N E PA

Biodiversity Profile of Afghanistan
An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan
June 2008 United Nations Environment Programme Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch

First published in Kabul in 2008 by the United Nations Environment Programme. Copyright © 2008, United Nations Environment Programme. This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations Environment Programme. United Nations Environment Programme Darulaman Kabul, Afghanistan Tel: +93 (0)799 382 571 E-mail: qadeer.karyab@unep.ch Web: http://www.unep.org DISCLAIMER The contents of this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of UNEP, or contributory organizations. The designations employed and the presentations do not imply the expressions of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNEP or contributory organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authority, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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Table of Contents
Foreword. ..............................................................................................................................................................................6 . Author’s.Note.........................................................................................................................................................................8 Executive.Summary...............................................................................................................................................................9 1. Introduction...................................................................................................................................................................11 2. What.is.Biodiversity?.......................................................................................................................................................11 3. Why.is.Biodiversity.Important.to.Afghanistan?................................................................................................................12 4. Afghanistan’s.Human.Population...................................................................................................................................12 5. Topography,.Climate.and.Hydrology............................................................................................................................13 6. Biogeography.and.Ecological.Classification................................................................................................................15 . 7. Afghanistan’s.Land.Cover. ............................................................................................................................................19 8. Afghanistan’s.Eco-regions.............................................................................................................................................20 8.1. Closed.Forest.Vegetation................................................................................................................................. 20 8.1.1.East.Afghan.Montane.Conifer.Forests.(PA0506)...................................................................................... 20 8.1.2.Baluchistan.Xeric.Woodlands.(PA1307).................................................................................................. 21 . 8.2. Open.Woodland.Vegetation. .......................................................................................................................... 22 8.2.1.Central.Afghan.Mountains.Xeric.Woodlands.(PA1309)........................................................................... 22 8.2.2.Paropamisus.Xeric.Woodlands.(PA1322)................................................................................................ 22 . . 8.3. Semi-Desert.Vegetation. .................................................................................................................................. 22 8.3.1.Afghan.Mountains.Semi-Desert.(PA1301)................................................................................................ 23 8.3.2.Badkhiz.(Badghis)-Karabil.Semi-Desert.(PA1306)..................................................................................... 23 8.3.3.Central.Persian.Desert.Basins.(PA1313)................................................................................................... 23 8.3.4.Registan-North.Pakistan.Sandy.Desert.(PA1326)..................................................................................... 23 8.4. Subalpine.and.Alpine.Vegetation.................................................................................................................... 24 8.4.1.Karakoram-West.Tibetan.Plateau.Alpine.Steppe.(PA1006). .................................................................... 24 . 8.4.2.Pamir.Alpine.Desert.And.Tundra.(PA1014). ............................................................................................. 24 . 8.4.3.Hindu.Kush.Alpine.Meadow.(PA1005)..................................................................................................... 24 8.4.4.Ghorat-Hazarajat.Alpine.Meadow.(PA1004). ......................................................................................... 24 . . 9. Eco-region.Status..........................................................................................................................................................25 . 10. Afghanistan’s.Wetlands. ................................................................................................................................................26 11. Afghanistan’s.Riparian.Areas.........................................................................................................................................27 12. Afghanistan’s.Species....................................................................................................................................................27 12.1.Mammals......................................................................................................................................................... 28 12.2.Birds. ................................................................................................................................................................ 29 . 12.3.Reptiles............................................................................................................................................................ 30 . 12.4.Amphibians...................................................................................................................................................... 31 12.5.Fish................................................................................................................................................................... 31 12.6.Invertebrates.................................................................................................................................................... 32 12.7.Plants. .............................................................................................................................................................. 32 . 12.8.Lichens.and.Fungi............................................................................................................................................ 33 13. Afghanistan’s.Species.at.Risk.........................................................................................................................................34 . 13.1.IUCN.Red.List.of.Threatened.Species............................................................................................................... 34 13.1.Convention.on.the.International.Trade.in.Endangered.Species.of.Wild.Flora.and.Fauna.(CITES).................... 34 14. Afghanistan’s.Endemic.Species.....................................................................................................................................35 15. Afghanistan’s.Protected.Areas.......................................................................................................................................35 . 15.1.Band-i-Amir.National.Park................................................................................................................................ 37 15.2.Ajar.Valley.Wildlife.Reserve.............................................................................................................................. 39 15.3.Ab-i-Estada...................................................................................................................................................... 40 . 15.4.Dasht-i-Nawar.................................................................................................................................................. 41 15.5.Hamun-i-Puzak................................................................................................................................................. 43 15.6.Kol-i-Hashmat.Khan.......................................................................................................................................... 44 15.7.Wakhan. .......................................................................................................................................................... 45 . 15.8.Nuristan............................................................................................................................................................ 47 15.9.Zadran............................................................................................................................................................. 47 15.10.Imam.Sahib.................................................................................................................................................... 47 15.11.Darqad.......................................................................................................................................................... 47 15.12.Northwest.Afghanistan................................................................................................................................... 48 15.13.Registan.Desert.............................................................................................................................................. 48 16. Afghanistan’s.Agricultural.Biodiversity............................................................................................................................49 16.1.The.Significance.of.Agricultural.Biodiversity..................................................................................................... 49 16.2.Varieties.of.Agricultural.Species....................................................................................................................... 49 16.3.Wild.Species.as.the.Ancestors.of.Agricultural.Species..................................................................................... 50 . 16.4.Afghanistan’s.Crop.and.Livestock.Species.and.Varieties................................................................................. 50

..Afghanistan:..... .A............................The.....Checklist.Standard........Office...Neighbouring.........Species........Sayer........(IBAs).................Afghanistan............Classification.....Areas................on...........of................... Figure......3....Listed........... Table..........(C)..4... Appendix.............Normal......Office.vegetation...........Checklist...of......................8.......Red.........on............in... Appendix... Comparison.......Evans...........Areas.............................................of.................Temperature.......and..............on..114 Appendix..(CITES)........................................known.............. 13 World................93 Appendix.Normal..Afghanistan:....Global..105 Appendix..............List.........Amphibians..in.endemic...............human.Checklist.........Found.....Liverworts......Protected...........................................................on...... World............... Table.of..................53 .6.....Van........Afghanistan:........Checklist..be.........Afghan.Afghanistan..................................................Afghanistan......to.......Trade.......Afghanistan........World....... Table............ 18 Subjective...Biodiversity...........7...............significant.......known...........of...A.....117 List of Tables Table...................................The..........Mean......Redrawn..Listed...and...Global.......... ..diversity.............. . Eco-regions.Mean......I...Protected....9...............Species.........5.......2..Known....................to................of..and.. Afghan.............68 Appendix.......on..Afghanistan:.............Classification.... Figure..................................... Literature..of.........prior....of..........Provinces........Van....................................Afghanistan:.............(from........... 26 Number......of....... 16 ......2.............. List of Figures Figure....4...................... ....The...................or..........of.............3.......1. 19.........The........... Figure.....II.................................87 Appendix........by.....Countries.............in.of......Classifications.WWF-US.............Differing..........A...[1981])...in.....A.11..........Standard.......Monthly............112 ...Mosquitoes..........Afghanistan.......of.................expected.......(1972)..der....................1......10.....and........2.......of.....Composition.......of........the.Fish............Afghanistan:........................ Appendix................of.......IUCN............ 28 Important...The......for.of...10.......Butterflies...... ...................Checklist............... 38 . 16 Description..... Table.wetlands...information...Eco-regions... 29 Species....Appendices.........A..Afghanistan:..............8.to...........Exist...Afghan.............................to...........of......................7. 36 Species..A..to........for...Birds.............Afghanistan...................seven..... Afghan...........Function........ Recommended.........Species.........the...........Reptiles...........The.58 Appendix.............................................listed............9.........Bibliography..................................106 Appendix......... 51 ..........................Protected...52 18.............Fungi..... 13 Udvardy...The...by.............Conserving................................................of......on..........Biogeographic.... .. 35 UNEP-WCMC’s..............of.........A................Sayer.......in...............(1981).......Provinces.................Afghanistan...............(1994)...53 ...... Table.the...........................12..Structure.....A..............12...... Table....Zon.....4..........................The..Monthly................Bird......................Priority.Subject.and.......Stations.........in...................Areas.........be..17..............................Eco-region.........Mammals............ 20 Map.....Zon..........94 ..................................by....Afghanistan..Afghanistan’s...classification..6.....agriculture.....Lichens.......................................Afghanistan’s...Actions..........Threatened.....................the....Afghanistan’s........Endangered.........1... Table.....................Species..........Checklist........... activity.....................................5..The....A.......Species.....Stations...................... 15 WWF-US...........Cited...from.Realms...............Precipitation.3.107 Appendix..WWF-US......Afghanistan:......................of...(mm)........ 17 Freitag’s........alteration..................of..Human........99 Appendix..and..Meterological....... Table........Biomes......... 25 List................. Map..Convention........A.............Afghan..Afghan.......Meteorological..biologically.........Afghanistan’s........Afghanistan...........Biodiversity..............der.......of...........................Areas..............Checklist.seven.................Database......... Table.Udvardy.......Impact... Acknowledgements.....Checklist. Table............... ..................of.......of......Checklist....Present.....11.Afghanistan:....potential........from........in......Afghanistan.....and........... Table.......

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formally. made.extinction. a.Afghan.the. Afghanistan.recorded. .eco-regions. the.was. 150. widespread.and. plants. therefore. of.and.of.crop.woodlands.investigations. seven...contributing.eco-regions. vertebrate.environment. and. 5%.the. Prior.fish.extinction.been.known.species.. animals. Endangered.by.. of.(UNEP).output. mammals.arid.wetlands.Reserves. about. Afghan.Capacity. .The.were. biodiversity... The. grassland.5%.because.monsoon-influenced. on.at.belong.23.sometimes. amphibians. has.Self-Assessment.published.. six...is.biodiversity.shows. a.designated.intact. formal.Afghanistan.which. and. 88. Afghanistan. of. through.report.butterflies. and.but. 15.rural... Analysis.recent. or.in. and.legally.areas.a.shows.people. appear..Consequently. by.and.are. records. .20. Trade. various..of. Afghanistan.of.in. 4.four. significant.was.of.. reduced.local. no.. species. be.exploitation. •. eight. is. species..natural.few.parties.provided.of.. .density. potential.one. of.species). eastern. forests. currently.national.Executive Summary Biodiversity.in.. to...2002.this.anywhere.protected. and. 428. exist. .that.seven.Afghanistan’s.status.. to.this. only.of. on. that. are.vegetation.to.the. Afghanistan.Palaearctic. Appendix.mammals.entirely. are. combination.comprised. reptiles.species.two. the..once.report.. for.elements.threatened. 39..is. effectively.surface.of.plant. true.Indo-Malayan. taxonomy.most. A. too.Needs.two. obviously.may. on.to.Convention.There. ecosystem.. in.living.but. comprised. 1978.subject.of.tree. as. instituted. implemented.Nations.as.found.of. a.this.in.species.liverworts.management.the.depend.fuel. Fauna. .(i.decades. particularly. and.butterflies.that.originally.and. Afghanistan.in.Environment.–.of.River. depend.and.to.on. Appendix. assessment.200.provide.almost. .the. Global. endemic.from. grazing-resistant.of. I.factor. suggest. numbers. ..relatively.with.600.biodiversity.of.Open. Only.potential.of.Afghan.but. these.in.–. managed. List. is. no. History.that.low.at.Valley. of.breaks.of.ecological. pistachio. The.of.Realm.civilizations.list. native.narrative. species. declared.National.2008.by. plant.collection.collapse.. species. analyses.vulnerable. A. enormously.cushion.Wildlife.centres. •. longer. of.are. that.variety..summary.to.500.information.which.was.000. 137. the. unique.30%..proposed.into..Afghan.there. there. the.as.139..rich.molluscs.101.wealth. biodiversity.all.been. comprised.of..limited. Wild.the.of.steppe.by. Programme. birds. Species.project. wetlands.were...now.was.small.be.area. to..Afghanistan’s.. birds.report. herbivorous.of.origin.environmental.three. in.International. are. once. healthy.. is..However. old. living.often. called.comprised. on.. a.since.of. World. analysis. to.is. information.reptiles.the. eight. suggest..composition. 38%. some.the. selected.the..amphibians.listing.species.humanity’s..intent. about.goods. to.in.. overgrazing. this.by. in. (IUCN).in. listed.has.numerous.biodiversity. A.country. the. is.Environment.II.the. 21. are.three.. results.of.risk. subspecies. juniper.shrubland. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  .1.1978.at. societies..as. and.that.an...Kabul. legally. great. on. (CITES). 92.exist. and. .and. but.a.for. . Flora.significance. to.biodiversity.information.onset.is.known. questionable.such. reliable. •. A. original. being..of.e. of.in.forests.. to.Recent.development. are.bibliography. range..significant. mammals.an.the.extinction. of. Red. from. of. to.that.and.Afghanistan’s.. to. and. No.vast.the.and..the.and.is.range.Sanctuaries.(NCSA).of.biodiversity..of. 112.the.of.‘the.degradation. or.245.is.are.never.detected.origin.. uncertainty.what. do.endangered. eight. Government. significantly.of.. validity.four.. Little. lower.still.Park.scale.land.country. of. of.summary.large. to.risk. vibrant.is.probably. known.are.things.of.Provinces.of.to. Deciduous.species.the.was..to.the.recent.records.. estimates. list.upon.to. for. Afghanistan.15. war. areas.eight.and.poor’.the.of. of.Management.suffered.has.is. vascular. Afghanistan.area. been. biogeographical.suggesting.smaller.are.United.is.last.that.minimal. Much. as. large..There.dominated..Waterfowl.services. verge. known. a. protected. once..National. on. The.part.considered..and.gathered.which.critical/. .. and.Afghanistan.one.areas.. species.about. about. healthy. has.the. total.Afghanistan’s.of.Afghanistan.stable..components:. evergreen. Satellite. only.close.areas. many..few. endemic.within. image.provided.. significance.classification..Only. species. of.provide.of. to.. a. 3. that..down. Conservation.the. Union.the. 515.biodiversity.subalpine.has. globally.

and. use. 10 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Develop.current.Nawar. recovering. juniper. 1.Afghanistan’s.eastern. for. areas. suggested. targeted.biodiversity.preserve.. IUCN. potential.Afghan. 6.in. areas. protected.comprehensive.. and.the. found..Afghanistan. all. a.into. the. Survey.crop. Afghan. establish. effective.of.of. . intervene. managed. of.and.and. of.breeds.. as. for.. are. Dashte. conservation.status.species.priority..forests.of. Encourage. 9. ecoregions. process.in. wetlands. protected.. system.plan. scholars.. current.. wheat. feasible. other.designed. remnant.livestock.local. areas.assistance. to. Ajar.protected..Strategy. for.with. the.of.a. and.and.sheep.. actions. Red-Listing. plans. 7. areas..along. priority. legally. be.Afghanistan. and. crops.. pistachio.technical. and.develop. document. surveys.native. Develop.. the. protected. national.. in. Develop.Nine. a.representative. and. landraces..northern. entities.Afghanistan.for.of. Afghanistan.Plan.of. effectively. all.plants. recognized. destruction.protect. forests. Afghan.goats.landraces. Priority. of. by. to. 8. Pamir-i-Buzurg. monsoondependent.seven.eight. Afghanistan. incorporating.system. Action. Develop.with.. 2. national. plan. for.suitability.Afghanistan. high. cattle. should. and. to. remaining. 5.mammals.a..areas..to. in. biodiversity. 3... Valley.of....are. Initiate.status. preserving. international. determine. effective. Nine. major.to. in. in.flora..of.National..and. priority. areas. 4.farmers.programs.Biodiversity. Band-i-Amir.to. Develop. this. and. the. of. Establish.breeds.inclusion. listed. plans.for.

found.species.Convention. a.different.paper..of. array.recent.The.and. and. Environment. 2 What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity.country. information.subjects. have.in.true.This. upon..is. have.major.and...as: … the variability among living organisms from all sources including.Nations.of.primary.the. in.ultimately.their.Nations..the. deserts.conditions. known.depend. are.resources.concrete.Afghans.things. existing.Environment. on. categorized.uncited.of.in. various.war.. .focused. Afghan. Global.from.maintaining.species.major.and.was. the.is..for. species.number. Management. available. be.idea.Its.a.home.credibility. and. in. of.other.desk. rapid.found. growth..of. a. a. upon.woodlands.. among..study. back.variability.of.. of.differences.genetic.in.defined.of.current.species.changing.that.be. a. and.. differences.National.recent. authoritative.three.undertaken.Capacity.political.United. 3.ways. living.“biological. project.is.mountains. Afghanistan.of.populations. Every.. types.for.report. in. this includes diversity within species.better. in.of. Afghanistan’s. protect.or.must.quality.the.exceptions.conditions.Afghan.of. Afghanistan’s.. left..collections.of. vast.are.can. as..data.personal.can.to. .summaries..security.that.development.sources.the. appear.and.striking.summary..landscapes.. Biological. and.decades.individuals.ensure.the. of.old.a. is. little.among.diversity”. population. list.rehabilitate.of.genetic.literature. and.secondary.living.will.office. species. ruins.(UNEP).the.data..that.species.. ecological.beauty.With.require.most.from.biotic.Self-Assessment. consists. ways:..taxonomy. has. This.of.the.pre-dating.Kabul. checklists.basic.conditions. Afghan.country.. between species and of ecosystems.developed.on.organized. natural.agricultural.a.by.with. few.understanding. biodiversity.decades..by.observations.and.in. the. Very. differing.into.based. of.to.the.United.. many..provide. biodiversity. the. species.. marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part..upheaval.open. terrestrial.differences.Afghanistan’s.. environment. to. inter alia... in.the.. a.to.the.of.environment.. environment..and.achieves. depended. for.. primary.variation. of. to.of. the.a.for.of. to. widely.existing.attempts.often.livelihoods. groups.forests. recent.on. about. 2. to.biodiversity....are.natural.ecosystems.of.the. “variability”.the.narrative..and. been.communities.to. multitude..what.. and. sources.first-hand.measures. Band-e-Amir is located in Bamiyan Province of Central Afghanistan and is the first proposed national park in Afghanistan for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 11 .the.current.Programme. go. on.crops. number.vast.and.arise.Diversity.environment. The.and.enhancing.of.. (NCSA). . of.or.Unfortunately.the. and. biodiversity. Central.biodiversity. Afghan..welldocumented.the. manifested.concept.the.of. ecosystems.1980. made.part.parts: 1. areas.is. is. biodiversity.climate.1 Introduction Afghanistan..based.report.rich. Once. attempt.from.known.array. Before.contraction.of.of.parts.the.aspects.currently.various.the.Afghanistan. country’s. referring. reference.things.animals. developed. between. species.of. .to.

life.the. major. nearly. tangible.the.Afghans.2030. the.2005). services.economically.Poverty...the.rural.demands. (Population..building.Afghans. rate. time.are.productive.to.the.p.these..is. cannot.. reach.the.way..be.. by..The. population.. develop.has..2006).. in.include.the. the.to.Reference.only. granted. still.. as. remain. Balkh Province.7%...These.societies.if.years.the.land..wild.doubling. year.provides.that.rapidly.of. .erosion.. .from..only. More.upper.3 Why is Biodiversity Important to Afghanistan? The.. conservation.by.growth.If. .14.put.it.. and. underlying.people.Accordingly. environment. Northern Afghanistan 12 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .nation. estimated. usually. 3.and.World. population.goods.928.living. (2005).fuel. to.2001.biodiversity. million. 2003. (CIA.biodiversity.is. The. per.more.1978.. few.in.. has.the.6%.predicted.future.less.wealth. 11%.Nations. dependent.under. the.natural. ultimately. rapid.in. provided.population.. crops.harvesting.condemned.pollination.population.the.make. these. obvious.poor”.biodiversity.central. are.“Return. basic.services.primary.by..to.are.biodiversity.Bureau.people.for.000. by. name. (World..and. often. rapidly.. at. the.. .game.living. The..Afghanistan”.provided.the..that..to..1981. 2..and. uses. poor.of.biodiversity. 1978.of. returned. . in.climatic..of. population.fish.land. for.and.. two.9%.converse. 81.biodiversity. have.the. biodiversity.and.than.it.5.is.setting. million.the.remain.and. was.estimate.a.Reference. natural. has.vibrant. population.Afghanistan. World. was.the. Collection of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) around the Amu River.by.a.Zon..In.most.987. population. ecosystem. is.of.must. (CIA.website). .grazing.4%.to.is.its.rural. provided. Without.components. projected.a.1970.of. the. Biodiversity. biodiversity. 41.Bureau. urban.fishing. (Population.. 2050. fertility. while. by. people..to.on. 29.wealth.for. of..of. as.biodiversity. the. and. The.loss.and.terms.on.strife.(UNHCR.30.rarely. hunting.growth. expected.be.it.a.figure. This.the.. of.. The.stage.fruits.World.the.by.a.for.materials. to. nearly.g.for..period. stability.country.contributed.is.. the. but.termed.secure. challenge.becoming.are.provided. services.halt.Afghans. to...13). refuges.civil. than.of.country. .2005).is. 4 Afghanistan’s Human Population The.Land. The.control. Afghanistan.1.to.strictly.Factbook.services.monetary. Afghanistan. increasing.of.a..population. rose.biodiversity.. FactBook.. its.close.“the.rich...and. Less.and.the. is. more. to. in. argued.age.that. double. tend. is.This. July. 2005.to. Afghanistan. poor.even. 23...goods..timber. Resources.has.to.soil. fuel.land.biodiversity. beginning.form.Since.der.rate.into.of. because..(United.2000.global.for.and.the. Afghanistan.of..remains.crop.of..in.lies. to.and. 44.first.possible. website).Afghan.Population.that.. inevitably. to. compared.933.understood.of.from..traditional.Bank. goods. taken.of.is.predominately.value.the.(Sayer.in. ecosystem.war. the.population..wealth.and.been. and. growth.is. decline.e.grazing. of. in. abroad. loss. to.in.website).options.Van. “ecosystem. 2005).a.obvious. ultimate.biodiversity. of. Institute. a.direct.crop. and.collapse.the.quality.decline.measured.2005. nation.the.. services. but.The..represents.. in.urbanized.years. presents. emigration.not. Diamond.Division. a. services”. leading.3%.of.eliminated.to..rural.

and.temperature..(Library.is. and.monsoon-influenced.strongly.name.Society.from.and.. seven.and. +34º..and.mountains. Climate and Hydrology The.Safed.the. Standard..m. with.at. Table.smaller.(700.Mean.km. mean.none. just.that.Safid.m). Afghanistan.The.as.Paropamisus). about.. Global.Siestan.. Data. US.great..World.in.Stations m elevation 964 700 2183 1010 1791 3366 1200 J 3 7 -9 5 -2 -11 0 F 6 10 -7 8 2 -9 2 M 10 16 2 14 6 -6 8 A 16 22 9 20 13 0 14 M 22 27 13 26 17 3 18 J 30 32 17 30 23 8 24 J 30 34 19 32 25 9 27 A 28 32 18 29 24 8 26 S 23 27 12 23 19 4 21 O 16 20 7 18 13 1 8 N 9 13 2 11 6 -4 8 D 4 9 -4 7 1 -8 3 Mean 16 21 6 19 12 0 13 Table. Normals.Afghanistan. cold. mountains. .an. Table.1956-1983. is.crescent.just..(UNEP. Normal.. precipitation.Range. Geographic. Texas.arid.station.Normal. 1.northern.precipitation. over.Farah.366. winters.northern.Suleiman.feature.(National.and. Nowshakh)... . collected.m). is.(3.lies.Koh.Pakistan.Precipitation. Kabul. summers. is.the.484.(C).Mount. m. itself.winter.each.Hindu.at.semi-desert. (mm).(Siah..summer.and. precipitation.. Kush.elevation.is. .the. of..2. surrounding.radiate. extending.extreme. of.m). .is.. .influence. slightly. Afghanistan.mountain.and.elevation.lowlying. of.the. WMO.spring. of.and.. (Cº). inconsistent..found.descending. forming. . (National.Hindu.to.Salang.above. stations.the.period.early. for. ranging. The.nd).Meteorological. than..Doshakh. Global.Approximately.Afgha. Standard. the. France....Temperature.influenced.winter.(WMO). and.Global.5 Topography.seven.It. Afghanistan. .2003a.with.the.Global. (or. Range.the.Siah.Standard.seven.Afghan. the. north-western.The.and. Pakistan.while.east. precipitation.Congress. Salang.Several.and.including. north-east. temperature.Standard.. 400.precipitation. monthly.parts.falling.366.Office.continental.southwest. the.is. .the. and. terminology.21).shrublands. Selseleh-i-Band-i-Turkestan. mean. Range..by.into. 2.and... Table.Nowshak.massif. but. Herat Farah Chagcharan Kandahar Kabulk Salang Faizabad pp.to. monthly.The...grade.most.Koh. speaking. the. are. from.. shows.the. precipitation. properly. were. Mohammad.Kohi-Khwaja.by. snow. of.Office.Ghar.Western. the.is.Monthly.for. Koh-i-Baba. woodlands. seven.semi-arid.of. western. falling.highest.clearly.Band. from.(700. at.Climatic.lowest.the.desert..than.outwards.“Global.. and.measured.089.strongly. area.central. World. of.(comprised.elevation.Stations m elevation 964 700 2183 1010 1791 3366 1200 J 51 25 30 53 36 109 48 F 46 23 33 43 61 142 66 M 56 23 41 41 69 185 91 A 28 8 36 18 71 198 99 M 10 3 20 3 23 124 76 J 0 0 0 0 0 10 8 J 0 0 0 3 5 8 5 A 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 S 0 0 0 0 3 8 3 O 3 3 10 3 3 30 23 N 10 3 15 8 18 69 30 D 36 10 18 20 23 104 33 Mean 239 97 203 191 312 996 483 for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 13 . of..Kush.point.shows..elevation. temperature.the. for. system.in.mountainous.has.Meterological.in.Koh.-11º.mean.seasonal.Normal.1995). Centre. Afghanistan. from. The.into.Standard.monthly.from.extending.ranges).January.of.from.Farah.in. historically. lowest.at..ranges.m..2.in. is. shows.in.into. hot.Extensive.the.the. other.slightly. semi-deserts.highest.July.m).referred. climate. southwesterly.a.a.. stations.of.general. Organization.1.dominating. Herat Farah Chagcharan Kandahar Kabulk Salang Faizabad World.regions. nature.. 7. larger.Afghan..given. Like. most..obvious.almost.western.to. km².The. state.country..Salang.the. of.Eastern. comprised. Koh-i-Paghman.Kush.500.with.regions. the.(3.. northern.at.27%. strongly.southern. at.Monthly. only. nistan.Mean. season. and. the.(mm).spine.Normals”.the. characterized. .open..forming.in...the. the.the.forests.falling.in. Hindu.000. from.1.in. website).as. 652. Spin.Meteorological.

.elevations.the.in.River.southwest.Dasht-e-Nawar Flamingo and Waterfowl Sanctuary.flowing. Vegetation.now.hydrologic. arises. marshes.downstream.Darya.receiving. the. than. derived.it.Sea..surrounding.inside. Coad.flows.System.than..rains. through..Gowmal.Indus..largest. flowing. Lora.in.radially.southeast.in.(Oxus).within.are.outflow. Afghanistan’s.Turkemenistan. Chamkani.Chamkani..Kush. salt. km.drains.up.Laghman.300.it. north.. Helmand-Siestan.about.drought. and. is.countries.Darya. Helmand. Range.Amu. effects.in. Kunar.km. the.of. tributaries.north.Panjshir.River. re-entering. Zhob-Gowmal. does. 14 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .into.and. of.. •.Afghanistan’s. its. one.Kho.Freitag. Afghanistan’s. Iran. Southern Afghanistan The.into.arises. Pakistan.Kurram). into. Darya.Basin—the.flow.. provides.source.of.not. north-western.the.northern.Hindu. northern.Rivers. 400.reaching.flows. •. mean.border. about.in. the.country.. in. in.period.delta. Toba.in.water.320. •. 1.for.turning.Aral.Rud.Chinese.on.flows.. Hari.Range..the. the.(1971).and.at. Kush. Province. Basin—the. Murgab. much.falling. on.of. before. Mountains.Paktika.km. susceptible.the.it.Basin—the.monsoon.because. north. (UNEP. and.arises. flourishes.water.closed. particularly.Basin—the. The. warming.km.the.Wakhan.and.west. to.the. source.km.it.Pamir. flows.River.dries.Amu.while.country’s.the.. and.in.areas.long.of. Kabul. information.Province. form.The.in. Lora.outside.emptying.high. and.Numerous.Jalalabad. west. (1981). snowmelt. joins. from.up.west. more. Merv.flowing.and. argues.water.passing.At.Kush.area.time. Afghanistan. •.border.join.Hindu. turning.Attock.Zhob.joins.it. of..before. and.near.Darya. country. •.in.patterns.490.in.or. border. Pakistan. Pishin.Safed. the. 40%.where.Basin—the.Turkmenistan.Pamirs.the.have. dries.dry.It.summer. arises. Afghanistan.Rivers.of. arises.arises.all.Kabul. to. winter.flowed.precipitation.into. the. the.Basin—The. precipitation..River.from. southwest.into.and. Helmand. is.either.summer. for.300.River.the.Pakistan.for. Basin—The.Major.up. Kabul. forms.no.out.as.where. Ghazni Province.basins.Pakistan.Pakistan. in.surface.Amu.and. 1.Koh-i-Baba. Hamuni-Helmand. River. in. •.then.River.limits. and.flows. •.the.flows.Kabul. and. mostly. vegetation.from.north.is. Paghman.the.its.are.the.almost.. before.the.five..Logar.Rud. Afghanistan.into.for. Amu. in.Indus.and.from. Pishin.basins: •. River.arises.Three..the. Kakar. Afghanistan-Iran..but.most. flats.in.arises.south.Murgab.is.Hamun-i-Lora.south-southeast.Indus.River.other.rivers..the.flows.and.before.the. and.the. Herat. the.near.at.Basin—The.that.from.the. precipitation.Hindu. flows.350.basin. the.Indus.the.2003a).River. for.eight. global.the.basins. annual.of.(=.before..Hari. following. the.the. rather.far.snow.Afghanistan’s. River.km. There.Bamiyan. into. of. into.falling..

Realm.and.develop. across.animals.approach.. not.plants.transition.often. as.and. the. in..developed.150.in..Udvardy.Provinces..in.(from.Afghanistan.which..of.(WPAD).lies.and.to. to.classification.describing.Udvardy. area.is.identify.eastern.of. unique.homogeneously.between. century. the. groups.Many. in.condition.and.overlapping. biotic. the.is.and. species. do. Union.applications.the. Conservation.topographical.tend. still.seven. areas.has. shows. was. climatic. Afghanistan.Indo-Malayan.regions.and.synthesis.“Provinces”. the. sources. face.are.border. and. Provinces.representing..typologies.by.and.. Earth.International.(see. between.the. up. Udvardy’s.universal.an.distributions.remarkable.the.the.species.life-forms.show.World. Each.differing. Many.der. and. Protected.of. Figure..two.to. eight. Numerous..to.1.Afghanistan. one. of.these.conservation.Sayer.scheme. 19th..tend. 1. world.influential. noticed.nomenclatures.Database.then. but.been. and.regions.exist.the.all.Van.country-sized. boundaries.Udvary’s.Udvardy.and.global. of.. Udvardy’s.of.to.species.the.used. According.and.types.animal.Zon.Sayer.Realms.These.same. secondary. notice. The.to.places. bio-geographers.same. to. distributed. began.for.correspondence.categorize. another.plant.years. of.related. Areas.Afghanistan.represented.(1975). represented.in. Udvardy. into.in.and.in. Map.Zon.. to.by.and.of. Figure.Table. bio-geographical.species. Early.Van. World. systems.assigned.past. continent-size. The.is. down. the. assemblages.der.and.been.but. closely. “Realms”.of. and. 193. reference.allowed..[1981]) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 15 .describe.is.. biologists. is. (IUCN).over.schemes.distinctive.to.have.such.difficult.used. general.(1981). from...6 Biogeography and Ecological Classification Plant.with.being.histories..unique.. in.general.used.world. approximate.animal.often.patterns.16). breaks.allow.biome. that. that.p. geographical.not.Provinces.Provinces. approaches.the.the. endemic.3. The.by. determine.plant. the.animal.system.nested.with...it. the. biotas.criticized.four.one.biomes. patterns. unrelated. It.the.so.BirdLife.to. 14. approach.occur.two.

northeast.Present. bio-geographic.Hindu. Ranges. fauna.the. Afghan.of.origin.Province.Karakorum.the. Palaearctic Realm Turanian Region Not recognized The open woodlands and desert north of the Hindu Kush and along the Amu Darya River. of.that. Palaearctic Realm Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest Region The Dasht-i-Margo.Indian. plates. map. of.Provinces. Palaearctic Realm Pamir–Tien Shan Region The Hindu Kush.. p.and..in.into. is.border.still.The. Low elevation area of Mediterranean climate between the Hindu Kush and Spinghar Ranges.of. a. Most. Indian.and.Indus.Kush. lower. Shan. animal..forest.Biogeographic.collided.or.4. the. Eastern Intramontane Basin Lower valley of the Kabul River east of Kabul to the Pakistan border. area. its auxiliary ranges (Koh-i-Baba. Valley. Central Highlands The Hindu Kush and Koh-i-Baba Ranges.ago. Eastern half of the Wakhan Corridor..Indo-Malayan.the.in.(Tropical.boundary.Indo-Malayan.of.in. ..Table. to.in.Palaearctic. Forest.for. . Habibi.the.over.. simplified. The.Realm. Palaearctic Realm Iranian Desert Region Southern Desert Region Low-lying desert in the southwest centred on the Seistan basin and including the Registan desert.Classifications.whereas.deciduous. 10).elements.of. Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Province not recognized 1 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .dry. Kabul. Udvardy.the.. Pakistan.. small. be. regions.region.. are.and.to. the.the. Monsoon.dispersed..Afghanistan Habibi Monsoon Forests Takhtajan Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Western Himalayan Province Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Turkestanian Province Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Tibetan Province Palaearctic Realm Himalayan Highland Province The forested region of eastern Afghanistan under the influence of the monsoon and the Kabul River valley. and. and the Pamirs. Biomes.causing.Realms. Indus-Ganges.Differing.just. Registan Desert and Seistan Basin in the southwest.River. resulting. species. Indo-Malayan Realm Indo-Ganges Monsoon Province Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests Table. and.predominantly.many.in.species. plant.uplift.plate. Palaearctic Realm Anatolian-Iranian Desert Region Not recognized North-western mid-altitude deserts.3..first. Udvardy Comparison. Eurasian. biome). Afghanistan’s.Afghanistan Biomes Realms/Provinces Palaearctic Realm Hindu Kush Highlands Province Anatolian-Iranian Desert Province Pamir-Tian-Shan Highlands Province Turanian Province Iranian Desert Province Himalayan Highlands Province Mixed Mountain and Highland Biome Cold Continental Desert and Semidesert Biome Mixed Mountain and Highland Biome Cold Continental Desert and Semidesert Biome Warm Desert and Semidesert Biome Mixed Mountain and Highland Biome the..flora. Nevertheless. considered. in.the.Afghanistan. interface.15. and. .is.sliding.have. frequent.Himalaya. Spinghar and Paghman Ranges).million.corresponds. earthquakes.This. Tien.years.tectonic.. Palaearctic Realm Hindu Kush Region The forests of Kunar and Paktya coming under the influence of the monsoon.are. presents.. (2003.Indo-Malayan. Not recognized Steppe Region Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Turkestanian Province Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Turkestanian Province Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Armeno-Iranian Province Holarctic Kingdom Irano-Turanian Region Armeno-Iranian Province Stony deserts forming an extensive arc around the Central Highlands. the.

This.and..“Stable/.Wildlife. environment.WWF.Alpine. extent.eco-region. of. Udvardy’s.Figure.predominantly.(Olson.ecoregions. classification. into. on.000. (with.and.eco-regions.and.approaches..natural. opposed.Only. average.the.2. . classifications. of. 740. (1986). Table. 1 Web access to an interactive site is at http://www.“Critical/. to.considered.the.“Vulnerable”.the. employed.Alpine. Udvardy. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 . .et.represented. containing. including species lists.biomes.are. zoomed. .Endangered”. terminology.Afghanistan’s.cfm. units.. internet.approximate. Udvardy’s.-.Neighbouring.Afghanistan.15. .biota.considered. the.permission.15.barely.Afghanistan.org/science/eco-regions.WWF-USA) that. presents. land. system. and.USA... by. these.origin. reflects. 867.of.IndoMalayan. as.Classification.as.worldwildlife.. shows.of.and. original.al.. eco-regions. km².. These..not.map.of. distinct. are.assemblage. of. prior. The. Afghanistan.reflect.these.shows. as. “relatively. defined. four. the.of.with. floral.are.Valley’s.Meadows” eco-regions.“Northwestern. to. in.as. Earth’s. eco-regions.does.globally.and.. It.000. refined.the..are.Fund.that. Provinces.representing. the. 4. a.Afghanistan.available. Figure.of. and. large. and find information about each eco-region. species. compares. communities.boundaries.World.. .Five. (1975).Shrub.. broadly. the. are.Countries. Himalayan.communities. 150. a. terrestrial. global. eight.the.and. km².2001)1.Intact”.eco-regions. Eco-regions.“Sulaiman. Takhtajan.2. considered.Range. major.in.land-use.Jalalabad. classifying.with.change”. schema.Eco-region. in.. One can search for individual eco-regions. while.Meadows”. has. WWF-US. the.the. natural. approach.

Table.Afghanistan Eco-region “Zip-Code” Eco-region Name Global Status Temperate Coniferous Forests PA0506 PA 0808 Montane Grasslands and Shrublands PA1006 PA 1014 PA 1005 PA 1004 PA 1012 PA 1018 Deserts and Xeric Shrublands PA1307 PA 1309 PA 1301 PA 1306 PA 1313 PA 1326 PA 1322 Baluchistan Xeric Woodlands Central Afghan Mountains Xeric Woodlands Afghan Mountains Semi-Desert Badkhiz-Karabil Semi-Desert Central Persian Desert Basins Registan-North Pakistan Sandy Desert Paropamisus Xeric Woodlands Critical/Endangered Critical/Endangered Critical/Endangered Critical/Endangered Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau Alpine Steppe Pamir Alpine Desert And Tundra Hindu Kush Alpine Meadow Ghorat-Hazarajat Alpine Meadow Northwestern Himalayan Alpine Shrub and Meadows (minor occurrence in Afghanistan) Sulaiman Range Alpine Meadows (minor occurrence in Afghanistan) Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Vulnerable Relatively Stable/ Intact Stable/Intact East Afghan Montane Conifer Forests Gissaro-Alai Open Woodlands (minor occurrence in Afghanistan) Vulnerable Critical/Endangered Temperate Grasslands.Found.of. Biome Description.5. Savannahs and Shrublands 1 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .WWF-US.Eco-regions.in.

. Freitag. cooling.surface. “Hadley. country.. and. affected. air. of.current.GLCC.levels.(2003). the. Afghanistan. activity.the. not.different. vegetation.have. through. the. woodlands. 11% 0. rather. subsidence”.was. classifications.sunlight. back.. the.of.(GLCC). following.Afghanistan..may.High. the.Cover. destruction. (http://www. classifications.into.the. a.habitat.1% Sparse or barren vegetation.the.(nd). of. depending. be..from. Kunar-Nuristan. that. Snow and ice covered areas are lands under snow and/or ice cover throughout the year. found.1.vegetative.with. dense. regions..3.from.ncdc.results.except.Resolution.4..that. dominated.benchmark. mechanism.Earth. indicate. space.of. subjected. and. and.in. density. the.provide. can.of.are. A. understanding.on.ground.is. irrigated. been.the. the.country.html).the.resolution.resolution. cover.Data.the. subtropical.have.livestock. of.patterns. have. Otherwise. removal.e.a. by.the. drier.watercourses.lowering.g.(1972). perhaps. capacity.is. to.7.fairly..studies. land. Information.. the.than.–. vegetation.months. throughout.the.. by.months..and. World.and. Cell. called. The.of. shrublands.very.dense. search.It.Global. in. resulting.their.Kandahar. short-. has.data.of.interesting.no.–. somewhat. habitat. radiation. albedo.the. summer. past. might. central.Observatory.They.moisture.which. shrub.all. alpine. cloud-convective.only. thereby.are.all. Defined as lands dominated by woody vegetation less than 2 metres tall and with shrub canopy cover greater than 10%.ecological. Cropland/natural vegetation mosaics are lands with a mosaic of croplands.over.Afghan. snow and ice Wetlands and waterbodies 15% 0% for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 .sparsely.the. an. speculative. are. forest. upon.back.show. the.Earthtrends.the..at.km.high. land. people.. prior. to. (nd).slightly.of. moister.air.albedo... characterizing. Defined as lands with a permanent mixture of water and herbaceous or woody vegetation that cover extensive areas.indicating. the. that. vegetation. border. collection.Land..flow.along.is. several..Siestan. augments.7 Afghanistan’s Land Cover Afghanistan. entire..is. and. escaping.. by. atmosphere.is. highly.been.climate. Classification.researchers.country.expanses.Large.increased. alteration. deserts. (Anonymous. single and multiple cropping systems).in.Some. Radiometer..of.that. humans). to.not. There.Otherwise.to.the.an. the.croplands. proportion. over.past. Consequently. Croplands are defined as lands covered with temporary crops followed by harvest and a bare soil period (e.fragments. on..Kush. a.as.thousands.and.suggest.speculate.website.climate.expanses. There.—.the. Management. of.. in. above.limited.and.human. “Charney.Reducing. Services.the. impacts. rocks.coarse.sky..is. by. Defined as buildings and other man-made structures. An.5.Paleoclimatology.(nd). of. primarily. of. prior. or snow with never more than 10% vegetative cover during any time of the year.loop.. overgrazing.largely. oak. is.there. are. climate..and. forests.cover. This class was developed from the Digital Chart of the World’s “populated places layer” (Defence Mapping Agency. 1997). process... change.retention.years. the.derived.Very.activity. by.Centre.parts. small.be. effect”.dry.feedback. sand. potential.no. large.for. long-wave. In.which. major.land.whether. quantity. if.of. Afghanistan.a. to.. essence.thousand.and. the.suggests.UNOSAT. Forest Shrubland.the.and.1.for.apart. and grasslands in which no one component comprises more than 60% of the landscape. termed.the. areas.is.of. increases. vegetation.to. conditions.result.in..lake.(AVHRR).of.temperature. would..period.a. results.. methodology. over.moderate.detected.Afghanistan.had. and.. Defined as exposed soil. 0% 73% Defined as canopy cover >60% and height > 2 m. (i..so-called. Other. date.useful. the. to.forests.long. region.. been. atmosphere. the. typically.. classification. the. savannah and grassland Cropland and crop/natural mosaics Urban the.reflected.x. Afghanistan.Advanced.the. enjoyed. analysis.of.Hindu. climates.“natural”.that.gov/paleo/ftp-search.northern. cover.the. (AIMS). a.uses.largest.much. 1992). widespread. several.vegetated.. but..years.impact..for. facilitating.. are.of.noaa. It. modification.

is. Freitag’s.there. vegetation. majority.of. Paktya. Van.Pinus. Indian.Sayer. to.600. be.Prior.country’s.Vegetation. can. westernmost. These.Human. that.about.. suggests..Abies. regenerate.Sayer.including.Zon.on.Van. If..and.pressure.or.community.(1981) 20 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .(1971.summer.Cedrus. not. found.UNEP’s.(spruce). 8.forest.8 Afghanistan’s Eco-regions The. about.(1981).into.currently. the. the.. the.. estimates.and. been.Kunar. the.the.1.some. probably. the.. juniper. rains.that.the.(not.Forests.forest.Alteration. Olea-Reptonia).km².. .Provinces. life.25%.analysis. forests.therefore. forests. do.communities).. oak.3. ecoregion. of.Freitag’s.is.covered. Afghanistan. et.limits. where. livestock. country. because.summer. corresponds.Picea. extrapolated.Examination.to.receiving.shrubland.Precipitation.e. eastern. (fir). extension. additional. of.and. remaining. part. largely.canopy.Evergreen Coniferous Forest and Woodlands. .of. limited.pristine. 2 Based on proportion of points on a regular grid of 344 points laid over Freitag’s 12 vegetation map.1980.. closed.of. East Afghan Montane Conifer Forests.Potential..monsoon. .satellite.0.3. . is.soil.most.Redrawn. Olson.(cedar).1.and.Classification. 8. Figure.(oak).context.closed.km²..1 East Afghan Montane Conifer Forests (PA0506) The. been... 1970s.the.3. (pine). late. in.once.the.Afghanistan. 5%.the. lost.Nanghahar.Activity. classification. information.(i.grazing.the.for.Zon.Zon. Sayer. and..these.leaving. (1972).Based. Freitag’s.left.(1981). (1981)..of.of.throughout.in.Van..der.was.of.Paktika. eco-regions.term.800.to. of.(1972).its.Following.place.and. since.estimated.breaks. eastern.temperatures.roughly.attempt.by.image.area. of. Zon. of. conifers. al’s.(2003a).representing. in. has. . in.Nuristan.Afghanistan...Quercus.the.of.maps. areas. of. the.der.about. complete.they.plant.(1971).34. der.primarily.that.vegetation..Quercus. always. to.Conifereous.1972). are. of.community.km²..an.drought.northern..of.to. vegetative. that.have.Freitag...by. and. for. assumptions. 5%. cut..country.. the.with.1 Closed Forest Vegetation Closed.Afghanistan.and.of.or. (2003).are.Temperate Coniferous Forests. the. (PA0506). potential.high.. monsoon..that.. 1972).dominated.and.and. found.types. der.revert. with.Khost.Van. are. Freitag. of. and.have.forests.closed.may.vegetation.. by. East Afghan Montane Conifer Forest.the. were.000.and. (1971. most.of.the.country2. . half.that. Figure.of.Sayer. Immergrüne Nadelwalder und Offenwalder.

