Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration

A Seminar Report On

HYBRID VEHICLES
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Requirement of the Third Year Diploma(Mechanical) By

MR. RUSHIKESH DILIP GHUGE
Roll No:- 11

Under the guidance of

PROF. ROY SIR Department of Mechanical Engg.

BHUJBAL KNOWLEDGE CITY
MET’S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(POLY.), ADGAON NASIK-422003.
1

Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 2 .

1 8. 10. No 1. 6. 2. 5.5 9. 7.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration Index Sr. 4.3 8.2 8. 2 2 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 13 13 3 . Title Introduction Types of HEV’s HEV Components Hybrid vehicle configurations HEV advantages HEV Economics Future of HEV’ The MOGEN Configuration Introduction Principle of operation Functioning applications Advantages Conclusion References Page No. 8.4 8. 3. 8.

range. etc. These include Giant mining trucks. a power unit. and a vehicle propulsion system. Hybrid vehicles are all around us. diesel-electric buses. The practical benefits of HEVs include improved fuel economy and lower emissions compared to conventional vehicles. Introduction :Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the internal combustion engine of a conventional vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle. The inherent flexibility of HEVs will allow them to be used in a wide range of applications. There are many (often conflicting) objectives desirable for HEVs. This combination offers the extended range and rapid refueling that consumers expect from a conventional vehicle. many people have probably owned a hybrid vehicle at some point. Essentially. For example. In fact. from personal transportation to commercial hauling. locomotives etc.0 Types of HEVs Many configurations are possible for HEVs. the primary ones being:    Maximize fuel economy Minimize emissions Minimize propulsion system cost to keep overall vehicle cost affordable to the consumer market  Do all of the above while maintaining or improving upon acceptable performance (acceleration. a hybrid combines an energy storage system.) 2. The primary 4 . handling. with a significant portion of the energy and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle. resulting in twice the fuel economy of conventional vehicles. a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a type of hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider.a cross between a gasolinepowered car and an electric car. noise.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 1. The gasoline-electric hybrid car is just that -. Submarines. The flexibility in the design of hybrid vehicles comes from the ability of the control strategy to manage how much power is flowing to or from each component.

0 HEV components A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is an optimized mix of various components. ultra capacitors. 3. or the engine might provide direct mechanical input to the vehicle propulsion system in a parallel configuration system. it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries.  Electric energy storage systems. research is still being done in other energy storage areas. But acting as a generator. a high 5 . it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. and flywheels. and flywheels. There are several transmission options when it comes to HEVs as well—the driver that determines which transmission to use is efficiency.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration options for energy storage include batteries. For example. gas turbines. when it needs to. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. The vehicle drive train consists of:  Electric traction motors/controllers. ultra capacitors.  The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. such as in a series configuration. Hybrid power unit options are spark ignition engines.  Desirable attributes of high-power batteries for HEV applications are highpeak and pulse-specific power. Although batteries are by far the most common energy storage choice. and fuel cells. Propulsion can come entirely from an electric motor. such as batteries. compression ignition direct injection engines. high specific energy at pulse power.

very high capital costs and large size.  Gas turbines have got advantages of smooth running due to rotary motion. They also suffer due to disadvantages like more frictional losses. The lithium ion batteries. Te disadvantages being.  The generator is similar to an electric motor.  Transmissions. and long calendar and cycle life. gas turbines. whereas the disadvantages are. efficiency. It is used mostly on series hybrids. 6 .  Flywheels store kinetic energy within a rapidly spinning wheel-like rotor or disk.  Ultra capacitors are higher specific energy and power versions of electrolytic capacitors—devices that store energy as an electrostatic charge. slow response to changing driving situations and the poor part load efficiency.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration charge acceptance to maximize regenerative braking utilization. but it acts only to produce electrical power.  Hybrid power units such as spark ignition engines. difficulty in meeting future stringent emission norms alone etc. system accessories. Lithium polymer batteries. required infrastructure. Modern flywheels employ a high-strength composite rotor.  Generators. Nickel-metal hydride batteries. A motor/generator is mounted on the rotor's shaft both to spin the rotor up to speed (charging) and to convert the rotor's kinetic energy to electrical energy (discharging). fuel cells are predicted to demonstrate energy conversion efficiencies up to 50%.  Both petrol and diesel engines have the advantage over other systems because of their century long development and low cost due to mass production. and reliable. and fuel cells etc. Various types of batteries include.  Fuel systems are similar to conventional IC engine powered vehicles. quiet. compression ignition direct injection (diesel) engines.  Fuel systems for hybrid power units. nickel-cadmium batteries.  Fuel cells generate electricity through an electrochemical reaction that combines hydrogen with ambient air. They are electrochemical systems that store energy in a polarized liquid layer at the interface between an ionically conducting electrolyte and a conducting electrode. Efficient. high efficiency as well as low emissions. which rotates in a vacuum chamber to minimize aerodynamic losses. Lead acid batteries.

