Institute of Engineering PULCHOWK CAMPUS

Tribhuwan University

A Report on GNSS

(Under Avionics Communication)

August

2012

Hari Prasad Bhattarai Nishant Shakya Prajwal Khatiwada Janardan Rimal

Group Members:

(065/BEX/414) (065/BEX/422) (065/BEX/425) (065/BEX/449)

Department of Electronics & Computer Engineering IOE,Pulchowk Campus

Submitted to: Mr. Sanjeeb Singh Kathayat Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering IOE, Pulchowk Campus

CONTENTS
HISTORY ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Basic principles of GNSS ............................................................................................................................................... 5 GNSS ELEMENTS ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Sources of Vulnerability ............................................................................................................................................. 15 Evaluating GNSS vulnerabilities ............................................................................................................................ 17 Reducing the Likelihood of Unintentional Interference .......................................................................... 18 Mitigating the Effects of GNSS Outages............................................................................................................... 18 Summary ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21

Shortly after. Today. A high-end geodetic quality GNSS receiver costs around 20. one would still have to spend 5.HISTORY Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) were initially developed in the early seven. 2 . but it may be a drawback in developing countries or for tasks where the surveyor needs a lot of receivers for specialized tasks such as monitoring. More satellites would be needed if continuous global coverage was expected.000 €. The first commercial GPS receivers were on the market in 1982.ties to improve global positioning and navigation from space. Moreover. geodetic quality receivers.000 €. Some of the latest receiver models can also track Galileo signals. At the same time costs of new receivers continue to decrease. modern receivers are much more sophisticated and can track GPS and GLONASS satellites simultaneously on more than 50 channels. The satellites to track had to be selected manually on the receiver. research institutions and universities spent up to 250. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was the first system to launch an operational prototype satellite in February of 1978. national geodetic agencies. the number of GPS satellites in orbit increased to four but this was the absolute minimum to obtain a “fix”.000 € for a single receiver. If a user is restricted to single-frequency.000 € to 12. In general this does not pose a problem in developed countries. Everything from satellite tracking to coordinate determination are computed automatically in real time. The receivers were large and bulky and could only track four satellites simultaneously. GNSS constellations are constantly being expanded and upgraded but many of the initial designs and integrated systems on the original satellite are still found on newer satellites in the current GPS constellation.

they are available for use by the international private and commercial communities. The GNSS-1 is essentially an overlay for the existing systems and still relies on them.INTRODUCTION A satellite navigation or SAT NAV system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude. Although both (GPS &GNSS)are national military systems. 3 . and altitude) to within a few meters using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a Global NavigationSatelliteSystem or GNSS. In Europe and other areas. Plans for the system are divided into two phases. GNSS-2. Receivers calculate the precise time as well as position. The meaning of GNSS is the technical interoperability and compatibility between various satellite navigation systems such as modernized GPS(US). concern was voiced about dependence on a foreign military system and plans for a civilian global navigation satellite system (GNSS) were put in place. The second phase. which can be used as a reference for scientific experiments. will be completely autonomous with a separate space segment. Galileo(European but under construction scheduled to complete by 2020). latitude. reconstructed GLONASS(Formerly USSR now Russia) to be used by civilian users without considering the nationalities of each system in order to promote the safety and convenience of life.

the GPS is unable to measure low velocity. because the users will become independent from foreign military systems. At the moment. 1999) to measure and compensate vehicle movements caused byto measure and compensate vehicle movements caused by rough terrain and slopes. Another task for satellite navigation in the future will be the measurement of true ground speed of agricultural vehicles. In the meantime. 1994). Such accuracy is needed for autonomous guidance (Bell. it is not acceptable to base the navigation applications for industry. The measurement of the attitude of a vehicle with accuracy of up to 0. 5 Hz).1° is possible with multiple antenna arrangements. agriculture or the private sector on systems that can be degraded 4 . radar and wheel sensors are used to measure speed. supported by DGPS. it seems that the implementation of modern navigation equipment will increase in the future. In the long term. some manufacturers offer realtime kinematic receivers with an accuracy of 1 cm (horizontal) and 3 cm (vertical) with an update rate of 1 Hz. DGPS applications with accuracy of some metres are used for precision farming. were conducted and names like ‘‘precision farming’’were coined. or 2 cm and 5 cm (rate. High-level accuracy of several centimetres is necessary for machine guidance applications. First experiments with automatic position detection for agriculturalvehicles. A system for machine guidance will fulfill the accuracy requirements for precision farming but not vice versa.Auernhammer.Satellite navigation technology became of interest for agricultural applications in recent years. The development of a new satellite-based navigation system has started and will have a great impact on the agricultural sector. Taking into account the anticipated satellite navigation technology developments for the near future. for this reason. Many publications exist on the topic of satellite navigation in agriculture (for example.