. 3.cedar.. leathery. grades.and. moist..tall.2. component.create. large tracts of natural conifer forest can still be found in the inaccessible Nuristan Province.less.up.most.The.break..decrease. –. terms.of.monsoon. dominate. cedar).Larsson.100. these... (2003a).Picea smithiana. Cedrus deodara.three.lost..trees. with.much. Sayer. (sclerophyllous:.economically.areas.months.the.(1972).to.. 1977.quickly..in. show..years.evenly.community...by.primary.as. are.throughout.eco-region.(>800.Juniperus species.and.were.forest. Afghanistan.the.well. than.border. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 21 .900..Pakistan.. 6. a..lost.if.This.would.period. and.it. and. begins. fir).m..and.rapid.in. higher.forest. –. forest.enough. Pinus gerardiana. provinces.summer. type.4.1.summer.for.is. the.Laghman. in.Afghanistan. and.erratic.. elsewhere.000..to.Provinces.(Himalayan. Evergreen Sclerophyllous Forests and Woodlands community..In. spruce).71%.In.important.the.forest. between. 8.illegally. Abies webbiana. and.harvested. type.but.In.for.rather. is. when. trees..29%.is. (Deodar.neighbouring. that.are. UNEP.to.predicted.Petocz.long.Analyses..forests..between.currently..year. the.100.other. Between.Nuristan. in.cover. long.minor.was..a.forests. leaves).5. here. trees.Kunar.up.dominated.a.Zon.. Between. elevation..are.summer.Although increasingly under threat from illegal logging. 2.dense.. in.of.–.der. into.(1981).3.53%..than..just. drier.stands.. this.80%. that.develop. 35. pine).m.of.at.eastern. being. is.closed.are.are.suggests. in.with.to. more.500. is.rains. m. Khost.Pakistan. m.natural. dominate.The.species. and.In.cover.very. small. Quercus baloot.Paktika.15.represented.Deodar..losses.is.rate. m.shrubs. Eastern Afghanistan is. (1972).Van..Nangarhar.affected.a.evident.along.existing.(1977). by.and. 2.ground.Freitag.allow.period.develop.a.Himalayan Deciduous Forest.Paktya. and.type.Kunar. to. cut.Paktika.this.30. East Afghan Montane Conifer Forests.It.the.harvested.the.of. (Chilgoza.and.the.Similar. Khost..the.and. this.refer.2 Baluchistan Xeric Woodlands (PA1307) Freitag.dry.lasted. height. (Himalayan.–.distributed.500.52%.the. Afghanistan.dry..most. 3. Afghanistan.7.be.forest.Nuristan.to.was.–. 2002.months.areas.in.the.located.mm). 2.

comprised. of. 1. baloot community.been.in. –. communities.2 Paropamisus Xeric Woodlands (PA1322) On.that..400.the.trees.a. in.provinces. m.forests...300. for.precipitation.25%..to. band. replaced.. present.years.covered. woodlands.in. characterized. northern. south. along.as.and.Reptonia buxifolia..m.species. in. of. of. %.15. now. by. 250.000. open.are.at.eco-region. Freitag’s.ground.. are.about.a. less. the.These.much. plants.–.. current.2.forms.Quecus dilatata.(2003a).open.. –.is.or. 1.landscape.the.provide. some. 8.where.two. almond). no.broad.km²).trees.m.density. generally.–. around.. trees.mm.Province.detected.comprised. that.allows.Amygdalus..hiding.Badghis. Quercus baloot. grazing. UNEP. mountains. and. landscape.mm.the. of.and.of.Province.woodlands.m. 1. collection.to.UNEP’s. woodlands. density. an.50%.1. trees.150. originally.2.20%.relatively.100.under.a.ago.Pistacia vera.found.–. dominates. sides. cover.of..cited... declined.woodlands.height.(2003).. includes. at.and.as. verge.Juniperus communities.Atlas.trees.per.pistachio.in. increasing. local. trees.3. meadow-like.with.form.20.Generally.war. the.900. 1. between.. the.amounts.dominant.000.land. m.low.either. and. Pistacia vera. of.elevations.cover.Quercus semecarpifolia. crescent.pistache). upon.5%. elevations. significant.original.a.of.Van.of.Q. and.the.and. herbaceous. for. other. from. at. no.. per.. intensive.trees. 30.regeneration. detailed.satellite.–. detect. a. tree. Pistacia vera. Province. heavy.types.low. sites. –. by. creating. Q.–. open.open.reduce.Nuristan. mountains.greater.occurs.falls.In.2. a.In. below.of.2 Open Woodland Vegetation Open.of.suggesting..(2003a).residents.are.have.Afghan.four. originally.indicating.comprised. side. crescent.1972).be. most.250. cut. 2. 8. species. and.over.300.altitude.is.of.open.tree.1. found.of.semi-desert.300.000.throughout.present.a.natural.the.information. precipitation. 22 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .–.reported. formed. as. open.to.landscape.3 Semi-Desert Vegetation Semi-deserts.can. 600.forests.a.much.woodlands. of. than.and. (Holly.summer.trees.of. and.conditions.55%.Semi-deserts. destruction.3.500. of.are. southern.. 40.had.Open.and.were.(2003a)..were.. Very..–. nuts.m.as. could.areas.shrub.(800.(250.communities. the.40%.. 1.late. 8.order.In. roughly.6. stands. pistachio. the.representing.(Gurgura). altitude. were. below. amount.800.elevations. and..is. between.approximately. a.m.of. woodland.transition.800. the. local.remained.xeric. of. levels.forests. (Bukhara. . fuel. and. baloot stands.of.precipitation. Baluchistan Xeric Woodland.Herat. the.juniper. Amygdalus bucharica.result.. of. ground.000.to. cover..density.Zon.of.absent.image. the.Afghanistan. viable.vegetation.2002.the.a.of.000.(calculated.height.900. a.as. a. are. in.the.pure.ambush.of. analysis.diversity. the.2. sale.000.that.naturally. This.communities.Earthtrends.shaped.of.(1981).37%.of.in. Shrubs.1 Central Afghan Mountains Xeric Woodlands (PA1309) This.m.altitudes..UNEP. (Pistachio). UNEP.the. 75.in.woodlands.of. image.ground.400.of.grow. of.–.of.mm. 2.. ecosystem.Takhar.years.a. closed.and.300.between Pistacia atlantica communities. occur.replace.1977. of. is. woody...350. Pistacia vera.250. the.. originally.Quercus.height. Sayer.15..m.communities.m). 32. mountains.northern..surrounding.(almond).40. central.2.. communities. indicating.by. the.in. ha.less. trees.. north.tall. seedling.woodlands.and.Numerous. reports.mm).no.by..is.Juniperus.that. Pistacia vera.much.at.Pistacia atlantica. Depending..scattered.km². represented. and..than.central. Hindu.(1971.much.the.lower.. extinction. 8.the.UNEP.six. wide. are.000.in..in. and.(2003a). ground.80%..48%. animals.over. the.belt. at. poorly.during. Kush.–. as..of.–. at.–.also. and.vegetation.becomes.meters.der. 30. small.trees. flanks.woodland. characterized. of.savannah-like.3.have.2. a. on. rich. 38%.form.. summary. –. (ca.communities. and. satellite.last. eco-region.years.At.cover. two. woodlands...as.scattered.in. Above.province.1970s.In.by..the. of.band. undertook.found.Freitag’s.to.rainfall.analysis.... rainfall. north. where.. precipitation.of.Badghis.lost. by.–.Both. west.ground. –..trees.500. At. the.least. Pistacia atlantica (Mount.eastern. (2003a).subalpine.13%.8. central.Afghan.Province.shrublands. cover.and.and.greater.trees. Oak). in. altitudes. remaining.at.200.cover.community.develops.forests).10%.community. archaeological. m.the.2.and..200.ha. of.

in. corresponds.non-sandy.eco-region.community.and. dries.3. the.is. few.occur.northern. to. and.along.the. (salt-loving).–.areas. southern.surface. Siestan. herbs.. (1971-. open.bounded.eco-region. This. 8. as.dry..salt-laden.covers. soil. by.. This.characterized..of. and. 8. of. country.River. the. lying.4 Registan-North Pakistan Sandy Desert (PA1326) The. Very. are. southern.precipitation. Chenopodium Rich community. of.the. and. Kush.. on.eco-region. of. a.woodlands.the. and. south-western. the.comprised.height.of.3.the.in.3 Central Persian Desert Basins (PA1313) This.Hindu.interior.there.lower.. the. a.elevations. Calligonum-Aristida.develops.. thin.and. an.than.of.thorny.1 Afghan Mountains Semi-Desert (PA1301) This. Kush.of. Haloxylon salicrnicum Semi-desert..Chenopodiaceae. Freitag’s. all. year.arc. 8.and.extreme. including.is. of.primarily.25%.is. the.covers.on. mm. combines. the. in. the. The. part. forms. Desert.small..dunes.composite. between.family.and. of. a. to. middle. early. Basin.comprised. type. the. dies. vegetation.3.The. up.eco-region. shrubs. majority.broad.is.and. Ephemeral Semi-Desert. but. the. shrubs.Darya.most. vegetation. Under.. Dasht-e-Nawar Flamingo and Waterfowl Sanctuary is not legally protected by the Afghan Government and the insecurity that characterizes the area limits the realization of practical conservation measures for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 23 .. is. Amygdalus Semi-Desert.mm. Amygdalus Semi-Desert extends.around.3. Registan.in. It. community.in.with.semi-desert. by. Afghanistan.where.of.10%.the. and.of. A. community.several. a.by. loess.<150. occurs. south. lush. (1971).5. herbaceous. Calligonum-Aristida.mobile. northern.1.lies.of.eco-region. halophytic.a.River.north-western.extreme. 1972). semi-desert. of. Chenopodium Rich. corresponds.m. the. eco-region.ground. between. community. scheme.BadkhisKarabil. and.Hindu.occur. Hindu.5.. community.0. the.a.characterized.sand. Freitag’s. the.soils. corner.Amu... woody.xerophytic. the.Amu. band.at. transition. May.–.open.covering.band. and.The.large.. in.The. 1972).the.of. communities. 8. community.eco-region.the.on.land.. woodland.The.. plants. valleys. country.Central Afghan Mountains Xeric Woodlands.the.semi-desert.Vegetation.<150. in.of.complex.Kush. the. by.the.is. includes.(dry-loving). around. semi-desert. communities. Freitag’s. of.region.various. shallow-rooted.1.the... precipitation. (1971..Parapomisus Xeric Woodlands. the.Freitag’s. of.Ephemeral Semi-Desert is.Darya..2 Badkhiz (Badghis)-Karabil SemiDesert (PA1306) This. portion.. Freitag’s. and.the. western. narrow.

of.Afghanistan. on.4. does. of.3 Hindu Kush Alpine Meadow (PA1005) This. describe. Badakhshan Province. juniper. to.4.of.combination.Dieterle. >. (1971). –. extension. eco- 24 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .further. subalpine. original. 8.. allow.Corridor. corresponds.a. subalpine.. develops.m.not. western.steppe. in.issues.the. or. 2.between.north.2 Pamir Alpine Desert And Tundra (PA1014) This. corridor. of.in.cushion. vegetation.is.3.m. remainder.enough. or. side.900.south..and.Karakorum. (1971).Kush.in.at. Kush. southern. and.. Tajikistan and Pakistan Calliginum-Artistida Semi-Desert.Mountains. and.speciesrich.an. Subalpine Thickets and Cushion Shrublands (1972).grazing.Larsson. the.Lack.of.vegetation.eastern.Kush.limits.receives.000.extension. Subalpine KnieholzGesellschaften und Dornpolster-Fluren.vegetation. the. have.of. Astragalus. Artemisia and Ephedrus.the. region.eco-region. Hindu. the. Unlike.central. eco-region.dominated. east.of. and. central.True.in.4. species. and.vegetation. 1978).and.. the.of. 8.the. the. 8.as.. north.In.3.provides. 8.side. to. the. m.this. elevations. Ononbrychis.Freitag.in. 8. alpine.extensive.as.4 Subalpine and Alpine Vegetation Alpine.the.largely. vegetation. to.zone.shrublands.as.. of. mountains. to. not.to.the. Northern Afghanistan.Mountains.a.000.comprised. Cousinia. zone. 1972).area. considers..subalpine.in.Hindu. in.heavy.. Freitag’s. Chenopodium Rich and Amygdalus Semi-Desert communities. at.only.4.Subalpine Thickets and Cushion Shrublands community. extension.represented.1 Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau Alpine Steppe (PA1006) This. extensive.The.(1971. nival. cushion.elevations.in.general.of.the..found. is..grass.management.(1971. 2. as.3.Hindu.(1973.central.m.this. the.Freitag. woody.000.resulted.the.in.a.4 Ghorat-Hazarajat Alpine Meadow (PA1004) This. Subalpine Thickets and Cushion Shrublands (1972).eco-region.at.a.juniper. Acantholimon.. the.alpine.generally..summer.eco-region..by.is.only.. of. subalpine.nival. thickets.800.Afghanistan. shrubland. The Wakhan Corridor is the site of two proposed protected areas and a possible international “Peace Park” that encompasses neighboring areas of China.the. northern.vegetation. eastern. to. of.and.precipitation.eco-region.extension.labels..and. the.the..this. eco-region. (snow-covered).vegetation.and. on..east.community.is.shrubland. (1978).this.Afghanistan.the.of.eco-region.through.while.Himalayas.to. have. a.but.and. been.is.Freitag’s. as. such.4.eco-region. east. it. development.of.Alpine landscape in the Wakhan Corridor.labels..1972).Larsson..is. of.overview.is. westernmost..represented. Wakhan. corresponds.500. the. is.moisture.centuries.Subalpine KnieholzGesellschaften und Dornpolster-Fluren.Pamir. the. and.Wakhan.areas.

the. determination. species... eco-region. influenced. over. (e. little..However. to.this. of. the.. form. by.. millennia. energy.been.species.not.not. of.evident.entire. collection. affected. little.extent. grass).as. alteration. with.their. the.possible. been. refers.affected. through. of. respect.recurring. relates. in. reduced.structure.assess. most.Afghanistan IMPACTS ON ATTRIBUTES OF AFGHAN ECO-REGIONS Composition Forests East Afghan Montane Conifer Forests Baluchistan Xeric Woodlands Open Woodlands Central Afghan Mountains Xeric Woodlands Paropamisus Xeric Woodlands Semi-Desert Afghan Mountains Semi-Desert Badkhiz(Badhgis)-Karabil Semi-Desert Central Persian Desert Basins Registan-North Pakistan Sandy Desert Montane Grasslands and Shrublands Pamir Alpine Desert And Tundra Hindu Kush Alpine Meadow Ghorat-Hazarajat Alpine Meadow Medium High Medium Medium Medium Medium High Medium Medium Medium High High High High High Medium High Medium High Low High High High Very High Very High High Medium High Very High High Very High Medium High Structure Function for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 25 . Ecosystem. combination.woodland. is. •.each.Pistacia. therefore.The.of. ..or.Ecosystem.11. the.function.address.not.. The.probably. how.is.least.most.To. has.patterns.. of. transfers.and.attributes. the. of.cutting.Eco-regions. is.. refers.to.by.affected.result.are.ecosystem.difficult.6. of..that. ecosystem.types.patterns.alpine. ecosystems. to. significantly. structure. attributes:. known.the.altered. loss.composition.addresses.the. collection.. Vertical.be. to. plants.and. function.structure. species.Function.and..to.but.Ecosystem.materials.is. Table. of. Ecosystem.issues. are.ecosystem. how..been.affected.the.forests..Impact..subjectively.function. begin.. to.are.example. accelerated. shrubs. relates.Structure. affected. has.has.that.characterized.. current.The. an.forest.settlements.by. regions. and. composition. arrangement.Human.been.a.to.to. Ecosystem.6.appears.highly..deserts.ecosystem.assess..roughly.for. structure.the.as. spatial. and...rank. an.been.cutting.eco-regions.affected. overgrazing.does. of.. and. structure.pollution.exploitation.animals.. Table. to.primary. it.structure. Afghanistan’s. have. Subjective. in.such.an.effects.has. A.Deserts. objective. hydrological.ranks. The.along.extensively. ground.WWF.Composition. composition. two-dimensional. semi-deserts..9 Eco-region Status Ecosystems.can.expected. of. most.types.Classification.in.control. There. structure. primarily..probably.Afghanistan.of.lesser.function.and. faring.rivers.function.on.structure. information.WWF-US.of.open.of.and. dominant. the.on. each. habitat..relates.eco-regions.number. and.represented. all.affected.localized. population. growth.how.significant.subjectively.large. effects.be.a.. •.are.to.and.g.table: •.have. .least. species..in. are. for.forest.significantly.very.composition.present..of.and.refers. primarily. Open.have. .that.in. primarily..category.and. of.near. been.trees.assessment..herbivorous. composition.. shrub.spatial. of. with.three.sizes.it.but. on.woodland.in. to. accurate. eco-regions. the. fuel. allowing.productivity. a..tree.and. monsoon.and.. trees.and. while.

water. Marshy reedbeds.for.wetlands. suggests.) K. Nevertheless.significant Wetland Type Natural lake and marsh Natural lake and marsh Artificial lake Artificial lake Natural saline lake Seasonal saline lake Artificial lake Artificial lake Natural lake and reed swamp Artificial lake Artificial lake Swamp woodlands on Amu Darya Swamp woodlands on Amu Darya Six natural lakes Intermittent lake Salt lake Seasonal lake High mountain lake High Mountain lake River. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981) Sayer and Van der Zon (1981) Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). to.natural.of.migrating. 73º 43’04”E 37º13’48”N..10 Afghanistan’s Wetlands Afghanistan. country. not.wetlands. numerous. 67° 16’ 51”E Dagh-i-Tondi at 32º27’41”N.investigated.. provide.and..) K.habitat. exist.or. aquatic. fish.important.Afghan.other. biodiversity. Scott 1995 K. 69° 12” 13’ E 34° 29’ 31”N.can. had.some. 61º 42’41”E 37º25’54”N.be. are. generally.7.of. 69° 32’E 37° 12’ 22”N . few.ecological. the.species.lakes.they. 67º 54’ 36’ E 33° 38’ 00”N. habitat. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981).provide. of.known..expected.Examination. 65º 53’ 45’ E 32º 19’ 59” N.to.. to. have. and.natural. Habibi (pers. species.to.for.wetlands. as.plant. 74º 10’29”E 37º12’17”N. time. that. 61° 17’ 23”E 31º 51’ 21” N.are. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981).and. 70° 21” 34’ E 34° 23’ 55”N. 67° 43’’05”E 33° 29’ 37”N.be.7. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981).animal. invertebrates. also. 74º 00’45”E Takhar Khan (2005) 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . assemblages.. are. is. wetlands.many. for.Afghanistan. Habibi (pers. develop.are.map.Table. 61° 42’ 55”E 31° 31’ 24”N. therefore.are.could.water. small ponds. arid. 60º 56’49”E 34º04’11”N..because. be. com. lakes.for. and. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). 68° 44’ 46”E 34° 52’ 40”N.of. 68° 28” 22’ E 34° 33’ 18”N. Table. Habibi (pers. an. 60º 39’56”E 29º43’44”N.birds.biologically. 69° 41” 33’ E 37° 26’ 39”N.as.that. of. 69º 26’35”E Province Nimroz Farah Kandahar Helmand Ghazni Ghazni Ghazni Kabul Kabul Nagarhar Kapisa Takhar Kunduz Bamiyan Farah Herat Nimroz Badakhshan Badakhshan Darqad Source Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). valuable. plants.of. comm. ecologically. and grassy meadows High mountain lake Wetland Name Location 31° 29’ 44”N. 65º 11’ 07’ E 32º 28’ 53” N. and. significance.Afghan. Hamun-i-Puzak Hamun-i-Saburi List. great.that.suspected. Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). Wetlands. Habibi (pers.a.or.They. amphibians. Scott 1995 K.fluctuating..because. teeming.there. do.lists. 2006) Sayer and Van der Zon (1981) Sayer and Van der Zon (1981) Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). Scott 1995 Sayer and Van der Zon (1981). Artificial.levels. comm.important. comm. with. 69° 01” 59’ E 34° 29’ 29”N. biodiversity. that..significance.known. not.) Scott (1995) Scott (1995) Khan (2005) Arghandab Reservoir Kajaki Reservoir Ab-i-Estada Dashti-Nawar Sardeh Reservoir Qargha Lake Kol-i-Hashmat Khan Darunta Lake Sarobi Lake Darqad Imam Sahib Band-i-Amir Dagh-i-Tondi Kowl-i-Namaksar Gawd-i-Zereh Zor Kol Chaqmaqtin Ay Khanum Weghnon 36º01’45”N.the.

.therefore..to.elevations.influence. Afghanistan’s.of.elevation.account. with.shrubs.equator. little. birds.a.species.. index. A.. reptiles.or.to. a. to.. scores.5. of. patchwork. for.(Tamarix).riparian. half. comparative. the. highest. and.the.lies. and.as.of. a.ones.as.38º.a.factors.decrease. The.score.mid-latitudes.not. (-0.resulting.barrier.11 Afghanistan’s Riparian Areas Tugai. score. Antarctica. and.821).forest. countries. median.. The. is.habitats. about. a.index. suites. 3.of.tamarisk. the. Afghanistan. with.country. of..many. adapted. is.572).towards..Afghanistan: .forest.critical. of..are.a. (-0.. 2.increasingly.the.to.. is. resulting. index.at. having.in. to. Afghanistan’s.e. higher.such.low.and..to. monsoon.are. calculated.various.more.all.. are.along.. the. the.willow. Groombridge.000m.the. higher.tropical..types. to. indicating.121). floodplains.536).of.and. change.buckthorn (Hippophae).. pers. the. over.mammals. number.from. is. Afghanistan’s..as.km². Turkmenistan.is.shadow.in. and..poles.results. -0.act.Much.in.species. current. lower.tends. Uzbekistan. the.relatively.for.. the. that. Indices.on.type.extent. the.Central. somewhat.countries.northerly.found.forest. is.Afghanistan. Globally. west.agriculture. biodiversity.“hotspot”. (-0. regimes. and.not. original. The Argali is a vulnerable species (IUCN 2000) threatened by hunters for their highly prized horns and habitat loss from the grazing of domestic sheep for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 2 .of. plants. are.mountains.(-3. lack. result.tugai.and. vascular.at.are.higher.is. the.the.. sizes.ecosystems.–. of. north.of.to. poor.and.index.and..of.also.precipitation.rich. half.biodiversity.and.boundary.global. © WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETy The Argali or Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon poli) inhabits the mountain areas of central Asia above 1. median. and.. Kazakhstan... habitat.countries.is. (Ahmad. but. for.differing.species.part.and.. amphibians.and. Khan.The..Palaearctic. oleaster (Elaeagnus).of.of.is. variety.844). the. with.. information.581). (-0.them. are. entire. all.194).is.a.clearings.. result.. Tajikistan. (Phragmites australis).and.scores. number.(i.621). 0..as. reedgrass. a. (-0. (1994)..to.of.30º. index.sea.dramatically. than.(-2.. mountains.species.rain. characterized.413). the.grassland. Jenkins.the. biodiversity. (+1.and.at. desert. and. tall. endemic.conversion. species.number. numerous.of.of.by.richness.neighbouring.Temperature.000. below. North). There. lower..and..(+1.having. A.scaled. in. 4..as... with.as.Tugai.in. . a.considerable.Indonesia. countries.Asian.with. its.Mexico. 2006).higher. to.deserts.1.. 12 Afghanistan’s Species Afghanistan. of.differences. snow. moisture. different. of.species.species..along. lowest. threatened. ranging.by.Indices.valleys.found.Greenland.It. countries. gamut. and. from. than.biodiversity.is. of.adapted. a. Amu..on.in.poplar.special.Pakistan.number.trees..genera.predisposed.and..Afghanistan’s. the.and.precipitation.the.moisture.a.eastern.296. median.261). still.in. Darya. Iran.the.the.(-0.biota. somewhat. More. one.of. Afghanistan. comm. Afghanistan’s. lower.endemic.the. areas.variety.endemics.based. are.

.are.extend.with. Appendix. another. mammalian. is.Afghanistan. occur.. no.. data.a.. Mammals of Afghanistan. the..predisposed.found.they. and.-.rodents.status.. Afghanistan.Table. their.neighbouring.species. is.in.of.species.Palaearctic.of.to.risk.citable.these. in. country..is.in.maps. “potential”..that. large.artiodactyls.are. are.916.are. .greatest. recent.species.well.are. Consequently.that.localities.origin.the.Habibi’s. continental.as.. occurred.. are.of. is. with.a.The.The.there. which. dry.Afghanistan.known.-.very. well. There.(the. fungi. and. very. nomenclature. has.It.very. Considerable. having. data.best.in. Indo-Malayan.Many. country.and. are.have.are. Iran. north.assessment.is.animal..List.subjective. is. the.but.disturbed..species. old.of. has. limited.incorporating. but..vertebrates.country. .relatively.evidence. one.be.Food.(2003).tend.000 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .definitive.would. on.are.and..000.species. species. authority..are.in.number. standardized. low.notes.of.Habibi’s. sites. national. species.as.Habibi. with. CITES.low. Palaearctic.detailed. Twelve. allowing. endemic.size. and.4.Red.process. as.species.plants. barriers.Afghan..Afghanistan.. of. which. scale. therefore.(2003).listing. to.considered.listing.. is. into.of.vascular. since.checklists.of.globally. The. Dari. insects.or. west.. reptiles. Afghan..species.Two.databases.listed.moderate. Table. and.status.number.in. CITES.3..outbreak.Agriculture. largely.500. (2003). with..of. Nations..Species.also.country. on.high.. assessment. in.to. list.the.human. occur.1.8.of. no.dispersed. having. amphibians. productivity. is.000s 137 428 92 6 101 conservative.species.The. the.from.and.Afghan.It.for...based.countries.on.at. been. on.and.scale.references.distribution.known..this.species.Exist.tends.for.species.13. not. Afghanistan. a.mammals.vertebrate.cheetah. collection.Afghanistan.that....on. species. the.–.relatively.formal.Afghanistan.IUCN.the.. United. As.Lawson. maps. twice.be.endemic.more. A. and.being.of.Afghanistan’s. in.Appendix.has.taxonomy.include.influences.known.each. first-hand.are. altitude.suggests. that.order.these. Little..biodiversity..in. only. explicit.an.a. many. differ. at. to.of..only. Habibi’s.for.II. species. mammal.checklists. mammal. Appendices.neighbouring. resulted.. Number.have.mammalian.other.probably. are. species.mammals. 5..137. species. fauna.years.having.of..species.ecosystem.of.are. on.threat.Many.complete..in..to. observation.few.available.500 – 4. Habibi.Afghanistan. threatened..to.total.but.productivity.and.evident..of. and.expectation.Afghan.of.is. tiger). the. the.very. majority. collection.species.to.. species.there.the.the.Indo-Malayan.zoological.origin. free..Thus.has. based.list.marine..could.List.the.species.on. of.suspected.IUCN.of.“historical”.. uncertain. species. though..8. Appendix.is.checklists.ranges.Afghanistan’s. birds. no.extirpated. are.and. another.Known. mountain..of. Realms. are.. mammal. 12.of.of.carnivores.fewer.Afghan.1.. of. high.Afghanistan Known Species Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians Fish Insects Vascular Plants Lichens Fungi 208 ? 1.in. Afghanistan..is. Uncertain Species 13 87 20 2 38 Estimates 10s of 1.assessed. distribution. The.known. maps. few.Dunn. summary.(2004). citing.areas.of.more.Appendix. are.species. provides. usually.I.are.. Sixteen..work.no.occurrence. to.series.1 Mammals The.of.A. in. a. Afghanistan.species. Afghanistan.000s 3.number. distribution. Afghanistan.and.as.7.for.borders.species.and. or. of.with. Although.Most.knowledge. of.are.a. as. and.species.in.mammal.and. 8.available.the. .Red. be.lacks. 6. they. major.will. a.includes.latest. from. nearly.. and.the. by.. (FAO).1978. quite. mixing.as. 13. Afghanistan.particularly. 7. and.be. primary. decades.status. to. done.found. land-locked.families. in.to.productivity..789.war.information.few.Afghanistan.bats...national.in.or.expeditions. Afghan.Organisation.levels. sources.of. but. lichens.. status. now.. work.Consequently.number.its.1. revision. a.at.

as.that. the. remainder.dependent.of.herbivores.last. was.has.1994).Endangered. entire. estimates.of.and..as.Critically...CITES.(Aegypius monachus).the.taxonomic. the.diversity.Balkh. lower. Passer moabiticus).are.and.. areas.Yellow-eyed.have.Afghan. (nd).listed.species. based.. literature. near.. Most.in. region.ornithological.more.at.Nine. eastern. (Neophron percnopterus).the.in.species.listed.“Vulnerable”.listed. western. a.through.history.rich.Palaearctic.the. 67° 16’ 51”E 37° 26’ 39”N. pre-war.87.affected. authority. are.. therefore.Central. Afghanistan.produced.list.is.IUCN.sighting.(Qais.. by.Afghan.is. the. to. “waterbirds”. six.published.over. Five...Flyway. migrant.reflect. Oenanthe . pers. the. 70° 01’ 12”E 34° 29’ 29”N.avifauna. Afghanistan.. (Evans. subcontinent. Afghanistan. the.been. passerine.in. birds.breeding.. endemic.than. The. Afghanistan. “near-endemics”.and. Himalayan. The.many.prey.Afghan..breeding.the..Red. population..by..450. in.of.. Cinereous.cited.classed. a.River. 62° 00” 00’ E 35° 10’ 12”N. presents. years. winters.avian.9. 69° 07” 48’ E 37° 04’ 48”N. a. country. Egyptian.may.Vulnerable. 69° 49” 48’ E 35° 24’ 00”N.in. . although.known.in. p.are.does.This.Afghanistan.1994). Critically.The.428.Agah.Vultures.one..List.235.in. large. (2004).on. the. April.Pigeon..level.as.of.future.that.2 Birds Afghanistan.reduced. species.situated. 68° 44’ 46”E 34° 27’ 00”N .bird.Vol. Central. no. migrated.now.Afghanistan. research. a. Crane.Afghanistan. II. the. 2.Siberia.as.majority.and. Evans. at.Rasmussen.and. Afghan.the. examination.2000.most. reviewed.large.particular.of.shot.which.Himalayan. in. Name Ab-i-Istada Band-i-Amir Darqad Dasht-i-Nawar Hamun-iPuzak Hari Rud valley Imam Sahib Jalalabad valley Khost Kol-i-Hashmat Khan North-western steppe Pamir-i-Buzurg Pech and Waygal valleys Registan Desert Safed Koh Salang Kotal Small Pamir Important.and.of.the.in.suggests.55. small. formidable.Appendix.Evans. There.review. (BirdLife.as.uncertain.. birds.to. Habibi.(1994). barrier.. 69° 32’E 33° 38’ 00”N.the. Phyllosopus neglectus.species.is.on. of. of.at.the..with.of.and. (Montifringilla (Pyrgilauda) theresae).Afghanistan. of.Asian.is. 61° 42’ 55”E 34° 16’ 15”N. another..demonstrated. list.on. (Rasmussen.Anderton. the. 74° 19” 48’ E for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 2 .extinct.species.chain.been. (Columba eversmanni. in.globally.. picata.Asia.between. and.receives.reliable.hunter.over.Indian. status.that.(Evans. 62° 25’ 58”E 37° 12’ 22”N . their.path.on. of.grounds..Lammergeiers. species.Listed. and..the.many.Siberian.(2005. has.of.birds. P subviridis.occur.the.of..the. 69° 12” 13’ E 35° 10’ 12”N. 67º 54’ 36’ E 34° 52’ 40”N.30.(1994) Area (ha) 27 000 41 000 20 000 70 000 35 000 35 000 20 000 25 000 150 000 191 80 000 67 938 120 000 3 000 000 20 0000 2 000 200 000 Latitude and Longitude 32º 28’ 53” N.(Columba eversmanni).species.not.on. 1994).the. the.Amu..of.species. is.and. and.northern.supports. Snowfinch.There.. uplift. considered.Afghan.observations.as.largely.of.breed.and.two.the.Anderton.87.the.range.as.combination.Save. risk.Shurtepa. 12. species. breeding.Of.of.The.uncertain..Darya. There. in. that.also.by. Afghan.the.are.predominantly.Bird.14.Cranes.many. number.on. migratory.is.likely.subpopulation.. migration. Dickinson.in.nd). bird. been.bird. and. 70° 49” 48’ E 30° 30’ 00”N. the.listed. of.other..IUCN.species.. 67° 43’’05”E 31° 29’ 44”N. Afghanistan. meaning. breeding.old.Endangered.probably.wintering..(IBAs).current.Appendix.. and.the.was. may.as.as.is.western. to. comm. 70° 25’ 12”E 33° 22’ 12”N .current.I.list. as. and.(Evans.a. situation.a..(Gypaetus barbatus).a.species.International. one.authorities.Afghanistan.lies.. Appendix. 2006).end.much.627). for.. 65° 00” 00’ E 34° 00’ 00”N. central. Table. represents. large. country. significance. result.the.. cited. proportion.data. is. of. of.a. here. Turkmenistan.ranges.numbers.national.Endangered.in..Siberian.2005). part.The.Province. Afghanistan.District.of. in. traveling. 73° 00” 00’ E 35° 00’ 00”N. receives. . .(Grus leucogeranus).significant. Environment.Indo-Malayan. be.2.of.. Vultures.also.the. the.also. have.Carnivores.Areas. part. only.

the. of. 12. Appendix.. 30 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .of.(European. 42’41”E). species.provides. migration.records.. known. from.. 56’49”E).reptiles.Kush. Biology. 24”N.(e.(1970).. 39’56”E).73º.areas... Nine.Hindu. protected. these. as. Zor. 3.wetlands.all..List. (35°00’00”N.authoritative.3.2006). .banks.Two.Red.in. Konar.compiled.species.being.).“Uncertain”.species. River...as. 23”E)...reptile.work.these.of. Using..cited. updated.considered.(See.from. 31’. is. Bird.areas.the.. Hamun-i-Saberi. 75. 60º.Leviton.92.reptile.164)..reptiles.the. of. with. (Table. incomplete. very. 70°24’45”E). Hamun-i-Saberi).(1970).and. be. discovered.16).17.. Dagh-i-Tondi. the. yet. are.species..by.species. .is. nomenclature.3 Reptiles The.risk. based. (31°.112. Gawdi-Zereh.primarily.(1994). Areas.43’04”E.20. 17’.. suggested..on.note.of.have..species.criteria.by.significance...published. globally.known.the. 61°. (Testudo horsefeldii).(pers.areas.previous. 9).large. 61º.floodplains.birds.IUCN.CITES.a..are.to.is..Database.lists... (29º43’44”N. to. Kapisa Province.A.Afghanistan. 36. (32º27’41”N. is. (34º04’11”N. Hamun-i-Puzak... Important..and..information.Afghanistan.Afghan.EMBL. proposed.for.knowledge. stopover. lizards.as.Ab-i-Istada.Afghan.. .Anderson’s.Evans.the. are. Dasht-i-Nawar.Leviton.of.Afghan.. EMBL.a. Waterdependent.They.. (IBAs).are.on. Laboratory.herptofauna. work..separately.Afghan.set..Afghan.as.along.each. critical.seen.may.consistent.particularly. with.has. records. and.One.. Central Afghanistan The. are.as. 60º. and.on.the. (37º25’54”N.Reptile.further.species. many.of.Khushal.com.Tortoise.been. snakes.currently.Storks captured by people for meat in Pol-e-Sayaad.is..rivers.proposed.tortoise. .the.flooded.the. Kol.on.few.in.. Appendix. points. Reptile..Database.Habibi. taxonomy.at.g.listed. (p.Afghan.Section.and. The. Only.one.that.species. and. 2006).the.in.areas. Molecular. and.Afghan.who. authorities.internationally.be.Anderson.major.. are. Kol-iNamaksar. Other.

scant.may.Balitoridae.. to.drainage. characterized.considered.also.The. reaches.5 Fish Appendix.in.be.species. Cyrtopodion voraginosus). Coad. is.the. the.north. Rana.since. these.a. Afghanistan’s. historical. drainages.known.Palaearctic. Nemacheilus.one. a.dominated.species. drainage. shared.there.CITES.endemic.. the.is. origin.areas. upper.mostly. Leviton. known. where.Four. Darya.. Amu.. and. genera. fish. unknown.found.26)..country. which.and.species.. and.The.of.4).amphibian.water.Habibi.from. Amu.Afghan.both.(1981).Schizothorax. fish. the.fish. the.minor.so-called. xeric. Afghanistan.are. locally.contains. drainages.the..is. known.toads. higher.Amu. the. Coad. therefore. greatest.largely.and.in. Indo-Malayan.on.is. Two. occur.of.show.(1981). of. UNEP. and.affinities. is.frogs..and..are. of. of. is. is.with.other. Turkestan. 2006a). in. Asian”.two.have. the.Ranidae. checklist.. limited.of.the.The.undergone. River.reference. that.Koh-i-Baba. is. relation.in. Kabul. (Anonymous.occur. are.how. one. (Appendix. fauna.Afghan.2006b).. (1981). of.such.taxonomy.Kush.and. (Bufo latastii. that..the.by.FishBase.. at.wall.north.as.Afghanistan.of.Basin.as.the. The.are.Mountains.species.taxonomy.that.Palaearctic.drainages.at.and.of. by. found.The.to.IUCN.It. closer.(loaches--.“High. lists. temperature.(2003a.on.diverse.three.by.in. is.to. conditions.have. are. found.that. lizards. second.by. that. drainage.Hindu.is. high..on. Kabul. three. extensive. The.are.nomenclature. and.) are.species. The.. to. fish...the.watershed.the.restricted.Cyprinidae.in. (1981).catfish. catfishes.of.on. (Asiocolotes levitoni. the.The.(minnows.numbers.uncertain.has. Basin. Basin.for.Darya. species.species. Schizothoraichthys. Palaearctic. Afghanistan.derived... Mirza. with.changed.have. is.affinities. connection. Rud.eight. endemic.Kabul. The.(Batrachuperus mustersi).is.nationally. All. watershed.a. the..assigned. in.one.as.Caspian..country.and. is.to.the..is.to.(Coad.species. drainages. in. Two. eight. Bufo oblongus).(Glyptosternum reticulatum. and. that. be.species.Afghan.but.as.is.Afghan. fauna.the. altitude.species.by. the.the. despite.the.Mountain. Based.the.4 Amphibians Amphibians. River.Some.are. in.101.2002).Afghanistan’s.. by.the.a.2002). The.distributions.mainly.Coad’s. Cyprinidae.are.isolation.distributed.similarities.. the.Appendix.Hari. revision.risk.almost.Hindu.genera.as..the.contains.(Coad. diversity.1981).and.Kabul. many.smaller. species.that. Salmo trutta.p. uncertain.suspected.1981.carps--.to.are.the.Afghanistan.nine.Afghanistan. Amu.only. flux.be..with.25%.... Darya. (Eremias afghanistanica and E. and. may.the.a. and..is.slopes.in. three.drainage. (=Noemacheilus). states. many.and.River.only. to.to.major.that. and. Afghanistan’s. suggests... recently.are..it..only.. of.considered.impoverished.not.widely.Indus.Murgab.Indus. an.distributed.and.of.reptiles. aria). most.system.strong.“Critically.been. lower.It. amphibian. fish. Afghanistan. farwelli).the.the.by.for.provided.faunal.characterized.the. database. suggests.ranges.Family.least.5.while.former. two. Schizothorax.of.the.with.I. found.updated..states. Coad.However.Paghman.the. conditions.The.four. of.endemic. that. in.species.Kabul.of.has. are. high.and. glass.upper.by.a.largest.amphibians. it.the.Appendix.brown. Indus-linked.Kush..suggesting. and.FishBase. remains.the.require.the.particularly.fish.(Habibi.Sea. kalmahi.of.many.with.moderate. equal. of.connection. and.and.fish..and. in.and..(Tryplophysa for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 31 .are. fish.. According.have.considerably. cited. to. AmphibiaWeb.Kabul. prove.these.three.search.to.as.elevations. species.the.been. (1986).Indo-Malayan.Helmand.Salamander.another.38.Bagrid.listed.the. Helmand.lizards. salamander.Basins. impoverished.listed. Darya. diverse. River.of.without. being.genera.. species.River. Anderson. fauna.in.species.to.list. as.the. of. The. fauna.the.to.species).species.by. Afghanistan.stream.drainages. unsurprising. and. and. synonymous..EMBL. approximately. snakehead.Coad. is.of.Amu.Aral. altitude.be..endemic. (Anonymous.II.many. No. all.species). the.are.more. trout.result..54%.are. Helmand. Considering. based. amphibians.to.the.The.Schizocypris and. described. Zhob-Gowmal. had. genera. Silurid.checklist. (Chamkani-Kurram. is. (1970). publication. so.Endangered”.endemic. are. fish. 12.except.states. 12.fauna.all.native.because.Darya.of. Afghanistan. exists. or.to.bodies.