and the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Some transmissions are more efficient than others. 1. the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle. however. Series hybrid and 2. based on the system design of the vehicle. Thus.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration  Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can use a variety of transmissions. Parallel hybrid Series hybrid :In a series hybrid (Figure below) the gasoline engine turns a generator. 7 . sometimes less efficient transmissions are used for a variety of reasons. The four types of transmissions used in HEVs are:     Continuously variable transmission Automated shifted manual transmission Manual transmission Traditional automatic transmission with torque converter There are other key developments being made to help reduce emissions and improve the efficiency of HEVs:       Emission control systems Energy management and systems control Thermal management of components Light-weight and aerodynamic body/chassis Low rolling resistance (including tires) Reduction of accessory loads in the vehicle 4.0 Hybrid vehicle configurations:There are two possible configurations for hybrid vehicles.

which supplies gasoline to the engine.0 HEV Advantages HEVs have several advantages over conventional vehicles:  Regenerative braking capability helps minimize energy loss and recover the energy used to slow down or stop a vehicle.   Emissions are greatly decreased. which reduces the engine's weight. Both the engine and the electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time. 8 . not peak load. 5. and the transmission then turns the wheels. HEVs can reduce dependency on fossil fuels because they can run on alternative fuels.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration Parallel hybrid:A parallel hybrid has a fuel tank. The HEVs available for sale are very cost competitive with similar conventional vehicles. But it also has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Any cost premium that may be associated with HEVs of the future can be off-set by overall fuel savings and possible incentives.  Engines can be sized to accommodate average load.  Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (hybrids consume significantly less fuel than vehicles powered by gasoline alone).  Special lightweight materials are used to reduce the overall vehicle weight of HEVs.

0 Some economics about hybrid vehicles:As per current prices in the US the hybrid vehicles from various companies start from around $19000 whereas conventional vehicles with similar performance can be purchased for around $13000-$14000 thus putting an extra cost of about $5000 to $6000 But these extra costs are partially offset by tax incentives offered by various countries to promote use of hybrid vehicles. A few examples are listed here to give a flavor of some possibilities:  The car could be warmed up or cooled down while it's still in the garage (based on a timer) to make the first few minutes of commute more enjoyable and energy efficient. Hybrids have the potential to allow continued growth in the automotive sector. air pollution. The Insight has an eightyear/80. The warranties for hybrid vehicle Maintenance are also high. The Prius has an eightyear/100. and traffic congestion.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 6. for example the US government offers a tax deduction of around $2000 for hybrid vehicle owners. 9 .0 Future of HEV’s HEVs are now at the forefront of transportation technology development.000-mile warranty on most of the power train. dependence on foreign oil. Also there is a lot of saving in the fuel costs due to higher fuel efficiency of hybrid vehicles. while also reducing critical resource consumption. and a three-year/36. 7.000-mile warranty on the rest of the car.000-mile warranty on the battery and hybrid systems and a threeyear/36.000-mile warranty on everything else. Both the Honda and the Toyota have long warranties on the hybrid systems. including batteries. Along with all these there is a priceless pride of doing your part in helping the global cause of pollution reduction as well as helping your country in saving precious foreign exchange spent for buying petroleum fuels.

0 THE MOGEN CONFIGURATION FOR HAV’s 8. the control strategy could always keep batteries as close to fully charged as possible to allow maximum power for hard accelerations and keep the APU running continuously to have full power available on demand. the vehicle could delay turning on the APU to allow the commuter to use only "wall charged" electric energy except when driving longer trips.  For people who drive their cars with maximum fuel economy in mind. and thus. For example. a more fuel efficient vehicle. the frequency of which is determined by the constant operating speed of the device. or other rotary devices to reduce engine efficiency. This system is developed by Red Barn Engg. at 3600 cycles per minute the ―MOGEN‖ produces standard 60 Hertz alternating which current for many standard electrical control devices are readily available.  For people who normally drive long commutes. timing belts.S. the deletion of these devices makes for a lighter weight. 10 . the vehicle could turn on the APU before batteries get depleted in anticipation of extra on-board power being needed..1 Introduction The word MOGEN stands for THE MOTOR GENERATOR. 8. Caledonia. like conventional engines. flywheels. This device utilizes internal combustion.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration  For "lead-foot" drivers. only it is unique in that the primary motion is purely linear. In addition. There is no need for rotating components in the ―MOGEN‖ because there is no mechanical output. U. repeatable commute.  For those who have a short. There are no crankshafts. the power generated is in the form of alternating current. the vehicles would use their onboard components in such a way that they would be operating in their highest efficiency regions as much of the time as possible.

