CHAPTER 2

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
“Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted.”

Albert Einstein.

Before proceeding further on the due course of research and evaluation study there exist a need for elaborate defining and explaining the very concepts of Human resource development and capacity building/development and impact evaluation.

Human Resource Development
Background
While the term “human resource development” has only been common since the 1980s/ the concept has been around a lot longer than that. To understand its modern definition, it is helpful to briefly recount the history of this field.

Human development, which is reemerging as a growing global concern, and from which emerged the Economic Theory of Human Resources and concept of human resource development itself is not a new issue. Indeed the idea that economic growth and income expansion are but a mean towards the ultimate goal of improving people’s lives goes back to Aristotle. The same concern can be found in the writings of the leading political economists of the 18th and 19th century: Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Robert Malthus, Karl Marx and John Stuart Mill.

The economic theory of human resources in the form of human capital theory, according to the calculations of Mark Blaug, is now in its forty fifth year (Blaug, 1976:827). There have been many advances and breakthroughs since then the field of human resource economics.

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Historically, HRD has referred to developing human resources in order to increase economic productivity and therefore a nation’s wealth that is, very closely linked with economic outputs. So, in the development context the meaning of the terms human resources development and human development are very much interconnected.

Theories of human capital formation and human resource development have often been described as strong in analyzing the supply side in relation to its approach to manpower and planning and education UN (1990)1. However, one man’s supply is another’s demand. In fact, human capital theory is basically demand oriented but it view demand from the level of the individual. So this theory is now being applied, or has potential to be applied, in a number of areas of human resource analysis where previously a supply orientation tended to prevail. This new focus on the demand for human resource development may be one of the most important developments in the developing countries to emerge from economic theory of human resources.

As UN’s ESCAP in its report pointed out “The human capital revolution in the economics of human resources in last quarter century has had a major impact on policy-making and planning for human resource development in the developing countries. In many ways it may be said to have initiated interest in planning for human resource development. There can be little doubt that the impact of continuing developments in the economics of human resources will be equally potent source of new approaches to human resource development in the next twenty-five years.” (P; 23, 1986)2

Definition of Human Resource Development (HRD)

Human resource development (HRD) is a process to enlarge people’s choices at all levels of development, the three essential capabilities for human development is

For people to lead long and healthy lives,

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women and populations in rural areas. through its adoption of the Jakarta plan of action on human resource development in ESCAP region defines HRD as a virtuous cycle of • Investment in human resources to enhance productive capacities • Utilization of those human resources to produce increased/higher quality output. If these basic capabilities are not achieved. particularly in developing countries. range from political. For developing countries. thereby leading to an enhanced quality of life. Sustainable human resources development must involve all three components. it is extremely important that all members of the society have access to human resource development activities. economic and social opportunities for being creative and productive to enjoying personal self-respect. health and education are key elements of an improved quality of life and must be considered important investments in human resources. ESCAP (1986)3. highly valued by people.• To be knowledgeable • To have access to the resources needed for decent standards of living. The enhanced capabilities created by development enlarge the choices made available to both individuals and nations. • Consumption by those human resources of the benefits arising out of that increased/higher quality output. enlarged choices are simply not available and many opportunities remain not availed. There is a very strong link between investing in human resources development and improvements in the quality of life. Improvements in nutrition. UNDP (1990)4 11 . empowerment and a sense of belonging to a community. especially the poor. But the realm of human development goes further: essential additional choices.

infant mortality. and Khalid. within current definitions and discussions. One such concept or term is capacity development. cultural diversity and even ecological harmony. but also to socio cultural aspects. especially in the context of developing countries. Traditionally capacity development is also understood as human resource development. Therefore. Seiko. Carlos. including education and employment. In fact. (2002)6 12 . This is explored in both the Jakarta Plan of Action and in the UN’s National Human Development Report 1998 (1999)5 The recent advances in this field. there is more emphasis on the Human aspects of HRD. political expression. such as life expectancy.So Human resource Development should not only refer to aspects of physical well being of the people. but it evolved more than that as it is a larger concept as it refers not merely to the acquisition of skills but also the capability to use them. offer some significant new avenues for exploring approaches to human resource development (HRD). social cohesion and stability. rates of mortality and levels of nutrition. the only dimension of intrinsic value in development is the human dimension in its totality.