cited.Kush.of. vascular.Group. Pamirs. large.there. Of. a. the.are..malaria.rivers.of. little. suggesting. stocking. plant.. diversity.has. by. introduced.2002)... (Map. is.(Groombridge. a.(2002)).(http://www. of. (1979). mollusc.was.that. Specialist.between. another. Afghanistan.Worlds’. are.to.is.Ward.species. stocked. Panjshir.reaches. readily.Qargha. invertebrate.butterfly..this. been. invertebrate. on. of. . venture.Afghan. the. globally. fish.while.are.is.“100. Expedition.in. The.species.trout.the. amount.rehabilitate.P autocrater. studied.list. been.000.dominant.Alien.South.as. in.was.attempt. substantial. 6.of.accuracy. Afghan. Cave. release. two.–. at. of. Groombridge. information. (Solem. diversity. number.the.3. species.are. world’s.the. undertaken.nine.in. of.plants.the.and.from.plant. html).invertebrates.000...is. Pamirs.a.From. origin.. Reservoir.located.Asian.Afghanistan.cause. to. has. Tian.Afghanistan. trout.near. Solem. identifiable. was. Solem.by. (Groombridge. In... the.Worst.not.moves.ru/~sob/Papilionidae.hatchery. animals.73. likely.the. very.It.Afghanistan. by. be. individual.assess. investigation. Appendix. the..near. attractive.main.plants.region. but.A.one.at.provided. as.not.situation. 30. trout.Dam. number.1963.Kush.an. collected. 10.of.through.is.. has.1967.known.trout.. abandoned. the.for. species.and. by.in.a.established...the.species.of.of.specimens. rainbow...almost.south-western.are. archaeological.7 Plants There. to. fauna.Afghanistan. from. are. Kemal. is.120. Only. made..considered. in...in.Rainbow.little.is.comch.3.1989. information..This.the.–. and. found. Ranges.In.were.from. (1979).1987.the.Jenkins. 12.of. one. and. checklist. as. the. Asian. the. Koçak.work.the.is.was.the. 37.Afghanistan. Afghan. the.collated.as.Fishes. the. known.is.. species. to. Natural vegetation in the Wakhan Corridor.variously. fingerlings. but. be. the.is..Flora Iranica. Indus. high.insect. through. long. to. detrimental. Sarde. collected.of.CITES.and.. Salang. been.However.. is.were.now.were..Species. site.htm).Invasive. Red. “only.of. because. Aq. consolidate. by.most.prevention.(Petr.174. deteriorating.the..et. new. possible. Badakhshan Province 32 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .6 Invertebrates The.review.area. invertebrate. to. families.. the.ecosystems.comprised.hatchery.1970s.vascular. is. yet.. threatened.that.of.checklist. the. specimens..the.However.of.located..to.to. west.extensions.made.the. Kupruk..west.listed.one.IUCN. of. were.2000).and. made. in.. especially. the. and.travel. about. Afghanistan. Qargha. Parnassius autocrator from.Paghman.1992). not. being.species. sampled”..records. best. volumes. Afghanistan.Pamirs.all. most.several. of. the. and.likely.of.collection. IUCN. families.offers. 12.West.. compiled. Invasive. extending. been.Species”.Hindu.work.The.its.unknown. majority. mollusc.500.1999).Afghan. the.233.by.the.the. begun. Butterflies. has. butterfly.of.(1972)..there. in.rainbow.mosquito.thousands.Jenkins. Rivers.on. plant. has.forms.al.taken.the. Afghanistan. with. 5. tip.It. Hindu. is.of. Shan. been. known. invertebrate. diversity.UNDP/FAO. expeditions. 1972). it.1979.and. (2001).information.Flora Iranica. endemic.in. Appendix.efforts. of. Bamiyan. are. molluscan. to. Street..separate.available. vascular.comprehensive.Kabul..Qargha.and. the. which. of. dealing.western. and.His. butterfly. of.(Lowe. The. history. website. and.Kabul. vast. of.it. Afghanistan’s. has.that.$75. Afghanistan.. a.in.of. insects..stream.hatchery. No.but. how. the.within.. The.tens. that. hunters.the.security.(http://dinets. No. in. 1970s.ru/parnassius.. List. the. system.so. the.7. Afghanistan’s.4. predominate.is.declines. Afghanistan.concluded. drainage. produced.

lichen.. There. were.the.such.Eight.8 Lichens and Fungi Fungi..The more accessible conifer forests of Nuristan Province are increasingly being threatened by illegal logging. growing... elsewhere..moist...fungus.Appendix. often.most.fungi.not.in. treating. live.are. bird.(1977).Afghan.for.from.. Appendix.(Steiner.organisms.Afghan..on. Only. urine.grow.Usnea.lichens. are. Ulmus wallichiana.that. Hypogymnia. preliminary.Frey. and.common.of.true.orange-red. in..not. probably..&.Lecanora muralis.in.lists.and. relationship.on.Cladonia.known.and. elegans.II.species.can.appear..the. Lichens.and.Poelt. widespread.by. in.to.an. Only.their. mammal.. or. three..do. fungi.an. 16. the.plant-like. Afghanistan. tend. species.10).a. of.are.there.distribution. together. associated.Xanthoria elegans..chlorophyll. They.are. one. with. species. In.species..primitive.listed. moss-like. dark..plants.sunlight. the. 12). leaves. a.their.lichens..in.plant.as.do.208.noted.are.are.areas.and. is. found.habitats.the.a.of. Genera.1986).Alectoria. of. and.is.of.is.worldwide.common.most..Other. (Appendix. consist. symbiotic. and.the.They. Afghanistan.X. Caloplaca biatorina. and.to. plant. ribbon-like.are.Red.9. thousands.IUCN.species. 12.the..is. nitrogen-loving.lichen.elm..Afghanistan.growth. Timber is often illegally transported to Pakistan where it is sold to traders and on to carpentry workshops for secondary transformation Liverworts.therefore.combinations. require. papers.world.food.occur.absorb.CITES.algae. Himalayan. (see.in. places. Afghanistan.Appendix. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 33 .lack.List.with. very.

the. agreement. incompatible.have.for.is. the... Appendix.of.A.is. to. 2006). when.as.(i.listed.survival. 13. An.that. as.not. species.on.scale.that.survival.2001.the. Convention. Vulnerable.wild.of. extinction.. and.considered..be.the.23. ensure.I.seasonal. threatened. that.provide.subspecies).for.utilization. to. or. conservation. criteria. international.State.Afghan.permit..mammals.range.available. meets.species.(EX):.specimens. purposes.on.. I.only.risk. A. EXTINCT.A.to.meets. Trade. that.cycle.if.. frame.of.. when.species..the.extinction.in.species.the.List. endangered.. are. is.within.considered. E.and.species..trade. (IUCN. intention.are.taxon.13 Afghanistan’s Species at Risk 13.globally.import. circumstances.categories: •.This.only.A.criteria. threatened.(VU). •.Species.are.vulnerable.was. Afghan.threaten. assessment.is..individual.issued. All..of. endangered.risk. risk.life.its.Numerous.any. mammals. considered.and.has.therefore. Currently.list.. on. habitat.E. available.by.only. a. facing.national.taxon. 2..a.it.a.not.international.of. of.31.vulnerable. are.died.is..definitions..it.of.issued.life.and.of.International.avoid.species.of.in.considered. time.times.export. Afghan.permit.are.2006..primarily. seven. Extinct. obtained. Species.threatened.therefore. over. (EN). Appendix.the.is.when. CITES.or. A. species.to. to.for. •. of. in.are.CITES.confirmed.form.and.with. Afghan. Endangered.the.the.at.species.and/or.. included.under.endangered.However.not. Afghanistan. on.e.be. Sixteen.it.. the.historic..are. status.evidence.an.the.be. •. lists.reasonable.risk. of. and.for.the. any.wild.may. failed.of. the.individual. listed.the.to..when.and.best. exhaustive.Appendix.11..trade.to. indicates.is. of.Least Concern. subspecies.includes.considered. A. critically.eight. Flora.from.wild. -. not.listed.that.of.as. on.their.commercial.be.wild.included. is.I.be.E. (the.the. an. Not. high.there.will.the. trade. (CITES). best.order.to.the. to.State.II. 34 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . to.last.should.indicates.of.extinct.and. or.species. One. eight. extinction.if.are. be..that. An.necessarily.IUCN.be.A.is.surveys.following. -. an.Afghan.. evidence.A.II.certainly. and.be. extremely.if.if. list. species.threat.all.extinct.19. has. are.at..any.species. governments.be. ENDANGERED. facing. with.1 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Appendix. no.the.specimens.evidence.meets.yet.series..Categories.import..permitted.animals. the.when. be. The. taxon's.very.expected..and. Endangered.Appendices. taxon.facing.Data Deficient.(ver.record.Vulnerable. taxon.detrimental. VULNERABLE. Appendix.to.not.will. tiger). of.it.Surveys.CITES. best. with. a.required.legally.or.known. 12.required.must. available. CRITICALLY. is.CITES. Extinct. the.. I.taxon.appropriate.is.the.Near Threatened.is.globally. specimen.presumed. Endangered.specimen.import. an.it.undertaken. (CR).3.plants. high.1).Appendix.and..2 Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) The... are.listed. international. species.survival.exceptional. Appendix.II.the. includes.of.the. International.with. Wild.39.extinction.in. Appendix.in. been.is.wild.taxon.-.be.doubt. of.does.issued. Critically Endangered.criteria.high.the.species.may.is.species..total.Criteria. to. subspecies.and.in.of. endangered.therefore.a. and. appropriate.(diurnal.is..survival.it.exporting. the.being. Caspian.throughout. on.extinction.at. are.and.the.unconfirmed.controlled.there.Threatened. Fauna.of.in.is.a. CITES. critically.detrimental. for.and. annual). between.the.purposes. ENDANGERED.export.to. is.to. of. globally..secure.species. the.species. birds.Appendices.In.used. and. Critically.Red.species.. 88.. CITES. Endangered.indicates.An.in.not.

recognized. Category.Ib:. mainly.protection. area. Natural. endemic.30% of 3.known. 1970s. parks. a.protected. are.mainly. Management. Areas.the.resources.of. by.Government. reserves). otherwise. . mainly. and.area.been. •.about. wildlife. and. Habitat/Species. or.to. listed. Abi-Estada.is.Coad. in. Protected. IV:. and.Only. protected. managed.species. Database.. monument:. listed.features... of.derived.natural. Category. near.fish..to.IUCN. as.indicate.for. (Table. and.500 – 4..so.2006). (Category.mainly.less.managed.for.for.protection. are.is. that. geographically.14 Afghanistan’s Endemic Species Afghanistan. six. managed. for.V:.(2002).20%.wilderness. (1966).endemic.seven.be.official.may. area. very. also. be. intervention.or.were.mainly. national. the. landscape/seascape. Category.Afghanistan.the.. or.conservation.. of.Afghanistan Endemic Mammals Endemic Birds Afghan Snow Finch (Montifringilla [Pyrgilauda] theresae) Endemic Reptiles Leviton’s Gecko (Asiocolotes levitoni) Cyrtopodion voraginosus Eremias aria Point-snouted Racerunner (Eremias Uncertain in Afghanistan afghanistanica) Endemic Amphibians Paghman Mountain Salamander (Batrachuperus mustersi) Endemic Fish Triplophysa farwelli Endemic Invertebrates Unknown The.Protected.natural.fish.Seven. park:.by. vascular.level.areas..Known. areas. Category. consequently. how. (Category. to.10. not. for.Resource.were. IV. protected.Managed. (one.area. The.uncertain.vertebrate.categories. estimates. mainly.. World.recreation. respectively. twice.in. are.plants.(1981). 15 Afghanistan’s Protected Areas The. managed. reserve/wilderness.is.recreation.. area.recognizes. IUCN. IV).protected. known.species. has.to. III:. waterfowl. •. park. ecosystem. has.sustainable. situation.areas. Reserve. these. of.protected. Area:. Waterfowl.plants. lists. is. protected.area:. Category. Category.Wendelbo. •. recognized. to.or.as.six. a. managed. Table.there. conservation. neighbouring.Landscape/Seascape:. However. cites.being. specific. for. through. areas: •. that. Areas. not.. (UNEPWCMC.managed.Afghan. National.of. . but. species.. The. protection. for.Afghanistan’s..Groombridge. nature. . conservation.Nothing.. and. and. invertebrates.legal.taxonomy.some..endemic..Endemic.status. Ajar. the.of. endemic. Area:.clear. of. or. Strict. protected..recognition. managed.full..science. two.Protected. area. none.the. •. •. are. 30%. Wildlife.Wilderness. are. None Species.use.of.wilderness.15. as. II:.with. Database. not.lists.or. II. known. Ia:.protected.area.000 species for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 35 .of. Category. Valley.many. and.ever.Jenkins.and. Protected. it. is. isolated...11). Endemic Plants Estimated at 20 .The. from.II).for.provided. management. protected.as. They. •. and.given.Afghanistan. managed.suggests. Category.Afghanistan. mainly.endemic. Reserve.endemic. proposed. countries. boundaries. protection.protected.country. World.few.be.even..VI:. Category. national.

efforts. Protected.483°) 4876 6293 36° 34’ 43”N (32. more. Zadran. were. UNEP-WCMC’s. as.715°) 69° 11’ 59”E (69. and. the. and. proposed. the. than. been. 1990. Khulm. World. areas.areas.000 Data Source Band-iAmir Coldwinter deserts (08) Designated 1 January 1973 Ajar Valley National Park Hindu Kush Mixed Proposed Highlands mountain (37) systems (12) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) Himalayan Highlands (38) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) Iranian Desert (24) Coldwinter deserts (08) Proposed 40..937°) 67° 45’E (67.van.Protected.Sayer. the.Darqad. and. Wildlife.496°) 1792 1974 34° 30’N (34. der. not.. the. The. are. and.and. letter.Database.. Protected. a.Sahib.. areas. 15. by.Zon. No.made.. (p. Khulm. all.356°) 1900 2100 32° 28’ 58”N (32. Figure. Areas.Bamiyan. appear. below..Information. Registan.as. areas. lists. Name Two. protected.000 Ab-iEstada National Park 27.protected.proposed.. Landmark. likely. areas. unspecified. Database. in.36).11.356°) Hindu Kush Mixed Designated Highlands mountain 1 January (37) systems 1978 (12) 40. Tahir.on.. of. Enayat.on. do. Desert. Protected. Areas.have. Heritage. protected.878°) 2000 3800 35° 21’ 21”N (35.322°) 35. areas. of.in. interest. proposed. and. approximate. based. in.838°) 67° 56’ 14”E (67. cultural.by.Afghanistan’s. contained. of. shown. are.000 Nursitan National Park Mixed Proposed mountain systems (12) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Designated 1 January 1977 Designated 20 December 1977 Designated 1 January 1973 Designated 1 January 1973 27000 Ab-iEstada Waterfowl IV Sanctuary Dasht-iNawar Waterfowl IV Sanctuary 7500 Hamun-iPuzak Waterfowl IV Sanctuary 61° 42’ 55”E (61. from. areas.protected.provided.. A. Database.750°) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) Biome Event Area (ha) 41. shows.Areas Designation National Park IUCN Min Max Latitude Longitude Udvardy CAT Elev Elev Province (m) (m) II 2900 3832 34° 52’ 40”N (34.(1981).protected. is. protected.been.these.483°) 3200 3210 33° 49’ 48”N (33.further. the. to.the.281°) 67° 19’ 17”E (67.designate.boundaries. apparently.Afghanistan. 12.North-western. have.830°) 1620 1731 31° 29’ 44”N (31. of. on.200°) 67° 19’ 17”E (67. World. given. Dr. Database.000 Kol-iHashmat Khan Ajar Valley Waterfowl IV Sanctuary AnatolianIranian Desert (20) 191 Wildlife Reserve IV 2000 3800 35° 21’ 21”N (35.. in. National. Table. but. Conservation.Imam. 4. description. Society. (Small. of.No. The.World.000 3 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . (1990).was.. Bamiyan.937°) 70° 50’ 16”E (70..483°) 1950 2100 32° 28’ 58”N (32.Protected. Areas. as. Waghjir.environmental. by. of. World.322°) 67° 56’ 14”E (67. justification.Areas. Pamir. also. Enayat. location. not.areas.of. cultural. Valley).letter.500°) 67° 16’ 51”E (67.. as. proposed..

. natural.by. waterfowl.669°) 69° 14’ 5”E (69.crystal-clear... Panir.lakes. 225.dams. when...one. about. dissolved.051°) Himalayan Highlands (38) PamirTian-Shan Highlands (36) Biome Event Area (ha) 67.separating.differ.500°) 65° 0’E (65. extensive. deposits.plateau. gaseous. the. Band-i-Qambar. forming.. mineral.red.by.444°) 73° 3’ 3”E (73. lie. by. the.azure. precipitate.634°) Sayer and von der Zon (1981) Sayer and von der Zon (1981) Other 1900 2095 37° 12’ 22”N (37.Because.markedly.limestone. lakes. Gholaman.1 Band-i-Amir National Park Band-i-Amir’s.topped.134°) 2000 4000 37° 26’ 39”N (37. Band-i-Amir.The..driven.are.of.Park.is. From. form. uniquely.lakes.area. is. most. calcium-rich.and. used.filled.in. town. Hindu. It. Pudina. in.279°) 34° 49’ 59”N (34. approximately. at.of. dioxide. the.calcium.water. or.833°) 36° 40’ 8”N (36.the. out.the.individual.bounded. Bamiyan. cliffs.dams. Qambar.content.. reedbeds.extraordinarily.seasonally. (CaCO3). Band-i-Amir.. the.and..Zulfiqar.high.comprise. blue.by. shallow. trending.the. lakes.are.water. of.cliffs.clear..719°) Proposed Enayat (1990) Protected Area Hindu Kush Mixed Proposed Highlands mountain (37) systems (12) Enayat (1990) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 3 .the. The. commonly.55. lakes.marshy. Bamiyan.six.character.sheer.high.National.only.235°) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) Proposed Enayat (1990) Bamiyan National Heritage Khulm Landmark Protected Area 67° 49’ 59”E (67.and.deep. landscapes..The.located.water. valley. an.874°) AnatolianIranian Desert (20) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Coldwinter deserts (08) Proposed Sayer and von der Zon (1981) 800 1200 30° 30’N (30.spring. lies.km.. Band-i-Gholaman.western.lakes.out. carbon. spectacular.833°) 67° 43’ 7”E (67.163°) 61° 52’ 26”E (61.north-northwest. activity..the.is. is.by.900.a.206°) 68° 44’ 46”E (68. Province.. in. algal.Kabul.15. m.in. and..forms. a.and. separated. calcite. Name Designation Wildlife Reserve IUCN Min Max Latitude Longitude Udvardy CAT Elev Elev Province (m) (m) IV 3250 6103 37° 8’ 3”N (37. beautiful.by... from.Band-i-Haibat. has. west. east-west..wet.lakes. causing.surrounded. 2. elevation. to.of.of.km.travertine.. The. east. to.of. Kush. are.large.bacterial. Haibat.938 Data Source Pamir-iBuzurg Mixed Designated mountain 1 January systems 1978 (12) Mixed Proposed mountain systems (12) Darqad (Takhar) Wildlife Managed Reserve Imam Sahib (Kunduz) Wildlife Managed Reserve Other 69° 32’E (69.west.is.000°) Iranian Desert (24) Proposed National Reserve 33° 16’ 45”N (33.travertine. and.746°) Hindu Kush Mixed Proposed Highlands mountain (37) systems (12) Northwest Other Afghanistan Game Managed Reserve Registan Desert Wildlife Managed Reserve Zadran Other 1200 2000 35° 9’ 47”N (35..world’s.has.

of..and.is. Post-Conflict.2003a). in. was.and.government.is. roads.. of.(UNEP.status. the.of.on..published.Park.with.marked.Protected.was. condition. the.dumped.has.the.that. dense.small.Gazette. The.to.the.boundaries.delineated.interconnected. IUCN.by. area.. and.there. active. undulating.small.(Sayer.were.petition.Garbage.Protected.was.of.drought.in.that.Vehicles.only.were.National..the. conflict.vegetation..remaining. is.. in.in.is.worst.officially.of.on.Areas.narrow. and..potholes. water.Figure. was..explosive.being. The..are.despite.67°20’E.a. vegetation.unchanged. The.and.34°45’.blue. and. which.exist.Shank. lakes. Band-i-Amir.Fishing. Zon.legal. and.of.The.park. vegetation...no.as.Park. creamy-white. devoid.(1977).map. to.quality.the..labyrinth.a.the. van.from.intact..lakes. by.lists.indicates.surrounded.67°05’.never.to. declared. steep.However.Category. of.Afghan.very. World.Band-i-Panir.by.Band-i-Amir. Organization.not. Band-i-Amir. and. first. a.electricity. 1981.of.the.be. the. UNEP. prior.these.(2003a).on. to. National.30.were. surface.ecologically.were.Ministry...the.in.but.living. and.. Database.and.the. in.Band-i-Pudina.a....4.on.from.full. cliffs.1973. 1993).crystal. Assessment.September.gazetted.the.currently. in..as. Map. virtually..and..Afghanistan’s.between.II.. boundaries.boundaries.travertine. on. Band-i-Amir. and.Tourist.not. Although. IUCN.done.appeared. water.eastern.defined. boundaries.but.of.dam.34°55’N.Justice.strikingly.no.Afghan.found.. Band-i-Zulfiqar.The. Team. visited. management.number.. found. surrounded.This.threats.the.vertical-sided.changed.therefore. 2002. began.largely..to.UNEP’s.the..the..little. no. der. into.clear. broad.water.dams. by.Areas waters.Tourist.proposed. deep. reported. as.lakes. smooth.declaration. the.(2003a). however. common.dam.and.. travertine..remains. period.was.1970s.The.1978.official.National.response.for.Park.. as.their. Afghanistan’s. Populations.testing.Rodenburg.memory.erosion. large. devices.being. UNEP.these.has. 3 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .end.lakes’.reflected.. Organization.causing. a. headwaters.by.and.

picturesque.found. of.among. a.of.was.is. did. mined.Ajar.for.preliminary..elected. be. as.an.in.were.. to.after. used. decline.e.2 Ajar Valley Wildlife Reserve The.for.Bamiyan.National. being.chaired.in.Canyon.deer.communities. local.Ajar.The.Valley. and.Shah’s. Prior. spring. was. about. (ACC).the. as. of.is.up.the.west.. hunter. and.removed.and. the. actual.hunting. in.most.very.. Finally. the. 5.in.of. ibex.Band-i-Amir.Band-i-Amir.poorly-sited.. appear.activities..rising. feasible.management. canyon. was..years.understood. sprung.estimate.royal. in.spectacularly. Hindu.with.the.of.elevation.(Dara-i-Ajar). Asia.survey. Considerable. compared.the. the.trending.estimated.located.least. designated.now.in. by.but.have.river. Provinces.This.result.area.Bandi-Amir.numbers. rangelands.WCS. management. 200.800. of.from. cut.Kahmard.Ajar.east-west.Dara-i-Jawzari. undisturbed.war.lodge. the. The. town.based. livestock.valley.in.. dramatic.is. by.the. area. land.at. as. Ajar. a. hunting. made.portions. Band-i-Amir.protected.cooperative. Baghlan. populations. (Capra ibex). a.2.. of.was. architecturally. Valley. Band-i-Amir.Wildlife. large.Yakowlang.considered. Afghanistan.mountainous.The.for.the. royal. with.2007.dam.were.no.Valley.sheer-sided.comprised. Ranger.length.of. since. a.an.of. in. The. the.peaks.the. the.all. The.Urial..the.introduced.3. through.locally.(i.to.Protected. that... pleasing.much.was. Ajar.urial. 2002...bazaar.bought.project. smaller.2007.000.1970s.trail.2002.Downstream. not. built.is.late. the.. 1979.fighting.underground. reserve.350..declined.from. mouth. forces.and. range. of. ibex.are.to.while. Corps. and.the.has. legally. urial.1900s.supported. of. Dara-iJawzari. Governor. in.mid-1970s. between.. feral.representatives. Taliban. and.be.the.high.Bactrian.reported. yaks. of.Zahir.. ha.portion.much. runs.Ajar. and.King. the. During.. Habibullah. Kush.the. In.of.way.Jawzari. by.woleswali.by. the. contained. to.a.there.has.located. most.has.. .Jawzari.a. conditions.plan.of.and.many.clean-up. from.Bamiyan..River.built.livestock.Park. (Ovis orientalis). Northern..be.to.on.the. for. (Dara-i-Jawzari). central. hunting. in.Chiltan.boundaries. was.area..Bamiyan. 70.ibex.in.approved.the.rarer.. the.occurred.areas. km....approximately. Amir. Development. rangelands. over-hunting. many. for..paving.in. outbreak. With. and. Alliance.to. at. area.development.within. 15. a. flows.current. area.little.. Afghan. the fact that the declaration was not published in the official Government Gazette means that it does not have any legal status..Chiltan.into.committee..Reserve. the.natural.2006.east.. wall. . early.formed.the. m.large.staff. constructed.. during. Ajar.committee. improved. dramatically.had. were.of. an. Despite.to. Bank.(Cervus elaphus bactrianus). ridges. near. numbers.accepted.disturbed.. Station. reserve.in.The. Valley.of. The.As.in.hunting.a.and. Although Band-i-Amir was declared as Afghanistan’s first National Park in 13.as. directly. the.Area. Committee. bisects.is.at.constructed.remained.the. and.FAO.that.central.pastures.government.was.This.front-line.. River.associated.farming.. at.and. and. 1950s.woleswali. lodge. and. a. Afghan.a.results.the. Provisional. created. ecologically. (Bos grunniens).but. Conservation.district).the.eastern.Lake. numbers. northwest. assistance. surrounding.the. hostilities. have. to.western. Efforts are currently underway to secure legal protection (National Park) and effective management of the area for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 3 . and. of. rulers..were. years.grazing. Afghanistan’s.the.a. of.2001.Valley.The.country.of.

IV.were. were. The. on. reserve.near.in. Kush... Hindu. Ab-i-Estada. wolf. destroyed. These cranes have been captured for their valued meat 40 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Class. Amu.gazetted. as.. also. the. boundaries. edge.1981).and.in. a. recognized.saw.and. Protected. is.1955. gone. depression. of.wetland-dependent. the.. Parwan Province. flat. large.the.the. area. . (Canis lupus). ground. has. the.team.population.. and.undisturbed. the. were. field. being. other.was. above.Database. undertaking. Darya.all. and. Lake.(FAO. deer.villages. (Vulpes vulpes). the.heavily. the. a. of. (World.estimated. and.recognizes.000. very. no. River. is. war. birds. Greater. are.reserve.is. being. heavily.. Mountains. visited.. during. and. one. Heavy. Reserve. remain.the.Valley.official. ownership.–.Areas.was. area. endangered.. reported. a.Flamingoes.relatively.by.approximately. .There.(Martes foina). critical. security.the. surveys. records. in.elsewhere.Valley. important. Central Afghanistan.introduced. Database. to.deer..(Lutra lutra). for. that.with. now..Ajar..suggested. the.on.were.about.. diverse. rare. and. while. Bactrian. family.persists. but.birds..1976.was.Ajar..population. Eurasian cranes (Grus grus) in Hajian Village. Crane...June. on..estimates. (Lynx lynx)..al. the.lists. lake.. breeding. migrator y. little.harvested.is.marten. at. yaks. fox.Kush.local. the.although. Siberian..leopard. southern.as.river. a. and. of.the..more. are. royal.birds. 2002..(Phoenacopterus ruber).. Chiltan. the.a.recent.3 Ab-i-Estada Ab-i-Estada. lives. in.found.working.available. lynx. once. in. Because.. as. of.As.otter.lands. Since...26.et.area.Assessment.200. is. are. entire.Common.that. ibex. hunting.no. thousands.. .50. documenting.IUCN. leopards.reserve.Ab-i-Estada.the.wetlands. Hindu.in.and.100. of. number. again.Bactrian..ha. on. establishing.central.lodge. been. exact.available.habitat.a.reserve. thousands. .were. grazed.appear.Ab-i-Estada.as. Ajar. for. of. Province.size.estimates. information..ha.FAO. point.to.Darqad.the. Valley. Wildlife.of. stopover. farms.be.from.. communities.Shank..UNEP.consequence. the.Wildlife.hunting. the. occupying. shrubs.only.in.and.Ajar. Only.. a. saline.and.provided. an. The. urial. legally.than.were. Ghazni.40. is. Juniper.(1977). towards. the.Protected. area.comprised...000. 15. situation.1977.Post-Conflict.an.contested. in.(Panthera pardus).the.Sanctuary.conditions.. once. WCS.The.Areas).staff. lake.World.. 2006. included. of.animals.

270.Ab-i-Estada. declining.Ab-iEstada. more.locals... from.is. range..autumn.nomads. Wildlife. late. the. October. natural.waterfowl.the. increasing.four.growth.for.available.primarily. River. levels.lying.and. Gardez.2002).the.800. the.and.Nawa.only.. came. by.with. It.. refugees.water. Helmand.summarized. Six. has.stopover. hunting.(1970).and.ecological. 1979-1991.came.. hunted. Agriculture.are. with. 5.. of.2002. Mountains.especially. Directorate. Population..a. locals. kilometres.Ramsar.high..currently. collectively. and. 2002). waterfowl.report. enjoys.barren.(9-cm). Ab-i-Estada.were. National.and. Parks.in. Shank. trappers.bred. Head.mid1970s.was. cranes. Province. the. or..March. is. the.once.diesel.that.. are.from.primarily.estimates.islands.Ab-i-Estada. Using. the. levels.lake.of.Ab-i-Estada.members.nomads.in.individuals.the.numbers.lake.Nahara. dammed.. ground-water. wetland. (Khan.water.years.Arghastan. varied.and.10.important.falling.between.Province. (dasht). at. and.as. 20.dated.is.of. the. always. based. surrounded. and.visited..breeding.m3.an. displaced. 600. primarily.been. a.Ab-i-Estada.a. The. when..in.2002). Ministry.in.and. snowmelt.a. Flamingoes.been. in.ultimately.of. protection. bird. a.levels.57. were.variety.. is.a.150.with.the. of.on..range.galvanized. west.water.is.There.water.water. as. past.the.1986.Rodenburg.by.Taraki.500.to. the. falcons.site. (2002).are. from.draining. Influx.000. been. through.through.recent. and. have.the.numbers.brackish. and. is.(Omrani.and.military.4-inch. plain. in.have.Ghelzai. Republican.1974.estimated.the. dry.is. are..summer.in.India.Bartsch..significance.were.were.largely.at.the.dry. seasonal. Historically.experiences.the.to. from.periodic.and.teams. 2003.at.and. of.. other. Flamingo. (Order. of.. northwest.process.(IUCN.by.on.width.. State.reliable.lake..Leeman.2000).3. million.there.waterfowl. highaltitude.Throughout.dasht. Kush.villages.game..last. 9. species. the.rising.flamingoes. water.4 Dasht-i-Nawar Dasht-i-Nawar. was. 122.1990). by.Förstner.the. of.around. guards. population. was. and.Russian.m. working.wader.Siberian..River. normal.out.hunting.the.4. is. have.and.throughout. no.km..the.have.western. National. 1974. (Khan. elevation.pumps. a.settlements.it. return. to. of.was. guards.mountains. Currently...1947. Rodenburg.In.There. and.. targeting. to. Ab-i-Estada.of. community. (1970)..of.data. a.semidesert. game.breeding..engines.late.the.lake. Waterfowl.in. of. of. no.and.(1977).Rivers.diameter. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 41 . Sanctuary. 2002). in..14.in.the.reportedly. from.mudflats.in. observed.5-6. extreme.706).. September.km².(Khan.species. The.6. in.shot. north-central. most.Ten.area’s..(Khan.also. falling.reported.critical. of. pumps.During.wintered. Ghazni. working. vast. length.In. in.In. 15.side.the. famous. of.although.more. and.year.12. approximately.Typically.population.a.of. rivers.by..stopover.the.in.as..the. dependent.than.30.Greater.of.a. pipe.the..officially.transported. on. depart. now.Ab-i-Estada. and.no. is. 1977. at.. of.wet. is.on.. cranes. the. reports. 1998. (Khan.of.Ab-i-Estada.is. of..large. petition.. guards.settled. of..of.2004.by.status.stationed..on.. Koh-i-Baba.in. and.international.as.m². The. spring.lake. central.eastern. Khan.Nawa.local. Paktika.the.a. Ab-i-Estada.of. reported..1993).when.to.for.In.importance.water.the...appointed.largely.at.According.sanctuary. Abi-Estada. the. Flamingoes.in.population.as. from. quality. the.and.(UNHCR.to. for.at.. in.very.never.the. the.m3.ground..in.1765.limited. Qandahar. extending.2005. Ab-i-Estada.(Shank. Ab-i-Estada.Ghazni.within.is.the. information.its.of.no. declared.complex.lake. Ab-i-Estada. none.characterized.period. based. surroundings.was.an. (Falco peregrinus).Lora. currently.35..(Sauey. April. and.disappeared.reported. These.Bartsch.garrison. Band-i-Sardeh.1977. No. water..about. and.and. the. December.Gardez.level. (Phoenicopterus ruber).greater.and.many.Förstner. km²).the.of.there.1994).1985).40. River. The.side..spring.joins. near.the..eight.recognized.to.fed.one. with. the.woleswali. or.The.was.each. be. of.the. approved.(Jamil. flats. a. falcon.from..is.again.steel. (Guard-i-Jamuriat). as. droughts. Band-i-Sultan..the.through. 1977).ground.to.islands..Lora.large.140. population.approximately. estimated.stop.area. was.Crane. on. previous.. of.the.lake.to.The.since.the.. last.. to. the. institutional. internally. of. Numbers.. and.water. occupation.pp. a. rest.of.arrive.the. water.by. decline. Guard. plain. and. rapidly.on. volume.The.000.(Ab-i-Nawar).1976.breed. 707)..nomadic.from.water.the. to. Hindu.exposing..tundra. late.numbers. one.flamingoes. table.been.1977.have. diversity. than..Flamingoes. peregrine.many. but.is.be. persons.and.June. (ca. Ab-i-Estada.about.there.for.west.run. flows.long.Dori..Ghazni.since. Siberian.during. early.the.to.heavy.km.remarkable..

The. autumn.and.water. data.the. (2003a). about..dasht.years. can. from.1970s.plant. migratory.villages. Ghazni. streams.1. and. had.volume.Rodenburg.no.Shank.(Sterna hirundo). dasht. snow. 1.away.breeding. road.(Nogge. (Charadrius leschenaultia).populations. conditions.ponds..upper. stated. endemism.vary. drought. In.the. report. the.valley. An.completed. of.from..of. success. by.unpaved.the. flow.was.Ghazni..to. by.water.estimated. 2.Ghazni. in. serves.to.. by..the. 2006. of. south-central. poorly. reached. of. in. (1975).small.(2006a). road.metres. important. the. had.up.avocets..that. The.directed.the.breaks. Flamingo. Flamingo.birds. dependent.2006a). bred. dependent..endemics.x.1977). known.m. 1998.ground. highly.2005. highway.area. km). redshanks.and. 2002.. Nawar.evolved.seen. these. the.summer.000.12m).. the.of..in.All.elevation.500.and.Ab-i-Nawar.dried. between. He.side.between.A.reports.reservoir. variable.sand-loving).are. catchment.upon.from.(Klockenhoff.(1986).2.However. Jaghatoo..waders.(500m.seeing.. Afghanistan. water. psammophytic.canal.1977). (i.km². The.in.and.waterfowl.for. in.on.from.There.(Recurvirosta avocetta).and. common. for.sand. Madel.In. species.m3. breeding. exist.has. of. concluded.200. Moqur.(Petocz. adults. Dasht-i-Nawar.of.Province.150m. Astragalus (Aegacantha) antheliophorus.. a. Pass. breeding. seeing.levels. the.Provincial. located.Khafak. the.. near.up.nearby. x..remarkable. Fibigia compacta.local.by. waters.The.(Cousinia ammophila. and.of.e.the.early.reported.dam.follows.Team.3.was. permanent. not.is.&. is. for.km). and.retained. an.and. number. 1974.longer.records. no.in.the. very. Pipatherum rechingeri). and. the.. surrounding. by. is.Petocz. located.but.. reservoir.annually.terns.irrigation. via. is.and. on. water.woleswali. greater. and.Camels in Dasht-i-Nawar Waterfowl Sanctuary.Abi-Nawar.an.highest.-. ground..in. no.constructed.. field.the. in. and..350. the..in.systems. 42 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .of..Rodenburg. as.Water. and. UNEP.River.often.west.is. April. spring. flamingoes. the.Nawur.a. town. four. the.of.use.and.million.shorter. created.Lake. large.Ghazni-Kandahar.recent.currently. be. 424.1970. a. Greater. the. He. from..Ab-i-Nawar. sandplovers...route. presence. near. of.a.dam.or.Bahaee. of. (ca.the.ca.mountains.breeding.the. staging. of. by. completely.is.in.almost.(PRT). (Tringa totanus).and. alternative..small. and.Habibi. town.The.supplies.cu.elevation.confined.water. hydrology. 112.20.2006)..1974. is. in. dam.. (Petocz.. that. Ghazni Province. from.dried. Dasht-i-Nawar.. located.65. April.. wetland..channeled. flamingoes.of.at. found.. Shamsuddin.lake. held.of. is.were.world’s. June. and.case.Rehabilitation. because.(ca.reaches. This Sanctuary has no legal or effective protection and is increasingly being affected by heavy grazing Dasht-i-Nawar. that. Freitag.Shank.Petocz.water. 2006. unpaved.entirely. melt.water.

and.of. . as.for.nomadic.hunting.. 25. endorsed. periodic.1. permanent. sometimes. Flamingo.almost. dominantly. Taliban.km².hotspot. around. Dasht-i-Nawar. shallow.system: 1.National.in.be. designation.fed.the.at.in.5 Hamun-i-Puzak Hamun-i-Puzak.binoculars.. Sanctuary. Pashtun. melt. a. (Petocz. common.(1977). the. in.000. experienced. nomination. Dasht-i-Nawar. on.collapsed.. people.. Siestan.. Chonge..June. Reportedly.into.in.natural.biomass.and. east. was. Afghanistan.that. At.Game.2005.was.. on..stationed.between.reports.been...traditional. residents...of.000-7.Shank. However.(UNEP. Sorkh. A.averse. been. no.5. At.if. and. presented. approved..is.in. during. as.500. that.of.to.flamingoes. up.was.phenomenon. power.as. der.the. during. support.in.them.dasht.people.there. 15. they.high.They.. estimated. Rodenburg. years. Directorate.km². between. now. ungulates. farmans.provides.camels.hunting.a. In. of. isolation.water. mostly. kings.potential. by.the. on. of.phases.waterfowl.went.hamun. the.mountains. kuchi. located. effective..possible. intermittent.. 1. Sayer. 2001.6.1974.winter. war.1. has.colour. is.to.questionable.000..are. afforded. least. about.in.. estimated. larger. Ramsar. the.is.flows.lies.Dasht-i-Nawar. one. van. in.kuchis.minimal. a. complex. of.(IUCN. 1.dasht. 1976.period. west.authority.(Petocz. the. the. Petition.in. head.Hussain.on.and. 20. the.about.are. have. Currently.grazed.is.. According.be.so.guards.the..000.the. 1970s. Zon.Rodenburg. Dasht-iNawar.Imam.when.initially. making.it. that. undertaken.the.Afghan. of. 3. the. A.the.local.goats. constant...discover.Some. people. a.game..have.to. includes. erupts. the.. suggests. Baringak.al.characterized. of.people.700..ecosystem. the.period.24.martyred. effect. Himalayan.1989-1993.. disrupted.the..Animosity. side. as. it. It. vegetation. have..200.accession.the.and. nomads. be. families. by. sites.sharply. inundated. to. part.3.the. no. dried. (kuchis).There.in. on. and. of.complex.Afghanistan. particularly. significant. (permits).there. by.medium-water..2006a). from.to. the.roughly. when. sighted.nomads.198.but.rights.about.recent.(2003a).1970s. living. the.hydrology.expelled. documents. distributed. with.in.000. State.plumage.villages..the.satellite. UNEP. the. A. no. list. still. recent.. Locals. It. 1977.with. that. snow. returned.which.recent. showing.appears.park.a.61. dasht.et. that. population.are.summer.The.do.1976. Hamun-i-Puzak. The. were.in. Seistan.in. counted.nearby.during. restored.. a. At.. Waterfowl.300.entirely. from.fairly. Dasht-i-Nawar. the.453. small. many.. is. Hamun-i-Puzak. high.because. December.and. (Phragmites australis)..500-households. indicated. as. psammophytes. of. Hamun-i-Puzak. (1981).000.. longer. declared. border.in1976.to. Hamuni-Hirmand. 1765. vide.. Hazara.. Dasht-i-Nawar. was.the. the. and.in.area. analyses.summer.. populations.indicates. for. lakes.of.of.may.Hazaras.other.high-water.image.of. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 43 . (UNEP.claimed.be.lake.during.blood. Although.38. urial. from. currently. . previously. by.approximately.locals. international.. not.months. in situ.Parks.of. Iran.1993). a. lake. approximately. kuchis. dated. of. desiccation.1994-1999.recovery. how..of.aspects.1985.. This. Basin. water. long-lasting.A.. time.largely.Wildlife. took. ibex. area.the.dry. The. although..the..it.alpine. months. in.have. wetland. population.Further.months.period. it. shallow.. elsewhere.remained. 357. Shank.currently.associate.January..investigations..protection. pre-adapted. Locals. the.Dasht-i-Nawar. and.other.but. and. the.to. large. nomadic. of.the. 4.2006)...runs. but.violence. 2.or. only.evolutionary. highly.with.sheep. species. is..(Petocz.analysis.. until. waterfowl.big.2006a).1976). In.expanses. legal... (FAO. that.Vegetative. of.by.no. the.settled. recognized. along. with. sometimes.almost. 1978).until. Basin.movement. of.of..the..grazing. Hamun-i-Saberi. were. (1977). and. 2006).Iran.approval..four.may. is.dry.at..their.tall. Hamun-i-Puzak.livestock. is.–. and.the.time.period. 40%.giving.the.biodiversity. the. and. This. 1. 707. 100. National.2000-2004.1985-1988.is. evolved. that.approximately.pink. Afghan. was.1999.of. was.The.a.low-water.1977. originating. the. is.. Dasht-i-Nawar.–. graze. not.living. basis.huge.patterns. can.and.in. of.by.national. of.to. ecological. A.. No. 1.Afghan.series.mountains. and. former.the... and.hunting. Head. were.reeds. settled..proposed. assessments.lake.2000.Parliament... Order. waterfowl.