The linear motor generator.. o Since the basic motion of combustion engine is linear.... a "armature coil" moves past a "field coil" to produce a current in the "armature coil"... it would be much more efficient to move the "armature coil" through the inside of the "field coil".... o Thus.... o Their linear motion (force) must be converted to rotary motion (torque).. Fields Around Coils In a conventional generator.. o Classic internal combustion engines have inefficiencies..2 Principles of Operation The Principles Of This Invention Are Based On Well Known Theories Of Electromotive Force And Magnetism.and since the motion of a coil past a coil is linear. The "Mogen". The motion is reciprocal and produces as alternating current (AC) in the "armature coil". the conductor and the generator of the magnetic field take the form of coils of wire.. In conventional generators (and electric motors). 11 . 8.. a current is produced in the conductor..then why go through a rotary stage? o Let the linear motion of an engine drive the coils past each other! o Combine this with the "coil through a coil" concept to maximum efficiency.. rigidly attached to a "armature coil" which. moves through a larger "field coil". These are referred to as the "field coils" and the "armature coils". By theory and experimentation.. Therefore. When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field. it has been shown that the magnetic field of a circular coil is the most intense on the coil's interior side.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration Expanding gases propel a piston.. in turn.

and pure linear motion AS the motor drives the piston(s) linearly. the armature coil is passed through the field coil generating 60 Hertz current which.3 Function The invention consists of an internal combustion motor with a combustion chamber and one or more linear reciprocating pistons. in automotive applications powers the drive motors for the wheels. This design is unique due to the integration of an electrical generating system. The Internal Combustion Motor with Integral Electric Generator operates similar to conventional combustion engines. The electric current produced by the ―MOGEN‖ is generated by coils which inside are the This integrated engine.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 8. The piston assembly includes a linear reciprocating armature coil (or coils) which move linearly through an annular magnet (field coil). arrangement not only saves much of the space required by a separate engine and 12 .

this configuration requires constant computer control to maintain reliability and optimum performance.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration generator. Obviously. This reciprocal motion of a ―coil through a coil‖ is much more efficient than conventional generators where the coils move past each other. In its optimum form. the weight and cost of the mechanisms required to connect the two components. attached to the piston rod. The additional weight savings of this compact power system makes for an even more fuel efficient vehicle. "MOGEN" Configurations 1) BY STORING MECHANICAL ENERGY (SPRING/GAS): 2) BY A POWERED PISTON ON THE OPPISITE END: 3) BY CONNECTING TO A ROTARY DEVICE: 13 . but. crankshafts. Another innovative feature of the ―MOGEN‖ is the action of the circular coils of wire that produce the electric current. moves back and forth through the field coil. Other configurations with springs. The armature coil. also. and multiple cylinder banks are also possible. the ―MOGEN‖ utilizes two opposing pistons operating in a two-cycle manner (firing at the end of each stroke).

Minimum number of cylinders can be tuned for fuel efficiency. o Auxiliary devices may be electric motor driven (air conditioner. o The circular coils are more efficient and inexpensive than the "oblong" coils in standard generators. electric drive) Remote generators (fuel powered) Power generation substations (stream or fuel powered) Locomotives (diesel powered) 8. lube system). no mechanical output. o At 3600 RPM. lightweight.4 Applications     Hybrid vehicles (fuel powered. provides standard 60 hertz current.5 The Advantages The MOTOR/GENERATOR produces electric current. o Engine may be started by reversing coil current. .Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 8. Main Bearings. o Eliminates "rotary" components (cost + weight savings) like Flywheel. compact. Crankshaft. o Allow for highly flexible vehicle design configuration. minimal moving parts. o Can be tuned to a single speed. Block. 14 . Camshaft. power steering. VEHICLE ADVANTAGES o Small efficient power plant could replace engine/transmission/differential in automobiles to create an electric/fuel (hybrid) vehicle. Timing Gears. Armature & Shaft. o Vehicle would be lightweight and very fuel efficient. water pump. o Powerful (high energy output).

html http://www.doe.ott.pdf http://www. 10.gov/pdfs/gmhev_factsheet.gov/feg/hybridtech.doe.ott.fueleconomy.doe.gov/feg/hybrid_sbs. and later models may cut emissions by even more. however.pdf http://www.com/hybrid-car1.doe.doe. More efficient cars can make a big difference to society in terms of environmental benefits.doe.html http://www. because of their internal combustion engine.com/hybrid-car2.htm http://www.gov/pdfs/techhev_factsheet. The HEV is able to operate approximately two times more efficiently than conventional vehicles.1 http://www.ott.gov/hev/components.gov/hev/what.ott.htm http://www.benefits.ott. hybrids will have the same or greater range than traditional combustion engines.0 Conclusion Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power.fleets.nrel.pdf http://www. But the first hybrids on the market will cut emissions of global-warming pollutants by a third to a half.pdf http://www.pdf http://www.howstuffworks.shtml http://www.html http://www. And by combining gasoline with electric power. Hybrids will never be true zero-emission vehicles.gov/fleet_tool.Hybrid vehicles – The Mogen Configuration 9.gov/hev/faqs.doe.gov/pdfs/drivehev_factsheet.gov/international/china/pdfs/annex5/ introduction_of_hybrid_electric_vehicles.ott.gov/hev/related.ott.cgi?$$.0 References www.gov/pdfs/puthev_factsheet.fueleconomy.howstuffworks.doe.ott.doe.html http://www.shtml 15 .