The distance to the satellite can be calculated by multiplying the travel time by the speed of light (approximately 300 000 km:s). The exact location of the satellite in space is a prerequisite for this procedure. Additionally. highly precise clocks are used. information on the satellite clocks is transmitted. The satellites are observed and controlled by ground stations. Because a radio signal travels with the speed of light. The satellites contain atomic clocks. which have the 5 . BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GNSS The main principle behind a satellite navigation system is the creation of a trilateration from any point on the earth’s surface to the satellites in view.or switched off without warning. This is possible because the orbits are very stable and predictable. In principle. These are the so-called ‘‘ephemeris data’’ (orbit of one satellite) and ‘‘almanac data’’ (relation between all of the satellites). three satellites must be available to determine a three-dimensional position. and the receivers advanced quartz clocks. The distance to the satellites is measured by the time the radio signal needs to reach the receiver. This is one of the main reasons for building a civilianoperated satellite navigation system. which put the spatial information into the signal. All points.

a 24-h global average. ephemeris errors. Another satellite is needed for integrity monitoring (quality control and identification of satellite malfunction). This technique allows the use of inexpensive clocks in user equipment. GPS: artificial deterioration of clock and ephemeris data for civil users by the US Department of Defence (SA).same distance to one satellite. One point can be disregarded. The probability of receiving four or more GPS satellites with good geometry. because its position is located too far from the earth. The main influences on accuracy are:        the geometric position of the satellites (PDOP). tropospheric and ionospheric conditions. A fourth signal is necessary to eliminate the time difference between the satellite’s atomic clocks and the receivers’ quartz clocks. This is. four satellites are necessary to determine a three-dimensional position. Three spherical surfaces intersect in two points.One more additional satellite is needed to identify the deficient satellite. and not a guarantee for the availability at a special place and time on Earth. however. inaccuracies of the receiver. After all. multipath effects. 6 . quantified by a position dilution of precision (PDOP) of less than six and an elevation higher than 5° is about 99%. form a spherical surface with the satellite in the centre. clock errors of the satellites.

the complete satellite technology is the GPS technology and most of the existing worldwide applications related to the GPS technology. which are all together make up the GNSS. Glonass and Galileo. The GNSS technology will become clearer after the operation of Galileo and the reconstruction of GLONASS in the next few years. Each of them consists mainly of three segments: (a) space segment. These segments are almost similar in the three satellite technologies.GNSS ELEMENTS The GNSS consist of three main satellite technologies: GPS. Figure 1Differences GPS:GLONASS 7 . (b) control segment and (c) user segment. As of today.

as inFigure1. GPS Constellation Figure 2. These space vehicles (SVs) send radio signals from space as shown in Figure 2. GPS receivers convert space vehicle (SV) signals into position. GPS comprises three main components: . .User segment: The GPS User Segment consists of the GPS receivers and the user community.Space segment: The Space Segment of the system consists of the GPS satellites. inclined by 55 degree with respect to the 8 . .200 km above the surface of the Earth. The Master Control facility is located at Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB) in the State of Colorado. GPS Satellite Signals The satellites are dispersed in six orbital planes on almost circular orbits with an altitude of about 20. USA.Control segment: The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world. velocity. Figure 1Figure 1. and time estimates.Global Positioning System components: There are four GPS satellite signals that are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock.

Block II. The categories are Block I. 9 .equator and with orbital periods of approximately 11 hours 58 minutes (half a sidereal day). 2003). GPS segments (Aerospace Corporation. Figure3 Figure 3. 2003). Figure 3 shows the main GPS segments. Block IIR (R for replenishment) and Block IIA (A foradvanced) and a further follow-on category Block IIF has also been planned (ICD-GPS.