the.where. reed-covered.protection.a.almost. a.living..the.the. the.Zahir. large.were. (Scott. stopover. Khan.of.as.between.through.lake.Ansar.followed.Only.there. as.of.. of. once. Guard-i-Jumuriat. Government..Cemetery. is. as. shore..Larsson.Larsson. Pressure. being.Category.the.project.2002.the.broad.Ministry.Kabul.highway. Wali.staff.and. however. roof. Kabul.“nearly. 44 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . the.on.the. Afghanistan.Kabul.the.at. and.between. part.while.drawing.Rahim.houses. reduced.IV.to.although.imposing.other. Karte.of. Historically. migratory.Shewaki.irrigation.fields.settlers.2002. reducing.have.Waterfowl.the.occurred.purposes.directly.built.1973. as.(1978).on..Rahim.been.the.Kol-i-Hashmat. the..lake. and.illegally..used.years.species.In.water. lake.and.Ansar. of.noted.gujars.the.middle.are. thatch.the. bazaar.over. Habibullah.Kol-i-Hashmat.and.as.Logar.King.delineating.successor.birds.numbers.many.residents.in.Kol-i-Hashmat.In. to.nearly. Khan..Kol-i-Hashmat.Rahim. an.presidential. formerly..covered.of. River.attached. Logar.Ownership.and.were. the.as..1930s.area. of. built.Khan.shrine.lands.community. wildlife.Office. as.. the.local. Khan’s.proposed..the. abuses. gazetted.Protected.tube.of.the.1960s.system...hill. carpentry. Amir.of.garrison. located.Hissar.the.records.Khan. an.saw. Originally.reeds.of. priority. the..area.. not.within.regularly.increasing.boundaries. the. marsh. developed.Department. part. of.migrating. was.fort.a.Babur. of. was. and.plain.memoirs.8-km.Khan.Encroachment.much. and.public.recognized.few.Abdul.. fields.to. Hamun-i-Puzak. the.a.the. highway..President’s. proliferating. Guard).Niethammer.emptied.was. Jabur.urban.that..Jabar. uniquely. chronicles.to. Latif’s. afforded. Khan.lake.. owned.allocation.has.Following.lake..a...their.in.the.Kamari.around.waterfowl.about.water.overlooking. the. Larsson... The. Kol-i-Hashmat.it.century..a. brick.project.in. hunting.of. Kol-i-Hashmat.Kol-i-Hashmat.quail.being.lake.the. importance.and. surrounding. Naw.south. is.FAO.a.office. southeast.the.. a.lake. by. current.was.lies.the. and.was.a.Kabul-Gardez. fort. extensive.south. and..houses. (2006c). wood. 15.Database.by.a.a.property.ha. constructed..and.. system..of.use.IUCN. keeping. No. situated.Ceremonies..(1978).Moghul.by..under.the. Shah.the.a. inflicted.1970s.demands. for. the.around.a.mentioned.the.Kol-i-Hashmat.Rahman.stopover. on.the.16th. proper.is..a.the.(World. He. Garden.. Petocz.Larsson. of.nd). of.much.between.33.at.east. 190.for.Logar.as..River.summer. retreat.Valley.waterfowl.the.His.table.Kabul-Gardez.from. during.significant.and. the.Agriculture.implemented. as.AD.every.dozen.individual. canal.1880. protection.habitat.area. Kol-i-Hashmat. the.homes.only. lodge.at.over.In. the. Also.Khan.first.The.agricultural.by. birds.and. series.levels.side.Khan.small.were.the.businesses. also.the.from.months. natural. a.actually.645.area.the..of.location.the.the.the.sponsored. of. Khan.the. the.coup.to. were. very. was.As.Influential.of. is.end. guesthouse. edge.an. for.baths..contains.(1978).and.for.species. metropolis.The. is.state.numbers..important.the. ditch.two.a..royal.to.dry”.. (1901-1919).canal.Emperor.houses.Khan.. destroyed.Areas. including.a. during. on.of.1901. Amir.control. is. lake.the.lake.as. Chaman-i-Huzuri. now.to.north.the. the. boundaries. dozen. Habibullah.Khan.in.becomes.Kol-i-Hashmat. elevated. Kol-i-Hashmat.the. dug. irrigation.and. around.for.lying.provide. Kol-i-Hashmat.. Rahim. increases. the.the.and. Khan.size. birds. lake.are.breeding.century. shallow.year..the.Water. Niethammer.of.the.areas.(1978).part.its. observed.Bala.leading.only.Khan.. historical.reserve.there. road.Shah. primary. administered.To. significant. southwest.. have.of.Netting.out.UNDP. sites.predominantly.the.built.for.in.on. A.lakebed.which.. created..the.in. lake.that.was. first. landscape.or. doubtlessly.1978). hunting. Qala-i-Hashmat.20th.occurs. was.high.and.were.Khan.of.000. Khan’s.breeding.in..over.livestock. Amir. tents.grounds. a. Phragmites.of. larger.on.setting.in.and.well.in.for. 1995).has.by.lake.the.vast. significant.south.was. a. hunting.and.northwest.down..Sanctuary.into. at.. completely. of. (Republican.northwest.6 Kol-i-Hashmat Khan Kol-i-Hashmat.water.the.property..in. Khan.to.wells. Khan.reported. and.water.the. the..first.the.years. guesthouse.from.list. and. sale. Qala-i-Hashmat. registered.an.Larsson.been.lake.(1967.lake.period..in. of.by.lake.as. were.has. harvested. of.of.lake. of.the.declared.means.are.of.the..fighting.. of.royal.fields. of.marsh.. According. channels.. fort.in. Rahim.lake.the.across.In.of.and.half.never.migratory. what. northern.diverting.Kol-i-Hashmat. of. the.Khan.lake.

2006c).and.earmarked.above.has. Hindu. Khan.launder.government.the.interim.household.Environmental. forged.threaten.have. the. to. (Petocz.survival. Kol-i-Hashmat.south..continue.the. Recently.191.. deal.been.sold.shore. on.former.It.expanding.be. developed.prerogative.. status.grasses..from.residents.cut. up..to..expansion.Latif’s. have.site. Tube.the.A. it. (MAIL).adding.of.workshop.to.. the.been.the.(NEPA).from.the. and. protected.many.fields.stretching.Local. and.and..adding.A. and.formed.reduced. been.km). the. the.by. which.area.Hospital. edge.the. Management..of.. the.Kabul.km). mountains. the.rich.reeds.lake. Khan.trucks.has.just. Herd of yaks (Bos grunniens) in the Wakhan Corridor. the.owned.Hissar.government. documents.below.of.lake.to..hillside.UNEP.in.Bala.the. below. from.Kol-e.the.and.population.was.wetland. local.7 Wakhan The.Hunting.60. received.Ministry. of.illegally. radiate.protected. as..on.southwestern.coalition.alpine.the. Resource.Other.degraded.right. Hashmat.Irrigation.east.was. municipality.into.spearheaded.of. Qala-i-Hashmat. resources.to.by.lake.Badakhshan.and.province. long.clothes.the.ha. of.goods.the. milk and meat for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 45 .size.awareness.waste.dumped.of.are.and.of. historical. former..Hissar.north.. is.mainly. Department.the. lake.by.the.beautiful. on.and..its. water. title.150. sometimes.house. Badakhshan Province..hosted.of.a.severely. Karakorum.along.has.to. currently.into.of.2006c).common..the.the.is.ha.of.in. by.but.the.the.built.itself. and.owned.the. Pakistan.integrity.China.polluting.(Petocz.to.and.waters.royalty.property..lake. has.and. not.as.northern. issues.the. Khan.used.a. 15.are.settlers.prepared.children.the.cases.claims.Tien.lake. even.shore.been.the.. and.of.Protection.of.a.women.depletion.washers.(200.(Petocz..June.government.Agriculture. Himalayan.drilled..have. and.once.. (20. of.to. legal.reserve. managed... MAIL.and. Wakhan.birdlife.houses.. Knot”. perhaps.General. is.Corridor.was. is. that. a.the.Wakhan.discuss.education.multiagency.been.of.run-off.service. part..and.borders.eastward.-.in.Kol-i-Hashmat. most.Afghan..to. have.businesses.shore.plan.lake.NEPA.National..lake.new.and. the.south. and.harassment.Agency.future. or.is.from.6.Other.people.and.are. administered.lake.by. The yaks are frequently used by local people for transportation.Khan.of.about.rulers.needs. land.illegal.Livestock..by.high.Car..The. centre..now. Kush.the.. on.Shan. are. and..lake.still..size. never.land..agricultural.Director.to.but.Ranges. Natural.lake.to.facilitated.garbage.narrow.the.the. (DNRM).the. pressure.the.Tajikistan.water’s.The. the.been.fields.Bala.proper.to.panhandle.at.The.long.removed. the.either.. guest.population. private. has.2006.valleys.set.management. although.biodiversity. wells. the.by.garden.An.The. area.land.with. immediate.the.and. registered.and.teenagers.once. is.by.suspect.2006c)... “Pamir. with.

pastures.unique.Kirghiz.–.Small. (Canis lupus). bordering.sheep.WCS. with.including. Pamir”. tip.the. have.in.the.in.and.Accordingly. the.Zahler. into.has. recently.the..does. remained.There.and.by. to. Pamir..River.and.herders. sheep. Valleys. (Lynx lynx). dominated.(Capra siberica).people.Marco. with.sheep.in.run.Pamir.young). ca..Marco. a.of. in. surveys.Wakhan.to. .. 2006.been. 500.opportunistically.already. and. The.and. Marco. proposed.Pamir. This.the.and.and.. excellent. . Small.WCS.caused. km².UNEP. . and. at. China. bear.4. of.consists.protected.four-country.in. Intensive.international. be. UNEP. Big. mountain..Polo. three.and.never.. Small.is.by..or. a.for.saw. and.Waghjir. Pamir.ordered. DNA-based. the.be.Small. lynx.Polo.and. Wakhan.the.with.at.also.degradation.Much.human.sheep. .area. The.pers..has. the.borders.the.2004.as. (2003b).but.appears. community-based.of.the.Khunjerab..m.Tajikistan).of. 250. using. recent..transboundary..instability. divides....the.. (especially.the.a. approximately.was.and.760. high.The. the.the. of.the.was.build.Ishkishim.the.300..the. the.north.south.upon.working.designated. 74020’E.local.. eastern.eastern.hunting.most. .to.area.this.areas: •.and.with.Big. 1968. historical. sheep. Rough.Tourist. present.park. wildlife.the.and. the.Petocz.freely.Afghan.. .had.after.in.sheep..in.000.1979.Pamir. to. China..not.Marco. narrow.George. transhumant. by.reserves.The. Wakhan.protected.Shaymak.about.in.Pamir.is.on.used.sheep.a.. Marco.Wildlife..Waghjir.740.the. (2003b). estimates. years.largely.back. Pamir. intensively. the.545.of.Polo. wolf. (Uncia uncia).and. (2003b).Pamir..meat.679.Petocz. recommended.also.. Wakhan. the.livestock.in.considerable.detail. in. not. A.tourist.on..wild.move. Pamir-i-Buzurg.. sheep.it. (1978b).More.110.Polo. (Ursus arctos).Rivers.40’E).also.The.(1978b).. ..in.Reserve.Pakistan.eastern.technique. UNEP.and.single..that. estimation.6. remaining.km². Valley. condition. Silk.of.by. creating.were.and. The.sedentary.Wakhan.in.April.vegetation.long.is. Marco. Since.that.Tajikistan.females.the.and.Wakhan.. of. 1950s.for.Small. birds.by.has.are. Wakhan. of.from.yak. through. Big. is. bottoms.Kirghiz.from.the.with.are.(UNEP. team..of.not.Polo. ultimate.(about. been.Pamir. the..Tajikistan.of...noted.wintering.In. The.in.status. 1973.km.Big.plateau.freely. .. has.(P . recognized. that. area. would.blocks. in.valleys.being..team.end. recommended.. Marco.intact. fabled.Pamir.designated.was. thus. sedges..not.a.m. and.sheep.protected.The. the. population. WCS. The.(UNEP..of.be.the. an.ibex. area.forth.Organization. WCS. snow.Pakistan.found. 4 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .war. and.the. patterns.Big.Pamir.. Pamir.bordering.King.status.. the. a. valley. the.area.comprising.areas.grazing. 1973. habitat.both.rising.barrier.population. a. goal.area.gazetted. herdsmen. between.conflict. uninhabited.between.had.the. major. underway.Small.Shah. km2). are.1970s.Reserve.Valley.were.detailed.no.of. east.. brown.is.the. the. that. biologists.to.mountain.areas.100.Schaller.sheep.. leopard.. is. ran.use.of. The.separated.it. remain. the.In.b). characteristics. foster. years. legally..2003.25..program.area.across.Tajikistan. Pamir.portion.the.Pamir.Corridor.Park. Valley. or.the. is.Pamir.Pamir. been.and.counted. Road...by.on.Big.(east. small.the.move.alpine. Wakhan.be. trampling.. in.to.present.grasses.while.than.(Afghanistan..that.transboundary. undertaken.western.in..has.may. biologist..the.magnificent.tip..competing.the..Polo.150. lying.also.including. mammals.Pamir.. In. The.been.the. and. enjoy. in. but. consideration.the.Small.there. UNEP.a.in..Waghjir. Polo..promoting..in. protected.106.Wakhan. (1978a)...such.. archaeological.observed.strictly.wildlife.Big. famous..and.comm. The.the. in. is. found.WCS. considered. “Big.Pakistan.Petocz.the.four. be.Waghjir.valley.inhabited.Big.Pamir.diverse.. Pamir. conservation.. the. at.does.soon.as. Big.between. estimates..a.and. livestock/wildlife. Wakhi.Polo.the.(Petocz.1978.enabling. •. the.Zaher.Marco.. the.of.protection.are. studying. reserve.Valley.and.to.home. at.to.1978c).used.that.successful.in..Pamir-i-Buzurg.area.overwintered..to.Tajikistan.. running.protected.is.2003b).4. mountain.area. has.Wild.area. livestock.in.protected.concept.was.not.Waghjir. Besides. the.currently.hunted.Pakistan’s. •. geographical..that.winter.Qala-i-Panja.Wakhan.Big. .of. .is. borders.north-central.extended.2007. in.for.2006).described.and. of.Marco. Polo.sheep. local..two.only. Big.(Ovis ammon poli). most. cultural.National.larger.Pamir.protected..the..fauna. interactions. and.of.in.300. centring.a.for.under..the.

families. with.a.area. on.it.of. map.20th. Remote.the.there. as. They.the.As.that. during. a.the. with. of.unique. grandson.has. meeting.undisturbed. settled.(Omrani.of.150. available. in.forests.from.forest.possibly.crossed. Paron.region.the.recognition. tugai.floodplain. 100.undertaking. with.and.suggested. the. river.markhor.Taxkorgan.value.complex.Soviet..in.as.approximate.Regardless. areas..is. The.Tajikistan. smaller. September.Imam..remains.civil.vegetation.. the. is.Marco. proposed.in. to.one..again.Park. wildlife..fuelwood. Imam. of.never. Leeman.use..(2005). once.in. him. area. is.the.Enayat.in.2006).two.000.in.was.another..there. for.1977. and.in. Reserve. 15.11 Darqad Darqad. the.. Imam.the.had. that.head. 50.that.lost. be. area.It. Zadran. and..banks.The. reserve.as. Rector.for.2003a). in. Zorkul.the.Provinces. Urumchi.sheep.are.. then.and.confirmed.and. the. held.(6.that.leopard.Afghanistan.and. and. tracking. and.deer..wildlife.team.commonly. Hunting.Sahib.area. declared.the.The.boundaries. one.state.mammal.that. reported.sheep. China.der.(1981). 52%.14..(UNEP.1990. considering.analysis. the.2002.. (679.the.2002.in. fighting.Other..the..life.and.land.to. Kantiwa.in.largely.preliminary. sister.name. meeting. It. Imam.China.(about.km2). to. Monitoring. and. management. Pamir.9 Zadran Little.with.and. was. studies.contiguous.restrictions.intact. another.have..or.has.still.wildlife. agriculture.km2). major.as. Local. was.in.land. was.in. Reserve.clearing. remaining.by.the.area. Royal. 2006. planning. proposed. and.Tajik.. Sahib. scheduled. habitat.species. the..of.traditional. in.camera.the..(1979.cover.WCS.go.. area.reported.and. These.Tajikistan. Prophet’s. indicate. and.National. sometime. or.Strictly.trapping. The.2008.identity.. Zon.management. be..China. and.is.great.further.the.that.in.and.the.of.the. (Omrani. last. the.(1981)..remains.assemblage.visited.Bactrian.8 Nuristan Sayer.cultural. showing.. reported. and. Earth.been.the.2002. Leeman.well. Sahib...this. Together. (2003a). UNEP. Nuristan.undertaken.species. and. including.wars.protection. management.a.(1977).coniferous.system. times.cutting.UNEP.in.letter. represent.scat.and.Anthony. as.in.. wide.measure.proposed..by.extent.deer. it. is. the.van.islands. remnants.border.Sayer.proposed. located. Bank. Sahib.Polo.km2). Afghanistan.and.area.2005.Hussein.. km. mid-1990s. Development.–. length.. visited. Reserve. suggest.Zon.. completely.the.government.A. the. for. described.for.Darya.River.. no.Protected.. to.the.Park. about.have.Himalayan.Area.on.area.2001.. proposed.note.Sayer.the.monsoon–influenced.China.Sahib.the...shrine.value. islands. the. Provinces. and..during.tugai.reserve.an. Google. to.remains.a.was.Laghman. area. (UNEP.10 Imam Sahib Imam.In.and.forests.The.van.snow.1990.distribution. Kunar..or. and.Asia. the.the.Nuristan.Afghanistan.in. tentatively.are. of. 2005).and. km2).reserves. formal. last. during.behalf. van.told.the. Zon.and. significant.Nuristan.of. on.and..been. reports.Afghanistan. Omrani.hunting.trophy. km.the. 15.Larsson.. area.Marco.agricultural.may. Valleys.interest.in.2003). Big.a. was.and.for.converted. der.exist.in. 2004. to.Fitzherbert. found.along..In.(pers.. recommendations..They.currently. the.comm. Taliban.a.recent.century.. people. a.formal.in.provided.unstable. The.was. in. in.islands. –. using..area. remaining.hunting.the.mosque.additions. 300..reputed.. . may.was. information.indicated. is.border.of. reserve. . provided. Measurements. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 4 .Amu. 15. Kabul. National.is. 2005). centred. that. considerable.between. that. the.deciduous. Centre.and.Tajikistan. uncertainty.way. for. approximately..area.and.with. sensing. made. created.Bactrian.and.Khan. 15. Park. as..with.reserve.through.of.forests.main.and.Nature.visited. and. but.on. on.Post-Conflict. to.the.black.a. that. almost.Dr. World. nature. people. in.snow.apparently. much.war.saw..in.Leeman.from.to.derives. as.of..and. and.of.and.2006.Tahir.Polo. Conservation.lands.km.elites..addition.of.leopard.1989).(870. Wildlife.contain.identification.some.to.in. in..Imam. Darqad. ecology...gazetted.island.bear. a. the.WCS.wildlife.flourished.declared. 12. and.the.historic.being. University.. (1981).(Cervus elaphus bactrianus).Petocz..endangered.is.surveys.upstream.of. its.Hazrat.Ahmad.25. It. some.UNEP..der.proposal.. around. Laghman.are.Nangarhar. with..the.

but..for.on. the.severely.representative.level. the.value.sign.declared..borders..visited. in.area.received. 4 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . obs. Darqad.is.was.its. km.a.a. management.with.located. the. Sayer. pasture. area.to. Van. Large.is.these.range.conservation. higher.It.(pers. 30. Afghanistan’s.of. recognition.little.if..the. a.area.Desert. not.and. (onager.hyaena).exists.now.approximately..level. Helmand. investigated. In. herbivores.any.area. rich.are. Herat.(2005).behalf.conservation.gone.13 Registan Desert Registan. Sahib.of. other. has.common.never.that.in.of.Google.airstrip.of.area.indicate.. and.tugai vegetation.comprised.and.Like. Turkmenistan.. a.. boundaries. in.not.Toderich. delineated.as.bustard..reserve.found.. However.is. were.but.Afghanistan. Artemisia.as.Darqad.Pistacia vera.being. reserve.Bank. the..Taliban.gazetted. Northwest.Darqad.information. that..during. Reserve.and.1967. ass. to.Sahib. not. This..Reserve.significant. spur. proposed. The. delineated. have.landscapes.received.information..be. once.and.sand.Iranian.diversity. (33º38’46”N. Koh.any.der.is.provided.of. forests. one. of.rodent.Imam.in.of. status. any.the. lists.Darqad. been..nature.completely.Provinces.Van. the. on. gazelles). Tsukatani. management. along.Registan.seen. determine. government. or.extreme.. recognition. late.. to.and. Wild. and.has.rarely.Development.in.It. area.species.. country.formal.and. goitered.for.wealthy.as. reported.has.from.predators.Leeman.located.Asia.plant. Hunting.Kandahar. value.hunting.area.as.species.Wildlife.seen.Its.40km. of. north-western.seems.nature.and.the..access. in.2005.to.to.be.were.2003).for.. gone.to..is.the.never. Leeman.to.wildlife.(1981).Royal..moving. inclusion.is. delineated.south-eastern. areas.level.Imam. as. not.desert.Ahmad.Rough.measurements. they. boundaries.were. Afghanistan... chinkara.the.or. suitability.Little.of.. country. The.Its. restrictions. Like. Feroz.12 Northwest Afghanistan Northwest.any. be.has. should. 1970s. flats. Hazrat.1975..their.some..much.representative.length.Afghanistan.floral.in.of.current. in.but.be.provide..area..by. 62º14’21”E).20m. elevations. with. existed. use. boundaries. and.never.was. a.certainly.dunes.protection.Hazrat. and.the. wildlife.and. as.der.of.report.area.formal. conditions.on. time.as.proposed. of. north.(cheetah.built. boundaries. 15.Khan.of.as. recognition.. comm.corner. sometime.tigers. and.gravel.largely. have. the.Afghanistan.available. Desert..primarily.received..degraded.and.an.2006).are.its. the. steppes. Earth. current. on.using.as.in..are.had.(1981).now.reptile..Arabs.reserve. in. been..and.as. by.and. north-western.. the.best.The.never. At.). at. lower.. about.(Habibi.some.and. future.2005).a. have.Zon..of.Zon. the...almost. 20th.Sayer.a. for.a.gazelle.productivity.recent.in.hunted.in. corner. land. of.last.estimates. 15..been.formal.years. (pers.(Omrani. nature. century. the.and.wide. been.variety.formal. the.or. its..late. provide.the.Baba.(2005).region. and.now. the.at.It. was..reserve.Omrani.the. The. Baba. and.. horse.

Consequently.. potato. into. of. a.greatest.wild.Potatoes.being. specific.resistant. the.season.1979.species.. to. importance.rich. illustrates. most.are. of.. their. of. varieties.species. seed. single.is. if. resistant. often.to. livestock.that.to.will. varieties.5.or. (ICARDA.with.to.in. approach.machinery.a.resistance.that.plant..Early.lose. much.genetic.of.not..of. and.are.farmers. conditions. any.resources.the. the.plants. a. than..The.veterinary. harvests. unit. there.and.of. Monocropping. unconscious. preserving. known.the. Potato. long.as.farm.Consequently. if.disastrous.control.they.rainfed. of.and. the.drought.estimated.of. rains.biodiversity. to.highly. least. in.rainbow.it.farmers.vagaries. variability. is. with. efforts.within.is. conditions.to.of.to. varieties.regions.million. potato.chemical.to.drugs.to..fungus. depends.because. are.to.of.because. of.came.danger.genetic.dependent. of. landraces.more.is. progenitors.conditions..use.. are.a. genetic.the.purple. genetic.less. Consequently.often. The. varieties..developed. people.hybrid.of.in. potato.colors— red. Landraces..livestock. the.everything.and..around. are.hundred. a.and. most. or. and. concentrate. Adil.diversity.a.on.1845. the. improved. farmer-developed.many. livestock. refers.more.species.risky. genetic. diversity.could. areas. of.many. the.farmers.. irrigated. and. in...1 The Significance of Agricultural Biodiversity Agricultural.and. money.hightech. monocropping..people. struck. while.people.so.. the.Blight. attacks..the. the. seeds.the.genes.improved.the.being. raised.remain.varieties. always.make.each. to.. the.lost.only. require.conscious. were.sheep..Mountainous.–..landraces...most.. is. risks. and.carrots.in.yellow.carrots.white. reservoir.breeds.indicated.. allowing. variety.harvest. crop... existing.the.therefore.well.Potato.incorporating. invested. are. employ. resistance.improved.of.result.do.a.. challenges. come.banks.with.productive.showed.the..often. local.high. strategy.produce. the.species.from. of. landraces. source. used.foreign.. diversity. pesticides.Irish.one. found.adapt. 2002). best.something.risk.. on.during.yields..able.landraces..variety. they. seed. orange.agriculture. Afghanistan.“improved”. selective. of.blight.seed. favourable.through.species. landraces.now.preserve. destroyed.planting.genetic. has.. varieties.. 16. of. and. do.farmers..best.1.and.reddish. an.population.new.and. farmer.crops.of. if.yield/high. more. varieties.(Phytophthora infestans).breeds.by.by. incorporated. because.the.isolation. less.survive. value..as.in. their.depend.Afghanistan. the. as.2000).grow. others..but. variety.and. had.through.Different.world.orange. by.landraces.. of. in.. of. species.fertilizers. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 4 . increasingly.. in. Irish. on.amount.. variability.strategy. or.in.However.environment. of. disease.few. who.development. domesticated.can. species. species. and. poor. a..along. crop.of. those. Famine. and. of. the. good.the. and. seed..farmer.huge. valleys. Experiments. genetic.16 Afghanistan’s Agricultural Biodiversity Agricultural.incorporate. crops.although. the. diversity. are.are.breeds. improved.areas. years. that.in. biodiversity.one.it.. Afghanistan. The.poor. wide. species.and..in. variety.the.. planted. as. an. many.the. crop..ranges. the. given.. set.Ireland.in. imported. exclusion. not. In. changing. land. plants. can. nearby.million.were.flood.. sources. particular. are. genetic. 16.by. The.three. in.years.compared.Several. crop. local. of.. and. breeding. of.Planting. farmers.(Yalcin. the. chemicals.variability. the.in. stable.flexibility. risky.Famine. wild. per. being.solely.that.emigrated.large. raising. provides. of.utilize.large. labour..the.subsequently.yields.conditions...the. the. mountain. been.varieties.many.each. Many. maintaining. most.growing.of.In.local.developed. differing.for.that. of. Landraces. times. variability. potato. this.growing. land. Under. When. are. traditional. Ireland.the.not. and.lost. variety.local. expensive. cultivated.2 Varieties of Agricultural Species “Landraces”. adaptations.of. illustrated. of.grew.1845. gives. or.ago. crops. potatoes. monocropping.important. of. the. insect.yield.would.of. of. wild.provide.landraces. species. and.of. are. large. on..as. environmental.. to.died.adapted.such. the.disease.almost. dramatically. the.row.over. encompassed.were. as. a.still.only.animals. preparation. strikes. conditions.So. fewer. genetic. of.livestock. from. at.1848.

by. Vavilov.drought.Afghanistan.for. home.database.V.of.food.in..more.domesticated.cows.are.in.apparently.are.the.goats.that.in. maize.deletions.721.than.population.is.pest. private.no. that. 2006. Russian.in.known. than.major. 200.from.(Aegilops squarrosa).agricultural.and. between.and.our.crops.to.. towards.Just. All. 12. seven.three. collections.(nd).the. wild. prior.rice. the. heavily.Network. Afghanistan. Harvest. Vavilov. of.developed.food. its. terrestrial.containers.a.in.scientists.few. 2002.in. farmers. in.sets.create. most.the.1999)... food.e. commodity..emmer. neighboring. (p. wild. contained. conditions.and.crops.with.the. widespread.sweet.7%.only. that.Afghanistan..was.wheat.(FAO.stockpiled.3 Wild Species as the Ancestors of Agricultural Species All. humans.(GRIN).is.tonnes.were.(FAO. third.important. samples.The.. Resources.Online. sugar.cash. traits.sweet. ancestors.world.quietly. plants.2003). and.wheat.only.pistachio. There.. sugar. of.tolerance.again..and. for. several.and.Afghanistan.(ICARDA. Of. production.pear.significance. 100. them. many.mountain.crop.species.of.wheat.surprising.himself.is. currently. the. There.by.on. melons. are. perfectly. landraces...likely. nd).grown.livestock.almost.and. table.which.maize. steal.the.process. and..the.. the. than.species. as.crops. were.. about.in. are. Afghanistan. its. 148.. is.crops. are.accessions. barley.an.of.humanity’s.grapes.been.certainly.by.to.wild. all.and. thousand.Afghanistan.anywhere.which. these..diversity.to. Afghanistan.world.hunter-gatherers..the.only..selection.herders. (45.species. to.that.diversity..of. plant.1.. (Fedak. the. kg). developed. varieties. by.700.and. are. species. these. considered.resistance. discovered.of.were. species. species.and. from. still..and.is. flax.associated.892.included. likely..5. additions. homes. apple..vegetables.the. Bread.domesticated.is.grass. Only. Sometime.else. to..collected.goat.Institute. In.During.which. peas.of.first..use. cane.calories.the.types.seed.to.potato. is. cereal..a.wheat... and. and..ago. humanity’s. such. degrees. then.that.consumed.collection.. geneticist. species. domestication.available. the.barley. the. rye.six.. disease.of. flowering.production.aestivum)..process..cultivated.5.are.80%.found.centre.(Triticum. these.7%.years.crop.destroyed. pioneering.2002).ever.seed. humans. Indeed.hundreds. of..ranges. crop. by.Genetic. 1. early. Afghanistan’s. a.world.of.truly.110.The.. of.collection. of. rice.2006). diversity.favourable. is. (wheat.some. nearest.over. more.and.genetic... hid.be.cherry. 16. biomass.landraces. weighing.a.in..most. descended.native. not.4..on..maize.However. 20. by. are. eaten.have. developed..hexaploid.possible.war.information..not.more. 50 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . thousands.Even. 45. concentrated. are.other.the. provide.millennia.been.. Preserving.species. 1920s. to.lists. wheat.the.was.Less. the.may.plastic. in.through.new..varieties. 16.sorghum.fact..crops.and...has.account. 80%.therefore.cereal.almost. wild. years.have.1992..48)...the.a.14.. It. The. beet.to..of.quince.Unfortunately.created.origin. samples.is.list. the. have.in...Prior.(sheep..Afghanistan. of. describe. many...information.these. ancestors. summary.some.species.. representing.early.It.animals. of. Vavilov. known.for. collections. is..horses). be. latitude.world’s. varieties. are...experts.some.it.(Future.000.with. (Diamond.from. Afghanistan’s. past..adapted.any.have. rice.candidates. herbivorous. countries... the. in.by.. banana).regions.(Diamond.varieties. chickpeas. (Triticum turgidum).wheat. pounds..seed. original. 12.1999).hundred.2002). country’s.4 Afghanistan’s Crop and Livestock Species and Varieties Table.a.from. most.unattributed.Afghan.is.Vavilov..Afghanistan.predicted. N. of. alfalfa.world.worldrenowned. worldwide. such.era.farmers.imperative.of.around.be. be. clover. of. from.(i.. from. of. wild. rare. these. about.. birth.destroyed.pigs.complete.five.the. that.manioc.a. edible.U.from.Agriculture’s.. these. but.records. Taliban. how. of.bread. was.species. re-collected. the. 6%.chromosomes). stored. and.. skewed. barley. bread.... of.. things.domesticated.wheat..plants.Department.The.a. potato. the.major.had.rich. of. while. seed.mujahadeen factions. global. Researchers.therefore. production.ransacked.in.lack.crop. plants.pomegranate. mammals.some...was.. cradle.hybridizing..Information.and. million.is. Those.S. genetic.world.in.half. of. wheat. Plant.thought.Moscow.animal. and..soybean. there. and.wheat.

landraces. are.Afghan... Waziri.are. an.sheep.domesticated. were.. goats. domesticated. Gadik.(Baluchi. goat.. Currently.Agriculture Cereals Vegetables Pulses Fodder Commodities Livestock Figs Plums Bananas Dates Pears Peaches Apricots Mulberries Grapes Pomegranates Apples Quince Oranges Cherries Strawberries Walnuts Almonds Pine nuts Pistachio nuts Jujube Loquat Persimmon Mandarin Lemon Quince Rice Rye Wheat Barley Maize Millet Beets Sesame Spinach Radish Pumpkin Potatoes Lettuce Cabbage Garlic Leeks Turnips Asparagus Brussels sprouts Eggplants Squash Cauliflower Garden pea Onions Mustard Cucumbers Carrots Watermelons Melons Sunflowers Artichoke Tomatoes Pepper Broccoli Cabbage Lentils Chick pea Broad bean Clover Alfalfa Vetch Cotton Tobacco Opium poppy Flax Rape Sugarcane Castor oil plant Sheep Cattle Goats Donkey Horse Bactrian camel Dromedary camel Water buffalo yak Chicken Turkey Grapes.Panjshir. domestic. and.extinction.Table.Sabw).3. Afghanistan.Arabi.local. Systani.72. and.there.are.goats.7..by.. although..plant. (Oliver. of. (Herati. million.Bouy. hybrids. four. still.raised.at.cattle. progenitors. Tajjiki..Gadik.000.Badakhshani..these. Kashmiri.. (Afghan. in. that.the. first..2003)..being.million.develop. (urial... Shankhansurri... Kandahari. Rahnama. Qatgani. wild. (RAMP.nd).carried..Some.Afghanistan..(Bohan.first. of.of.and. in..by. and. exist.. of.threatened..76.Afghanistan’s. there.. the. varieties. Kulangi.of.in..7. and. Afghanistan.to.Badakhshani. A. chickens.are.are..Herat. Mazari.nd).with. MAIL....camels...Wakhan. There. Swiss). Rangin.be. donkeys.breeds.of.Diversity.3. Hazaragi. not.least.and. all..Although.in..in. used..were... Kabuli. and...nine. FAO.census.cattle. of.eight. and.177.out.reported.. estimated. Karakul.. and. onagers.probably. Afghan.million. Dasnier.8.(Khan. Brown.sheep.new.. Friesian.they. Turkistani.–. Watani). indicated. Herat. grapes. the. in. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 51 . of..2003. Jersey.12.landraces... in.Turki). varieties. breeds. horse.Iqbal. wild. goats. (Asmari. sheep. seven..of.Afghanistan.the.8. and. Konari. respectively). region. six.and.livestock.breeders.US. Kandahari. Fruit and Nuts Species. Ghiljai.March. and. breeds. the.to. varieties. (Khasaki. Yabu). 2004).. Kandahari.Kabuli.

plan. manage.within.. international. Establish. areas. Priority. These.and.programs. for. potential. Afghanistan.technical. wetlands.to. listed. Encourage. areas.representative. Developing.areas.suitability. to. and.with.. state. 4.forests.protect. all. and. determine. and. capacity.key.status..gaps. Wakhan Corridor. incorporating.. and. this.. 6. Band-i-Amir. institutions. institutional. the. Red-Listing.to. major. recovering. biodiversity. 2..the. to.northern. a.Afghan. areas.crop.of.be.for. 3.priorities. feasible. biodiversity.Nawar.. Dashte. protected.. near.. to. current. effectively. be. Initiate.plants.into. process. initiatives. Develop. and.Action.to.of.eastern. Biodiversity. ecoregions.actions. of.including: 1.. be. Develop. forests.its...biodiversity.mammals. landraces.. for.people. to.to. of. Badakhshan Province 52 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Afghanistan. the. for. 1.a. 7. effective. the.protected. document. current. high. and. pistachio.priority. that.system. public..preserve.of. effective..a. instituted. the. preserving.. a. the. Afghanistan’s. Afghan. Pamir-i-Buzurg. surveys. 5. context. national.current.to.must. of. legally.status.suggests. in.of. biodiversity. of. Ajar. priority.livestock. and.biodiversity. in. as.inclusion.and. and. remaining. National.Afghan.for.comprehensive.develop.. the. monsoondependent. targeted.and. Valley. areas.Plan.species. managed.value. broader. national..known. system. of... biodiversity. plans.detailed.Afghanistan. protected. of. in.Afghanistan. 8.. of. Develop. plans. IUCN. recognized. a. intervene. remnant. Develop.native. Improving. destruction. of.number. juniper. Increasing.17 Recommended Priority Actions for Conserving Afghanistan’s Biodiversity This.. plan. effectively. the. 3. areas.fill. Strategy. in.. should. Survey. awareness. establish. entities. review.flora. scholars.the. future.. protected. and.Afghanistan. government. to.of. knowledge. to. 2.designed.undertaken. all.assistance. conserve. © INAyAT ALI Owl species. protect.in. should.specific.actions.