execution and evaluation of development initiatives. Defining Capacity Development The expression “capacity development” can be used in several ways and even in different terms “capacity building” or “capacity development” describes the task of developing levels of human and institutional capacity. Although it is usually discussed as an approach to development co-operation. and there is a need for joint learning and experimentation on how to incorporate the concept more systematically in any approach to development co-operation. People understand the concept in different ways. and to clarify the implications of adopting a CD approach in the measuring of impact of development cooperation on human resource development of the area. The purposes of this chapter are twofold: to strengthen understanding of the concept. Today. as it is in the following definition: 13 . the capacity building remains one of the most challenging functions of development.Yet the concept remains a complex and difficult one to grasp and operationalize in the design.Capacity Development The concept of capacity development (CD) emerged in the late 1980s and gained increased prominence throughout the 1990s. the phrase has been widely used in the development community. Whatever the terminology. Capacity building is also a significant term used in literature related to sustainable development and it has been the object of considerable debate . CD can be understood as a process in its own right.

analyze and act on health (or any other) concerns of importance to their members’. it requires that the overall societal context be considered in devising capacity development strategies and programmes. organizations and Societies enhance their abilities to identify and meet development challenges in a sustainable manner. organizational.Capacity development is a process by which individuals. it emphasizes improved utilization and empowerment of individuals and organizations over building capacities from scratch. In its broadest interpretation. It focuses on a series of actions directed at helping participants in the development process to increase their knowledge.” UNCED. It is based on the concept that education and training lie at the heart of development efforts and that without HRD most development interventions will be ineffective. capacity building encompasses the country’s human. UNCED. skills and understandings and to develop the attitudes needed to bring about the desired developmental change. scientific. based on an understanding of environment potentials and limits and of needs perceived by the people of the country concerned".(1992)8.(1992)7 This definition has three key implications: first. it implies that capacity is not a passive state but is part of a continuing process. Social 14 . knowledge services. technological. thirdly. capacity building encompasses human resource development (HRD) as an essential part of development. FAO (1993)10 This research study defines "capacity" in a broad holistic sense to include the overall capacity development activities which involve education. A fundamental goal of capacity building is to enhance the ability to evaluate and address the crucial questions related to policy choices and modes of implementation among development options. training and learning. "Specifically. Labonte & Laverack (2001a)9 defined capacity building as the ‘increase in community groups’ abilities to define. assess. groups. institutional and resource capabilities. secondly. and.

some time. improving service delivery. But due to the fact that it is more suitable for use in implementation stage and its rigid management makes it less effective for use in this study. and demonstrating results as part of accountability to key stakeholders. development managers. These measures can be from inputs processes outputs or outcomes of projects or strategies. • Theory –based evaluation: It is similar to the Logical Frame work approach but allows even more in depth understanding of the working of the projects or activity and used for 15 .health. called a logical Framework (LF) to visualize the project in term of set of cause and effect relationships through which resources provided to the project are transformed so that they contribute to achieving the objective of the intervention and about external factors which affect there relationships. motivation and hygiene campaigns for the community as well as capacity for policy making and operational management and utilization of infrastructure and community programs. These include • Performance indicators: These are the measures or variables which indicate or track progress. But using them needs exactly defined indicators which is difficult to use assessing socioeconomic impacts of the projects • The logical frame work approach: Most evaluators of Project use a conceptual model. planning and allocating resources. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and evaluation of development activities and programs provide government officials. There are many tools method and approaches to monitor and evaluate the programs. and civil society with better means for learning from the past experience.

• Impact evaluation: As this research study examines the impact of staff learning programs and the impact of capacity building trainings given directly to the primary teachers and rural people by the staff of the line departments(departments of government which collaborated with project teams) through three foreign aided projects/programs. methods and techniques) before using the appropriate one in the study. low cost methods to get some feedback from the stakeholders about the projects but this is and less reliable and less credible than other types of evaluations.benefit analysis assesses (in monetary terms) whether or not the cost of a project can be justified. 16 . • Cost-benefit and cost –effectiveness analysis: cost.mapping design of complex activities for improving planning and management in the initial stages of the projects • Formal surveys: these are part of many other forms of evaluation but they can be used on their own for collecting standardized information. This is a highly technical method and requires huge financial resources and accurate data which are difficult to quantify. we are concerned mainly with impact evaluation and will analyze the different approaches to impact evaluation (their tools. • Rapid appraisal methods: These are quick. while costeffectiveness estimates in non monetary terms.