Glonass satellite-based radio-navigation system provides the positioning and timing information to users. It will guarantee availability of the service under all. the GPS and GLONASS. A user will be able to take a position with the same receiver from any of the satellites in any combination. Glonass space segment is consist of 24 satellites. It will provide autonomous navigation and positioning services. but the most extreme circumstances and will inform users within seconds of a failure of any satellite. Satellite orbital altitude is about 19. 2001). providing a highly accurate.130 km above the ground surface. By providing dual frequencies as standard. GALILEO will deliver real-time positioning accuracy down to the meter range. Galileo will be not too different from the other GNSS parts (modernized GPs and Glonass (Salgado etal. equally distributed in 3 orbit separated by 120o in the equatorial plane. The combined use of GALILEO and other GNSS systems can offer much improved 10 . guiding cars and landing aircraft. GALILEO GALILEO is Europe’s initiative for a state-of-the-art global navigation satellite system. such as running trains. however. guaranteed global positioning service under civilian control.GLONASS The GLONASS (GLObalNAvigation Satellite System or “GLObalnayaNAvigatsionnayaSputnikovayaSistema” is nearly identical to GPS.. 2002). but at the same time will be interoperable with the two other global satellite navigation systems. It is operated by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GLONASS-ICD. This will make it appropriate for applications where safety is vital.

based on ABAS. It has the potential to support all phases of flight by providing seamless global navigation guidance. OPERATIONAL ADVANTAGES OF GNSS  Being global in scope. This allows States to design en-route and terminal airspace for maximum capacity and minimum delays. supporting en-route (domestic and oceanic). 11 . allowing aircraft to follow more efficient flight paths. The approvals.performance for all kinds of users worldwide. GNSS is fundamentally different from traditional navigational aids(NAVAIDs). This could eliminate the need for a variety of ground and airborne systems that were designed to meet specific requirements for certain phases of flight. terminal and non-precision approach (NPA) operations. Many States employ GNSSto deliver improved service to aircraft operators while at the same time avoiding the cost of fielding traditionalNAVAIDs.  GNSS provides accurate guidance in remote and oceanic areas where it is impractical or too costly or impossible to provide reliable and accurate traditional NAVAID guidance. The first satellite of Galileo system (GIOVE A) was been lunched in 27th December 2005. GNSS brings this capability within the economic reach of all aircraft operators. came with operational restrictions but delivered significant benefits to aircraft operators.  The first approvals to use GNSS came in 1993.  Even in areas well served by traditional NAVAIDs. GNSS supports area navigation operations.

There are a number of issues affecting availability. where terrain is a restricting factor.  GNSS can improve airport usability. This will decrease costs in the longer term. When a landing threshold is displaced. velocity and time may be used additionally to support such functions as automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) and controller-pilot data link communications (CPDLC). with proper consideration of aerodrome standards for physical characteristics. through lower minima. providing the possibility of lower climb gradients and higher payloads. GNSS may support approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) on all runways. the availability of accurate GNSS position. without the need to install a NAVAID at the airport.  The availability of GNSS guidance will allow the phased decommissioning of some or all of the traditional NAVAIDs. Planning for the decommissioning of traditional NAVAIDs depends on the availability of GNSS service in a particular airspace and on the proportion of aircraft equipped for GNSS. Even in the early stages of GNSS implementation. GNSS may also be used to support surface operations. which are discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual. States may be able to avoid the cost of replacing existing NAVAIDs. The availability of accurate GNSS-based guidance on departure supports efficient noise abatement procedures. the flexibility inherent in GNSS can allow continued operations with vertical guidance to the new threshold.  In suitably equipped aircraft. 12 . marking and lighting . It allows greater flexibility in routings. resulting in savings for airspace users.

challenge air navigation service providers to dedicate resources. air traffic services (ATS) and regulatory personnel. While it is possible to interfere with signals from traditional NAVAIDs. move quickly and retain flexibility in order to meet the demands of their customers for GNSS services. This allows aircraft operators to decide.  A transition to GNSS represents a major change for all members of the aviation community. GNSS LIMITATIONS AND ASSOCIATED ISSUES While GNSS offers significant benefits. GNSS performance in terms of availability. It affects aircraft operators. inter alia. In approving GNSS operations. providing increasing operational benefits at each stage. these aids have limited service 13 . The first GNSS approvals relied on traditional NAVAIDs as a back-up when insufficient satellites were in view. when to equip with GNSS avionics. States should take account of these limitations and issues. These considerations. the technology has its limitations and brings with it a number of institutional issues. SBAS and GBAS are designed to enhance. States should therefore plan such a transition carefully and in close consultation with all involved parties. based on weighing of operational benefits against cost. GNSS can be implemented in stages. pilots.  Interference with GNSS signals directly affects availability. coupled with the pace of development of GNSS technology and applications.  A challenge for GNSS is the achievement of a high availability of service. The global nature of GNSS also dictates close coordination with other States.