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iucnredlist. A&C Black. fimbriatus. baberi as a separate species from H. and A.php/8702/all) Northern Palm Squirrel Jerboas Small Five-toed Jerboa Euphrates Jerboa Hotson’s Fivetoed Jerboa Greater Threetoed Jerboa Common Unknown Unknown Unknown Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www. Thomas’s Pygmy jerboa 5 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Dunn and Lawson state that type locality (Afghanistan) is ”doubtful”. Mammals of the World.org/search/ details. A.php/19868/ summ) Uncertain in Afghanistan. iucnredlist. Marmota caudata Petaurista petaurista Spermophilus fulvus Spermophilus leptodactylus Funambulus pennantii Dipodidae Allactaga elater Allactaga euphratica Allactaga hotsoni Jacalus blanfordi Salpingotus thomasi Long-tailed Marmot Giant Flying Squirrel Ground Squirrel Long-clawed Ground Squirrel Common Threatened Common Unknown Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed by IUCN (http://www.Appendix 1 The Mammals of Afghanistan: A Checklist Mammals of Afghanistan Taxonomy. nomenclature and order of families from Duff. Lawson 2004. London Scientific Name Common Name Habibi’s Threat Assessment Common Unknown Common Common IUCN Red List CITES Authority Notes Lepordiae Lepus capensis Lepus nigricollis Ochotona macrotis Ochotona rufescens Sciuridae Hylopetes fimbriatus Hylopetes baberi Rabbits and Hares Cape Hare Indian Hare Large-eared Pika Afghan Pika Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Squirrels Small Kashmir Flying Squirrel Afghan Flying Squirrel Threatened Habibi (2003) Dunn and Lawson (2004) Roberts (1997) disputes the recognition of H. org/search/details.A Checklist.

cheesmani from Afghansitan. Habibi cites G.iucnredlist.org/search/ details. iucnredlist.iucnredlist. Long-tailed Hamster. cheesmani. Duff and Lawson cite G. iucnredlist. aquilus from Afghanistan. org/search/details.php/3621/dist) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www.php/1906/ summ) Common Habibi (2003) Blanfordimys afghanus Calomyscus bailwardi Calomyscus baluchi Afghan vole Microtus afghanus in Habibi (2003).org/search/details.Muridae Dryomys nitedula Alticola roylei Apodemus sylvaticus Apodemus wardi Mice and relatives Forest Dormouse Royal’s High Mountain Vole Field Mouse Ward’s Field Mouse Unknown Unknown Unknown Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www.php/9106/dist) Split from G. org/search/details.org/search/details. Mouselike Hamster Unknown Habibi (2003) Baluchi Mole-like Hamster Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www. php/13438/dist) Microtus socialis Microtus transcaspicus Social Vole Transcaspian vole Unknown Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www. iucnredlist.iucnredlist.php/13459/dist) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 5 .org/search/details. Calomyscus mystax Afghan Mouse-like Hamster Cricetulus migratorius Ellobius fuscocapillus Ellobius talpinus Gerbillus aquilus Gray Hamster Afghan Mole Vole Northern Mole Vole Swarthy Gerbil Common Unknown Unknown Gerbillus nanus Meriones crassus Meriones hurrianae Meriones libycus Meriones meridanus Meriones persicus Meriones zarudnyi Microtus arvalis Microtus juldaschi Microtus kirgisorum Baluchsitan Gerbil Sundevall’s Jird Indian Desert Gerbil Libyan Jird Midday Gerbil Persian Jird Zarudny’s Jird Common Field Vole Pamir Vole Tien Shan vole Unknown Unknown Unknown Common Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Common EN Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www.php/3619/dist) Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www.

rattoides in Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) G.iucnredlist.iucnredlist.Muridae Millardia gleadowi Mice and relatives (Continued) Sand-coloured soft-furred rat Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www. cheesmani split into C.org/search/details. php/41710/dist) Viverricula indica Felidae Acinonyx jubatus venaticus Caracal caracal Felis chaus Felis sylvestris Cats Cheetah Caracal Jungle Cat Wild Cat Extirpated Threatened Threatened Threatened VU I I II II Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Cited as F.iucnredlist. org/search/details. Dunn and Lawson cite G. Hystricidae Hystrix indica Viverridae Herpestes auropunctatus Old World Porcupines Crested Porcupine Common Habibi (2003) Small Indian Mongoose Common Habibi (2003) Considered as included in H. org/search/details.iucnredlist. cheesmani from Iran west.org/search/details. cheesmani. aquila and C. php/41692/dist) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www. Paguma larvata Masked Palm Civet Small Indian Civet Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www.php/13522/dist) Mus musculus Nesokia indica Rattus rattus Rattus tanezumi House mouse Short-tailed Bandicoot Rat Black Rat Tanezumi rat Common Common Common Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by Dunn and Lawson (2004) and by IUCN (http://www.php/19366/dist) Rattus turkestanicus Rhombomys opimus Tatera indica Gerbillus cheesmani Turkestan rat Great Gerbil Indian Gerbil Cheesman’s gerbil Common Common Common Unknown Habibi (2003) R. libyca by Habibi (2003) Lynx lynx Otocolobus manul Panthera pardus Panthera tigris Lynx Pallas’ Cat Leopard Tiger Threatened Threatened Threatened Extirpated EN II II I I Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) 0 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . javanicus by IUCN.

iucnredlist.php/8541/dist). org/search/details.php/15951/ dist) Unconfirmed for Afghanistan Panthera leo African lion VU I or II No records for Afghanistan. Historic range suggests it may have been present. Cited as an Afghan species by CITES Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www. php/41611/dist) Uncertain in Afghanistan. Herpestidae Herpestes edwardsii Common Grey Mongoose Unknown IUCN lists it for Afghanistan (http:// www.Felidae Prionailurus bengalensis Uncia uncia Felis margarita Cats (Continued) Leopard Cat Snow Leopard Sand Cat Unknown Threatened EN II I II Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Cited by IUCN as ? for Afghanistan (http://www. see Habibi (2003) Hyaenidae Hyaena hyaena Canidae Canus aureus Canus lupus Vulpes cana Vulpes corsac Vulpes ruepelii Vulpes vulpes Ursidae Ursus arctos Ursus thibetanus Mustelidae Lutra lutra Martes flavigula Martes foina Mustela eriminea Mustela nivalis Vormela peregusna Hyaenas Striped Hyena Common Habibi (2003) Dogs and foxes Jackal Wolf Blandford’s Fox Corsac Fox Sand Fox Red Fox Rare Threatened Threatened Threatened Threatened Common VU II II Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Bears Brown bear Asiatic Black Bear Threatened Threatened VU II I Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Weasels Common Otter yellow-throated Marten Stone Marten Ermine Weasel Marbled Pole Cat Threatened Threatened Threatened Rare Threatened Rare I Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 . iucnredlist.org/search/ details. iucnredlist.org/search/ details.

iucnredlist. Hemiechinus hypomelas Soricidae Crocidura gmelini Brandt’s Hedgehog Unknown Habibi (2003) Shrews Gmelin’s Shrew Cited for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www. auritus. iucnredlist.Mustelidae Meles meles Weasels (Continued) Badger Unknown Habibi (2003) Uncertain in Afghanistan. megalotis. see Habibi (2003) Mellivora capensis Ratel Unknown Cited for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www.php/41629/dist Erinaceidae Hemiechinus auritus Hedgehogs Long-Eared Hedgehog Common Habibi (2003) H.iucnredlist. see Habibi (2003) Uncertain in Afghanistan. php/29667/dist) Crocidura pullata Dusky Shrew Crocidura russula Crocidura suaveolens Crocidura zarudnyi Suncus etruscus Common WhiteToothed Shrew Lesser WhiteToothed Shrew Pale Gray Shrew Etruscan pygmy shrew Suncus murinus Sorex minutus House Shrew Unknown European Pygmy Shrew Emballonuridae Taphozous nudiventris Rhinopomatidae Rhinopoma hardwickei Rhinopoma microphyllum Rhinopoma muscatellum Sheath-tailed bats Naked-Rumped Tomb Bat None Habibi (2003) Mouse-tailed bats Lesser MouseTailed Bat Greater MouseTailed Bat Small MouseTailed Bat None None None Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Crocidura gmelini. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Dunn and Lawson (2004) Unknown Unknown Unknown Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www.iucnredlist. In: IUCN 2004. php/41319/dist) Insectivore Specialist Group 1996. cited in Habibi (2003) is now included in H.org/search/details.org/search/ details. php/29671/dist) Habibi (2003) Listed by IUCN as a ? For Afghanistan (http://www.org/search/details.org/search/details.

Megadermatidae Magaderma lyra

False vampires
Greater False Vampire None Habibi (2003)

Rhinolophidae Asellia tridens Hipposideros fulvus Rhinolophus blasii Rhinolophus clivosus

Horseshoe bats
Trident Bat Bicolored LeafNosed Bat Blasius’ Horseshoe Bat Geoffroy’s horseshoe bat None None None None Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003)

R. bocharicus
cited by Habibi (2003) but now included in R.

clivosus Rhinolophus ferrumequinum Rhinolophus hipposideros Rhinolophus lepidus Rhinolophus mehelyi Molossidae Tadarida aegyptiaca Tadarida teniotis
Greater Horseshoe Bat Lesser Horseshoe Bat Blyth’s Horseshoe Bat None None None VU Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Koopman (1993)

Mehelyi’s Horseshoe Bat

Free-tailed bats
Egyptian FreeTailed Bat European FreeTailed Bat None None Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003)

Vespertilionidae Barbastella leucomelas Eptesicus bottae Eptesicus nilssoni

Evening bats
Eastern Barbastelle Botta’s Serotine Northern Bat Not indicated None Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003)

E. gobiensis listed
for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www. iucnredlist.org/search/ details.php/41531/dist)

Cited by IUCN as E. gobiensis; now included in

E. nilssoni

Eptesicus nasutus Eptesicus serotinus Miniopterus schreibersi Myotis blythii Myotis emarginatus Myotis formosus Myotis frater

Sind Serotine Bat Serotine Bat Schreiber’s LongFingered Bat Lesser MouseEared Bat Geoffroy’s Bat Hodgson’s Bat Fraternal Bat

None None Not indicated None None None

VU

Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003)

VU

Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Chiroptera Specialist Group 1996. Myotis frater. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist. org>. Dunn and Lawson (2004)

Myotis longipes

Kashmir Cave Bat

None

VU

Habibi (2003)

for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 

3

Vespertilionidae Myotis mystacinus Nyctalus leisleri

Evening bats (Continued)
Whiskered Bat Lesser Noctule None Habibi (2003) Chiroptera Specialist Group 1996. Nyctalus leisleri. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www. iucnredlist.org>. Dunn and Lawson (2004) None Habibi (2003) Chiroptera Specialist Group 1996. Myotis muricola. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Dunn and Lawson (2004) Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http:// www.iucnredlist.org/search/details. php/17344/dist) Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www. iucnredlist.org/search/ details.php/44856/ dist) Not indicated Not indicated Not indicated Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Listed for Afghanistan by IUCN (http://www. iucnredlist.org/search/ details.php/17368/ dist) Range maps show it to be resticted to SE Asia. (http:// www.funet. fi/pub/sci/bio/ life/mammalia/ chiroptera/ vespertilionidae/ pipistrellus/ index.html) Cited by IUCN as Hypsugo savii. Now considered as

Nyctalus montanus Mytotis muricola

Mountain Noctule Whiskered Myotis

Otonycteris hemprichii Pipistrellus babu Pipistrellus coromandra Pipistrellus javanicus

Hemprich’s LongEared Bat Himalayan Pipistrelle Indian Pipistrelle Javan Pipestrelle

Pipistrellus kuhlii Pipistrellus mimus Pipistrellus pipistrellus Pipistrellus savii

Kuhl’s Pipistrelle Indian Pygmy Pipistrelle Common Pipistrelle Savi’s Pipistrelle

Pipistrellus savii.

Plecotus austriacus Scotophilus heathi Vespertilio murinus Pipistrellus tenuis

Grey Long-Eared Bat Asiatic Greater yellow House Bat Particolored Bat Least Pipistrelle

Cercopithecidae Macaca mulatta

Old World Monkeys
Rhesus Macaque Common II Habibi (2003) 

4

An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment

Suidae Sus scrofa Cervidae Cervus elaphus bactrianus

Swine
Wild Boar Common Habibi (2003)

Deer
Bactrian Deer Threatened VU II Habibi (2003) Subspecies listed as Vulnerable by IUCN

Moschus chrysogaster

Himalayan Musk Deer, Alpine Musk Deer

Extremely rare

I

Habibi (2003)

M. moschiferus
in Habibi (2003). This species occurs in NE Asia.

Bovidae Capra aegagrus Capra falconeri

Oxen and relatives
Wild Goat or Bezoar Goat Markhor Threatened Threatened VU EN I Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003) Two subspecies in Afghanistan.

C.f.heptneri
is Red Listed as Critically Endangered.

C.f. megaceros
is Red Listed as Endangered.

Capra siberica

Siberian Ibex

Rare

Habibi (2003)

Capra ibex in Habibi (2003). Now usually considered C. siberica.
May no longer exist in Afghanistan.

Gazella bennettii

Chinkara

Threatened

Habibi (2001)

Gazella subguterosa Ovis ammon

Goitered Gazelle Argali

Threatened Threatened VU II

Habibi (2003) Habibi (2003)

A.a. poli
subspecies in Afghanistan. Subspecies listed as Vulnerable by IUCN

Ovis vignei

Urial

Unknown

VU

II

Habibi (2003)

Taxonomy is unsettled. IUCN and others consider this

O.orientalis.
Regardless, cycloceros is the only subspecies found in Afghanistan.

for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 

5

Bovidae Naemorhedus goral

Oxen and relatives (Continued)
Goral I Listed by IUCN as ? For Afghanistan (http://www. iucnredlist.org/search/ details.php/14296/ dist) “Hearsay” reports from Nangarhar and Kunar (Sayer and van der Zon 1981; p. 33). Range maps in Shackleton (1997) do not suggest occurrence in Afghanistan. Uncertain for Afghanistan. Sometimes considered Bos grunniens.

Bos mutus

Wild yak

VU

I

Cited for Afghanistan by the CITES database. See Naumann 1970.

Equidae Equus onager

Horses
Onager or Asian Wild Ass Threatened II Habibi (2003) Considered

E. hemionus by
Habibi (2003) and IUCN. Considered E. onager by IUCN and by Duff and Lawson (2004). Regardless, the Afghan subspecies are onager and kulan.

Rhinoceritidae Rhinoceros unicornis
Indian Rhinoceros I Fitzherbert (2005) says cited for Nangahar in early “namas”. Rookmaaker (2000) notes a 1556 report of rhinoceros on either the Afghan or the Pakistan side of the mountains. Uncertain for Afghanistan.

Note: this list follows the McKenna-Bell sequence of mammalian orders (McKenna, M.C. and Bell S.K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New york, Columbia University Press)

References:
• • • • • • • • • Duff, A. and Lawson, A. 2004. Mammals of the World- A Checklist. A&C Black, London Fitzherbert, A. 2005. Wildlife of Afghanistan. Pages 659 - 709 In Omrani, B. and M. Leeming. Afghanistan: A companion and guide. Pp. 659 - 709. Odyssey Books and Guides. Habibi, K. 2003. Mammals of Afghanistan. Zoo Outreach and US Fish and Wildlife Service. 168 pp. Habibi, K. 2001. Afghanistan. In: D.P Mallon and S.K. Kingswood (compilers). Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and . Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. pp.119-121. IUCN, Gland. Koopman, K. 1993. Order Chiroptera. In Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 2nd edition. Smithsonian Pr., Washington. 1206 pp. Naumann, C. 1970. Ein ehemaliges Wildyak-vorkommen im afghanischen Pamir. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 24: 249-253. Roberts, T.J. 1997. The mammals of Pakistan. 2nd ed: Ernest Benn Ltd., London, United Kingdom Rookmaaker, L.C. 2000. Records of the rhinoceros in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan J. Zool. 32(1):65-74. Sayer, J.A. and Van der Zon, A.P.M. 1981. National parks and wildlife conservation, Afghanistan: A contriubtion to a conservation strategy. FAO FO:DP/AFG/78/007, Rome. 2 vols. 

An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment

C. (ed). E.. Cited by Avibase. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Cited by Habibi (nd) Unconfirmed. Grouse. Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed. 3rd ed. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . Cited by Habibi Unconfirmed. Possibly feral? I Anatidae Mute Swan Whooper Swan Greylag Goose Bar-headed Goose Ruddy Shelduck Common Shelduck Cotton Pygmy-goose Eurasian Wigeon Falcated Duck Gadwall Eurasian Teal Mallard Northern Pintail Garganey Northern Shoveler Marbled Teal Red-crested Pochard Common Pochard Ducks. Pheasants and Partridges Tetraogallus himalayensis Alectoris chukar Ammoperdix griseogularis Francolinus francolinus Coturnix coturnix Pucrasia macrolopha Lophophorus impejanus Phasianus colchicus Alectoris graeca Francolinus pondicerianus Coturnix coromandelica Catreus wallichi Gallus gallus VU I Unconfirmed.Appendix 2 The Birds of Afghanistan: A Checklist Afghanistan Bird Checklist Taxonomy and Order of Families Follows Dickenson. 2004. London. Christopher Helm. IUCN Red List CITES Notes Phasianidae Himalayan Snowcock Chukar See-see Partridge Black Francolin Common Quail Koklass Pheasant Himalayan Monal Ring-necked Pheasant Rock Partridge Gray Francolin Rain Quail Cheer Pheasant Red Junglefowl Turkeys. Geese and Swans Cygnus olor Cygnus cygnus Anser anser Anser indicus Tadorna ferruginea Tadorna tadorna Nettapus coromandelianus Anas penelope Anas falcata Anas strepera Anas crecca Anas platyrhynchos Anas acuta Anas querquedula Anas clypeata Marmaronetta angustirostris Netta rufina Aythya ferina VU Perhaps introduced. Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed.

Geese and Swans (Continued) Aythya nyroca Aythya fuligula Aythya marila Bucephala clangula Mergellus albellus Mergus serrator Mergus merganser Oxyura leucocephala Anser albifrons EN II Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase Lesser White-fronted Goose Baikal Teal Greater Scaup White-winged Scoter Anser erythropus Anas formosa Aythya marila Melanitta fusca Grebes Tachybaptus ruficollis Podiceps cristatus Podiceps auritus Podiceps nigricollis Podiceps grisegena Flamingoes Phoenicopterus roseus Phoenicopterus minor Podicipedidae Little Grebe Great Crested Grebe Horned Grebe Eared Grebe Red-necked Grebe Phoenicopteridae Greater Flamingo Lesser Flamingo II II Unconfirmed. Ciconiidae Black Stork White Stork Storks Ciconia nigra Ciconia ciconia Ibises and Spoonbills Plegadis falcinellus Platalea leucorodia Herons and Bitterns Ardea cinerea Ardea purpurea Ardea alba Egretta garzetta Nycticorax nycticorax Ixobrychus minutus II II Threskiornithidae Glossy Ibis Eurasian Spoonbill Ardeidae Gray Heron Purple Heron Great Egret Little Egret Black-crowned Night-Heron Little Bittern  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) cite only undocumented sight reports from Afghanistan VU VU II Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed. Unconfirmed. Cited by IUCN Red List.Anatidae Ferruginous Pochard Tufted Duck Greater Scaup Common Goldeneye Smew Red-breasted Merganser Common Merganser White-headed Duck Greater White-fronted Goose Ducks. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) suggest identification may be confounded with Greater Flamingo. Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed.

Osprey. Amur Falcon Gyrfalcon Falco amurensis Falco rusticolus II I Accipitridae Osprey Black-shouldered Kite Black Kite Secretary Bird. Unconfirmed. Sometimes considered conspecific with F. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) state that the only Afghan specimen was misidentified. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) state only one sight report from Afghanistan Pelecanidae Great White Pelican Dalmatian Pelican Pelicans Pelecanus onocrotalus Pelecanus crispus Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo Phalacrocorax pygmaeus Phalacrocorax niger Unconfirmed. The M. but that the species may occur in Afghanistan. VU I Phalacrocoracidae Great Cormorant Pygmy Cormorant Little Cormorant Falconidae Lesser Kestrel Eurasian Kestrel Merlin Eurasian Hobby Laggar Falcon Saker Falcon Barbary Falcon Falcons and Caracaras Falco naumanni Falco tinnunculus Falco columbarius Falco subbuteo Falco jugger Falco cherrug Falco pelegrinoides EN VU II II II II I II I Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) consider F. peregrinus Peregrine Falcon Red-footed Falcon Falco peregrinus Falco vespertinus I II Unconfirmed. Hawks and Eagles Pandion haliaetus Elanus caeruleus Milvus migrans II II II Cited as M.Ardeidae Great Bittern Squacco Heron Herons and Bitterns (Continued) Botaurus stellaris Ardeola ralloides Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) cite it as hypothetical for Afghanistan. Cited by Habibi. Cited by Avibase. Sight reports from Afghanistan needing verification (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). lineatus in CITES. vespertinus. Kites. migrans complex is likely to contain more than one species (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005) Pallas’s Fish-Eagle White-tailed Eagle Lammergeier Haliaeetus leucoryphus Haliaeetus albicilla Gypaetus barbatus VU II I II for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . No specimens were traced. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Unconfirmed. pelegrinoides to be synonymous with F.

Kites. VU VU II I II Turnicicae Andalusian Hemipode. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) indicate range near Afghan-Pakistan border. Sight reports for Afghanistan are unlikely and need verification (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). bengalensis. Sometimes lumped as G. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) consider only Afghan specimen actually a Long-legged Buzzard. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. lagopus as as a winter vagrant in Afghanistan Greater Spotted Eagle Steppe Eagle Imperial Eagle Golden Eagle Bonelli’s Eagle Booted Eagle Indian Vulture Aquila clanga Aquila nipalensis Aquila heliaca Aquila chrysaetos Aquila fasciatus Aquila pennatus Gyps indicus VU II II VU I II II II Cited as Hieraaetus fasciatus in CITES CR II Unconfirmed. Undetailed sight report from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). Unconfirmed. Small Buttonquail 0 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Osprey. Cited by Habibi.Accipitridae Egyptian Vulture White-rumped Vulture Himalayan Griffon Eurasian Griffon Cinereous Vulture Short-toed Eagle Western Marsh-Harrier Northern Harrier Pallid Harrier Montagu’s Harrier Shikra Eurasian Sparrowhawk Northern Goshawk White-eyed Buzzard Long-legged Buzzard Rough-legged Hawk Secretary Bird. European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus II Eurasian Buzzard Buteo buteo II Otididae Great Bustard Houbara Bustard Little Bustard Bustards Otis tarda Chlamydotis undulata Tetrax tetrax Buttonquails Turnix sylvatica (sylvaticus) Unconfirmed. Hawks and Eagles (Continued) Neophron percnopterus Gyps bengalensis Gyps himalayensis Gyps fulvus Aegypius monachus Circaetus gallicus Circus aeruginosus Circus cyaneus Circus macrourus Circus pygargus Accipiter badius Accipiter nisus Accipiter gentilis Butastur teesa Buteo rufinus Buteo lagopus CR II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) cite B.

Waterhens and Coots Rallus aquaticus Crex crex Porzana parva Porzana pusilla Porzana porzana Porphyrio porphyrio Gallinula chloropus Fulica atra Cranes Anthropoides virgo Grus leucogeranus Grus grus Thick-Knees Burhinus oedicnemus Oystercathers Haematopus ostralegus Stilts and Avocets Himantopus himantopus Recurvirostra avosetta Plovers Vanellus vanellus Vanellus indicus Vanellus gregarius Vanellus leucurus Pluvialis squatarola Pluvialis fulva Charadrius hiaticula Charadrius dubius Charadrius alexandrinus Charadrius mongolus Charadrius leschenaultii Painted-Snipe Rostratula benghalensis Jacanas Hydrophasianus chirurgus CR CR II I II Extirpated in Afghanistan VU Gruidae Demoiselle Crane Siberian Crane Common Crane Burhinidae Eurasian Thick-knee Haematopodidae Eurasian Oystercatcher Recurvirostridae Black-winged Stilt Pied Avocet Charadriidae Northern Lapwing Red-wattled Lapwing Sociable Lapwing White-tailed Lapwing Black-bellied Plover Pacific Golden-Plover Common Ringed Plover Little Ringed Plover Snowy Plover Lesser Sandplover Greater Sandplover Rostratulidae Greater Painted-snipe Jacanadae Pheasant-tailed Jacana for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 .Rallidae Water Rail Corn Crake Little Crake Baillon’s Crake Spotted Crake Purple Swamphen Common Moorhen Eurasian Coot Rails.

Scolopacidae Eurasian Woodcock Jack Snipe Solitary Snipe Common Snipe Black-tailed Godwit Bar-tailed Godwit Whimbrel Eurasian Curlew Spotted Redshank Common Redshank Marsh Sandpiper Common Greenshank Green Sandpiper Wood Sandpiper Terek Sandpiper Common Sandpiper Ruddy Turnstone Sanderling Little Stint Temminck’s Stint Curlew Sandpiper Dunlin Ruff Red-necked Phalarope Slender-billed Curlew Sandpipers and Snipe Scolopax rusticola Lymnocryptes minimus Gallinago solitaria Gallinago gallinago Limosa limosa Limosa lapponica Numenius phaeopus Numenius arquata Tringa erythropus Tringa totanus Tringa stagnatilis Tringa nebularia Tringa ochropus Tringa glareola Xenus cinereus Actitis hypoleucos Arenaria interpres Calidris alba Calidris minuta Calidris temminckii Calidris ferruginea Calidris alpina Philomachus pugnax Phalaropus lobatus Numenius tenuirostris CR I Unconfirmed. Great Black-headed Gull Black-headed Gull Slender-billed Gull Kittiwake Gull-billed Tern Larus ichthyaetus Larus ridibundus Larus genei Rissa tridactyla Sterna nilotica 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Cited by Habibi. May be best referred to as L. Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase Broad-billed Sandpiper Pintail Snipe Limicola falcinellus Gallinago stenura Coursers and Pratincoles Cursorius cursor Glareola pratincola Glareola lactea Gulls. Terns and Skimmers Larus fuscus Glareolidae Cream-colored Courser Collared Pratincole Small Pratincole Laridae Lesser Black-backed Gull Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) note that the genus Larus is confused and subject to revision. heuglini. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) state only unconfirmed breeding reports from Iranian Siestan Unconfirmed.

Perhaps a very rare passage migrant. but the species might occur Columbidae Rock Pigeon Snow Pigeon Stock Pigeon Pale-backed Pigeon Blue Hill Pigeon Common Wood-Pigeon Eurasian Turtle-Dove Oriental Turtle-Dove Eurasian Collared-Dove Spotted Dove Laughing Dove Red-collared Dove Doves and Pigeons Columba livia Columba leuconota Columba oenas Columba eversmanni Columba rupestris Columba palumbus Streptopelia turtur Streptopelia orientalis Streptopelia decaocto Streptopelia chinensis Streptopelia senegalensis Streptopelia tranquebarica Cited by Habibi. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) One record from Jalalabad (Rasmussen and Anderton. Cited as L. One sight report from Jalalabad is questionable. 2005) VU Near endemic (Evans 1994) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 3 . Records/ specimens were misidentified andare probably L. Cited by Avibase. Cited by Avibase. Cited by Avibase. Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. Terns and Skimmers (Continued) Sterna caspia Sterna hirundo Sterna albifrons Chlidonias hybridus Larus cachinnans Unconfirmed. Unconfirmed. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Mew Gull Larus canus River Tern Sterna aurantia Brown-headed Gull White-winged Tern Black Tern Larus brunnicephalus Chlidonias leucopterus Chlidonias niger Pteroclidae Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Spotted Sandgrouse Black-bellied Sandgrouse Crowned Sandgrouse Pallas’s Sandgrouse Tibetan Sandgrouse Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata Pterocles senegallus Pterocles orientalis Pterocles coronatus Syrrhaptes paradoxus Syrrhaptes tibetanus Pterocles lichtensteinii Unconfirmed. Split from L.Laridae Caspian Tern Common Tern Little Tern Whiskered Tern Caspian Gull Gulls. Cited by Avibase. 2005) Unconfirmed. heuglini [barabensis] (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005) Unconfirmed. No specimens. Cited by Habibi. argentatus. argentatus by Habibi. but sight reports from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005) Unconfirmed. Sight reports of immatures (Rasmussen and Anderton. Cited by Habibi. Sight record for Kabul (Rasmusssen and Anderton. 2005) Unconfirmed. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) say there is no evidence from Afghansitan.

Psittacidae
Alexandrine Parakeet Rose-ringed Parakeet Slaty-headed Parakeet

Cockatoos and Parrots Psittacula eupatria Psittacula krameri Psittacula himalayana Cuckoos Cuculus canorus Clamator jacobinus Cuculus poliocephalus
Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase and by Dickinson (2003). No evidence traced for Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005) II II II

Cuculidae
Common Cuckoo Pied Cuckoo Lesser Cuckoo

Strigidae
Pallid Scops-Owl European Scops-Owl Eurasian Eagle-Owl Tawny Owl Little Owl Long-eared Owl Short-eared Owl Collared Owlet Brown Fish-Owl Spotted Owlet

Owls Otus brucei Otus scops Bubo bubo Strix aluco Athene noctua Asio otus Asio flammeus Glaucidium brodiei Ketupa zeylonensis Athene brama
II II II II II II II II II II Unconfirmed. Cited for Afghanistan by Avibase and by Dickinson (2003) Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. One old record with uncertain provenance (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)

Caprimulgidae
Eurasian Nightjar Egyptian Nightjar Sykes’s Nightjar Indian Nightjar

Nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus Caprimulgus aegyptius Caprimulgus mahrattensis Caprimulgus asiaticus
Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. Needs substantiation (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)

Apodidae
Alpine Swift Common Swift Little Swift

Swifts Tachymarptis melba Apus apus Apus affinis Rollers Coracias garrulus Coracias benghalensis

Coraciidae
European Roller Indian Roller 

4

An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment

Alcedinidae
Common Kingfisher White-throated Kingfisher Pied Kingfisher Crested Kingfisher

Kingfishers Alcedo atthis Halcyon smyrnensis Ceryle rudis Megaceryle lugubris
Considered Ceryle lugubris by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005)

Meropidae
Blue-cheeked Bee-eater European Bee-eater Green Bee-eater

Bee-eaters Merops persicus Merops apiaster Merops orientalis
Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. One questionable record from NE Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005) Split from M. superciliosus. M. superciliosus cited by Habibi.

Upupidae
Hoopoe

Hoopoes Upupa epops Honeyguides Indicator xanthonotus
Unconfirmed. Cited for Afghanistan Aviibse and by Sibley and Monroe (1996).

Indicatoridae
yellow-rumped Honeyguide

Picidae
Eurasian Wryneck Brown-fronted Woodpecker White-winged Woodpecker Himalayan Woodpecker Scaly-bellied Woodpecker

Woodpeckers Jynx torquilla Dendrocopos auriceps Dendrocopos leucopterus Dendrocopos himalayensis Picus squamatus
II Subspecies flavirostris listed as CITES Appendix II. P.s. falivirostris found in NW and SW Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005)

Speckled Piculet

Picumnus innominatus Cuckoo-shrikes Pericrocotus ethologus Pericrocotus roseus
Unconfirmed. Cited for Afghanistan by Avibase and by Dickinson (2003). Listing for Afghanistan unsupported (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)

Campephagidae
Long-tailed Minivet Rosy Minivet

Laniidae
Rufous shrike Isabeline Shrike Bay-backed Shrike Long-tailed Shrike

Shrikes Lanius phaoenicuroides Lanius isabellinus Lanius vittatus Lanius schach Lanius taxonomy is unsetlled. L. phaoenicuroides sometimes included under L. isabellinus

for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 

5

Laniidae
Southern Grey Shrike

Shrikes (Continued) Lanius meridionale Lanius taxonomy is unsettled. Formerly considered conspecific to L. excubitor . L. excubitor not found in Afghanistan.
Vagrant, Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibse and Habibi. Lanius taxonomy is unsetlled. L. collurio often includes L. isabellinus and L. phoenicuroides. L. collurio sensu Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) probably does not occur in Afghanistan. Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. Lanius taxonomy is unsetlled. L. nubicus Sometimes considered conspecific with L. schach (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005). Possible vagrant in Afghanistan.

Lesser Gray Shrike Woodchat Shrike Red-backed Shrike

Lanius minor Lanius senator Lanius collurio

Masked Shrike

Lanius nubicus

Oriolidae
Eurasian Golden Oriole

Orioles and Figbirds Oriolus oriolus O. oriolus subspecies often split into O. oriolus and O. kundoo. O. o. oriolus is a vagrant in Afghanistan. O. o. kundoo is a regular breeder in
Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)

Dicruridae
Black Drongo Ashy Drongo Square-tailed Drongo

Drongos Dicrurus macrocercus Dicrurus leucophaeus Dicrurus ludwigii
Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. Restricted to Africa.

Monarchidae
Asian Paradise-Flycatcher

Monarchs Terpsiphone paradisi Crows and Jays Garrulus lanceolatus Pica pica Nucifraga caryocatactes
Sometimes split into N. caryocatactes and N. multipunctata If split, N. caryocatactes not found in Afghanistan while N. multipunctata is (Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005).

Corvidae
Black-headed Jay Eurasian Magpie Eurasian Nutcracker

Red-billed Chough yellow-billed Chough Eurasian Jackdaw Rook Carrion Crow Large-billed Crow Brown-necked Raven Common Raven Hooded Crow House Crow

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Pyrrhocorax graculus Corvus monedula Corvus frugilegus Corvus corone Corvus macrorhynchos Corvus ruficollis Corvus corax Corvus cornix Corvus splendens
Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase, Habibi and Kullberg. No evidence traced for Afghan specimens (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005) 

An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment

Both forms are found in Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. rubidiventris Paridae Fire-capped Tit Black-breasted Tit Black-crested Tit Great Tit Turkestan Tit yellow-breasted Tit Rufous-vented Tit Willow Tit Azure Tit Blue Tit Parus montanus Parus cyanus Parus caeruleus Remizidae Eurasian Penduline-Tit Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus R. Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. Cited by Avibase. coronatus. rubidiventris split from P. pendulinus and R. pendulinus sometimes split into R. Split from P. 2005) Earlier included as R. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . Often considered conspefiic to P. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. P. riparia (Rasmussen and Anderton. “Speculative” in W Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. 2005). 2005) Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003). 2005) Hirundinidae Collared Sand Marten/Bank Marten Pale Sand Martin Plain Martin Eurasian Crag-Martin Pale Crag Martin Wire-tailed Swallow Cliff Swallow Barn Swallow Red-rumped Swallow Streak-throated Swallow Common House-Martin Rock Martin Swallows and Martins Riparia riparia Some genuine and some fraudelent specimens from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. obsoleta (Rasmussen and Anderton. rufonuchalis and. chinensis in Rasmussen and Anderton (2005).Bombycillidae Bohemian Waxwing Hypocolius Waxwings and Allies Bombycilla garrulus Hypocolius ampelinus Tits and Chickadees Cephalopyrus flammiceps Parus rufonuchalis Parus melanolophus Parus major Parus bokharensis Parus flavipectus Parus rubidiventris Cited for Afghanistan by Sibley and Monroe (1996) Cited for Afghanistan by Sibley and Monroe (1996) Cited by Habibi. Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. not found in Afghanistan. 2005) One record from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. in strict sense. Riparia diluta Riparia paludicola Ptyonoprogne rupestris Ptyonoprogne obsoleta Hirundo smithii Hirundo fluvicola Hirundo rustica Cecropis daurica Petrochelidon fluvicola Delichon urbica Ptyonoprogne fuligula Cited as Hirundo fluvicola by Habibi and by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Unconfirmed. 2005) Considered R. Unconfirmed.

Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003) Cited by Habibi as C. cinctura (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). Unconfirmed. Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. Cited by Habibi. cinerea Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003) Alaudidae Bar-tailed Lark Desert Lark Greater Hoopoe-Lark Calandra Lark Bimaculated Lark Greater Short-toed Lark Hume’s Lark Lesser Short-toed Lark Sand Lark Crested Lark Eurasian Skylark Oriental Skylark Horned Lark Wood Lark Rufous-tailed Lark Temminck’s Horned Lark Cisticolidae Streaked Scrub-Warbler Zitting Cisticola Striated Prinia Graceful Prinia Pycnonotidae White-eared Bulbul White-cheeked Bulbul Common Bulbul Black Bulbul Red-vented Bulbul Sylviidae Cetti’s Warbler Grasshopper Warbler Moustached Warbler Paddyfield Warbler Blunt-winged Warbler Eurasian Reed-Warbler Blyth’s Reed-Warbler Great Reed-Warbler  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .Aegithalidae White-cheeked Tit Long-tailed Tits Aegithalos leucogenys Larks Ammomanes cinctura Ammomanes deserti Alaemon alaudipes Melanocorypha calandra Melanocorypha bimaculata Calandrella brachydactyla Calandrella acutirostris Calandrella rufescens Calandrella raytal Galerida cristata Alauda arvensis Alauda gulgula Eremophila alpestris Lullula arborea Ammomanes phoenicurus (phoenicura) Eromophila bilopha Cisticolas and Allies Scotocerca inquieta Cisticola juncidis Prinia criniger (cringera) Prinia gracilis Bulbuls Pycnonotus leucotis Pycnonotus leucogenys Pycnonotus barbatus Hypsipetes leucocephalus Pycnonotus cafer Old World Warblers Cettia cetti Locustella naevia Acrocephalus melanopogon Acrocephalus agricola Acrocephalus concinens Acrocephalus scirpaceus Acrocephalus dumetorum Acrocephalus arundinaceus One record only (Rasmussen and Anderton. Sometimes confused with A. Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. 2005) Introduced Lumps Microscelis psaroides in Habibi (nd) Unconfirmed. Cited by Kullberg.

Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Afghan specimens are frauds (Rasmussen and Anderton.Sylviidae Clamorous Reed-Warbler Booted Warbler Eastern Olivaceous Warbler Upcher’s Warbler Common Chiffchaff Mountain Chiffchaff Old World Warblers (Continued) Acrocephalus stentoreus Hippolais caligata Hippolais pallida Hippolais languida Phylloscopus collybita Phylloscopus sindianus Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003). crassirostris from S. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Dickenson (2003) lumps them. 2005) Unconfirmed. chloronotus by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Near endemic (Evans 2006) Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) separate S. Unconfirmed. Needs confirmation from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. 2005) Radde’s Warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus Large-billed Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Pallas’s Warbler Locustella certhiola Radde’s Warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . P. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. 2005) Unconfirmed. Afghan specimens are frauds (Rasmussen and Anderton. hortensis. humei. 2005) Unconfirmed. 2005) Unconfirmed. inornatus does not occur in Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. Afghan specimens are frauds (Rasmussen and Anderton. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. 2005) Near endemic (Evans 2006) Plain Leaf-Warbler Greenish Warbler Sulphur-bellied Warbler Lemon-rumped Warbler Brooks’s Leaf-Warbler Hume’s Warbler Green Warbler Tytler’s Leaf-Warbler Western Crowned LeafWarbler Greater Whitethroat Lesser Whitethroat Hume’s Whitethroat Asian Desert Warbler Barred Warbler Desert lesser whitethroat Eastern Orphean Warbler Phylloscopus neglectus Phylloscopus trochiloides Phylloscopus griseolus Phylloscopus proregulus Phylloscopus subviridis Phylloscopus humei Phylloscopus nitidus Phylloscopus tytleri Phylloscopus occipitalis Sylvia communis Sylvia curruca Sylvia althaea Sylvia nana Sylvia nisoria Sylvia minula Sylvia hortensis Considered as P. Cited by Avibase.Afghan specimens are frauds (Rasmussen and Anderton. Crassirostris form found in Afghanistan but hortensis is not. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. one record only from Siestan (Rasmussen and Anderton. Formerly included P. 2005) Unconfirmed. Menetries’s Warbler Pallas’s Warbler Sylvia mystacea Locustella certhiola Unconfirmed.

Needs confirmation from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. Cited by Habibi. inornatus does not occur in Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. 2005) Bearded Tit (Bearded Reedling) Panurus biarmicus Zosteropidae Oriental White-eye White Eyes Zosterops palpebrosus Goldcrests and Kinglets Regulus regulus Wrens Troglodytes troglodytes Nuthatches and Wallcreeper Sitta cashmirensis Sitta leucopsis Sitta tephronota Tichodroma muraria Sitta europaea Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. humei. Large-billed Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Pale-rumped Warbler Phylloscopus chloronotus Babblers and Parrotbills Garrulax lineatus (lineatum) Garrulax variegatus (variegatum) Turdoides caudatus (caudata) Timaliidae Streaked Laughingthrush Variegated Laughingthrush Common Babbler Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) give genus as Trochalopteron Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) give genus as Trochalopteron Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) split huttoni (Afghan Babbler) from caudatus. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Cited by Avibse and Habibi. 2005) Unconfirmed. Formerly include P. 2005) Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase. Regulidae Goldcrest Troglodytidae Winter Wren Sittidae Kashmir Nuthatch White-cheeked Nuthatch Persian Nuthatch Wallcreeper Nuthatch Rock Nuthatch Sitta neumayer Treecreepers Certhia himalayana Certhiidae Bar-tailed Treecreeper 0 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . 2005) Unconfirmed. P. No records but likely to occur in Siestan and NW (Rasmussen and Anderton. The caudatis form not found in Afghanistan. Considered conspecific with S. Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003).Sylviidae yellow-browed Warbler Old World Warblers (Continued) Phylloscopus inornatus Unconfirmed. Cited by Habibi. cashmirensis (Rasmussen and Anderton.

Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed. One uncertain sight record from Afghansitan (Rasmussen and Anderton. Habibi cites both Acridotheres tristis and Sturnus tristis Cited as Sturnus gingianus by Habibi. Winter vagrant (Rasmussen and Anderton. One old specimen (Rasmussen and Anderton.Sturnidae Common Myna Bank Myna Brahminy Starling Rosy Starling European Starling Starlings Acridotheres tristis Acridotheres ginginanus Temenuchus pagodarum Pastor roseus Sturnus vulgaris Thrushes Monticola saxatilis Monticola cinclorhynchus Monticola solitarius Myophonus caeruleus Turdus merula Turdus rubrocanus Turdus ruficollis Turdus iliacus Cited for Afghanistan by Sibley and Monroe (1996). 2005) Muscicapidae Spotted Flycatcher Siberian Flycatcher Rusty-tailed Flycatcher Red-breasted Flycatcher Ultramarine Flycatcher Common Nightingale White-tailed Rubythroat Bluethroat Indian Blue Robin White-throated Robin Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Rufous-backed Redstart Blue-capped Redstart Black Redstart White-winged Redstart Blue-fronted Redstart White-capped Redstart Plumbeous Redstart Chats and Old World Flycatchers Muscicapa striata Muscicapa sibirica Muscicapa ruficauda Ficedula parva Ficedula superciliaris Luscinia megarhynchos Luscinia pectoralis Luscinia svecica Luscinia brunnea Irania gutturalis Cercotrichas galactotes Phoenicurus erythronota Phoenicurus caeruleocephalus (coeruleocephala) Phoenicurus ochruros Phoenicurus erythrogaster (erythrogastrus) Phoenicurus frontalis Chaimarrornis leucocephalus Rhyacornis fuliginosus for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 . Cited by Avibase. 2005). 2005) Turdidae Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush Blue-capped Rock-Thrush Blue Rock-Thrush Blue Whistling-Thrush Eurasian Blackbird Chestnut Thrush Dark-throated Thrush Redwing Mistle Thrush Tickell’s Thrush Fieldfare European Robin Turdus viscivorus Turdus unicolor Turdus pilaris Erithacus rubecula Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase Unconfirmed.

VU White-browed Bushchat Pied Bushchat Hume’s Wheatear Northern Wheatear Finsch’s Wheatear Variable Wheatear Pied Wheatear Red-tailed Wheatear Saxicola macrorhyncha Saxicola caprata Oenanthe alboniger (albonigra) Oenanthe oenanthe Oenanthe finschii Oenanthe picata Oenanthe pleschanka Oenanthe chrysopygia Near endemic (Evans 2006) O. Cited for Afghanistan by Sibley and Monroe. Habibi. 2005) Unconfirmed. xanthprymna. xanthoprymna. Single observer sight records from Afghanistan need verification Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Cite by Habibi. maura from S. and Kullberg. Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus Whinchat Saxicola rubetra Brown-backed Indian robin Saxicoloides fulicata Hooded Wheatear Oenanthe monacha White-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe leucopyga Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucura Cinclidae White-throated Dipper Brown Dipper Dippers Cinclus cinclus Cinclus pallasii 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) do not list it occuring in the region. Cited as genus Tarsiger by Sibley and Monroe (1996). chyrsopygia long considered conspecific with O. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Cited by Avibase. Likely found in NE Afghanistan. Cited as Tarsiger ruflatus by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Unconfirmed. maura from Afghanistan. Cited by Habibi. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. torquata and cite S. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) do not list it occuring in the region. Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) follow Dickinson. but no genuine records (Rasmussen and Anderton. Latter not found in Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton 2005). Habibi cites O. Cited by Habibi.Muscicapidae Little Forktail Spotted Forktail Stonechat Chats and Old World Flycatchers (Continued) Enicurus scouleri Enicurus maculatus Saxicola torquata (torquatus) Sibley and Monroe (1996) splits S. One old Afghan record needs confirmation (Rasmussen and Anderton. Dickinson (2003) does not recognize the split. 2005) Unconfirmed. Rasmusssen and Anderton’s (2005) maps suggest it does not occur in Afghanistan. Avibase cites both. Unconfirmed. Desert Wheatear Isabelline Wheatear Orange Flanked Bush Robin Oenanthe deserti Oenanthe isabellina Luscinia cyanurus Unconfirmed.