strengths and weaknesses. institutions. It is also the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data in order to determine whether and to what degree the objectives have been or being achieved. On the basis of this information one can recommend corrective actions. case studies and available secondary data. key informants. (1990)13 out lines them as following functions: • Informational: This function of evaluation studies provides usable information for feedback. and the environment caused by a given development activity such as a program or project. demonstrate the effectiveness or the failure of program plans and strategies. to small-scale rapid assessment and participatory appraisals where estimates of impact are obtained from combining group interviews. and possibly at several points during program intervention. specifically information that can be used to improve program implementation • Professional: this function aims to increase understanding about the means and ends of a program.Impact Evaluation Impact evaluation is the systematic identification of the effects – positive or negative. Bhola. Clark. 17 . Sartorius and Mackay (2004)11. Function of the Impact Evaluation There are a number of functions/purposes of the impact evaluation studies. UNESCO PROAP (1999)12 Impact evaluation of projects and programs help us better understand the extent to which developmental activities reach the poor and the magnitude of their effects on people’s welfare. intended or unintended – on individual households. Impact evaluations can range from large scale sample surveys in which project populations and control groups are compared before and after.

(UNESCO PROAP 1999)14 Context evaluation This is the most basic type of evaluation and serves in the determination of objectives. this information provide insight for future program directions and actions Major Areas of Evaluation Taking into account the focus and content of the evaluation process. Defines its relevant environment Delineates the actual and the desired conditions Identifies unmet needs and unused opportunities 18 . process evaluation. It is designed to promote group participation and interest among program managers. • Political: This function consists of setting agendas and generating discussions and debates on certain issues and concerns. we can identify four evaluation areas: context evaluation. input evaluation. • • • • Describes the boundaries of the system to be evaluated. • Historical: The historical functions of evaluation include recording and documenting events and major program activities. • Socio-psychological: This function aims to give program clients and other stakeholders a feeling of security. Issues and problems are simplified in order to arrive at conflict resolution and remedies. It has the following functions.• Organizational: This function helps institutions to analyze goals. objectives structural strengths and weaknesses. and output evaluation. It helps in determining organizational renewal and restructuring. planners and administrators.

this type of evaluation comes in to provide feedback for the following variables: 19 . how the objectives should be stated operationally. what strategy should be adopted and what operational plan should be employed to implement that strategy. provides a basis for widespread communication and control • • • • Looks for new emerging value orientation Relevant capabilities of the responsible agency Strategies for achieving goals Designs for implementing selected strategy It also provides information on whether outside assistance is required.• • Diagnoses and analyses problems Monitors the system to maintain a current baseline of information and . • • • • • • • • Organization of learning center/physical infrastructure Teacher profiles training of teachers Quality of project personnel Relevancy of curriculum Teaching-learning materials (text and supplementary aids. both print and nonprime) Equipment used Types of supervision provided Adequacy of budget Process evaluation Once implementation has started. Input evaluation The purpose of this type of evaluation is to provide information for determining how to use resources to meet programme goals through identifying and assessing the following.

20 . Information is delineated. during the early stages of a project. obtained.Objectives • • • • • • • • • • To detect or predict defects in the procedural design or in its implementation To provide information for programmed decisions To maintain a record of the procedure as it occurs Teaching – learning process Community participation Supervision process Monitoring and feedback system Human resource management Logistics administration Financial management Strategies • • Identified and monitoring constitutionally potential sources of failure in a project Projecting and serving programmed decisions to be made by project managers during the implementation of a project • Notifying the feature of the project design and describing what is actually taking place It is essential to have continuous feedback about the project so that process evaluation can perform a vital function. and reported as often as required – daily. if necessary – especially.

while input evaluation provides the specifications for process evaluation. The methods are: • • • • Devising operational definition of objectives Mastering criteria associated with the objectives of the activity Comparing these with predetermined absolute or relative standards Making rational interpretation of the outcomes using recorded context. As a summary. operations by input evaluation for assessing the extent to which these criteria have been achieved are the bases for designing impact evaluation. 21 . context evaluation determines the specifications for product evaluation. Impact evaluation investigates the extent to which objectives are being attained. Both types provide feedback for control evolving change procedures in process. Selection of the options depends on the purpose and type of evaluation.Product evaluation The purpose of product evaluation is to measure and interpret attainments not only at the end of project cycle. • • • • Coverage of people Types of people covered Type of literacy skills acquired Coverage of people in occupational education The following table defines the scope of these evaluation areas: Within the broader scope of evaluating each area. input. but as often as necessary during the project term. However. there can be a number of options to cover. Process evaluation assesses the extent to which procedures are operational as intended. and process information.

