sin(β3π₯ ) + sin(11π₯)]ππ₯ = β«[βsin(3π₯ ) + sin(11π₯)]ππ₯ 2 2 1 1 1 = ( cos(3π₯ ) β cos(11π₯ )) + πΆ 2 3 11 14. ) ππ₯ = π₯ + β« ( ) ππ₯ π’ =π₯ +π₯+1 ππ’ = (2π₯ + 1)ππ₯ ππ’ = π₯ + ln |π’| + πΆ = π₯ + ln|π₯ + π₯ + 1| + πΆ π’ . β« β« (1 + =π₯+β« ππ₯ Do long division of polynomials first.

β« =β« 8π₯ β π₯ = β(π₯ β 8π₯ ) = β(π₯ β 8π₯ + 16) + 16 = β(π₯ β 4) + 16 β β ( =β« 16. πΆ = 3 β« 2 3 ππ₯ + β« ππ₯ = 2 ln |π₯ + 1| + 3 tan π₯+1 π₯ +1 π₯+πΆ . β« π’ = π₯ β 4.15. ππ’ = ππ₯ ) ππ’ β16 β π’ π’ ( ) + πΆ = sin 4 = sin ππ₯ = β« ( )( ) ππ₯ = β« ( π₯β4 )+πΆ 4 ππ₯ + β« ππ₯ 2π₯ + 3π₯ + 5 π΄ π΅π₯ + πΆ = + (π₯ + 1)(π₯ + 1) π₯ + 1 π₯ + 1 2π₯ + 3π₯ + 5 = π΄(π₯ + 1) + (π΅π₯ + πΆ )(π₯ + 1) π₯ = β1: 2 β 3 + 5 = π΄(2) + 0 4 = 2π΄ β π΄ = 2 2π₯ + 3π₯ + 5 = 2(π₯ + 1) + (π΅π₯ + πΆ )(π₯ + 1) 2π₯ + 3π₯ + 5 = 2π₯ + 2 + (π΅π₯ + πΆ )(π₯ + 1) 3π₯ + 3 = (π΅π₯ + πΆ )(π₯ + 1) 3 = π΅π₯ + πΆ π΅ = 0.

π£ = π₯ 1 1 1 1 1 = π₯ ln π₯ β β« ( π₯ ) ( ππ₯) = π₯ ln π₯ β β« π₯ ππ₯ 3 3 π₯ 3 3 1 1 = π₯ ln π₯ β π₯ + πΆ 3 9 . ππ£ = π₯ ππ₯ ππ’ = ππ₯.17. β«(π₯ ln π₯ )ππ₯ β β« π 1 + π 5 ππ₯ = lim β 1 ]=0+ π 5 *β π = + 1 5π π’ = ln π₯ . β« π ππ₯ = lim 1 = lim [β π β 5 18.

You need to do that because. for values of π₯ between and .19. 20. sin 3π₯ is NEGATIVE. β« β1 β cos 6π₯ ππ₯ = β« =β« β2 sin 3π₯ ππ₯ = β« =β« β1 β (1 β 2 sin 3π₯ )ππ₯ β2 β |sin 3π₯ |ππ₯ β2 ββ2 sin 3π₯ ππ₯ = * cos 3π₯+ 3 2β2 β2 β2 β2 β2 = ( cos 2π) β ( cos π) = β (β ) = 3 3 3 3 3 Note that I included a negative sign once I removed the absolute value bars. ππ’ = π₯ cos π ππ β« β25 β 25 sin π β 5 cos π ππ = β« β25 cos π β 5 cos π ππ = β« 5 cos π β 5 cos π ππ = 25 β« cos π ππ 1 25 1 = 25 β« (1 + cos 2π )ππ = [π + sin 2π] 2 2 2 25 [π + sin π cos π ] + πΆ = 2 25 π₯ π₯ β25 β π₯ = *sin + β ++πΆ 2 5 5 5 The last equality comes from a reference triangle. . β« β25 β π₯ ππ₯ π₯ = 5 sin π .

Extra Credit: Evaluate β«(πΆπΈπππππΈπ· )ππ₯. .

1 π₯ ( )+πΆ π βπ β π₯ 1 1 π₯ β« ππ₯ = ( ) tan ( ) + πΆ π +π₯ π π 1 1 π₯ β« ππ₯ = ( ) sec | | + πΆ π π π₯βπ₯ β π β« β« ππ₯ = sin 1 ππ₯ = sinh π₯ ( )+πΆ π βπ + π₯ 1 π₯ β« ππ₯ = cosh ( ) + πΆ (π₯ > π) π βπ₯ β π 1 π₯ tanh ( ) + πΆ.For all of these formulas. π₯ < π 1 π π β« ππ₯ = { 1 π₯ π βπ₯ coth ( ) + πΆ. π must be a positive constant. π₯ > π π π 1 1 π₯ β« ππ₯ = β sech ( ) + πΆ (π > π₯ > 0) π π π₯βπ β π₯ 1 1 π₯ β« ππ₯ = β csch | | + πΆ π π π₯βπ + π₯ β«(sec ππ₯ )ππ₯ = ( ) + β«(sec ππ₯ )ππ₯ (π β  1) 1 [cos(π β π)π₯ β cos(π + π)π₯ ] 2 1 sin(ππ₯ ) cos(ππ₯ ) = [sin(π β π)π₯ + sin(π + π)π₯ ] 2 1 cos(ππ₯) cos(ππ₯) = [cos(π β π)π₯ + cos(π + π) π₯ ] 2 sin(ππ₯ ) sin(ππ₯ ) = .