2005) “Near endemic” (Evans 1994) Cited by Habibi as Nectarinia asiatica Passeridae House Sparrow Spanish Sparrow Russet Sparrow Dead Sea Sparrow Eurasian Tree Sparrow Chestnut-shouldered Petronia Rock Petronia Pale Rock Sparrow White-winged Snowfinch Afghan Snowfinch Saxaul Sparrow Estrildidae White-throated Munia Waxbills. munia and allies Lonchura malabarica Unconfirmed. Prunellidae Alpine Accentor Himalayan Accentor Rufous-breasted Accentor Brown Accentor Black-throated Accentor Accentors Prunella collaris Prunella himalayana Prunella strophiata Prunella fulvescens Prunella atrogularis Wagtails and Pipits Motacilla alba Motacilla citreola Motacilla flava Motacilla cinerea Anthus pratensis Overlooked specimen from Kabul.Nectariniidae Purple Sunbird Sunbirds Cinnyris asiaticus Sparrows. Cited by Avibase. Motacillidae White Wagtail Citrine Wagtail yellow Wagtail Gray Wagtail Meadow Pipit Oriental Pipit Tawny Pipit Long-billed Pipit Tree Pipit Red-throated Pipit Rosy Pipit Water Pipit Anthus rufulus Anthus campestris Anthus similis Anthus trivialis Anthus cervinus Anthus roseatus Anthus spinoletta for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 3 . 2005) Cited by Habibi as A. Sometimes called Euodice malabarica. Said to occur on Iran-Afghanistan border. Cited by Avibase. grass finches. but no records traced (Rasmussen and Anderton. other records require verification (Rasmussen and Anderton. Snowfinches and Allies Passer domesticus Passer hispaniolensis Passer rutilans Passer moabiticus Passer montanus Petronia xanthocollis Petronia petronia Petronia brachydactyla Montifringilla nivalis Montifringilla theresae Passer ammodendri Near endemic to Afghanistan Unconfirmed. novaeseelandiae which has been split into several species.

Cited by Kullberg.Motacillidae Upland Pipit Large Pied Wagtail Olive-backed Pipit Wagtails and Pipits (Continued) Anthus sylvanus Motacilla maderapatensis Anthus hodgsoni Unconfirmed. grandis by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Considered C. 2005) Considered Bucanetes mongolica by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Cited as Acanthis flavirostris by Habibi Cited as Acanthis cannabina by Habibi Considered C. severtzovi by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Considered Pyrrhospiza punicea by Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) Multiple sight records for Wakhan (Rasmussen and Anderton. Records of breeding in Afghanistan “dubious” (Rasmussen and Anderton. Cited by Avibase. 2005) Fringillidae Chaffinch Brambling Plain Mountain-Finch Black-headed Mountain-Finch Common Rosefinch Pale Rosefinch White-browed Rosefinch Red-mantled Rosefinch Great Rosefinch Red-fronted Rosefinch Red Crossbill European Greenfinch European Goldfinch Twite Eurasian Linnet Fire-fronted Serin Hawfinch Black-and-yellow Grosbeak White-winged Grosbeak Crimson-winged Finch Mongolian Finch Trumpeter Finch Desert Finch Eurasian Siskin Finches and Hawaiian Honeycreepers Fringilla coelebs Fringilla montifringilla Leucosticte nemoricola Leucosticte brandti Carpodacus erythrinus Carpodacus synoicus Carpodacus thura Carpodacus rhodochlamys Carpodacus rubicilla Carpodacus puniceus Loxia curvirostra Carduelis chloris Carduelis carduelis Carduelis flavirostris Carduelis cannabina Serinus pusillus Coccothraustes coccothraustes Mycerobas icterioides Mycerobas carnipes Rhodopechys sanguinea Rhodopechys mongolica Bucanetes githaginea Rhodospiza obsoleta Carduelis spinus Unconfirmed. Cited by Avibase and Habibi. Sight records from NE Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton. 2005) Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003) Emberizidae yellowhammer Pine Bunting Rock Bunting Gray-hooded Bunting Buntings. American Sparrows and Allies Emberiza citrinella Emberiza leucocephalos Emberiza cia Emberiza buchanani 4 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Noted from Wakhan Unconfirmed.

and B. Cited by Habibi. Sibley. Unconfirmed. and Barcelona. Cited by Avibase. Vols 1 and 2. Cited for Afghanistan by Dickinson (2003) Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea Little Bunting Rustic Bunting Emberiza pusilla Emberiza rustica Snow Bunting Lapland Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis Calcarius lapponicus References: • • • • • • AVIBASE (http://www. L. Unconfirmed. and Anderton. London. Press. Unsubstantiated sight records (Rasmussen and Anderton. One questionable record (Rasmussen and Anderton. yale Univ. Cited by Habibi. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World.C. 2005) Unconfirmed. Washington. A World Checklist of Birds. Cited by Avibase. American Sparrows and Allies (Continued) Emberiza hortulana Emberiza stewarti Emberiza striolata Emberiza melanocephala Emberiza bruniceps Emberiza schoeniclus Emberiza calandra Embriza fucata Unconfirmed. J. Monroe. Largely Nearctic and European range. 2005) Unconfirmed.html) Kullberg (http://www. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions.fw. The Ripley Guide. 1996.htm) Rasmussen. 3rd ed. 2005.C.jsp?region=af&pg=checklist&list=clements) Dickenson. D. USA for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 5 .Emberizidae Ortolan Bunting Chestnut-breasted Bunting House Bunting Black-headed Bunting Red-headed Bunting Reed Bunting Corn Bunting Grey-headed Bunting Buntings. Birds of South Asia.edu/afghanistan/BirdChecklist. Two unlikely sight records from Afghanistan (Rasmussen and Anderton.com/birding/meafghanistan(AnssiTripReport).org/avibase/avibase.bsc-eoc. (ed). Christopher Helm. New Heaven.C..camacdonald. 2005) Unconfirmed. E.C. G. C. R.vt. 2004. Habibi (http://fwie. Cited by Habibi. Cited by Avibase.

EMBL database (2006) Laudakia nupta Laudakia nuristanica Laudakia tuberculata Laudakia agrorensis Laudakia badakhshana Laudakia caucasia Laudakia erythrogastra Laudakia himalayana himalayana Laudakia lehmanni Phrynocephalus clarkorum Phrynocephalus euptilopus Phrynocephalus interscapularis Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus Phrynocephalus maculatus Phrynocephalus mystaceus Phrynocephalus ornatus Phrynocephalus reticulatus boettgeri Phrynocephalus scutellatus Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Named changed from Agama nupta Named changed from Agama nuristanica Named changed from Agama tuberculata Name changed from Agama agrorensis Named changed from Agama badakhshana Named changed from Agama caucasica Named changed from Agama erythrogastra Named changed from Himalayan Agama Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006)  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .Appendix 3 The Reptiles of Afghanistan: A Checklist Reptile Species of Afghanistan Scientific Name Testudinae Testudo horsefeldii Common Name Tortoises Afghan Tortoise Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Alcock’s toad-headed agama Lichtenstein’s Toadhead Agama yellow-speckled toadheaded agama Blacktail Toadhead Agama. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Reticulated toadheaded Agama Gray Toadhead Agama Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Oriental Garden Lizard Spiney-head Rock Agama Nuristan Agama Kashmir Rock Agama. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Whip-tail Toad Agama Secret Toadhead Agama Striped Toad Agama. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Eastern Garden Lizard. EMBL database (2006) Agama himalayana Named changed from Agama lehmanni Toadhead Agama Spotted Toad Agama. Blue Rock Agama Agror Agama Badakhshan Rock Agama Caucasian Agama Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) VU II Authority Red List CITES Notes Agamidae Calotes versicolor Agama Lizards Common Tree Lizard. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970).

Baluch ground Agama Iranian Uromastyx. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Includes C. EMBL database (2006) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Iranian Mastigure Indian Spiny Tail Lizard. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) II II Not IN EMBL database Name changed from Agama agilis Named changed from Agama rederata Anguidae Pseudopsis apodus Glass lizards Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Name changed from Ophisaurus apodus Gekkonidae Agamura femoralis Agamura persica Alsophylax laevis Asiocolotes levitoni Bunopus tuberculatus Geckoes Pointed-tail Spider Gecko Persian Spider Gecko Kaspischer Evenfingered Gecko Leviton’s Gecko Tuberculated Desert Gecko. Hardwick’s Spiny-tailed Lizard Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Common Leopard Gecko yellow-belly Common House Gecko Bedraiga’s Wonder Gecko Baloch Sand Gecko. See EMBL database. Baluch Rock Gecko Comb-toed Gecko Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in EMBL database Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in EMBL database Leviton and Anderson (1970). pipiens Endemic to Afghanistan Leviton and Anderson (1970). Cyrtopodion caspius Cyrtopodion fedtschenkoi Cyrtopodion scabrum Cyrtopodion watsoni Eublepharis macularius Hemidactylus flaviviridis Teratoscincus bedriagai Teratoscincus microlepis Teratoscincus scincus Rough-tailed Gecko Watson’s Gecko Fat-tail Gecko. lumsdeni and C.Agamidae Trapelus agilis Trapelus ruderatus Uromastyx asmussi Uromastyx hardwickii Agama Lizards (Continued) Brilliant Ground Agama Horn-scaled Agama. Small-scaled Wonder Gecko Common Wonder Gecko Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Crossobamon eversmanni Leviton and Anderson (1970). caspius Name changed from Cyrtodactylus fedtschenkoi Changed from Cyrtodactylus scaber Changed from Cyrtodactylus watsoni Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) Name changed from A. maynardi of Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Name changed from C.

see EMBL database Scincidae Ablepharus pannonicus Ablepharus bivittatus lindbergi Eumeces schneideri Eurylepis taeniolatus Skinks Red-tailed Snake-eyed Skink Two-striped Skink Red-striped Skink Alpine Punjab Skink Leviton and Anderson (1970). 1998). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). de/~uetz/ Eremias regeli Eremias scripta Eremias velox Vermiculate Sand Lizard Rapid Racerunner Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Persian Sand Lizard Leviton and Anderson (1970).embl-heidelberg.see EMBL database Ophisops jerdoni Scapteira aporosceles Rugose Spectacled Lizard Greater Reticulate Sand Lizard Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970).  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . velox velox Mesalina guttulata Small Spotted Lizard Considered by Leviton and Anderson to be Eremia guttalata watsonana Mesalina watsonana Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Name changed from E. EMBL database (2006) Considered by Leviton and Anderson to be E. EMBL database (2006) Considered by Leviton and Anderson to be Eremia guttalata watsonana-. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Name changed from Eumeces taeniolatus--see EMBL database Mabuya dissimilis Ophiomorus tridactylus Scincella himalayana Striped Grass Skink Three-toed Sand Swimmer Himalayan Skink Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in EMBL database. blanfordi as a probably subspecies of A.Lacertidae Acanthodactylus cantoris Wall lizards Indian Fringe-fingered Lizard Point-snouted Racerunner Leviton and Anderson (1970) Clark (1990) cites A. Some consider it to be Asymblepharus himalayana or Lygosoma himalayanum (Das et al. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in EMBL database Leviton and Anderson (1970). velox persica--http:// www. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). cantoris Eremias acutirostris Eremias aria Eremias fasciata Eremias grammica Eremias intermedia Eremias lineolata Eremias nigrocellata Eremias persica Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Endemic to Afghanistan Striped Sand Lizard Reticulate Racerunner Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Name changed from Eremisa aporosceles-. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970).

EMBL database (2006) I I Boidae Eryx elegans Eryx johnii Eryx tataricus Eryx miliarus Boas Elegant Sand Boa Indian Sand Boa Tartary Sand Boa Dwarf Sand Boa Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Grey Monitor. Caspian Monitor Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Name changed from Name changed from Name changed from Coluber ravergieri Coluber karelinii Coluber ventromaculatus mucosus Elapidae Naja oxiana Cobras Central Asian Cobra Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970).Varanidae Varanus bengalensis bendalensis Varanus griseus caspius Monitor lizards Bengal Monitor Desert Monitor. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) II for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . Asiatic Watersnake Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) II II II II Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Colubridae Boiga trigonata melanocephalus Eirinis persica Elaphe dione Hemorrhois ravergieri Lytorhynchus maynardi Lytorhynchus ridgewayi Natrix tesellata tessellata Platyceps karelini Platyceps rhodorichis Platyceps ventromaculatus Psammophis lineolatus Psammophis schokari Ptyas mucosa Spalerosophis diadema schirazana Xenochrophis piscator Colubrids Indian Gamma Snake Persian Dwarf Snake Dione Snake Ravergier’s Whip Snake Maynard’s Awl Headed Snake Afghan Awl Headed Snake Dice Snake Spotted Desert Racer Jan’s Whip Snake Spotted Whip Snake Steppe Ribbon Snake Forskal’s Sandsnake Oriental Rat Snake or Whipsnake Diadem Snake Chequered Keelback. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) II Name changed from P. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970).

Leviton and Anderson (1970) cite a specimen apparently collected in Nuristan. EMBL database (2006) Vipers Saw-scaled Viper. EMBL database (2006) Name changed from Vipera lebetina EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not confirmed from Afghanistan. Not in EMBL database Cyrtopodion turcmenicus Cyrtopodion voraginosus Acanthodactylus blanfordii Blanford’s Fringefingered Lizard Point-snouted Racerunner Earless Snake-eyed Skink EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). Not in EMBL database. Name changed from Cyrtodactylus russowii. EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Name changed from Agkistrodon halys Name changed from Agkistrodon himalayanus. EMBL database (2006) Blind snakes Worm Snake Leviton and Anderson (1970).Leptotyphlopidae Leptotyphlops blandfordi Typhlopidae Typhlops vermicularis Viperidae Echis carinatus Eristicophis macmahoni Gloydius halys Gloydius himalayanus Slender blind snakes Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Short-legged Snake Skink Chernov’s Snake Skink EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) 0 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Macrovipera lebetina Pseudocerastes persicus persicus Uncertain species Cyrtopodion longipes Cyrtopodion russowii Desert Adder Persian False Hornviper Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). endemic to Afghanistan Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) Eremias afghanistanica Ablepharus grayanus Eumeces blythianus Mabuya aurata Ophiomorus brevipes Ophiomorus chernovi Leviton and Anderson (1970). Carpet Viper MacMahon Viper Crotalid Halys Viper Himalayan Pit Viper Leviton and Anderson (1970). endemic to Afghanistan Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970).

EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database cites Afghan distribution with a ? Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Gloydius intermedius Central Asian Pitviper EMBL database for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 1 .Uncertain species Eryx miliaris Lycodon striatus bicolor Oligodon taeniolatus Psammophis leithii Pseudocyclophis persicus Telescopus rhinopoma Bungarus caeruleus Naja naja (Continued) Dwarf Sand Boa Northern Wolf Snake Streaked Kukri Snake Pakistan Sand Racer or Leith’s Sand Snake Dark-headed Dwarf Racer Indian Desert Tiger Snake Indian Krait Indian Cobra EMBL database Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) Leviton and Anderson (1970). EMBL database (2006) EMBL database EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) EMBL database (2006) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not confirmed from Afghanistan Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970) Not in Leviton and Anderson (1970).

ridibunda ridibunda Paa sternosignata True Frogs Skipping Frog. Laughing Frog Baluch Mountain Frog.Appendix 4 The Amphibians of Afghanistan: A Checklist Amphibian Species of Afghanistan Hynobiidae Batrachuperus mustersi Asiatic Salamanders Paghman Mountain Salamander Leviton and Anderson (1970) Endemic and Critically Endangered Bufonidae Bufo stomaticus B. Malir Paa Frog. viridis True Toads Indus Valley Toad European Green Toad Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Previously called Bufo andersonii Ranidae Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis R. Murray’s Frog. Lake Frog. Skittering Frog among others Marsh Frog. Karez Frog Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Leviton and Anderson (1970) Previously called Rana sternosignata Previously called Rana cyanophlyctis Uncertain species Bufo latastii Bufo oblongus Ladakh Toad Listed on AmphibiaWeb Listed on AmphibiaWeb Unable to verify published record Unable to verify published record 2 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .

Appendix 5 The Fish of Afghanistan: A Checklist Fish Species of Afghanistan Scientific Name Acipenseridae Acipenser nudiventris Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni Salmonidae Oncorhynchus mykiss Salmo trutta Authority Sturgeons Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Fringebarbel sturgeon Dwarf sturgeon Amu Darya sturgeon Coad-= native. Fishbase = extiprated native native Common Name Status Notes Salmonids Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Rainbow trout Sea trout. Brown trout introduced native Oncorhynchus gairdneri in Coad (1981) Cyprinidae Alburnoides bipunctatus Alburnoides taeniatus Amblypharyngodon mola Aspidoparia jaya Aspiolucius esocinus Aspius aspius Bangana diplostomus Barbus brachycephalus Barbus capito Barilius vagra Capoeta capoeta Capoetobrama kuschakewitschi Carassius auratus Crossocheilus diplochilus Crossocheilus latius Ctenopharyngodon idella Cyprinion microphthalmum Cyprinion milesi Minnows and carps Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Chub Striped bystranka Mola carplet Jaya Pike asp Asp None Aral barbel Bulatmai barbel None Transcaucasian barb Sharpray Goldfish None native native native native native native native native native native native native introduced native Labeo diplostomus in Coad (1981) Crossocheilus latius diplochilus in Coad (1981) None Grass carp None native introduced native None native Cyprinion watsoni Devario devario Esomus danricus None Sind danio Flying barb native native native Danio devario in Coad (1981) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 3 .

barbatus. now included with S.Cyprinidae Garra rossica Gobio gobio Hemiculter leucisculus Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Labeo angra Labeo ariza Labeo dyocheilus Labeo gonius Labeo pangusia Leuciscus latus Pelecus cultratus Pseudorasbora parva Puntius conchonicus Puntius sarana Puntius sophore Rhodeus sinensis Rutilus rutilus Salmostoma bacaila Schizocypris brucei Schizocypris ladigesi Schizopygopsis stoliczkae Schizopyge curvifrons Schizothorax edeniana Schizothorax esocinus Schizothorax intermedius Schizothorax labiatus Schizothorax microcephalus Schizothorax pelzmani Schizothorax plagiostomus Schizothorax richardsonii Schizothorax zarudnyi Sinilabeo dero Tor putitora Minnows and carps (Continued) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Menon (1999) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) None Gudgeon Sharpbelly Silver carp None Reba None Kuria labeo None None Ziege Stone moroko Rosy barb Olive barb Pool barb none Roach Large razorbelly minnow Waziristan snowtrout None False osman Sattar snowtrout None Chirruh snowtrout Common marinka Kunar snowtrout None Transcaspian marinka None Snowtrout native native native native native native native native Coad (1981) also recognized S. esocinus Coad separately lists S. intermedius native native introduced introduced native native native native native native native introduced native native native introduced native native native native native Schizocypris stolickzkae in Coad (1981) Cirrhinus reba in Coad (1981) None Kalabans native native native Labeo dero in Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Putitor mahseer 4 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . schumacheri which is now considered as S.

Talway and Jhingram (1991) None None Rita None Giant river catfish native native native native native Mystus seenghala in Coad (1981) for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 5 . Nalbant and Bianco (1998) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Tibetan stone loach Eastern crested loach Amu Darya stone loach None None None Western crested loach None None Turkmenian crested loach Kessler’s loach None Bukhara stone loach native native native native native native native native native native native native native Noemacheilus or Paracobitis cristatus in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus kessleri in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus (Triplophysa) amurdarjensis in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus baluchiorum in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus longicauda in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus oxianus in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus boutanensis in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus ghaznienesis in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus rhadineus in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus malapterurus in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus alepidotus in Coad (1981) Schistura prashari Schistura sargadensis Triplophysa brahui Triplophysa farwelli Triplophysa griffithi Triplophysa kullmanni Triplophysa stoliczkae None Turkmenian loach None native native native native and endemic native native native Noemacheilus prashaari in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus sargadensis in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus brahui in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus farwelli in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus griffithi in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus kullmani in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus stoliczkae in Coad (1981). stoliczkae Noemacheilus tenuis in Coad (1981) Triplophysa tenuis Cobitidae Sabanajewia aurata Coad (1981) native Loaches Coad (1981) Golden spined loach native Bagridae Mystus tengara Rita macracanthus Rita rita Sperata sarwari Sperata seenghala Bagrid catfishes Coad (1981) Ng (2004) Coad (1981) Eschemeyer (2004) Coad (1981).Balitoridae Dzihunia amudarjensis Nemacheilus baluchiorum Nemacheilus longicaudus Nemacheilus oxianus Paracobitis boutanensis Paracobitis ghazniensis Paracobitis rhadineus Paracobitis malapterura Schistura alepidotus Schistura alta Schistura cristata Schistura kessleri Schistura lindbergi River Loaches Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Nalbant and Bianco (1998) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991). Coad (1981) cited N. (Triplophysa) akhtari which is now included in T.

Uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database None Gray loach Coad = uncertain. Fishbase = native Coad . Fishbase = native Noemacheilus kuschakewitschi in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus corica in Coad (1981) Noemacheilus naseeri in Coad (1981) Schistura pakistanicus Coad (1981) Noemacheilus pakistanicus in Coad (1981) Triplophysa choprai Triplophysa dorsalis Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Noemacheilus choprai in Coad (1981) Originally cited as Noemacheilus dorsalis  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Fishbase = native Coad = uncertain.Uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad . Fishbase = native Coad = uncertain.Siluridae Ompok bimaculatus Ompok canio Ompok pabda Pterocryptis afghana Old-world catfishes Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Butter catfish None Padbah catfish None native native native native Silurus glanis Wallago attu Sisoridae Glyptosternum akhtari Glyptosternum reticulatum Glyptothorax jalalensis Poeciliidae Gambusia affinis Percidae Sander lucioperca Gobiidae Rhinogobius similis Channidae Channa gachua Channa orientalis Wels catfish Wallago native native Sisorid and sucker catfishes Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) None Turkestan catfish None native native native Mummichogs Coad (1981) Mosquito fish introduced Perches Coad (1981) Zander native Stizostedium lucioperca in Coad (1981) True gobies Coad (1981) none introduced Snakeheads Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) None Walking snakehead Spotted snakehead native native Ophiocephalus gachua in Coad (1981) Channa punctatus native Ophiocephalus punctata in Coad (1981) Uncertain occurrence in Afghanistan Nemacheilus kuschakewitschi Schistura corica Schistura naseeri Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Kuschakewitsch loach none Coad = uncertain.

not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad . Fishbase = native Coad . Fishbase = native Coad .uncertain.Uncertain. Fishbase = native Hemigarra elegans in Coad (1981) Ide Zeravshan dace Common dace Northern pike Southern ninespine stickleback Zig-zag eel Ruffe European perch None None Coad . not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad =.Uncertain.uncertain. Fishbase = native Coad = uncertain. anjac not a recognized species. Fishbase = native Coad .uncertain.Uncertain.Uncertain. Fishbase = introduced Coad . Fishbase = native Coad .uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad . Fishbase = native Coad .uncertain. Fishbase = native Noemacheilus stenurus in Coad (1981) Coad = native.Uncertain.uncertain. Fishbase = native Mastacembelus armatus Gymnocephalus cernua Perca fluviatilis Clupisoma naziri Glyptothorax cavia Glyptothorax naziri Glyptothorax punjabensis Glyptothorax stocki Coad . not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad .uncertain.uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database native Not a valid species? Rudd uncertain uncertain Possibly S. Fishbase = native Coad .Uncertain.uncertain. S. Fishbase = native Coad = uncertain. Fishbase = native Coad =.Uncertain. Not a recognized species? Not a recognized species? None native native Carp bream White-eye bream None None Danube bleak Common carp Sucker head None Coad . zarudnyi (Coad 1981). Fishbase = native Coad = native. Fishbase = native Coad . not in Fishbase Afghan database Coad = uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database Tor chelenoides in Coad (1981) Salmostoma punjabensis Cirrhinus burmesiana Scardinius erythrophthalmus Schizothorax anjac Schizothorax chrysochlora Schizothorax gobioides Abramis brama Abramis sapa Aspidoparia morar Capoeta fusca Chalcalburnus chalcoides Cyprinus carpio Garra gotyla Garra rufa Hemigrammocapoeta elegans Leuciscus idus Leuciscus lehmanni Leuciscus leuciscus Esox lucius Pungitius platygaster Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Talwar and Jhingram (1991) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Punjab razorbelly minnow Coad .Uncertain.uncertain. Fishbase = questionable Coad . Fishbase = native Coad . Fishbase = native Coad .Uncertain occurrence in Afghanistan (Continued) Triplophysa stenura Ptychobarbus conirostris Puntius ticto Puntius chelynoides Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Coad (1981) Indus snowtrout Ticto barb Dark mahseer Coad = uncertain.uncertain.uncertain. not in Fishbase Afghan database for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . Fishbase = native Coad .uncertain.

str.tripod. Whites and Sulphers Aporia (Metaporia (Turanoporia)) leucodice Aporia (s.str.Appendix 6 The Butterflies of Afghanistan: A Checklist Butterflies of Afghanistan Taken from Koçak & Kemal.str.str. Caper White Large Salmon Arab Celestial Apollo Rose Windmill Lime Butterfly Common Peacock Southern Swallowtail. Green-Dapled White yellow Orange Tip Blackvein Black-veined White Pioneer.str. (latreillei-gr)) latreillei Princeps (Princeps (demoleus-gr)) demoleus Princeps (Princeps (paris-gr)) polyctor Papilio (s.str.str.str.str.com/entlep/Af.) delphius Parnassius (s.) inopinatus Parnassius (s.) ausonia Ixias pyrene Pieris (Artogeia) canidia Pieris (Artogeia) krueperi Pieris (Artogeia) rapae Pieris (s.) tianschanicus Atrophaneura (s.str.) infernalis Parnassius (s. Tiger Swallowtail Swallowtail.str.) brassicae Pontia callidice Pontia chloridice Pontia daplidice Zegris fausti Catopsilia crocale Catopsilia pyranthe Kruper’s Small White Small White Large White Small Bath White Hübner’s Mountain White Bath White Faust’s Orange Tip Common Emigrant Mottled Emigrant Dappled White. Swallowtails Hypermnestra helios Parnassius (Driopa) mnemosyne Parnassius (s.str.) honrathi Parnassius (s.) machaon Family Pieridae.str.) charltonius Parnassius (s. Checklist of the Butterflies of Afghanistan http://www.str.) alexanor Papilio (s.) autocrator Parnassius (s.members.htm Family Papilonidae.) stoliczkanus Parnassius (s.) crataegi Belenois aurota Colotis fausta Delias belladonna Euchloe (s.str. Common yellow Swallowtail Keeled Apollo Regal Apollo Banded Apollo Common Red Apollo Honrath’s Common Blue Apollo Desert Apollo Clouded Apollo  An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .str.) jacquemontii Parnassius (s.) epaphus Parnassius (s.str.) actius Parnassius (s.

Pellitory Butterfly yellow-legged Tortoiseshell Kashmiri Tortoiseshell Blue Pansy Peacock Pansy False Plain Tiger HipolimnasBlue Tiger Milkweed. Milkweed Butterflies Danaus (Anosia) chrysippus Parantica melaneus Parantica sita Tirumala hamata Tirumala limniace Family Argynnidae Cyrestis thyodamas Euthalia aconthea Hypolimnas misippus Limenitis lepechini Pantoporia selenophora Precis almana Precis hierta Precis orithya Sephisa dichroa Nymphalis xanthomelas Aglais kaschmirensis Aglais nixa Aglais rizana Vanessa indica Cynthia cardui Polygonia c-album Polygonia egea Polygonia undina Argynnis (Argyreus) hyperbius Argynnis (Fabriciana) argyrospilata Argynnis (Fabriciana) jainadeva Argynnis (Pandoriana) pandora Argynnis (Protodryas) kamala Cardinal. Plain Tiger Green Clouded yellow Khokandian Clouded yellow Eastern Pale Clouded yellow Himalayan Clouded yellow Marcopolo’s Clouded yellow Motschulsky’s Clouded yellow Clench’s Clouded yellow Broad Bordered Clouded yellow for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan  . Great Fritillary Indian Red Admiral Painted Lady Comma Butterfly Southern Comma. Monarch. Whites and Sulphers (Continued) Colias alpherakii Colias cocandica Colias erate Colias fieldii Colias marcopolo Colias poliographus Colias shahfuladi Colias wiskotti Family Libytheidae.Family Pieridae. Snout Butterflies Libythea myrrha Family Danaidae.

Family Argynnidae (Continued) Boloria (Proclossiana) erubescens Boloria (s.str.str.) briseis Kanetisa digna Karanasa bolorica Karanasa huebneri Karanasa kotandari Karanasa moorei Karanasa pamira Karanasa voigti Pseudochazara (Achazara) kanishka A Pseudochazara (Achazara) telephassa Pseudochazara (s.str.) droshica Pseudochazara (s. Satyrs and Wood Nymphs Hipparchia (Neohipparchia) parisatis Paralasa afghana Paralasa chitralica Paralasa danorum Paralasa howarthi Paralasa icelos Paralasa kotzschae Paralasa pagmanni Paralasa shakti Aulocera padma Aulocera swaha Chazara (Neochazara) enervata Chazara (Neochazara) heydenreichi Chazara (s.str. Turanian Tawny Rockbrown Tytler’s Tawny Rockbrown Afghani Tawny Rockbrown Hermit Common Satyr Dark Rockbrown.str.) generator Issoria lathonia Melitaea arduinna Melitaea avinovi Melitaea didymina Melitaea fascelis Melitaea kuchi Melitaea lutko Melitaea minerva Melitaea paludani Melitaea persea Melitaea shandura Melitaea tangigharuensis Family Satyridae.) panjshira Pseudochazara (s.) sagina Aussem’s Tawny Rockbrown Telephassa Grayling.) porphyritica Pseudochazara (s. White-bordered Black Persian Fritillary.str. Turanian Grayling Afghan Ringlet White-bordered Grayling.Desert Fritillary Dardic Fritillary Lesser Spotted Fritillary Queen of Spain Fritillary 100 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .

(Ereminephele)) capella Hyponephele (s. (Orientinephele)) difficilis Hyponephele (s. (Iranonephele)) hilaris Hyponephele (s.str.) lupina Hyponephele shivacola Hyponephele sussurans Coenonympha mangeri Lyela amirica Esperarge eversmanni Lasiommata hindukushica Lasiommata menava Lethe sidonis Ypthima asterope Ypthima bolanica Family Riodinidae.) interposita Hyponephele (s.str.str. (Caspinephele)) dysdora Hyponephele (s. Satyrs and Wood Nymphs (Continued) Pseudochazara (s. (Iranonephele)) glasunovi Hyponephele (s.str. Common Three-RingDesert Four-ring Sooty Argus Afghani Heath Lederer’s Steppe Brown Christoph’s Steppe Brown Hübner’s Steppe Brown Hyrcanian Steppe Brown Glasunov’s Steppe Brown Cheerful Steppe Brown Omoto’s Steppe Brown Shoumatoff’s Steppe Brown Clench’s Steppe Brown Pamir Steppe Brown White-ringed Ladakhi Steppe Brown White-ringed Steppe Brown Intermediate Steppe Brown Oriental Steppe Brown Wyatt’s Steppe Brown Turkestani Tawny Rockbrown for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 101 . (Turaninephele)) davendra Hyponephele (s.str. Metalmarks Abisara bifasciata Polycaena tamerlana Family Lycaenidae. (Iranonephele)) perplexa Hyponephele (s.Family Satyridae. (Orientinephele)) mussitans Hyponephele (s. Blues and Coppers Chaetoprocta odata Neozephyrus syla Callophrys mystaphia Callophrys paulae Callophrys suaveola Satyrium (Strymonidia) spini Satyrium (Superflua) hyrcanicum Satyrium (Superflua) sassanides Cigaritis acamas Cigaritis epargyros Jamides celeno Miller’s Green Hairstreak Pfeiffer’s Green Hairstreak Alpine Green Hairstreak Blue-spot Hairsreak Hyrcanian Black Hairstreak Persian Black Hairstreak Lebanese Silver-line. (Ereminephele)) huebneri Hyponephele (s. Levantine Leopard Butterfly Turanian Leopard Butterfly African Ringlet.str.str.str. (Tengrinephele)) pamira Hyponephele (s. (Iranonephele)) amardaea Hyponephele (s.str.str.str.str.) turkestana Satyrus pimpla Hyponephele (s.str. (Turaninephele)) brevistigma Hyponephele (s.str.str.

str.) alexis Glaucopsyche (s.) icarus Eros Blue Small Anatolian Blue Frauvartian’s Blue Nadir’s Blue Afghani Blue Loew’s Blue Persian Brown Argus Christoph’s Blue Eversmann’s Blue Lesser Chequered Blue Iranian Odd-spot Blue Green-underside Blue Afghani Green-underside Blue Arian Small Blue Indian Holly Blue Holly Blue Mediterranean Tiger Blue Indian Grass Blue Dull Babul Blue Long-tailed Blue.str.str.str.) seminigra Micropsyche ariana Praephilotes violacea Pseudophilotes vicrama Turanana anisophtalma Turanana grumi Turanana laspura Plebejus (Alpherakya) bellonus Plebejus (Alpherakya) devanicus Plebejus (Kretania) iranicus Plebejus (Lycaeides) christophi Plebejus (ardis-gr) eversmanni Plebejus (ardis-gr) firuskuhi Polyommatus (Agriades (s. (Sublysandra)) nuksani Polyommatus (s.Family Lycaenidae.str.str.) eros Polyommatus (s. (Agrodiaetus (Paragrodiaetus))) nadirus Polyommatus (s. (Agrodiaetus (Paragrodiaetus))) frauvartianae Polyommatus (s.str. (Agrodiaetus (Paragrodiaetus))) erschoffii Polyommatus (s.str.str. (Agrodiaetus (Juldus))) afghanicus Polyommatus (s. Pea Blue-Lampides Little Tiger Blue 102 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . (Sublysandra)) cornelius Polyommatus (s.str.)) walterforster Polyommatus (Albulina (Pamiria)) chrysopis Polyommatus (Albulina (Pamiria)) issus Polyommatus (Albulina (Pamiria)) selma Polyommatus (Albulina (Plebejidea)) loewii Polyommatus (Albulina (Vacciniina)) omotoi Polyommatus (s.str.str.str.str.str. (Sublysandra)) muetingi Polyommatus (s. Blues and Coppers (Continued) Lampides boeticus Tarucus balkanicus Tarucus nara Tarucus rosaceus Zizeeria karsandra Azanus uranus Acytolepis puspa Celastrina argiolus Celastrina carna Celastrina kollari Udara (Penudara) albocaerulea Glaucopsyche (s.)) pheretiades Polyommatus (Agriades (s. (Sublysandra)) adulterinus Polyommatus (s. (Agrodiaetus (Paragrodiaetus))) bogra Polyommatus (s.

) thersamon Heliophorus (Nesa) sena Family Hesperiidae.str. Blues and Coppers (Continued) Polyommatus (s.) omotoi Polyommatus (s.str.) alceae Carcharodus (s. Peaty Skipper Silver-Spotted Skipper Mallow Skipper Swinhoe’s Skipper Inky Skipper.str. Skippers Badamia exclamationis Coladenia dan Carcharodus (Lavatheria) stauderi Carcharodus (Reverdinus) dravira Carcharodus (s.) osthelderi Gegenes nostrodamus Hesperia comma Thymelicus alaicus Thymelicus lineolus Essex Skipper Red Underwing Skipper Osthelder’s Skipper Mediterranean Skipper.) kiyokoae Lycaena (s.) swinhoei Erynnis marloyi Muschampia antonia Muschampia musta Muschampia proteus Pyrgus alpinus Pyrgus badachschanus Pyrgus cashmirensis Pyrgus darwazicus Spialia (Neospialia) orbifer Spialia (s.Family Lycaenidae.) phlaeas Margelycaena margelanica Phoenicurusia athamantis Thersamonia (Thersamolycaena) aeolus Thersamonia (s.) parrhasius Hyrcanana caspia Lycaena (s.str.str.) alaica Thersamonia (s.str.str.str.) venus Chilades (Freyeria) trochylus Chilades (Lachides) contracta Chilades (Lachides) galba Chilades (s.str.str. Oriental Jet Skipper Stauder’s Skipper Lesser Fiery Copper Small Copper Caspian Copper Omoto’s Blue Persian Common Blue Venus Blue Jewel Blue Oriental Jewel Blue Small Desert Blue for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 103 .) eberti Thersamonia (s.str.) persicus Polyommatus (s.str.) aditya Thersamonia (s.str.

Culex (N.) maculatus wilmosi James 13.) fluviatilis James 11. 1. Anopheles (A. Mosquito Systematics 4 No. Anopheles (C.Appendix 7 The Mosquitoes of Afghanistan: A Checklist Mosquitoes of Afghanistan Ward. Anopheles (C. Anopheles (A. Anopheles (C.) peditaeniatus Leicester 7.) turkhudi Liston 21. Culext (C. Culiseta (Allotheobaldia) longiareolata Macquart 25.) hyrcanus Pallas 5. Anopheles (A.) superpictus Grassi 20.) habibi Mulligan and Puri 4. Culex (Culex) pipiens fatigans Wiedeman 29. 3: 93 – 97. Anopheles (C.) subpictus Grassi 19. 1972. Anopheles (C.) univittatus Theobald 104 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Mosquitoes of Afghanistan – an annotated bibliography. Anopheles (C.) vagus Donitz 22. Anopheles (C. Culex (Neoculex) deserticola Kirkpatrick 27.) multicolor Cambouliu 15.) splendidus Koisumi 17. Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) unguiculata Edwards 23.) stephensi Liston 18.) sacharovi Favre 8. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius Pallas 24. Anopheles (C. Anopheles (C. Anopheles (Cellia) annularis Van der Wulp 9. R.) moghulensis Christophers 14.) claviger Meigen 3. Anopheles (C. Anopheles (C.) theileri Theobald 30. Anopheles (A.) lindesayi Giles 6. Culex (Barraudius) pusillus Macquart 26.) culicifacies Giles 10. Anopheles (A.) maculatus Theobald 12.) pulcherrimus Theobald 16. Anopheles (C. Anopheles (A. Anopheles (C.) quettensis Mattingly 28.) algeriensis Theobald 2. Culex (C.A. Anopheles (A.

Konar Kabul. Zabul Bamiyan. Konar Konar Kabul Kabul. Konar.Appendix 8 The Liverworts of Afghanistan: A Checklist Liverworts of Afghanistan Family Targionaceae Aytoniaceae Aytoniaceae Aytoniaceae Aytoniaceae Conocephalaceae Cleveaceae Marchantiaceae Marchantiaceae Marchantiaceae Ricciaceae Pellicaceae Lophocoleaceae Radulaceae Porellaceae Porellaceae Species Targonia hypophylla Plagiochasma sp Reboulia hemisphaerica Mannia fragrans Mannia androgyna Conochephalun conicum Athalamia hyalina Preissia quadrata Marchantia polymorpha Wiesnerella denudata Riccia fluitans Pellia endivifolia Chiloscyphus polyanthos Radula complanata Porella cordaeana Porella platyphylla Province of Occurence Farah. Helmand Bamiyan. Kabul Konar Kabul Kabul Konar Unknown Unknown (Hindu Kush noted) Laghman for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 105 . Kapisa. Konar Bamiyan. Konar Kabul. Faryab.

) H.) Norm.htm) Acarospora altissima H.) Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. Degel.) Steiner Caloplaca biatorina (A. Magn. Arg. Acarospora brevilobata H. var.Appendix 9 The Lichens and Fungi of Afghanistan: A Checklist Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Afghanistan Feuerer. Magn. Apiosporella caudata (Kernst. var. nigra B.) Müll.) Sandst. Steiner) M.) Th. de Lesd. Arg. 10 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .) Körb. Magn. Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke Dermatocarpon werneri Rouss. Caloplaca trachyphylla (Tuck.) Hue Acarospora strigata (Nyl.) Zahlbr. Acarospora sinopica (Wahlenb. Acarospora lavicola J. Massal. H. Buellia longispora Scheidegger Buellia populorum (A.) Mann Dermatocarpon moulinsii (Mont. em. pellitum Poelt & Wirth Dermatocarpon perumbratum Nyl.) Jatta Acarospora suprasedens H. Aspicilia calcarea (L. (Ed. Candelaria concolor (J. Caloplaca intrudens H.) H. Magn. Steiner Lecania triseptata (Vain. Acarospora stapfiana (Müll. Acarospora cervina A.) Vain. Fr. Magn.) Mudd Buellia elegans Poelt Buellia epipolia (Ach.) Keissl. Magn.) Poelt Anaptychia roemeri Poelt Anaptychia ulotrichoides (Vain. Massal.) Poelt Caloplaca persica (J. Caloplaca bicolor H. Caloplaca juniperina Tomin Caloplaca paulii Poelt Caloplaca paulsenii (Vain. Didymosphaeria sporastatiae (Anzi) Winter Dimelaena oreina (Ach. Caloplaca variabilis (Pers. f. Anaptychia desertorum (Rupr. Magn.) Zahlbr. Magn. Acarospora scabrida H. Acarospora verruciformis H. Acarospora bohlinii H.de/checklists/asia/afghanistan_l. Arg. simplex Hag. Steiner & Poelt Caloplaca polycarpoides Caloplaca pyracea (Ach.) Müll. Caloplaca circumalbata var.) Ach. T. Version 1 (http://www. Cladonia fimbriata (L. Wigg. Conotrema freyi Vezda & Poelt Dermatocarpon miniatum (L. Magn. Acarospora rufoalutacea (Harm.biologie. Caloplaca tominii Sav. Acarospora assimulans Vain. moulinsii Dermatocarpon moulinsii (Mont. Collema polycarpum (Schaer.) Sandst.) Stein Candelariella aurella (Hoffm.) Zahlbr. Candelariella vitellina (Ehrh. Candelariella kansuensis H.) Zahlbr.) Mudd.) Th. Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Nordin Caloplaca sororicida ined. Collema cristatum (L. Massal. gyalotechnicides (Müll. Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh.) Clauzade & Roux Caloplaca anchon-phoeniceon Poelt & Clauzade in Poelt Caloplaca biatorina (A. Fr. Steiner & Poelt Lecania erysibe (Ach.uni-hamburg.) Poelt Glypholecia scabra (Pers. Lecania diplococca M. Collema tenax (Sw. Caloplaca saxicola (Hoffm. Magn. Magn. Arg.) Poelt Anaptychia elbursiana (Szat. Arg. circumalbata Caloplaca decipiens (Arnold) Jatta Caloplaca hedinii H.) Kremp. Checklists of lichens and lichenicolous fungi.). Caloplaca transcaspica (Nyl.) Mong. Lecania ochronigra J. Candelariella oleifera H. Magn. Massal.) Zahlbr.) Steiner var.) Müll. 2006. Magn. Stein Acarospora rufa (Vain.) Weber ex F. var. Dicks. Echinothecium reticulatum Zopf Fulgensia desertorum (Tomin) Poelt Fulgensia subbracteata (Nyl.

em. Magn.) Ach.) DC. Lecanora subalbicans H.) M.) Moberg Phoma lichenis Pass. Lecanora bohlinii H.) Essl. Lecanora percrenata H. var. ventosa (Lynge) Frey Physcia dimidiata (Arnold) Nyl. Physcia aipolia (Humb. Lecanora hagenii Ach. G. Lecidea tessellata Flörke var. Magn..) Hertel & Leuckert Lichenostigma epipolina Nav. subfarinosa H.) Vain. tessellata Lecidella alaiensis (Vain.) Arnold Lecanora hartliana Steiner Lecanora hedinii H. var.) Zahlbr. Lecidea oreja Stizenb.) Sommerf.) Essl. Magn. Magn.) J.) Fürnr. Melanelia tominii (Oksner) Essl. Werner Lecanora pachyphylla H. Choisy Lecidella euphorea (Flörke) Nyl. var. Fr. Physcia hispidula (Ach. muralis Protoparmeliopsis muralis (Schreb.) Steiner Protoparmeliopsis muralis (Schreb. Lecanora asiatica H. Magn.) Fürnr. Massal. R.Lecanora albescens (Hoffm. Magn.) Moberg Phaeophyscia nigricans (Flörke) Moberg Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Neck.) Lettau Physcia grisea (Lam.) Zahlbr.) Moberg Physcia stellaris (L. Lecidella patavina (A. Peccania terricola H.) Flörke Lecanora argopholis (Ach. Lecanora dispersa (Pers. Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) Essl.) Hafellner Melanelia exasperatula (Nyl.) Essl. Magn.) Lamy Lecanora frustulosa (J. primaria Poelt Physcia latifolia Steiner & Poelt Physcia leptalea (Ach. Magn. Peltigera praetextata (Flörke) Zopf Peltigera rufescens (Weis) Humb. Magn.) Frey subsp. Lecidea paratropoides Müll.” for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 10 . Lecidea atrobrunnea (Ramond) Schaer. Neofuscelia loxodes (Nyl.) Poelt Physconia grisea (Lam. Arg. Physcia dubia (Hoffm.) Essl. Lecidea percrassata H. Hispidula Physcia hispidula (Ach. Steiner Lecanora scabridula H.) Lecidella carpathica Körb. Magn.) D.) Nyl.) Essl. Lecanora garovaglii (Körb. Physcia adscendens (Fr.) “Rabenh. Peltigera scabrosa Th. pithyrea Flag.) Poelt Protoblastenia immersa (Web. Physcia sciastra (Ach. Choisy var. Oliv. Magn. diffracta (Ach. Physcia caesia (Hoffm. Neofuscelia verruculifera (Nyl. Lecanora zederbaueri Zahlbr. var. Lecanora disperso-areolata (Schaer. Magn. Magn. Lecanora crenulata Hook. Melanelia infumata (Nyl. Bitter Physconia detersa (Nyl.-Ros. umbrina (Ehrh.) Hale Peccania crispa ined. Phaeophyscia kairamoi (Vain. T Lecanora baicalensis Zahlbr. caesia (Anzi) Arnold Lecidea tessellata Flörke var. Physcia strigosa Poelt & Buschardt Physcia tenella DC.) Fürnr. Calatayud & Hafellner Lichenostigma semiimmersa Hafellner Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl. Dicks. Lecidea pavimentans H.) Nyl. Muellerella pygmaea (Körb. Lecanora koerberiana Lamm Lecanora maculata H.) Frey subsp. Magn. Neofuscelia glomellifera (Nyl. Physcia semipinnata (Gmel. Lecanora subcaesia H. Hawksw. Lecanora hagenii Ach. Choisy var.) M. Lecidea pulcherrima Vain. Melanelia subargentifera (Nyl. Physcia caesia (Hoffm.) H. Laundon Physconia farrea (Ach. Lecanora microspora Arnold Lecanora monodi R. Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl. Neofuscelia pulla (Ach. Lecanora invadens H.) Essl.) M.) Poelt Physconia distorta (With. Physcia magnussonii Frey Physcia pusilloides Zahlbr.) Ach. Lecanora placentiformis J.) Knoph & Leuckert Lecidella stigmatea (Ach. Parmelina tiliacea (Hoffm.