transformation of inputs into outputs Effectiveness. predetermined objectives?) • Process-Based Evaluations (understanding how your program really works. potential effects Efficiency. These include relevance. performance and success Relevance Main issues of relevance are Relevant to what/whom? That is the activity relevant to development issues and priorities of program countries. it may be helpful to review them. Performance Main issues for measuring performance are Inputs vs. leading to a reformulation of the change to be brought about. donor agency and comparative advantage. 22 . • Goals-Based Evaluation (are your programs achieving their overall.Production evaluation would go on throughout. early warning (through monitoring ). Client institutions/line departments and most of all target beneficiaries’ objectives. modification either in strategy or procedure and termination of the change effort. (1998)15 presented the following three types of evaluations before designing our evaluation approach. Some Major Types of Program Evaluation McNamara. and transformation of inputs into outcomes. potential problem areas identification.(UNDP 1997)16 has considered while assessing programs and projects through the monitoring and evaluation. and its strength and weaknesses) • Outcomes-Based Evaluation (identifying benefits to clients) Evaluation Methodology There are three fundamental concepts that. results-orientation.

is it positive and negative impact?. is it analyzed at the micro. 23 . and is it intended and unintended impact?. is it immediate or along-range impact?. However. fragmentary approach in all the sections of the success that is while analyzing impact. Both monitoring and evaluation should focus on the assessment of relevance and performance.Success Main issue of success is holistic vs. assessment of potential problem areas and potential effects is more closely associated with monitoring as an early warning system while assessment of success falls within the realm of evaluation. Other issues of success are sustainability and contribution to capacity development that includes development management in general and monitoring and evaluation in particular. and macro levels?. meso.

The labour force of the region is estimated at about 736000 people. different indigenous and foreign aided developmental projects has been carried out in a 24 . The average per capita income has been estimated to be US $847. The rural urban population ratio is 88:12.At present literacy rate is estimated to be at above 60% compared to 48% for whole of Pakistan. The male to female population ratio is 107:100. AJ&K. the elevation from sea level ranges from 360 meters in the south to 6325 meters in the north. The majority of the rural population depends on forestry.5 % per annum. in spite of these comparative high figures of enrollment. high dropout figures were the sign of serious problem in the system Govt. This ratio is 56% for male and female in 13-14 years group at secondary level.973 million. whereas the ratio of rural to urban population is 90:10 majority of the area is mountainous and 90 % of the population have no work between sowing and harvesting of their crops . a very high percentage of school age children start schooling. It is reported that the approximate enrolment ratio were 95% for male and 88% for female in the 5-9 years age group at Elementary level. fast flowing rivers and winding streams.so there is a dire need for skill trainings and even capacity building for existing skills and jobs. Unemployment rate ranges from 6. Azad Kashmir is full of natural beauty with thick forests. The topography of the area is mainly hilly and mountainous with valleys and stretches of plains. According to latest figures. AJ&K (2006)18 Azad Kashmir is a remote area of Pakistan but very happening place in terms of developmental activities. livestock and agriculture to eke-out its subsistence.0 to 6. The population of Azad Jammu and Kashmir is 2. Govt. However.360 and comprises an area of 5134 Square Miles (13297 Square Kilometers). The climate is subtropical highland type.Selected Projects’ Background The state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir lies between longitude of 730-750 and latitude of 330. (1997)17.