so interference with GNSS signals can affect more aircraft simultaneously.volumes when compared with GNSS. States should therefore ensure data integrity when developing new procedures. approach minima also depend on the physical characteristics of the aerodrome and on infrastructure such as lighting. Additionally. States should therefore consider the cost of meeting aerodrome standards when planning for new GNSSbased approaches or approaches with lower minima. As with any navigation system. The GNSS SARPs require a specified level of performance in the presence of levels of interference as defined by the receiver interference mask. including the effects of such occurrences on aircraft operations. These interference levels are generally consistent with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) regulations. procedures andsystems should be in place to ensure the integrity of the data as they are processed for use in avionics. GNSS VULNERABILITY 1. which exists in all radio navigation bands. States should assess the likelihood of unintentional and intentional interference. special measures have to be implemented to minimize these effects  While GNSS has the potential to support better approaches to more runways at relatively low cost. the users of GNSS navigation signals should be protected from harmful interference resulting in the degradation of navigation performance.  The safety of GNSS navigation depends on the accuracy of navigation databases. The most notable GNSS vulnerability lies in the potential for interference. If necessary. 14 . 2.

The RNSS allocation in these bands is shared with the Aeronautical Radionavigation Service (ARNS). The use of these links. In addition. SOURCES OF VULNERABILITY 1.975 MHz band. no new links should be permitted. Unintentional interference is not considered a significant threat provided that States exerciseproper control and protection over the electromagnetic spectrum for both existing and new frequency allocations.362B and 5. 3. shared with ILS and VOR (ARNS). Furthermore. The likelihood and operational effect of interference vary with the environment. GBAS is operated in the 108 – 117. 2.Interference at levels above the mask may cause degradation or even loss of service. Of particular concern is the use of the 1 559 – 1 610 MHz band by point-to-point microwave links that are allowed by a number of States. GPS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) have filings with the ITU to operate.362C in the Radio Regulations of the ITU. but such interference is not allowed to result in hazardously misleading information (HMI). the introduction of GNSS signals on new frequencies will ensure that unintentional interference does not cause 15 . Unintentional interference. SBAS also has a filing under the RNSS allocation in the former band. using spectrum allocated to the Radionavigation Satellite Service (RNSS) in the 1 559 – 1 610 MHz and 1 164 – 1 215 MHz bands. as stated in footnotes 5. There are a number of sources of potential interference to GNSS from both in-band and out-of-band sources. is due to be phased out starting in 2005 and completed by no later than 2015.

funding and robust system design.g. the intentional corruption of signals to cause an aircraft to deviate and follow a false flight path. For States that determine that the risk is unacceptable in specific areas. operational errors and discontinuation of service could be significantly mitigated by independently managed constellations. is mitigated through normal procedures and independent ground and collision avoidance systems. Spoofing. Ionosphere. These changes must be considered whendesigning operations based on the augmentation systems. 5. Ionospheric changes may limit the SBAS and GBAS services that can beprovided in the equatorial region using a single GNSS frequency. Intentional interference. The risk of intentional interference depends upon specific issues that must be addressed by States. 16 . but is unlikely to cause complete loss of GNSS service and will be mitigated with the addition of new GNSS signals and satellites. 3. Scintillation can cause loss of GNSS satellite signals in the equatorial and auroralregions. System failure. Other vulnerabilities.the complete loss of GNSS service (outage) although enhanced services depending upon the availability of both frequencies might be degraded by such interference. operational safety and efficiency can be maintained by adopting an effective mitigation strategy through a combination of on-board mitigation techniques (e. use of inertial navigation system (INS)). 4. procedural methods and terrestrial navigation aids.