Arg. Rinodina pyrina (Ach. Xanthomendoza fallax (Hepp) Søchting. Rhizocarpon effiguratum (Anzi) Th. Sarcogyne gyrocarpa H. Magn. asiaticum Poelt Rhizocarpon ridescens (Nyl. Magn.) Th. Rhizocarpon solitarium H.) Poelt Psora decipiens (Hedw.) Clauzade & Rondon 1) Tichothecium gemmiferum (Tayl. Sarcogyne privigna (Ach. Rhizocarpon kansuense H. Rinodina tominii Mayrh. Magn. Fr. Staurothele levinae Oxner Teloschistes brevior (Vain.) Müll. Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Rinodina violascens H.) Frey Umbilicaria hirsuta Ach. Rhizocarpon geographicum (L. Frey Verrucaria amphibola Nyl. Rinodina epiianthina (Harm. R. Massal.Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Afghanistan (Continued) Protoparmeliopsis muralis (Schreb. dubyi (Müll. Kondr.) DC. em.) Hoffm. Laundon Umbilicaria aprina Nyl.) Zahlbr. Fr.) Szatala Sphaerothallia straussii (Steiner) Szatala ) Sporastatia asiatica H.) A.) Hillm. 58). Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt Rhizoplaca peltata (Ramond) Leuckert & Poelt Rinodina afghanica M. Rhizocarpon geminatum Körb.) Zahlbr.) M. Magn. Psora rubiformis (Wahlenb.) Timdal Tornabea scutellifera (With. em.) Körb. Staurothele clopima (Wahlenb. Kärnefelt & S. Arg. Massal. Sphaerothallia desertorum (Kremp.) Kickx. Ramalina sinensis Jatta Rhizocarpon disporum (Naeg.) A. var. Magn. Massal. Rinodina guzzinii Jatta Rinodina pycnocarpa H. Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th.) Ach. Sporastatia testudinea (Ach. Steiner & Mayrhofer (1987: 322) Umbilicaria decussata (Vill. Magn. Teloschistes contortuplicatus (Ach.) Arnold Rinodina straussii Steiner Rinodina subnigra H.) Hale Xanthoria candelaria (L.) J.) Hook. Xanthoparmelia mexicana (Gyeln. 10 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Toninia sedifolia (Scop. Frey Umbilicaria vellea (L. Choisy var. Rhizocarpon macrosporum Räsänen Rhizocarpon pusillum Runem. Magn. Steiner & Poelt Rinodina bischoffii (Hepp) A.

virgata Rhinolophus mehelyi Uncia uncia Ursus thibetanus Vulpes cana Acinonyx jubatus Capra aegagrus Capra aegagrus ssp. bactrianus Gazella subgutturosa Eptesicus nasutus Meriones zarudnyi Myotis emarginatus Myotis longipes BIRDS Species Listing Numenius tenuirostris Otis tarda Oxyura leucocephala Pelecanus crispus Saxicola macrorhyncha Vanellus gregarius Anas formosa Anser erythropus Aquila clanga Subspecies Listing Common Name Long-Billed Curlew Great Bustard White-Headed Duck Dalmatian Pelican Stoliczka’s Bushchat Sociable Lapwing Baikal Teal Lesser White-Fronted Goose Greater Spotted Eagle Bactrian Deer Goitered Gazelle Sind Bat Zarundny’s Jird Geoffroy’s Bat Kashmir Cave Bat VU VU VU EN VU VU Caspian Tiger Mehely’s Horseshoe Bat Snow Leopard Asiatic Black Bear Afghan Fox Cheetah Wild Goat Wild Goat Markhor Tadjik Markhor Straight-Horned Markhor Subspecies Listing Common Name Argali Marco Polo Argali Urial Afghan Urial African Lion North Persian Leopard Threat VU VU VU VU VU EN EN EX VU EN VU VU VU VU VU EN CR EN Threat CR VU EN VU VU CR VU VU VU for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 10 . cycloceros Panthera leo Panthera pardus ssp. heptneri Capra falconeri ssp. saxicolor Panthera tigris Panthera tigris ssp. poli Ovis orientalis Ovis orientalis ssp.Appendix 10 Afghan Species Listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Afghan Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species MAMMALS Species Listing Ovis ammon Ovis ammon ssp. megaceros Cervus elaphus Cervus elaphus ssp. aegagrus Capra falconeri Capra falconeri ssp.

BIRDS (Continued) Species Listing Aquila heliaca Chlamydotis undulata Columba eversmanni Falco cherrug Falco naumanni Grus leucogeranus Gyps bengalensis Gyps indicus Haliaeetus leucoryphus Marmaronetta angustirostris REPTILES Species Listing Testudo horsfieldii AMPHIBIANS Species Listing Batrachuperus mustersi INSECTS Species Listing Parnassius autocrator PLANTS Species Listing Ulmus wallichiana Subspecies Listing Common Name Himalayan elm Subspecies Listing Common Name Imperial Eagle Houbara Bustard Pale-Backed Pigeon Saker Falcon Lesser Kestrel Siberian Crane Asian White-Backed Vulture Indian Vulture Band-Tailed Fish-Eagle Marbled Duck Threat VU VU VU EN VU CR CR CR VU VU Subspecies Listing Common Name Afghan Tortoise Threat VU Subspecies Listing Common Name Afghani Brook Salamander Threat CR Subspecies Listing Common Name None Threat VU Threat VU 110 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .

vignei by CITES. a. orientalus by IUCN and Duff and Lawson (2004). onager and O. khur occurs in India and Pakistan and is Appendix I. Considered O. e. Himalayan Musk Deer Bactrian Deer Wild yak Markhor Goral Argali Urial/Mouflon Moschus chrysogaster Cervus elaphus bactrianus Bos mutus Capra falconeri Naemorhedus goral Ovis ammon Ovis vignei [orientalis] I II I I I II II Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Only O.Appendix 11 Afghan Species Listed on Appendices I and II of the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Afghan Species on CITES Appendices I and II FAUNA (ANIMALS) Common Name Rhesus Macaque Wolf Blandford’s Fox Brown Bear Asiatic Black Bear Common Otter Cheetah Caracal Jungle Cat Sand Cat Wildcat Lynx Pallas’s Cat Leopard Tiger Leopard Cat Snow Leopard Onager or wild ass Scientific Name Macaca mulatta Canis lupus Vulpes cana Ursus arctos isabellinus Ursus thibetanus Lutra lutra Acinonyx jubatus Caracal caracal Felis chaus Felis margarita Felis silvestris Lynx lynx Otocolobus manul Panthera pardus Panthera tigris Prionailurus bengalensis Uncia uncia Equus onager Appendix II II II I I I I I II II II II II I I II I II Notes Class: MAMMALIA (Mammals) Extirpated in Afghanistan Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Extirpated in Afghanistan O. e. O. Considered Equus hemionus by Duff and Lawson (2004). Subspecies only. probably extirpated in Afghanistan Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Class : AVES (Birds) Dalmatian Pelican Black Stork Eurasian Spoonbill Pelecanus crispus Ciconia nigra Platalea leucorodia I II II for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 111 . khulan occur in Afghanistan.e . poli in Afghanistan The Afghan subspecies (cycloceros) is considered O.

Class : AVES (Birds) (Continued) Lesser Flamingo Greater Flamingo Baikal Teal White-headed Duck Osprey Shikra Northern Goshawk Eurasian Sparrowhawk Cinereous Vulture Golden Eagle Greater Spotted Eagle Steppe Eagle Imperial Eagle White-eyed Buzzard Eurasian Buzzard Rough-legged Hawk Long-legged Buzzard Short-toed Eagle Western Marsh-Harrier Northern Harrier Pallid Harrier Montagu’s Harrier Lammergeier White-rumped Vulture Eurasian Griffon Himalayan Griffon Indian Vulture Pallas’s Fish-Eagle White-tailed Eagle Bonelli’s Eagle Black Kite Egyptian Vulture European Honey-buzzard Amur Falcon Saker Falcon Merlin Laggar Falcon Lesser Kestrel Barbary Falcon Eurasian Hobby Eurasian Kestrel Peregrine Falcon Himalayan Monal Common Crane Demoiselle Crane Phoenicopterus minor Phoenicopterus ruber Anas formosa Oxyura leucocephala Pandion haliaetus Accipiter badius Accipiter gentilis Accipiter nisus Aegypius monachus Aquila chrysaetos Aquila clanga Aquila nipalensis Aquila heliaca Butastur teesa Buteo buteo Buteo lagopus Buteo rufinus Circaetus gallicus Circus aeruginosus Circus cyaneus Circus macrourus Circus pygargus Gypaetus barbatus Gyps bengalensis Gyps fulvus Gyps himalayensis Gyps indicus Haliaeetus leucoryphus Haliaeetus albicilla Hieraaetus fasciatus Milvus lineatus [migrans] Neophron percnopterus Pernis apivorus Falco amurensis Falco cherrug Falco columbarius Falco jugger Falco naumanni Falco pelegrinoides Falco subbuteo Falco tinnunculus Falco peregrinus Lophophorus impejanus Grus grus Grus virgo II II II II II II II II II II II II I II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II I II II II II II II II I II I II II I I II II Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Uncertain for Afghanistan Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Cited as Aquila fasciatus by Dickinson (2003) Cited as Milvus migrans by Dickinson (2003) Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Unconfirmed from Afghanistan Anthropoides virgo in Dickinson (2003) 112 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .

Class : AVES (Birds) (Continued) Siberian Crane Houbara Bustard Great Bustard Little Bustard Alexandrine Parakeet Slaty-headed Parakeet Rose-ringed Parakeet Short-eared Owl Long-eared Owl Little Owl Eurasian Eagle-Owl Collared Owlet Pallid Scops-Owl European Scops-Owl Tawny Owl Scaly-bellied Woodpecker Grus leucogeranus Chlamydotis undulata Otis tarda Tetrax tetrax Psittacula eupatria Psittacula himalayana Psittacula krameri Asio flammeus Asio otus Athene noctua Bubo bubo Glaucidium brodiei Otus brucei Otus scops Strix aluco Picus squamatus flavirostris I I II II II II II II II II II II II II II II Not listed for Afghanistan by CITES. Class : REPTILIA (Reptiles) Afghan Tortoise Iranian Uromastyx Indian Spiny Tail Lizard Bengal Monitor Desert Monitor Elegant Sand Boa Indian Sand Boa Dwarf Sand Boa Tartary Sand Boa Oriental Rat Snake or Whipsnake Central Asian Cobra Testudo horsfieldii Uromastyx asmussi Uromastyx hardwickii Varanus bengalensis Varanus griseus Eryx elegans Eryx johnii Eryx miliaris Eryx tataricus Ptyas mucosus Naja oxiana II II II I I II II II II II II Class : ACTINOPTERYGII (Bony Fishes) Fringebarbel sturgeon Dwarf sturgeon Amu Darya sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanni Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanni II II II FLORA (PLANTS) No Common Name Elephant’s foot No Common Name Southern Marsh Orchid No Common Name No Common Name No Common Name Himalayan yew Sternbergia fischeriana Dioscorea deltoidea Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dactylorhiza majalis majalis Eulophia turkestanica Habenaria josephii Orchis latifolia Taxus wallichiana II II II II II II II II for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 113 .

.Parks..Development.. Kabul:.Soc.Appendix 12 A Subject Bibliography of Afghan Biodiversity Biodiversity-Rich Area Protected Areas 1.and.Band. DP/AFG/74/016. ..der...Study.Preliminary.K.C.National.Estadah.for.dans.... wildlife.National.Nat. for. de...47:.....org/wdbpa/.1977. 11. Flamingo.Ob-i-Istada... National.A.Fading.FO:. wildlife...for. FO:.A..Report.pp. Forests. l’etang.http://sea.UNDP/FAO.J. and.G.of....Banda-Amir. Afghanistan.Y...of. of. Observations.2006]..1977.Conservation.UNDP .Lake.and.Afghanistan.the.and.an. of.A.Reserve.Band-eAmir..Lakes. and. Petocz..to. Puget.. (Pallas). org/sites/pa/1637v.development.FAO.Shank. 12.. and. Nawar.. Dashte...Afghanistan. UNDP FAO.Science.1947.Rome:.308-414. .Report.National. .Available.DP/AFG/74/016. Afghanistan. parks. FAO.. at:..the..DP/AFG/74/016.. W..G.Strategy.Hamuni-Puzak... 2... Qala.[accessed.J.nd..and.http://sea....Tourist.plan. parks......FO:.e.Bartsch.(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)..Database....Rome:.Ab-i..management. Plan..Recommendations.. Rodenburg.and.Department..FAO...(Kabul).of.Report. utilization...in. Faymann. recommendations.Band.(Zentral.FO:.Band. ———...the.Wildlife..pp. Sayer....und..A. 3.FO:.....19-23. e.Die. C..C.Conservation.1970.Management.with.status. Project..preliminary. Shank..S.... and. findings.UNDP/FAO..of. 8..FO:...Range..Larsson.A..Y.T.the.September.1976..proche.Park..area. de..DP/ AFG/72/005. Waterfowl..6:.Ministry.unep-wcmc. l’avifaune.of.htm..Habibi.natural.Available.Times.and.DP/AFG/741016..the.. and.unep-wcmc.Park.. Project.. 4.Ajara.Strategy. Wildlife..flamingo.Plan. ...139-44.a. and.UNEP/WCMC.Amir. for.establishment.WCMC.Amir.. 5.FAO.Petocz.en...R. recommendations..Afghanistan.Protected.banlieue.Kaboul.Region.and.C. 10. Binihesar.. F..splendour. Förstner.la. 7.Valley.von.. A.A.and.Datscht-i-Nawar..Khan.. 1971.T. 9.P . 6...at.page.a..G.Agriculture..1981..Zon.. Akhtar.. Ab-i-Estada 1.22. National. (Chamane.Hashmat.Areas.. and.March.FAO/UNDP ..DP/AFG/74/016.1974.und..30. Ab-i-Estada.UNEP.of.de.place.Larsson.Bamiyan...of.Rome:...Van.. resources:.Field. Sanctuaries.Amir.J..Web. sur. 1978. 114 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .Hist. management:.39:..FAO.A.for..K.U..Kabul....Kabul:.of.page.Preparation.. Hachmatran).Web.World. 13.Technical..on. findings... Contribution..C.breeding. 1980.UNDP .and..1970....J..1978.Band-e.. 2.nd.and..M.. C.Forests. and..Südwestafghanistan).Amir. Rahim.Skogland. nidificatrice.Park. Department.National.A..Shank.1977.Ajar...R.and. Management..e.Valley.Seen..Bombay.32.on.. Habibi..

Foundation.1977. de. vallée.rangelands.Sanctuaries..in.am..the.....1975.Ab-iEstada..Winter....Explore.R..Nawar.J...Shank.reference.T.Management...Birds..to.the.G.Ab-i-Estada.1985.and. Ajar Valley 1.Plan.Ab-i-Estada...the.Unpublished.fw..K..vegetation.. ———..D...The.Museum...N. Flamingo.93.11.C.Sur..Ministry..Agriculture..Environment.. 7.. 3.International..Ab-i-Estada.(Afghanistan).Department.field.23.Afghanistan.A.with..(Afghanistan).G.....des.A..Afghanistan..Reserve.to.Impact..National..of.Kabul:. 5.no..A.S.of.BirdLife.Hayon..Monthly.environment.W..Crane.Report.York.Development.A. La.Development..du.. 4.... 11..F..Acad.and.vanishing. Younos..and..exotic.1978.Bulletin...R..for..Serie.Malikyar.cultural.Province.of.of.Skogland....Ab-iEstada..K.The.and.Ghazni.Valley.Nawar. 10.A..DP/AFG/74/016.FAO..Madison.28-30.the.the. J.1994.of.10.UNDP .Afghanistan..Preparation. (USA).Lake.G.T.IWRB..and.pdf..of.Atlantic.of..Vogelleben.. and.Study.....J...R. végétation.Modaqiq.pp..Kabul..Ab-i-Estada.environment.221-227..UNDP .the.flamingoes..Ab-i-Estada.201-210.and.Y.... in.2000....FAO.al.72-80..Bot..Habibi..to.1975.C...Band.Sustainable..diss..at.... 8..Ghoryani...of.Cornell.Kabul..central).Wisconsin.Mission.winter.Dashte.1974..Ithaca.special..flore.in.in.-..Wildlife.at...of.2000..place. Niethammer.Younos. 1970.for. Nogge..Bull.France.technology. Ajar.J.The.G. Pelt. 9..Habibi..J. C.150-154.1279-82..and.and.and.A.M. 6.G.report.Status.Sauey.and.Natur.from..D.Valley.FO:.Research.1976.......in..Rodenburg...Ab-i-Istada. la. P Marlin.Geography.FO:.Ghazni..Save.status.43. (Afghanistan.100:.Wisconsin.....Paris.status.1968.M. ———.surveys.preparation..Back. 5.....Die.central.Valley... Ph.1971.G.. Jamil.Region.on.the. d’Hadjar.Range..Agriculture.Ab-iEstada.2007. 4.Sc.148:.. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 115 .Khairzad.Forests..Department.. 31:.3. Pelt..Dasht-i-...in...2004. M.University.breeding. the.Wildlife.M.http://fwie.The. Hopkins.to. 13.Conservation. Larsson.T.26:.(SEA). Parks.an.1975.practices.valley..of.Tourist.Und..course. report.12:.of...Vogelwarte...physical. Faymann.. Ahmadi.the.Petocz....Flamingos.and. Hayon. Ch.Afghanistan...edu/afghanistan/Lake%20Ab-i-Estada%20.April:..la.C.vt.Directorate.and....flamingoes..R..DP/AFG/72/005.Afghanistan.bords.Plan.during. Khan..FAO. 6.for.Siberian..(Grus leucogeranus)...297-305.. 2.and. .the. Afghanistan.range..and...Biology...C.....Unpubl.ecology..University..Die.Waterfowl.King. of..267:.et.Nawar.1970....of.Ch...New.no..Feasibility.Province.Soc.Kabul:.of..Afghanistan.. J....23.forgotten.50-58..W.alpine..93.Ab-e-Istada:.and..Crane..Petocz.Bamiyan.Band-i-Amir...lac.and.2002.Dashte.A.identified.Ajar..University... 12...117..The.to.degree.Area.and.Kabul:.am.in.Ministry. Ledgard..of...Amir. e.

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.1:.Uzbekskii..of.winter.68-69...De..2000..Schaller.of..R.Saugetierk. the.The.resources.Mammalia.diet..Pakistan..on. 86.Observations. in...1:.Province. T.T.T.in.1975.1977..Pakistan.J. Tourist.markhor.and.A....R.and.73.the. 79.T..F...on.in..DP/AFG/72/005.FAO..Skogland.Rome.... 76.Afghanistan. Ibex.pp.Pamir.report.1969. 77....G....FAO....eastern..and...in.305-16.L.The..15:..Conservation.. 91..1975.Polo..———.its. 82.C.Commission.rhesus...Skogland.bear.nd. markhor.Ltd.Ecology.203-8.G..Horn.f.report.Distribution.wildlife.in.G.and..Sultanov.utilization..2004..12.C.Skogland.. Zhurnal.raising.in.1971.238-49. 12 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment ..B. on.of.utilization.....Kabul.Shank.136-38. 75.France..animal.the.Rodenburg.trade....G..Wildlife..Societe..Afghanistan. 81.. 87..64.The. 35..J.. Valley..and...Afghanistan.G.collected. (Capra ibex).Marco.no.La... 88.of..macaque.of. report.R. Bamiyan.Puget.Afghanistan.pika.Polo.1971.A. 78.... to.S.C. 80...Petoczm.1:..Yates.Listy. Boundary..in.———..3:.J.of.. 89....and......in.Skogland.E...Mamm.J.2:..Rookmaaker.D..on. Afghanistan.B.On.7.in.furs..1988..of.Some. Afghan..S.no.Pamir.and.Tigerpaper.Bulletin.Povolny.Shank..Zool..Ochotona rufescens rufescens.no. Laghman.Mammalia.. 1976.in...C..1977.no.by.Records.Afghanistan.status.———.Unpublished.The.birds.Capra falconeri.Captain.Marco..fauna.mammals.31.Benn.Sayer...Mountains.... Unpublished. 84.and.Afghanistan..no.exfoliation.W. Organization.of.32.101. the. Kush..the.in.Society..and.interim.C..Pamir.56:.Bengal.Afghanistan.Roberts.1966..Petocz.Zoologique.Biological.(Ovis ammon poli).the.captivity.discovery. Conservation.Macaca mulatta...199-203..Lagomorpha. Ajar..Afghan.habitat. Conservation.2:. Afghan.Soc. of.wild.Asiatic.Pakistan.Marco.Afghanistan.Ecological..of.behavior..J.in.FAO.pp.65-74.Pamir..Capra falconeri.Habibi. survey.J......of.Biologicheskii. De....T....vertebrate.Polo. Hindu. 74...sheep.Marco.G.the. 1972..Z.Sheep. 35......in.the.Afghanistan..A..34:..185-98.C.London:...1977..Status. 83..the.Khan..1887.44-47.the. Report.and.nd.rhinoceros.Ovis ammon poli.in.Polo.G....FAO:..note...Petocz.Ochotona rufescens rufescens.Ernest. sheep...Afghanistan.(Ovis ammon poli)..Scully..Schaller...Wildlife.during.. 90..and. reconnaissance.R.1976..the....the.of.Roberts..no.of...and.Mammalia.FO:..Winter.K.S.Sheep.mammals..Afghanistan:.C.Journal.I..The.25-37..data..T.Selenarctos thibetanus in.Petocz. 85.Afghan.4:.Small..1983. Zoology.

..Conservation.. prey].Ekologiya. v.Nachr.. 4.London:. prey. flying.Materials... ———.. pp.Aslanow..). D...two..khishchnykh.18. Wakhan. tsentralnogo.1956.uk/articles2003/feb/feb1503g......E.1946...in.(in.Nat.Soc.flamingo.A.Kashmir.. and.4-20..D.the.1st.M.of.308-414..Meeting.Zimmermann..Bird.British.brunt..v.habitat.of..UK:.Mount.&.on. landscapes..1932.htm.collections.WRB.Society...the.. Annandale.war..2003.Usbek:..Rec.bear.birds.measures..India.Baker..Mammalia.ptits..Karim.the.Hist.E..Bombay...of. Akhtar...on. and.of.. autumn..Duck.25.1947.K.Moscow:..refuge. [Distribution.IWRB.E..Conservation.Crane. Kyoto..and.of.. Argandeval.Kyoto.M..and.and.21:..vegetation..and.Wetland.Fauna.1998.Notes.and..the...Galushin... the...... for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 12 .The..G..Carter.Delimitation.December.Bombay. Karakoram.no... survey.A....46:...and.. (Pallas).. mountain.. of.place.A.Conservation.Special.by. 2007. 12.page.J... 93. Akhtar.from..van..Asiatic....Afghanistan..no.M....the..Zool.and.Hist. of.Afghanistan]..(eds.Soc.10.IWRB.S.. Raspredelenie. Archibald. to.. Birds 1.of.. 3.from.of.S. Afganistana. 6.No..of. Scientific. chislennost..Ecology..1989.———..of..migration.collected. Aitchison.a.and.the.1955.S. Avifauna...N.2nd.Publication.of. Available.and..vole..London:. and.of.Notes..birds.Mus..the..wildlifenews...drought.the..and.S.Slimbridge..Central. the.Indian.pp.R.the.Russian)..1889..G.ed. species.flamigos..for.U..Kuala. Kyoto...Akad. 5.Francis..The..Taylor.Estadah.Fledermause.85.On.Siberian.Afghanistan.some.diurnal...of.Slimbridge.in.Pr. 7.Indian.for..status.West.).fowling.Eoglaucomys fimbriatus.1993.271-272.zoology.http://www..Wiss.White-headed... Committee.1953..1919. birds. ptits..Oxyura leucocephala.. khishchnykh. gornykh.Taylor. University:....IWRB. conservation.Noshaq.Afghanistan.Wildlife.a..On..92.and. 94.. Survey:...Tokuda.Nauka..M.Soc.of..96-99.birdlife.. i. 14.(in.Saugetierkunde..pp..1922..(Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).Francis.aus.and.Afghan. Anonymous.K.in.breeding.4:... Vessem...Bengal.49-53.Ab-i. M..of.84-89. Expedition.Landfried..a.elevation..H..in.Empire. migration..and..Publ... of.AWB.(ed.on. landshaftakh.of.Babar.the...1-8. number.Hist...l99l:.Birds..of.T..Russian)..nidification.Commission.195-196..47:... Hindukush.Ayé..53-142.. 13..conservation...birds.———.1919.Nat.Indian.C..S. 8... vostochnogo. 2...J. E.squirrel...121-34.Seistan.J..J.588-91.. 9.AWB. i.birds. University.Birds.Seistan.The..and.New.Soc. 11.Eastern..the...wetlands. of..P .Kabul:.Web. priority.. Lumpur.Zahler..5a:.1966.Asia:...Publication.Afghanistan...No.Zietschrift.... Spec..distribution.distribution.545-47. in..62.. for.on.Afghanistan’s.Bombay...[Ecology..J.2:. 10...Japan.Nat.co.. Anstey..Moser.1-4.South.Conservation.. 267-297. R.15:.V.J. 1983.and.Prey:.Great.Yosii.at.and.mouse. Waterfowl.

).2:.the..and.birds.....[accessed. Stray...Nat.list..Cumming. of..Seistan. Afghanistan.B.F.Für.in.Bull.Marbled..J..Candahar.Stray.BirdLife...:.J..F .23..die.Soc.. Province....).(ed.Les.d‘Afghanistan.J.Commission.Groombridge...(E.Inskipp.1903–05.Available...at.of.1978..report.pp.44-64.list..1896“.Afghanistan... Chapman.Afghanistan.Middle. 21.vertebrate..Notes..1905.Bengal:. Unpublished.November.in.9:.of..An.the.Web.über..the.fw...bird.[sic]. countries. to.members.3-5..Conservation.Birds.birdlifemed.Calcutta..February.quelques.Orn....ornithology.Hüe..„Afghan. No. in...on. information..Afghanistan.1967....Rough.seen.of.neighbourhood.Cambridge:. http://fwie..List.Foundation.Green..D.A.Vogeljagd.Checklist..the.[avec..15.93.and.D.Nat..and.Norton...the..du. 23.775-94.1880.594.Zeitschrift..1959.B.Lambert.Notes.K.....2007.Bootan..Boundary.org/Contries/afghanistan/afghanistan.proche.International.1992..Bombay.BirdLife..Burma.Conservation.1970.Seistan...neighbourhood..Orient.Afghanistan.html.Series.nd.Jamil...at. 31.449-60. 32.Afghanistan.bird.Fulton.The.neighbouring.http://www.... 33...R.Web.J.a.of. 28.edu/afghanistan/BirdChecklist.Society.1979.Wildlife.Boubee.Marmaronetta angustirostris.Afghanistan. 17..birds..the.by.notes.of.T.Habib.fw.supplémentaires. Mission.16:. A.2006].Crane.(compiler).travels.1904.International..the.Moyen.Notizen.nidification..the.du...W.shot.Chaman.observed..Middle..1847.T...nd..Paris:....Hutton..T.Habibi....the.oiseaux.Jagdwissenschaft....and.February.W..Chitral. 18.by.on.Hall.of.Living.et.449-60.and.H.birds. Afghanistan.. 4:..Afghanistan.Finn.5.Jour.Hist.of.Blyth.9:.the.of..Earth‘s. 27.edu/afghanistan/Fauna.Feathers.Baluch.recorded..of..Jalalbad...Country..being. 24...Conservation.K.html.E..in..of.Mission.the..95-105.Etchecopar..birds.eastern.Report:.11..Griffith. to...Wakhan....[accessed.on. 20..C.Resources..of.species.Birds.International..page.Available.certain. 25.2.page...East:.vt.of..2007.birds.by.February.Biodiversity:.. 29.1896.the.the.N.in.Buttiker.Status. 26.2006].... Ghazni...Important..in.566-67.. Ab-i-Istada.and.[accessed.IWRB.of. 23.Publication.list..vt...or.Global.Kabul:.areas.I.Habibi.1993..Team..Special.1881.Feathers..1994.Mammal.A.fauna....Soc..par.Birdlife.. 30.Status.page.htm...Hist..collected.H.oiseaux.April.species.W.Arbitration. 12 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .N.2006].10.C.and.The.Chaman..no..Seistan.Survey..south.. 107..south.and.the..of.Bombay.2008.Inskipp.. at.and. 1994. 16....Teal..F.BirdLife..Filby.Soc..Grimmett. Asiat.L.———. 19.686-99.Evans....observed.pp.Journals.Assam.the..Web.East. 22..its..les. http://fwie. the.London:.Barnes..of.annotated.. 23....in..neighbourhood..sur.93.R.of..Available.Afghanistan.M.of..

Afghanistans.Bird.. 54.Koelz... Evans.birds.. J.Die..Storche.Ab-i-Estada.F . J..308-309...... 44..Field.Madge.IWRB.W.Vogelwarte. 48....Probst.Scrub.Afghan.1972.S.347...Afghanistan. L.Ibis.76-80.Niethammer.the.von.Afghanistan.Iran. J.78-84.174-76.———..1.. 39.. 36..Kowatsch..On.der. .the. 1967.Neuachweise. Afghanistan.1970...1954.(Afghanistan).1967.. Kabul..1972.34.501-7.and...India..no. 2005..birds.Vogelwarte.birds.. an...birds.Afghanistan..Walmsley.1978.report.Koning.Die... Gewassern. Afghanistan..(Phoenicopterus ruber).1-32.C.26:.Some.67-75..33:.no..Unpublished. in.Kabul.1973.raptors. Zoologische.. F. IWRB...2-5.108:. Beitrage:..62-64.Afghanistan.19:. to.1967. the..am.42-44.position..J...———.biology.. Summary.Orn.2004...Dasht-i-Nawar..Available...Vogelleben...Die.Zug..———.M..from.Niethammer....119-64...———.in. Bulletin:..117-18.480-520..Counts.from..notes..New..Montifringilla theresae.Walmsley.com/birding/meafghanistan(AnssiTripReport)... 49. 38. J...———..Kullberg..J.the.2006.Kirwan.Provisional. 35.1971.Afghan..Notes..105-11..title. 47.and.G....J.page.. Hochgebirgs-.and..R.Passer (moabiticus) yatii.and.Birds..http:// www.Winter..J.Id:.S.Ornithological..die. 51.Middle.Niethammer.am.notes.in..2006].N..14.of...Vogelwelt.IWRB.. stehenden.Amir...Uber. in... 53. Niethammer.C....Afghanistan.Some....Afghanistan.Soc.Afghanistan....and..Madge.bei. and.of. in.through.Flamingos..East. Mission.. Vogelbeachtungen.autumn..G. 45... bei....in.Waterfowl.IWRB.Bull.in..Afghanistan..cited...Sparrow.C. 1967.. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 12 .Museum.N..Unpublished.Koning.C.Klockenhoff.Report:.in.(1994)..central.Meinertzhagen..on.. 1971...1:... Dijksen.1966.. 42..Bulletin. and. Afghanistan... Jahre.Die..of..and...of..Madel.1939..Bande.———.J.of.migration.other...1967. 37..100:. Zwei.l973.Web.1970..A.and...G... 41.2:. 55.39-41..birds.Part.Orn.to.[accessed.32:.20:.breeding.1938.report.checklist.Der.1971.February.of.Natur.Flamingos.camacdonald..P .1970.... 50.G..Murphy.Mission..on.2002...IWRB.Afghanistan.northern..Afghanistan. February.Madge..On.Und.für.Notes.the.Pass..nd...on.Bulletin.Afghanistan. G. 43..S.The.of..201-10.the.Studies.H. 40.Salang.Ibis:... of. ..R.Koning.G...birds.35:..F.Ab-i-Estada. and.the. 52.1..Redman.Vogelwarte.Afghanistan.htm..February.1978.Kranichen. Vogelzug.taxonomic.at. 46. Pakistan.221-27.

.A...Ithaca.DP/AFG/74/016..Birds..Report.Dissertation.Dashte.2007.FAO... de.R..R.86-87.1973.range..place..1971..Department. Bulletin..and.status. with. l‘avifaune. 64.ecology.National.175-77..1970.W.aos-uk..France.28-30.Kaboul.on. Ph.(Grus leucogeranus).. La..of.1978.the.1949.Beitr.R.Nawar.1:...Redman.bird.the.A..Bonn.Ornithologische...à.. of..the.Report..Hüe..Nawar.Conservation.R.Afghanistan.1.FO:.Dasht-i-.-Pakistan-..56.Afghanistan..Petocz.. 75.Status.G.of.Habibi.Toulouse:.Afghanistan.en. Petocz.On. reconnaissance.in..L’Oiseau.flamingoes.Petocz.Savage.9.of.FAO. Parks...of..Ornithologie.Bull..Chevechette..2006.-.nature..K.K.Field.221-322.Vidensk.of.Orn..115:. Hachmatran).identified..and.G.FO:..Society.York. 66.Middle.l’étude...de..G... 61. 68... J.dissertation....in.August..Band-i-Amir..et.R.DP/AFG/72/005.Preliminary..on.Wetlands....IWRB. 62. 69.F .306-309.com.Farushi).293-333.F..T. 59. for.La..No.Hashmat.banlieue.. G...(Ka...India-. Observations.———.Recommendations. l‘etang....Contribution.Kabul.1978. 67.of.im.Pamir. 70.The...Larsson. sur. Larsson..Afghanistan..2006.la.Wildlife...proche....———..Soc.Afghanistan.5. 58.The.Document.....surveys.Glaucidium brodei.24:.and.and.R.1975.1981.Habibi.den..D’Om....S.G.Province.A.142-51.in.Carp.Sauey..a.birds.Field..Afghanistan..breeding.Part.Report..Wetlands.Zool.of...des..Flamingobrutplatzen. Y.. (Chamane.27.Agriculture....DP/AFG/74/016..l’Afghanistan.31:.139-144.the.1974. and.Skogland.Untitled.dans.Psittacidae...R...Lake.7:..vanishing.and.. Binihesar..in.. 57.1970...de...l’Avifauna....page.afghanischen.Afghan..FAO...Study.. 63. 1977....flamingoes.For..Naturh.of. recommendations. Ostrowski.254-69.of..in.1985.Rodenburg...———.Puget.of.Iran:..Slimbridge...Alauda. 73..Khan.. E.A..W... 1971...Ab-i-Estada.field.Rev.Nogge.J.A.International..Puget.Available.International..Cornell.. R..and.and.for.Unpublished..No..(ed.Ab-e-Istada:.de.Ghazni.UNDP ..Ministry.FO:.Rahim... 60..1974.birds..Franç.East.Dansk.of.40:..New.K.C..1975. 65.Paludan.Report...en.Pamir.des.1977.G. 74.and.Forests.FAO.management.FAO.———. western.and.. Ceylon.(Burton).market.Ab-iEstada....Petocz.N....Observations.the.).K.Petocz.Medd.Conservation...Afghanistans..Waterfowl.at.the...Sargeant..du...and.D.1969..of.of.reconnaissance. Afghanistan..2-4.Wildlife.1972. nidificatrice..Birds.J.Habibi..visit.an...Management..Reeb..The.. 130 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment . Ecological.45:.Ecological.Importance.Kabul.Migrations..at.University.Beobachtungen..winter..to..during.University:.and.Afghanistan.Ramsar.Beobachtungen.D. of.Directorate..A..oiseaux.Contribution...l’Etude..on.Y.of.FO:.Hamun-i-Puzak.DP/ AFG/74/016. 71..www.IWRB..Crane..Web.Rome. Nuristan.1976.The.nord-est..central.and...Siberian.Afghanistan.. 72. Qala.Conference. de..1975.with..en.

Birds.com/trip_report. report.259-80. November..O..and.the. UNDP FAO.Wakhan.John.Checklist..of.Baluchistan.Thiollay..to.of.of.National..Basin:..Zon.Procedure.———.birds.Wildlife. Ab-i-Estada.Alauda..Afghan..C. 78.surfbirds..v..UNEP ... Parks.D.P .Gland..1949.Van..1926.Alauda..National..Iran:.Report.British.B.ornithologiques.on..2008.J.DP/AFG/74/016..information.Précisions.nouvelles.Hist..India..eastern.Scott. Kabul. 91....1992.Afghanistan.19.C..Sayer.The..Bureau.A.C.G.the.counts.in...birds.31:. 89...Contribution.226-35. Management.Ticehurst..of...southern..S..Tehran.January.and. .Monitoring...Ramsar.. Afghanistan:..on. W.1975.1968.Seistan.Afghanistan.C..R..Captain.M.of.Y.collected... and.Seistan.FAO...seen... 88. and..2003.counts..1968... Rodenburg. Birding.J. and.76. 83.Strategy.Nat.Afghanistan.1887.. .Seistan.the.Conservation.(ed. 92. of.DP/AFG/741016..Band-eAmir. Dashte..mammals..birds.Technical.On.. 81.Some. Forests..the.69-70.S..1977. C.World.The.Appendix.South.On.the.southern. Oenanthe. Web. Available.Sultanov.the..of.Ayé... Nawar...1425.the..Soc..little....situation.Basin.Meeting.Schweizer.Ministry.H...Proc.Tong...FAO.A.Conservation..Ibis:.1978..Biologicheskii..Ibis:. museum.C. Report.. C.statut...D.of.http://www.St..by.63-97.. Zhurnal...Afghan.).Caspian..687-711..M...FO:.in.Waterfowl....Unpublished..C.bird..1882.novitates...en.Afghanistan..Notes.rapaces.62:..2006.data...A.wildfowl.Vasiç.1889. 2007-April.I.of..Environment.. 87... 82.Smart.wetlands..fauna.Waterbird.Scheltema.and..E.Islamic...the..Convention.php?id=1316..Afghanistan.Afghanistan. page..I.. G..de.Geneva:.98-100.Agriculture..birds.Convention.in...at..Sanctuaries.Elliott.for.Babbler:... 86.Vaurie... for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 131 .Shank.Mission..Report:...V.Scully.and...Technical...Swinhoe.and.F.and.FO:.C...Kelat.95-126.paper..of..A.palearctic...Wetlands. Range. Plan.. Scott.le.known.Afghanistan..E.in...Bombay. 80..Switzerland.additional.of..on.Report..UNEP .1981.and..———.genus.FAO. 94. 93...Persia.Shank...J..Mid-winter. 32:.. Conservation:. 95. Boundary.of..M..vertebrate.certains.J.68-69.J.western.M. 1977.. F..4:.and.Fars.145-80..the.42:.on..wetland.Hindu-Kush.1974..American.the..Afghanistan.Uzbekskii.A.A.waterfowl..on... Iran..and.Ramsar... 2008. Kandahar.. .birds.Afghanistan.and..establishment.Commission.Smith. 2008.Ardea..the.of.Strategy.J.B.in.2:.Afghanistan..of.1988. 85.Some..Afghanistan. trip.Internal.birds.der.The..Department.Larsson..the. and.a.species.the.no.Republic..Burri.Park..Wetlands.Afghanistan:.444-47.1976. .en.on...R.sur.and...a. 77. .Observations. 90..119-22..and.the...Yates.862-81..1970-75..1974. Flamingo.F. for. 79.in.46:.development. 84.C. Department.of.Wetland...