0 billion and grant assistance of $2. so that lessons can be learnt from past and applied in the future.It started with Village Agricultural and Industrial Development program (Village AID program) in 1950s and under process even today in the forms of different IDA. WB and UNDP aided projects. development managers. Here is a brief introduction of all the three projects. Rural Water Supply and sanitation program (RWSS) and Neelum Jhellum Valley Community Development Project (NJVCDP) were assessed against common set of domains of capacity development (devised specifically keeping in view the demographic consideration of these projects).1billion (2004-2005)with earth quake relief assistance of $1649million.(2006)19 But how for these projects succeeded in their objectives of sustainable development? It is a question of considerable debate.time period spanning almost fifty years .The foreign donors/institutions has pledged an amount of $6. 25 . This impact evaluation study of foreign aided projects in the area has been initiated with the same purpose. and demonstrating results as part of accountability to key stakeholders. GOP.the most of it is for the earth quake stricken area of Azad Kashmir.5 billion comprising loans of $4.51billion. improving service delivery. For this study out of seven credit projects three were randomly chosen for studying the impacts of trainings given through them to enhance skill and capacity building of the ultimate beneficiaries. some serious pondering on past experiences is the need of the day. So before embarking on huge tide of foreign aided (especially credit) a project.separately as well as collectively and the KAP surveys were used for assessing the changes brought about for ultimate beneficiaries after the motivational and hygiene awareness campaigns. Training programs of all the three selected foreign aided projects namely Northern Education Project (NEP). planning and allocating resources. that is this impact evaluation study will provide government officials. In total there have been fourteen projects (11 completed and 3 running) The devastating earth quake of 8th October has provided a great opportunity for many more such projects (Today Pakistan has commitments of foreign economic assistance worth $3. and civil society with better means for learning from past experience.

It made use of participatory techniques to mobilize the population of rural villages to take control of their own resources and to bolster their capacity to demand and utilize services from relevant line agencies. The project was initiated with the following objectives: • Improving the income and living conditions of the population. • Identify. and shapes it interventions in structured interactions with the villages and the members of the communities. 26 . and the strengthening of the line agencies to deliver demand-based technical packages to the rural population. through the development of the area’s physical and human resources. skills and enterprises suitable for adoption by target group. and conservation of its environment. in the area comprising Muzaffarabad District.Project Digests of Neelum Jhelum Valley Community Development Project (NJVCDP) The UNDP/FAO/LEAD launched the Neelum and Jhelum Valleys Community Development Project (NJVCDP) in 1993. particularly its poorest members. It took a village approach to targeting. which aimed to improve the living standards of the poor in the Neelum and Jhelum valleys through the promotion of community based development of the area’s resources. so as to ensure the sustainability of the project initiative. excluding the area South of Jhelum River The Neelum and Jhelum Valleys Community Development’ Project (NJVCDP) in the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir concerns an integrated multi-sectoral area development project. for a period of seven years. introduce and promote new but proven technologies. • Promote community participations in the development of the area’s resources. the adoption of proven technologies and enterprises by these communities.

Improvements in training would involve:- • Ensuring that the skills being offered are relevant and in demand. Ensuring that the equipment and related facilities are appropriate. For this more than 2000 members of the 27 . • Developing a structured set of related courses allowing students to move upwards to higher skill levels according to interest and ability. The ratio for this is found in the need for the population of the project area. • Incorporating a mechanism for the assessment of aptitude of the students. and particularly the poor without land and the women from households with little land to supplement meager farming incomes.• Strengthen the line agencies so that they can provide the technical information required by the rural population. it also includes a component on vocational training. • • Improving the quality of instruction. curriculum development. and setting up mobile training centers. since the area holds limited potential for increasing agricultural production and the development of livestock. • Providing support to graduates with product related skills to further development of their skills into a livelihood. adequate and modern. While the project is mainly in various agricultural-related fields. To this end the project aimed to undertake a set of activities aiming to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of vocational training under the department of industries. by financing inter alia the upgrading and expansion of existing vocational training centers. The strategy involves improvement in the quality of the existing training given by the institutions of the Developments of Industries and Social Welfare as the first step prior to expansion of vocational training program. introduction of new training courses. allowing greater match to aptitude with course participation.