approaches with vertical guidance in equatorial regions). Operational experience is the best way to assess the likelihood of unintentional interference.g. GNSS is used for navigation services as well as other services such as precision timing with communications and radar systems.EVALUATING GNSS VULNERABILITIES 1. moderate or severe. 17 . In these cases. Each State must consider the motivation to intentionally interfere with GNSS based on the potential safety and economic impacts on aviation and non-aviation applications. availability of independent surveillance and communications and other factors. Atmospheric effects are unlikely to cause a total loss (outage) of GNSS but may impact some services (e. There are three principal aspects to be considered in the evaluation of GNSS vulnerabilities. The impact can be categorized as none. since GNSS interference can potentially disrupt all GNSS receivers at the same time over a certain area. traffic density. The likelihood of specific effects can be categorized as negligible. b) All operations and services dependent on GNSS should be identified and considered together. and may also be used for ADS services. a) Interference and atmospheric (ionosphere) effects are of primary concern. unlikely or probable. c) The impact of a GNSS outage on an operation or service should be assessed by considering the types of operations. GNSS represents a potential common point of failure.

and c) vigilance in evaluating new radio frequency (RF) sources (new systems) to ensure that they do not interfere with GNSS.REDUCING THE LIKELIHOOD OF UNINTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE 1. There are three aspects of effective spectrum management. b) enforcement of those regulations/laws. namely: a) creation of regulations/laws that control the use of spectrum. Operational experience has indicated that the threat of unintentional interference can be virtually eliminated by applying effective spectrum management. itsintegration with other aircraft systems (e. They are: a) by taking advantage of existing on-board equipment such as inertial navigation systems and implementing advanced GNSS capabilities and GNSS receiver 18 . On-aircraft interference can be prevented by proper installation of GNSS equipment. Spectrum management. Effective spectrum management is the primary means of mitigating unintentional interference from man-made transmitters. antenna separation and out-ofband filtering) and restrictions on the use of portable electronic devices on board aircraft. shielding. There are three principal methods currently available for mitigating the effects of GNSS outageson aircraft operations when GNSS supports navigation services. 2.g. MITIGATING THE EFFECTS OF GNSS OUTAGES 1.

taking due consideration of the workload and technical implications of the application of such mitigations in the relevant airspace. and — the potential for providing the necessary increase in aircraft route spacing and/or separation in the airspace under consideration. In identifying an appropriate terrestrial infrastructure. adaptive antennas. due account should be taken of the following factors. DME provides the most appropriate terrestrial navigation infrastructure for such operations. — Increased reliance is being placed upon the use of RNAV operations. 19 .g. Particular issues that need to be considered include: — the impact that the loss of navigation will have on other functions such as surveillance in an ADS environment. as it provides an input to multi-sensor navigation systems which allow continued RNAV operation in both en-route and terminal airspace. instrument landing system (ILS) or microwave landing system (MLS) may be used. etc. b) by employing procedural (pilot or air traffic control) methods. and c) by taking advantage of terrestrial radio navigation aids used as a back-up to GNSS or integrated with GNSS. — If it is determined that an alternate precision approach service is needed. application of multiple constellations and frequencies. This same capability can be used for RNAV approach operations if the DME coverage is sufficient.).technologies (e.

frequency coordination is necessary to ensure that other transmitters in the 108 – 117. VOR. 4. VHF Digital Link 4 (VDL-4) and FM stations) do not cause harmful interference.975 MHz or adjacent bands (e. 2. The current practice of time transfer makes use of GNSS but it also uses alternative methods as back-ups. ILS. Timing vulnerabilities need to be addressed through system design. Suitable system design can result in the ability to meet required timing accuracies for many days and sometimes indefinitely in the absence of GNSS. where feasible. 20 . 3.This would likely entail retaining a minimum number of such systems at an airport or within an areaunder consideration. States wishing to approve GNSS-based operations should ensure that existing frequency assignments in the 1 559 – 1 610 MHz band and the 1 164 – 1 215 MHz band that have the potential to interfere with those GNSS operations be moved to other frequency assignments or bands. For GBAS.g.

and to the retention of ILS or MLS in support of precision approach operations at selected runways. give priority to the retention of DME in support of INS/DME or DME/DME RNAV for en-route and terminal operations. countries should: a) assess the sources of vulnerability in their airspace and utilize.SUMMARY In their planning and introduction of GNSS services. c) take full advantage of on-board mitigation techniques. and e) take full advantage of the future contribution of new GNSS signals and constellations in the reduction of GNSS vulnerabilities. as necessary b) provide effective spectrum management and protection of GNSS frequencies to reduce the possibility of unintentional interference. 21 . d) where it is determined that terrestrial navigation aids need to be retained as part of an evolutionary transition to GNSS. particularly inertial navigation systems.