G.Leviton.of.Ibis...Maynard..1998..des..Bonner..of.Systematic.acridids..Afghanistan.550-66.23.. occidentale... 2..C..Boundary.by.2:.. J.1944.Herpetofauna.33:..F..from.1885.90-134..C... I.1967.96.Ser.A..1969.E..introduction.the.Russ.1969...of..herpetological... collected...1983.Afghanistan.and....Region...Occasional.collected.. Donnees.Pamir.Dattagupta.(according.. 132 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .Afghanistan.1879..Ornithological.244-46.distribution..Das.Ser.2:..Aquar..Zahler..J.Die..the.. . 42.Bombay. 1991.3:.Proc.Calif.Boundary.of.I...With.Biology.279-316. and... 8..Afghanistan.members..Sci..... Casimir. Afghanistans...Bulletin...in. 3.Bull.A...Provinz. Anderson...N.Brit.... hochland. 100.....Calif..7:.Some.ornithology...A.Afghanistan. Bobrov.Badghis.for.and. Chandra..H... 6. Alcock.Alcock.Afghanistan..274-300.Hist.birds.Prot.und..parte).Whistler...Gayen. W.Terrar.. Bohme.Band-e-Amir.Asiatic.lizard. Eremias (Eremias) afghanistanica sp.37.45:.Central.Viellard....Afghanistan.(Sauria:..C.Sciences.153-55.1880.6:..R.seen.2005..Herpetol. of. Reptiles 1.5:.Z.. Ein.and.for.. 4.Report.India.A..E.S.J.576-89..an...Afghanistan..25-65.. Wüstenrenner. sur.B.S.the.Birds..and..lizards. Asie..report.. 97..a. N...V.. 9.F.S.Clark...no..36:.....by.the..61-72..1898.45-71.status.reptiles.of.at.....J....and..R.the.from.Material.Finn.(Reptilia:.Unpublished.by.. McMahon.280-302...Terrar..the.new..Papers.Herpetol. ———.Zur..collection..E.on.J.1970.species.———.of.. dem.Margrath.Beitrage.214-84...no.„1897“. 103. Clark. 1969. 65:.4..Herpetofauna...Soc. aus.no.A.1909.no... ———. Major..Faunistic.and..Beng.J.444-49.Nat.no..Academy..E.der.Reptilia.Kohat....Zur.Leviton...106-122. of.4:.1867.reptiles....Street..Die..London.and.the...Expedition..Ornithological..Afghanistan....of.Wardlaw-Ramsay.505-19.137-41.Kurram. Plant..no.4.(September.Ibis:.Soc.collected. and.Afghanistan.A.(Reptilia:. Scerbak...C.Alauda..On...of.Afghan. Afghanistan..Aquar.1888.Lacertidae). l‘avifauna..Eremias..Dr...Lacertidae).or. 102..of..H.D.from.———.vicinity..Zoologische.Yate..of.and..Commission.A. no..4..Clark.in.(NW-Afghanistan).Whitehead.the.notes.P ... N. de.C.462-485.Commission.1990.Baluch...4.20-42.Proc..the.by.......Scincidae)..observations.Independence... (primiere..24...the.on.to.predators..37:. to.2.n.2002). 7..Captain...32.I..the.Acad. 5..Amphibians.California.64...An.Z..Charon.northern.Iran.A.Northern.Sci.1945..Sauria)).amphibians.. 104..V.5..from....Southwestern..Asian.3-4:.(Reptilia.Acad.620-23.H.2002.of.Materials..Ibis.Sauria:.Anderson.H.Afghanistan..Soc.notes.:. 99.Bull..no.R..150-54.. biogeographiques. 11. 12.account. neuer..no.Afghanistans.33.. 101.ornithology..1971....of.report.H...of.M.

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The.The..Afghanistan.E. 9..Notes.. .Hall.the.Batrachuperus.the.R.Sisoridae)... 11. 12...East. Kral.Journal...small...altitude.Afghanistan.. 17.the.and. key.Series).B.Aquar.the.salamander.......collection.Leviton.the.21-25.amphibians.Sciences..from.S.Spol.5:.data.11.Afghanistan.reptiles.Zool...the.Global.collected...of..Report.Zool.mustersi.of.Society.Scientific.M.and.Afghanistan.Acad.1:.4..150-54.a..Adler.Report. Habibi. Sp.(Acta.Iran...18:...Sparreboom.Study. Fish 1.Eieren.reptiles. Biology.Afghanistans. 5.of.of.the.Minton.———. 8.pp..Status..and.Herpetofauna.accessed.of.Z..reptiles.of.1940.amphibians..amphibians... 15..279-316.of.Third.269-76..1898..A.collection..amphibians..vertebrate.. Groombridge..and...Afghanistan:.1988..Hensel.....1970..Biologicheskii.Commission.Afghanistan.on.23... Calcutta:.J.Afghanistan.Living.of.E.contribution.B.page.a. and..to....htm.M.Kush.(Kabul). J..1970.fw.. Chapman.nd.1970.252.....K..Herpetol..Ser..Reilly.(ed..(4th. 6.the.Proc.1961.1969..). Expedition.a..C.certain.n..und...London:.Iss. 134 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .herpetofauna..K..Afghanistan..Sultanov.http://fwie.amphibian.A...A.Boundary.C.fauna.Mertens..Mag...1979..A..to.and.E.of..fishes.description.of.to. Academy..pp...of... 10...from.Wasmann.. 382-84.Terrar.reptiles.Reptiles.23:...remarks.of...Salamander.Zur.1965.Clark.C...Earth‘s.results..1992...2006.Afghanustan:....from.Afghanistan.the.Nakamura.February....19:.Contributions.eastern.Some.K. of.5:.K.des.37.DATZ. 19.Ueno.checklist.Hindu.. ———..the.Lacerta.S.S.vt.Superintendent.K.pp.the.45.S. Alcock..Anderson.5... Balon..no..and..high.Kyoto..55.Resources.A.herpetology..Batrachuperus mustersi....provinces.346-48.A.Anderson...and..no.USA.1966.herpetology.(Pisces.1983...edu/afghanistan/Fauna..1969.. 18.aus...sp.and.4.Anderson....history.herpetofauna.on.University.no.Afghanistan.1963...Kush.1992...California.1960...Karakorum-Hindu. 13..Pamir.and..Handbook..on.594.M. Zhurnal.Office. Leviton.Calif. 16.A...Pamir. 2.of.S.Glyptothorax jalalensis.of.Soc..no...of..:.to.S. 7.Hist.31:...Cs......and..on.17.Nawabi..vertebrate.with.Die.E.Leviton.D.S.1970.on.on.. at.of.R....W.Batrachuperus mustersi.the...Science.Afghanistan. and.159-63.Listy..University..from... 14..Nat.rare.Expedition. 34:.Printing. Clark.the.Sci..Government.Amphibians.36:.Ann.1-9.of......Bohemoslov).Vestnik..Middle.of.by.Available.Proceedings.Notes.van.———.the..Further...biology..natural...Kyoto.Smith...for.Web.The...fauna.Aug.329-39.E.Zool.Biodiversity:.G.Batrachuperus mustersi..S.4:.of..163-206.The.44-47.Uzbekskii.anurans...Results.

upon..Actinopterygii)..new.In:.Regan. 18.Hist. Trans.Hamburg.. W.by..Soc.high.Afghanistan.Europaea.———.the.Proc.to. 5.17:.....Lond....1914...manuscript..Lord.L.S.Yarkand.Mitt.a...1861.Nat.collections...Cypriniden.Mission.J.On..the.14..Oviedo.drawings.Senckenbergiana.Lieut.Afghanistan.. Day..Commission...Fishes..72:..Afghanistan.... Banarescu.Esq.Expedition.24:.R.vt..and..Cobitidae.1929.The.aus. Service.Glyptosternum reticulatum McClelland.1889.of. Fish. 17..the.... Banarescu.and.Naturh...S.the.Zwei.of.in.Government.Asiatic.Bengal. Schizocypris.of.the.http://fwie.systematic. J.Hamburg.the.(Pisces).. 16..III.......the..the.63-83. 6.and.Vidensk.Bengal.Society.K. and.from. Keyzer-de. and.Iran.of..Sir.Congress.of..of.Dansk.drawings.825....P .a.February.edu/afghanistan/Fauna.. the..T.vertebrate.Griffith...Nalbant.n..from.of.24:.the. 19..Danish.results.2.Afghanistan..Second.On.55-58..T..travels.Ges.Neue. 8. National..1842.Exotic.106-9.J.. B.481-84.Dr.8..Calcutta...imperfectly. the.. 2005.Mus.Societas.two.the..Publications. Indian.560-89.and..Afghanistan.Z. 34.———.Soc.. Banarescu. Ville.. 7.annotated.Proc...Habibi.Supreme.the.Medd..Kjøbenhavn.Asia.. at..southwest.10:.Keyserling.of..Zoological.. 9.of..from.35:..aus...P ..West.Col.loach.Nalbant..S.1841).Available.1835.On.Cobitidae)..1927.265-69. validity....Karaman.of. (1805.F.collected.F .W.T..(Cyprinidae:..176-79.transplanted.Cypriniformes).fishes.. 14.his..new.no. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 135 .Museum.Zool.position....66:...35-42..Lond...Ser. species.L.. On.Mag.collection.. 4.Oct.htm.A.Ichthology.Mirza.Süsswasserfische.Asiatic.1966..E..-.1975.habitat.in.of.India.(Pisces.. the. N..an.Bengal.Soc.Government. in.among..Biologica.5:.1876.the.the.fishes..Inst. ———..Zool.fauna.Asia..Noemacheilus lindbergi. Nat..and.fw.Linn. 12.[accessed.3.Superintendent. of.E.central..loaches.Cobitidae. 11.1981.Middle.1842..117-25..Ottawa:.. 15.2006].from..———.....East:...of.description.26...and.belonging.and.Central. Coad.Stoliczka..Zool....from.the...und...of.1996.fishes.Burnes.Zoology..Sep-2.neue..Yarkand.241-48..The.Ann.Hora.Foren. of...M.page.Ph..Madras.Scientific.species.781-807.———.1969....(SEI).T.family.of...1994. 10.Asiatic. genus.149-86.B...Günther.fishes.B.1-24.Asia. Ichthyologorum..The. Coad.Afghanistan.orders.from..in.1878..D.1965. 13. J.Office.Cyprinoidei.On.of.A.William.of.with.Iran.fresh-water.Pakistan.Mus..library..notes.Rec..Mitt.sp..altitudes.Medical..late.known...Hist.under..Naturw......Afghanistan.Afghan.10.and..a....results.:.to.(Spain).of.in.(Pisces..Calcutta. Mus..nd.3rd.M...fish.Cobitidae.J.On.to.P ..No.Soc..collection.of.Persien.Inst..Afghanistan.Web..drawings....Zoology..Ferdinand. 129:.Pakistan.pp.zoology.2:..Delimitation. Printing.fish..in.the.McClelland.1922...zoological.Aitchison.24:...46:.the.check-list.Fishes..the.. of.during.Canada....by. snow-trout.Proc.in..Alexander..from.P . .siluroid.1932...based.

parasites. 26.M.To.. analysis..and.Afghanistan.Asia.1986.of..a.———..65:..Management.loaches.knowledge..Rafique..Mirza.KushPamir-Karakoram-Himalayas):.paper. and.No.J. 28.Biologicheskii. 1969.G...basin.Resources.new.from.A..Misc.32..Terek.and.description.. the...B.(Nepal)..1-12..5441(AFG):.system... Poverty. a..[in..list.M.1998..Zoology.Sci.its.Occas. 27.16.helminth.. helminth.fish.(Turkmenia). Trans-Himalayan..Zool.org/ documents/show_cdr.. 22.:.Lakes....of.new. new.1999...on.description.2004.H.the.Kabul:.Monogenea.The.T...J..countries..4:..Ved.Some.mountain.J.fisheries.. 1993.1-45. Rotterdam..K...Journal.2001.Voprosy..321-32.Development.K.Available.Jul.of..10-13. A.the.. Amin.F.FAO.freshwater.a.Bagridae).Murgab. 38..of.).Afghanistan.including..htm.adjacent. 31.of. 18..parasites.Pakistan. of..Kathmandu. of...Assessment.Fish.nd...the.fishes.at.4:....Moravec. on.note.fishes.of. of.Cesk.distribution.. M.. the..Fish.Asia.Brne.of.G... 34.Tzentilovich.Bianco..N.Ng. Region.fishes. Monogenea...Cold.331-39. Journal.the.In:.1991..109-25.211-13.. 24. zoogeographical.feasibility.138-48.of.river. 21.of.no.with. A.T.Iran.G.and..Reshetnikov.Coldwater....Pradhan.adjoining. Shakirova.Ichthyogeography.fish.Some..and.. of..A..... Fishes..no.M.Prirodoved.2002.fishes. the. Afghanistan... review.Indus.. Pap.and.Pakistan.with.P ...and..Publ.. 35..and.on...of.no.385:..Biologia.. S.areas.of.water..India..excluding.Fish. fishes.. 23.Moscou. excluding.catfish.Zool.Mirza.the.Balkema..different.status..genus..South.fisheries..Petr.six.Asia.and. ichthyofauna..at..fish. F.Ital.Univ......:.Talwar.from.eastern..Nawaz... 36.fisheries.4:.33.234-59..Zool.asp?url_file=/DOCREP/003/X2614E/x2614e08.R.T.technical.list.in.Nikoilsky.species. Water.Pakistan.Web.data.S..of..Bank.a.1992.fish..no.Menon.T..high.and..TA...conservation. Mus.6:.Russian]. Asia..in.FAO...Asia.No.Zoology..higher. from.Javed..Zootaxa.431....-...in..vertebrate..Wu.of.of...P .India..1999.Brun.Afghanistan. of...of. 13 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .167-71. Cold... 33.in.areas.and.7:.G.subspecies...G.H.India.page.the.Surv..the..fisheries..G.N...Afghanistan. Zhurnal.aquatic.no..management.175:.Sultanov.Rita macracanthus.Uzbekskii.Pap.Pr.1951...of..Fishes.of..Bandi-Amir... Y.Check.Afghanistan..Reduction.(Bratisl.R. 30.farming.of..from..and.Coldwater..riverine.and.———..A.Tech...fisheries.Ustavu.http://www.444-47....Rec.1983..M.arc. 32.altitudes... and.Zool.12:. 29.Akad.. Nat.on.(Teleostei:.105-12.Natural..1988.(Afghanistan). 568:.Acta..“Aorichthys”.Petr...adjacent.Ikhtiologii..of.Pakistan.and.fauna.2:.and.Inland.. Symposium..2000.drainage.water.Afghanistan.99-110...V.Arch.F.20. F.A.....fao.. Central.countries.1-48.(Hindu.Jinghram...in.fishes.A. 25...diversity.regions...fresh.and..2006.fisheries. Some.fauna.Nalbant.1978.(Cobitoidea)..

2.Karakoram.175-78.A. und.waters.Soc. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 13 .D...Bull..Report. Hindu. Daniel. 16.27.de. Folia.from.J.(Mosk).fishes. Fieldiana. M.Zoological.1:...mites.Zemed.the..the. 5.Soc.H. IV.1919.40-47..Hindukush.of.. small.no....Anthicidaecaptures.from.Unv.dragonflies. 10..on..27..liver-fluke...no.of.a.1985. Parasitologica. Expeditions.(Coleoptera). Afghanistan.of. Odonata...Soc.Mollusca. 11.the...Insect.Essai..of.a.on.Afghanistan.l’Afghanistan..123:. V. to.no..4:.(Diptera.of..51-5.337-53.Budejovice)..The.4:.Soc. 9.———..from..M...Hutton.81-93..l’Afghanistan.note......l’Afghanistan.note.1955:.Palearctiques...occurring.M.C.Kush. Bonadona.1:.. Afghanistan.2:.par.Seistan. Annandale..V...of. 1963.sur.the.367-71.1974...95-101.Med.India.les.Afghanistan.shells.... Afghanistans-Expedition.. nematode.Sk. description.table..for.Daniel..15:.Parazitol..the.Afghanistan.Budejovice). Bengal.... from.967.Zool.slugs.51.32.land.de..Dumont.la.and...of.A.. and.P .of..in..to. Die. [In.larvae. taken..Russian]..C...centrale.in....Afghanistan.Hindu..XI. 3.Siestan.. 8.stage..4:.University..and. Buliminus.Mus..M.du..(Ceske. description..University.russe.some.no.Sb...Hindukush.Danish.for.mammals...Faunes.the..Central.new.1893.shells.4:.1834.Zool.Afghanistan. and. Ancey.. Invertebrates 1. 12.expedition..on..of. 13.monographihique.inland. 1956..Notices..45-50.Mus.52-79..C.no.Brno).Asiatic.J.. the..18.no.15-64..18:. Barus.water.47:..)..3:.A..small.Asiatic.Afghanistan.de.Rec.(Ceske.land.217-24.. Kush..en..table.B.. Pakistan.. 6.(Contribution.24.. and. Three.et. Klapperichs.....in.T.Vol.....sheep.River.Culicidae). species..Jaeckel..1970. of.of..2.4.Odonatologica. Cerny..from.the...et. 15.On...(Acta..Russian]..The.Kyoto...les..and.le. Parasitologica....Fra. Iran.Notes. kandaharensis. mammals. Afghanistan..from. F..4:. interesting.a.(Mosk).. Entomol. ——.Expedition.J.. with.Classification..Fauna.Vijayalakchmanan. 1977.on.the.Kyoto:.329-39. Weichtiere.3rd. 7.Brno.18:.32).faune.(Diptera.l’Asie.(ed...Afghanistan..no.Classification....17-63.1960..F .Forening.including.l’etude.France.Béloutchistan.1977. 14.243-48.Records.16: Deroceras from..Prashad.Mitt.Mosquitoes. Bull.Jul-Aug..note....Culicidae)..N. Miniopterus schreiberei (Chiroptera).of.2:.malacologiques..Kyoto.Indian.Afghanistan.O...1886.Asia.649-61..Med..Revue.1960.Meddelelser..Zool..Results..Ueno. Altena.Indian.Regteren..[In. J. Karakoram..no.Bengal. 1967.Berlin..Baluchistan.Fr..Helmund.Mus...de.1.van. S.. 4...land.53-57.Naturhistorisk.Videnskabelige..37..Dansk. 1953). V.with.of.Agric..Afghanistan...Uys.. by.Formicidae..fresh..———.D’Lindberg.A.353-66.. Japanese.1849.Parazitol...and..sur. to.Scientific.Malacol.51-55.....de.Danilov... S.Anthicidae.1:. Ticks.some.loach.females.no..and. Collingwood..3:.Afghanistan..N.Mosquitoes.1950.. der.France. Tenora.. (Mollusca).Notes.Medsostigmatid.67-72.. Asahina. (Insecta).of.the. in. (1952.1985..Folia.Press..Results.

1950.1811-16.of.der.SüdwDtl.Dr.1-89. March....tripod. 25..Chrysomelidae).Hist.M..J.K....N.107-18...Naturkunde.Moravec.warble. 31...43..1949. Akad..from..Herrn.375:.of.Carabidae...1:. 20.Formicidae).41.Syst..281-54.Igor...and.Web.. 21. Amin... für..277-80.. notes.Rietschel.unknown.4:.of...Amer. new...12..the.(Diptera.auf.and...A.in. of.17.Tenebrionidae.Ergebnisse.Malariologia:.Zootaxa..sites. known.in.to.Afghanistan.. species.the...2005..Nat..no.... einer.Kyoto:. Asioplatysma.members.1979.Vorläufige.Faunas..Pterostichus).Afghanistans.Rietschel.G.12:..Lopatin...Tr.Die.On.htm.Pensoft.no.1963. from.of.(Coleoptera)..fauna...J.Di. Kryzhanovskij..Beetles.349-78...new. of. Lund.G..57-65. Monogenea.Lindberg.Chrysomeliden.62..neuen...Afghanistan.1:.Series.checklist.in.59.Rivista. F.Afghanistan.Penev. on...A.Zool.42:.Sci.fauna.(Coleoptera).an.Afghanistan..Lopatin:.mollusks.Zoology..der..fauna..Nauk.Results. 30. der.. fishes. Afghanistan.nd.of. 28...———..Sand.Afghanistan.Beschreibung.Landessammlungen.Hindukush.Radchenko.1963.of..1-8..fauna.. Afghanistan.Beitr..Afghanistan.beetles..the...Ent..———...of. parasites..Auflistung.Moscow:..Elmes.Annals.Telnov..Brun.2:.from.20-29.E..I.Kyoto.(eds.Afghanistan.the.1972..Bonn.of.....University.....1952-1953.Afghanistan.Konstantinovich..New.Hung.University..of..Generalis.W.2003.Faunistica. 13 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment ..2002. Sofia.3:.1985.L.Bl.birthday..93-97.page.the.S.. one. F.sowie..der. 18.Deutschen.at.. 34.Le.1987.2006]. Some.Papers. no..1952/53..the.Chrysomelidae).L.Y..der...15:.G. helminth. Ent.der.Phil.and.4.Koçak.annotated..of.en....A.Hindukush.ant.Schmidt..K.(Coleoptera).J.Kyoto.and.the.I.37:. previously..Trans.SSSR...Afghanistan-Expedition. 29. 23... the.Solem..(Coleoptera..den.com/entlep/Af...Ö.Portschinskia from. and.of.Desert.159-97.from.und. A.Klapperich.Rev.Mus.Check-List.Fieldiana.Contributions...http://www.der..J. 1999.To.M.Connections.Afghanistan.Afghanistan.4:.Naturk.chrysomelide.D..Myrmica afghanica (Hymenoptera:.(Schweden)..a...(Coleoptera.and... species. subgenus..Anthicidae..Auf.1956.the.Acta.Afghanistan..Tishechkin...fly.Entomologia.from..Series.A. Asia..Forschungsreise.Systematics...Lindberg.Savich..On.1-45. 1978.A..W. Ward.Biology...R.Medvedev..and...Middle. 22.Kaefer..von.Hypodermatidae).Insect.[accessed.Forsch. and.)...genus...Expeditionen.1955. 32.Ueno.Afghanistan... 33..of....II..Kemal.mit.Butterflies...Entomol.370-77.and.larva..Latv. 24..Nat.Scientific.19:399-435.....I..Entomol.Systematics.Soc.K.Ergebnisse.80th..Klapperich..no.Konstantinov.Starobogatov...of.Likharev.Art.Klapperich.Some. 27.Forschungreisen.-Nat.1972.39:.Mosquitoes.Inst..1961.and.1962.Afghanistan--.. Expedition..(Coleoptera..Mollusks.A. 19...Jahren.Karakoram.An.celebrating.Biol...Afghanistan..Iran...Mosquito.Karlsruhe.and.. no.. excluding. Two. 26..of.to.Zool.paludisme.1957-1960.leaf..6-13.M.Medvedev.molluscan.Latv.1967.Available..prehistoric..of...12:.

.....the... 150-155.2:.im.Soc.Biodiversity..1880..(Afghanistan).and...Akram.2.the..of.mountain.Bot.Trans.1-122.Bot.Edinb..Zhurn....17:..Blütenpflanzen..country.Ecological.of..Munjan..Frey.Notes.NE. altitude.vegetation.-..Russian].Pantala flavescens.2.of.J.the.. O.new..Kurram.Nauk.Izv...no.in.Linn...3..districts. Agachanjanc..of.1:.plants.Botany.Soc..and..geographical.1961.Linn.E.and..On.Afghan.and.Soc.35...O.Buprestidae).Fil.2:...(Coleoptera.Trans.of.Sb.. 13. Vol.Amer.York..J..Akad..with.Valley. Asia..Mountain.19:..Göppingen:...Kurram..Breckle. Central.. 8.SSR:.1967...W..global.-.-Sh.1879.......by..(Fabricius).Tadzhikistan..)...valleys.SSR.in.A.......of.Part.Botanical-geographical....Part..geographical...Siberia.1884/85.medicinal. no..19:.[In.1...1-139..113:..flora..1-122.New.the.179-88.Hariab..———.Nauk.Linn.of...J.Journal..J.of. and.49:.Hundukusch..Series.and.18:..1887. commission..the.Series.pp..Zwischen.J.Akad. Aitchison.Spehn.botanical..Afghanistan.Odonatologica..E...Commission..A. [In Russian].1888.. ———.Otd.observations.421-34..plants..of.117-127.[In..A.species.botanical.records.and.in..For.Publ..Asia.1881.The.of Aeshna juncea mongolica...mountain.59.neighbouring.Nauk.Vegetation.Hindu..Sphenoptera.Pharm.on.1881..Afghanistan.Studies.Parthenon.Breckle.1960.Flora.465-68. 10...delimination.the.On.A.Some...Alexeev.Zykov.Linn.C...Pharm.Middle.on. 7: 150-53..E.survey.2.und..Mountains.Some.evolution.assessment:.Commission. Plants 1..Bilog.———.M.migration.and.5:. 17..Est.the....T.... Russian].Soc.1..note..Tadszhik. endemism.dragonfly.3:.of.products. Agakhanjanc.Afghanistan.J.E....of.Linn.of..flora.. Aeshnidae.———... 5.Afghanistan... (eds.E. central Asia and Afghanistan.from...of.features.regions.Bot.(Anisoptera:..[In.1958. SSR.Russian] 2.Russian]...O.Libellulidae).diversity. ———.Afghanistan..25. ———.1887.139-200.Soc. Zoologiceskij Žurnal 71..63-80.2.E. Agachanjanc..Bashgal.and....V..Soc.Botany. in...J.. 7.Körner.the. ———.18:.Caucasus.III....3.Flora.valley.Afghanistan.Izv..Ind.Tadzhik..Origin...The..of.of. 11... 4.1-93.Afghanistan. 15. 12.1880. 9.).Bot.Kush. (ed.Trans...Geogr.high.Tadzhik.... 6.———.1992.———.W..Wojtusiak..Bot.137-42.Group.1995..Otd... and. 3...and.———...———.Afghan.1889....and.Delimitation..of.Soc.W.[In.High.Afghan..botany.summary..Tr..pp.the.-.during..A..1887. S..S. 16..NE.High.flora..Plant.the..Bartenev.their. 36.the. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 13 .47-50.a..S..1974. ———.traversed..the.Obsch.of... 14.Afghanistan...2002...Delimitation...Linn.Botanical.I..Bot.Kurram..1964...

conditions.403-4..S..in. Allgemeines. .1974.Naturelles.der..Heimbach-Verlag.Afghanistan.Waldgrenze.des.Reisigl.Ameisen. International.2004.Vegetation..der..Afghanistan..Mikroklima.. for.———. 22.of. issues.Bulletin.M.Schimper-Foundation:.Afghanistan...88.. Ist.alpinen.in. 32..Band-i-Amir.1972. Studien.and..Evol.. rangelands.Jahrb. 35.Der.Iranica.hügelbauende. the.. Asia. 26..on.Blumenparadiese.Die..La.Society.Zum.N.Bedunah. botanische.Vortrag.(Ost-Afghanistan)...2006.Vegetation. analysis.botanical. 25..East.. ..System.Alam. der.B.ecological..des.Stuttgart-Hohenheim:.A.(Acta.und.Soc.Fangmieier.W.Erde:..alpin-nivalen.alpinen.in. des. Rätsel?.pp..90:.(Kabul).1971.14.of.Hindu. region.18. in.in.ökologische.der...der...13:..89-97.Ökologie.1/2:.no.Syst.Irans.the....... Verhältnisse..Des..(Prag).and. Therophyten.ethnobotanical. 2006.278-84.Notes.Dasht-i-Nawor.und.Cystopteris (Athyriaceae).Schutze.De..(Afghanistan).. management.115-23. 23..area.an.1-18.....pp.Afghanistan. Bedunah.Flora.Halophyten.84..III.of.the.Ges.the..———.Conservation....Stufe.. J....Ökologie.Carter... 267-97.16-21.Annandale..Koh.Innsbruck.Haschisch.Bengal.Khoshi.1971..1..Band-i-Amir.2007.auf.Bot..381-99.und. Kabul/Afghanistan.der.550-61.Dtsch..bibliography.Hindukusch...Plantar..F.des..oberhalb.159-62. 34.. strategies.short.Ber.Bot. of.A.of.(Cataglyphis bicolor Fabricius). for.and.of. 1971. policy. J. Botaniker-Tagung..2:.Ver. 33..Hindukusch?.H.Tagesgang.1987.Jahrb..und. for. 20..... und. 19.Jahrb..the.afghanischen..127.der.of. 30..-Tiere.1982.2003..Breckle. An..no.einem.within.durch.des.Distribution.Breckle. Chemonics... 29..am. (Thymelaeaceae). ökologisches.(ed... Report.Beobachtungen.and.37:.Bot.der.D.... 24.Blumen. Vegetatio.Afghanistan..1967.Hindukusch.Ökophysiologischer.Trockengebiete..1982...Ali.Geobotanica).Stufe.Stufe.Afghanistans.9:.15:.Hanf.the.Notes... vesiculosum.93:. Symposium... osmotische..Drogen.Biol.species..———.H.. and.———.Bank..———.(O-Afghanistan)..1975... von.59-65.———.. Results. 31.25-55. development.no..Wildlife.H.W. ——. Steppe.155:. 27.ecology.A.J. an..Pflanzenreste...).im.Park.2nd.der.no.and..Krascheninnikovia.System.2:.Not...Asiatic....Societe.Beeinflussung.(Graz).Alpenrosen.3:..Messungen......4.30.).Latahbandpass. Afghanistan’s.und.Inc.studies. I.vegetation.Alpenpfl.Beobachtungen.Rangeland..Floristic.. sustainable..2:.worldwide.Ökologische.survey.of.Bot....———.Flora.S.und.W..Gärten.Innsbruck:.nival.Afghanische.Sciences.Stammpflanzen.. ——.Kush.Safed.———..Kabul:.———.. Morphologie. Diarthron.(eds.and.Mikroklimatische.Hindukusch. 140 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .flora....Strahlungstag.Schwiezer.und.1973. 28.afghanischen. 21.———.Science.alpine.der.no...Fossile... D..140-46.in.studies:.E.on.Dasht-i. management.1971.U.National.Seistan..Pinguin.. ein.. (Zentral-Afghanistan).1919.ihre. of..Development... and. Vaudoise...Pl.

W.System.Bot.Zuckergehalte..Botanical.the.109-122....Hauptkette...and......(eds.from..pp.(ed.pp..Change.und. Diarthron......and..N.2006.———.89B:..Roy.Verhältnisse.htm)..93:..Supplement.Deserts.Afghanistan.Afghanische..Boca.bei.and.)...Garden.Royal. Band-i-Amir.———..Hindukusch. Afghanistan.Die...Inaug.halophytes.der.Edinburgh.... A.Stammpflanzen.271-319.Academic.page.Dürre...Hedge...:.Notes.Rathjens.and..of.Kluwer.285-349..S..———..Temperate.Deserts.Frey.. (Zentral. Forschungen.II.Drogen.and..Afghanistans. untersuchungen....W...Pamir.Spehn. I. 50.Proceedings. Gebirge... of.1986.)...Breckle.W.Wucherer... 42.S.2006e.(eds.Quercus baloot. 48.4:.175-80.uni-hamburg.Iran... vesiculosum.W.Salt.Erforschung.and.(http://www.Stand. 49. gebiete... M.and.de/checklists/ asia/afghanistan_l.H.W.1.and... kundliche.Mountain.J.Frey..Böer.Afghanistan. ein.C. 37..C..Vegetation. des.. von.W.of.. Web. 46.T. U.pp..1976.Aberdeen.von. 38.1977..of.1973. Mineralstoffverhältnisse.Kabul/Afghanistan.Afghanistan.Studien. S.ihre.heutigen..I. Barth.J.and..und. Dieterle..(ed.South-West.Elsevier..Breckle. umrahmenden. and..in.Land-use..357-71... 1976..Vegetation...der.&.Land.3:.36.of.)..fungi.zur.biologie.95-100.Hindukush..Afghanistan.. Iranischen..2006...Afghanistan.Botanical.Neue.Iran.lichens.Flora.Graz.Griffith.of.239-251.desertification.. -...Checklists.at..Soc.. im..———. Botanical.Ecology..110-12.Steppe..Life..Univ..———.Available.Afghanistans..E.Afghanistan.W. Iranica.Freitag.of.C.Edinburgh.Temperate.Opladen.Ost-Afghanistans.W.. Ist. 40....CRC..Semideserts:.Osmotische. 51.halophytes. Flora.Gummiharze.Semideserts.Iran....Die. 47.Studies.E..539-61..Vegetation.. Afghanistan). Hochlandes..von..29:. I.I. 1973.Hedge. Vegetations.Afghanistan...des..43-45..Breckle.Breckle.. salt-gradients..of.literature. ökologisches..Afghanistan.im..der...W.the..Edinb.S.Bot.December. Rätsel?...Breckle..Note:..24.along..Press..(Afghanistan).Jahrb..S...Graz..503-21...alpine....Afghanistan.Die. von.Breckle.. W.203-15.Biodiversity:.S.Ecosystems:.1.Kohlenhydrathaushalt.und..West.Therophyten.Vergletscherung.Asafoetida. for Global Environment Management (NCSA) for Afghanistan 141 ..Plant.Garden...86-95..).2002. 44. Flora.in... Kull..on.Asia:..Sabkha. 45...in. problems.(Tajikistan):.Flora.und.1975.J.Amsterdam:.Vegetation.C...Jahresgang..S..1971.W.of..Notes.der. der.of.S..Vegetation.Soc.3:.1971.the..literature.in.Beobachtungen. 41.Version.... Zentralen.Frey.Deserts.Liberman...Royal...1971.Bäumen.Publ.1974.(Graz).Zum.II.Graz. Botanical. 52.Botanical..and.W.natürliche. and.und.Flora. 43.W.Unger.[accessed..im. und.107-116. 39.an.and..Breckle.pp.1981.Beiträge.Diss.lichenicolous..1969.Vegetatiom.Afghanistans..zur.Wirkung.November.Afghanistan.Breckle.Acta..use..Leske/.auf.———..29:.of.. (Thymelaeaceae).22:.Taylor&Francis.160:.Feuerer..Raton:.Edinburgh.pp..Körner.2006].Vegetationsstufen.Zentralen.and.J.and.Geobotanica.Umbelliferen.regions..

.Iran.Bryophyten... 69.vegetation..die.Fedd.to.Ispytatelei..Goeppingen..135-46.Naturhist..V....16:.Die. gesamelten. Studies.Afghanische.———. Bellevalia.).. Asia:.155-75. Byulleten‘..Bot.climate.II.Hindukusch.life.. 1971..B. H...South-West.Freitag.(beitrage. 59.ed.17.1969...77.of.flora.of.. and.the.H.1958.(Biological.204-31.Earth‘s.mosses).. Afghanistans..91.J.Afghanistan.Neue.Amygdalus browiczii.und.Beitrage.Davis.64:.Edinburgh.pp.Groombridge..no. 62..flora. 54.Afghanistan:.Zeischen. 55.....Natur.1974..aus.IV)).von...deserts.V.-.of...den..307-75. flora.Beobachtungen. the.220-24..II.of.Resources....-.Munjan. Vegetation.Afghanistan.. genus..the.in...natural...). und..Biodiversity:.Mitt.of.Bot.zur..Thurr.P .(Contribution.———.the.Flora..Mus. study. (Plumbaginaceae... zue..Leontice silvatica..72:. Flora.. of.und.Iran...Nordost-Afghanistan.6:.Afghanistan:. 58.R.Afghanistan.Afghanistan..Otdel. P Wendelbo..II.no..I..Zentralen..1992.Moosflora.....Zentral-.no.Living.Bot.sand.to.Vegetation..Plant.Wien.of. Goeppingen.the.1986.Royal. II).594.the.1951.———.Und. Proc.Und.. 63.im..aus.Vegetation.Afghanistans.Studies.(ed.Obshchestva..Wirtschaft.und.Tubingen.Edinburgh:..of..no.———.Munjan.Dr..4:. 239-59. Kenntnis. 57..no.in.51-56.i. 56.Lebermoose.Botanic.-.distribution.concerning.des.Garden...und.Soc.Hindukusch. no....Jahren.Staat.A.. from.moss. Zur.. 61.40-56.1972..of.Zwischen.and.from..67:.67-75.-..i..I.. 67.IV.Afghanistans...Prirody...Pavlov.49-68..Kraus.und. the....Afghanistan..Gess.W...59-70.Ost-.Status.Rep.and.———..(Berlin).Bryologist..75.75:.———... Afghanistan.Sciences).68:.Laubmoose.———.Gubanov.of..IV........ afghanischer.Pflanzengesellschaften.2:. in.Zentralen.1967.Afghanistan. 142 An Output of the National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment .Vegatatio.Nova-Hedwigia. the.Vegetation. Leontice silvatica.and.. Chapman. 1970.1969..pp.flora.Moskovskogo.Royal.Bryophyten.and.. in.of...1/4:. The.J.———. (Beitrage.Afghanistan.Afghanistans.Afghanischen. und.-.Bashgal.69:.Afghanistans.II))..A.86.species...III.V.(New.———..An. 60.351-57.-.. Plumbaginaceen.Geschichte..Beitrage.(ed.. Afghanistan.und.A. Afghanistan.-. .. (contribution.zur.B.Israel.Zur. 65...Flora.Beitrage.zur.1971.79-88.materials.Kultur. to. of.Flora..moss.Gilli.92. and.———.und..1972. 224-35..pleurokarpen.Naturhist-Mus-Wien-Ann.1968.des.Hall.———.Afghanistan..Section. 64.... 66.and.N.Jahrbuche.nordwest-Pakistan..Notes.1963.the. 149-58..(Contribution.Gesellschaft.Moosflora... flora...2/3:.1:..Afghanistan:.61:..pleurocarpous..Global.(Contribution.1972..17-46.New.. 68.Bartramiaceae). zur..19...88.1:..flora.1955....Bashgal.1:.W.Afghanistans.125-35.Arten..Bryologist..in..and..vegetation..89-106.89:.to.Die. of. the.Amygdalus browiczii..1983.London:.Frey..Kamelin...Gilli.1949. ..the.470-77. vegetation.Bartramiaceae.Froehlich....flora..Biologicheskii.53..

70..Gubanov,.I..A.,.and.N..I..Libizov,.1970..Medicinal.and.industrial.plants.of.Afghanistan..Rastitel-Resursy,. 6,.no..1:.128-37. 71..Hayon,.J..C.,.G..Kilbertus,.and.J..M..Pelt..1970..Flore.et.vegetation.d‘un.barrage.de.travertins.en. Afghanistan.central.(Ziarat.de.Band-I-Amir).(Flora.and.vegetation.of.a.travertine.barrier.in.central. Afghanistan.(Ziarat.in.Band-I-Amir))..Acad..Sci..Compt..Rend..Ser..D..270,.no..25:.3075-78. 72..Hayon,.J..C.,.J..M..Pelt,.and.C..Younas..1970..Les.formations.vegetales.de.la.moyenne.vallee.du. Kabul.et.des.massifs.montagneux.du.Nuristan.(Afghanistan)..Vegetation.20:.279-360. 73..Hedge,.I..C.,.and.P ..Wendelbo..1972..Studies.in.the.flora.of.Afghanistan..XIII..Various.new.taxa.and. records..Edinb..Roy..Bot..Gard..Notes.31,.no..2:.331-50. 74..Hedge,.I..C.,.and.P ..Wendlebo..1970..Some.remakes.on.endemism.in.Afghanistan...Israel.J..Botany. 19:.401-17.. 75..Henderson,.D..M..1970..Studies.in.the.flora.of.Afghanistan..XII..Uredinales,.2..Edinb..Roy..Bot..Gard.. Notes.30,.no..1:.197-202. 76..Herzog,. T.. 1938.. Bryophyta.. . Botanische. Ergebnisse. der. deutschen. Hindukusch-Expedition. 1935.. Feddes.Repertorium..Beiheft.108:.3-12. 77..Iramshahr,.M..1981..New.species.of.Anthemis.Compositae.from.Iraq.and.Afghanistan..Plant.Systematics. &.Evolution.139,.no..1-2:.159-62. 78..Jacquemin-Roussard,.M.,.and.G..Kilbertus..1971..Quelques.lichens.d‘Afghanistan.ebauche.ecologique.. Bull..Acad..Soc..Lorraines.Sciences.10,.no..2:.59-65. 79..Jarmal,. K.,. and. D.. Podlech.. 1977.. Nachtrage. und. Erganzungen. zur. Brassicaceen-Flora. Afghanistans. (Beitrage.zur.Flora.Afghanistans,.IX).(Additions.and.supplements.to.the.Brassicaceae.flora.from.Afghanistan. (contributions.to.the.flora.from.Afghanistan,.IX)..Mitt-Bot-Staatssamml-Munch.13:.545-77. 80..Khan,.M..I..R.,.and.A..R..Beg..1968..A.phytogeographical.excursion.in.Afghanistan..Paksitan.J..Forestry,. July:.287-300.. 81..Khaurin,.H..H..1996..Survey.and.identification.of.fodder.trees.and.bushes.in.Afghanistan...AFG/93/004..FAO. 82.. Kitamura,. S.. 1960.. Flora. of. Afghanistan.. Results. of. the. Kyoto. University. scientific. expedition. to. the. Karakorum.and.Hindu.Kush,.1955..486.pp..Kyoto.Univ.,.Japan:.Committee.Kyoto.Univ..Scien..Exped.. Karakoram.&.Hindukush.. 83..———..1964..Plants.of.West.Pakistan.and.Afghanistan....Kyoto.Univ,.Japan:.Committee.Kyoto.Univ.. Scien..Exped..Karakoram.&.Hindukush.. 84.. Knapp,. H.. D.. 1987.. On. the. distribution. of. the. genus Cousinia:. Compositae.. Plant. Systematics. &. Evolution.155,.no..1-4:.15-26. 85..Kull,.U.,.and.S..W..Breckle..1975..Fettsäuren.in.einigen.Therophyten.der.Steppe.von.Kabul/Afghanistan.. Z..Pflanzenphysiol..75:.332-38. 86..———..1972..Osmotische.Verhältnisse.und.Zuckergehalte.im.Jahresgang.bei.Bäumen.Ost-Afghanistans. -.II..Cercis griffithii.und.Pistacia cabulica..Flora.161:.586-603.

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unep.Further information Further technical information may be obtained from the UNEP Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch website: http://postconflict.ch/ .

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