The funds utilization of IDA – RWSS project up to March 2000 is to the tune of Rs.community were given trainings in different vocational skills. 28 . The total outlay of IDA-RWSS project is to the tune of US$ 48. pg 18)20 Project Digest of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (RWSS) Azad Kashmir Local Government and Rural Development Department (LG&RDD) sought for enhanced technical and financial support of the UNICEF and IDA for providing water supply and sanitation facilities to the rural masses of the area.1059. RWSS schemes are being implemented with the financial assistance of the World Bank – IDA and UNICEF. later in 1991 the Donor was changed and IDA assisted in the 2nd phase of this integrated water and sanitation (WatSan) program. The Directorate is implementing the project through 7 district offices and 31 markaz offices (rural center).221 million.10 million out of which IDA credit is 28 million US dollar and the rest is to be borne by the GoAJK and beneficiaries communities (US$ 10. an Integrated Water Supply and Sanitation Program was launched in Azad Kashmir in 1981 with the assistance of UNICEF. (PC-1. As a consequence.525 million.30 + 9. Community contribution towards the capital cost of RWS scheme varies between20% to 40%. 506 members received training in agriculture and live stock development and 1200 members received trainings in community management skills. This evaluation study is for the second phase.80 million). Description of the program LG&RDD Directorate is situated in Muzaffarabad (AJK) and is responsible for the overall management of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RWSS) project.172. this phase completed in 2000. Assistance provided by UNICEF during the last 20 years since 1981 is estimated to be around Rs.

execution.632 million population to be provided with RWS schemes whereas through completed and ongoing RWS schemes. Overall Objectives The RWSS project was being implemented with active community-participation. train and motivate the rural communities for the purpose. In 1998. construction supervision.000 and construction of 3200 demonstration latrines in schools by LG&RDD and 9700 house-hold latrines by the communities on subsidized cost through hygiene education and motivation. 1989) 21 29 . Communities were to be actively involved in the project implementation cycle. procurement of material and subsequently take over the schemes for operation and maintenance. Accordingly. 1264 RWS schemes have been completed and handed over to the beneficiary communities. design. Out of that. organized and developed through the provision of extension services.Construction of 750 demonstration latrines in schools has been completed against the target of 1000. The IDA-RWSS project aimed at construction of 1588 (about 1600) new. the sanitation policy was changed and new targets for the provision of sanitation facilities were fixed. the beneficiary communities were to be mobilized. For this purpose. the project would be over achieved by 36%. About 236 RWS schemes are under construction. a very important training component of the project was devised with the following objectives (as envisaged by the Strategic Investment Plan Vol. 1. survey. The remaining 250 latrines are expected to be completed within the target period. To educate. The PC-I sets a target of 0. construction. LG&RDD would construct 1000 demonstration latrines in schools instead of 3200 while no subsidy will be provided for the construction of household latrines. They had to initiate requests for schemes and take part in schemes planning. rehabilitated and augmented water supply schemes in some 500 villages to cover population of 632.Up to January 2000 (since 1992). about 2209 RWS schemes have been designed to be implemented under IDA-RWSS project.

Strong emphasis was placed on practical training and on job training (OJT). This Evaluation Study presents the evaluation of the achievements of LG & RDD on hygiene and public health awareness and education in relation to the provision of water supply and sanitation facilities (demonstration latrines in schools) in the project communities. sub-Engineers and Health Education.• To enable the department to effectively manage. supervise and control the activities of the project. artisans and elected representative should be carried out at a lower level by the Extension Workers. The evaluation has been conducted in the light of the requirements as envisaged in the Strategic Investment the rural 30 . again contributing to effectiveness of their participation and their sense of ownership. and • To build self-confidence in their ability to manage. women and children will be trained separately in hygiene. • group of men. Trainings would be imparted at all levels of the departments involved in the project Training of villagers would be focused on: • to improve knowledge and skills thereby increasing the effectiveness of their participation. • village committees will be trained by the extension worker in village organization for commercial work and community financing. • training of artisans in promotional techniques It was further envisaged in the “Integrated Water Supply. construct and operate water supply schemes. Hygiene Education and Sanitation Program” that the training of villagers.

people by the staff of the line department and reports the results of three separate evaluation activities undertaken a) A descriptive review of staff learning programs and their imparting of training to the real stakeholders i. efficacy and sustainability. In order to tackle these problems and ensure the quality of education. relevancy. and c) A statistical analysis of impact of learning on staff and organizational and project performance. a project named Northern Education Project (NEP) was initiated in 1998-2003 was launched in all AJ&K and Northern Areas with the aim of uplifting quality of teacher education. b) A survey of over 500 beneficiary community members. 31 . To analyze the possible impact of learning on achieving the goals of the projects. That is the through checking the efficiency. regional staff and managers on their views of learning and perceived impact. Project Digest of Northern Education Project (NEP) Project History The northern education project (NEP) is part of an innovative program to improve elementary education in the Northern Areas and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). The analysis was done using the standard analysis tools. the local community. which were used by World Bank and UN bodies. The project is designed to complement educational reforms under the federal social action program. It was World Bank funded project. whose enrollment and elementary education completion rates still lag behind those of boys. or SAP.e. the NEP places particular emphasis on expanding educational opportunities for girls. As with SAP. Northern Education Project focused on enhancement of quality of education as the first priority.

5. 1997. 1997. Increasing Equitable Access Access to schooling will be improved through the replacement of number of currently dangerous schools.). Project Objectives The major objective as described in the Appraisal Report of NEP is: to support the program for the development of the elementary school sector in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) and to assist in the project to achieve the four main objectives of the project which are as follows: 1. Improving Educational Quality Policy changes. The Northern Education project was formally inaugurated on November 18. 2. PC-1 prepared by the Govt. and provision of buildings for currently shelter less and community schools.Project Description The project supported an integrated package of activities over a five-year period.4 million equivalent). of AJK was approved on May 26. (Time span dragged ahead to 1998to2004) Project activities will cover all seven administrative districts in the AJK. from October 1997 to June 2002. (with the exception of a pilot community participation project in a single district. (b) curriculum and educational materials development: and (c) improvements in student assessment techniques. 1997. was signed on Nov. Priority will 32 . It’s a credit project the loan agreement between the World Bank and GOP (amounting to US dollars 36 million (SDR 16. strategies and activities designed to improve educational quality include: (a) changes in teacher recruitment and training . with emphasis on expanding opportunities for female teachers in the NA and improving teaching skills and content knowledge for existing teachers in both the NA and AJK.

The PC-I translated these main components into quantified achievable targets and to made 33 . with the possibilities of future expansion. In AJK. p. 4. (Northern Education Project.be given to the mixed and girls’ schools. 2004. and all school locations will be chosen on the basis of a school mapping exercise. Strengthening institutional capacity Strategies to strengthen the management of the educational system in each region include: (a) some internal re-organization of the department of education to better serve system needs. Boundary walls and latrines will be provided for mixed and girl’s schools. and (c) increased training in community mobilization and related topics for DOE staff working with parent teacher associations and village education committees. the project is supporting the existing community schools program through: (a) increased financial support to eligible community schools. the project is supporting a pilot project to establish school committees in a single district.2)22 While the project objectives are the same for both the NA and AJK. (b) the testing of different financial and management models for community schools through a pilot program. All buildings constructed under the project will also receive regular maintenance funds. ICR. Community Participation: In the NA. 3.(e) establishment of and/or improvements to the management information system and (f) integration of monitoring and evaluation functions into regular managerial duties. with particular emphasis on the primary years. Pakistan. the specific strategies for achieving these objectives are tailored to reflect the different needs and resource in the each region. as well as additional staffing of key areas. (c) improvement of training conditions (including provision of office equipment and vehicles). NEP was designed to cover Education from katchi to class 8th. (b) provision of job descriptions for all staff.

teaching materials. 400 sanitary units and 100 boundary walls preferably with girls schools and provide furniture to newly constructed primary schools. teacher guides. and 6 person/month overseas training and study tour for subject specialist. local and foreign training in supervisory practices and transport facilities to supervisors. multi grade teaching. and World Bank. A. (vi) to conduct school mapping exercise for decision making and future planning.provisions for implementation of the concrete agreement between Govt. 400 auxiliary rooms. computers. 34 . library books. (ii) to strengthen Education Extension Centre (EEC) and curriculum Research & Development Centre (CRDC) by providing equipments. 6)23 were: (i) to equip 4 training Govt.V. (vii) to provide 26 additional posts of AEO’s with supporting staff. Operationally. teachers and supervisors. (iii) to develop & distribute text-books for grade 5-8. aids equipment. vehicles. (iv)to Establish 400 school committees and provided training in social mobilization to representatives of school committees. teaching of science & mathematics. (viii) strengthen Education Management Information System (EMIS) by providing computers. continuous assessment. (v) constructed 400 primary schools consisting 800 classrooms. 6 additional faculty positions and 24 persons/month international study tour and overseas training for teacher educators and curriculum developers. the quantitative objectives as spelt out in the (PC-I pp. 5. learning packages and materials. (iv)to prepare pool of about 400 master trainers to deliver INSET to 16000 elementary teachers in integrated curriculum. colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCETs) by providing library books. teaching of English. 4 additional positions of data entry operations and training staff.

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