Chapter: One 1.

Introduction
1.1 Introduction to the study
This present study has been accomplished to submit to the Department of English Education, T.U. Kirtipur, Kathmandu in partial fulfillment for the Master' Degree in English Education that the student teachers have to carry out it as a part of practicum in M. Ed. programme. This intensive study in the course book "Meanings into Words" is divided into 5 units. First unit deals with introduction, objectives, significance and limitation of the study. Second unit deals within introduction and objectives of the course and course contents in detail. Third unit consists of analysis of the course book. Similarly forth unit concentrates on suggestions and recommendations. Finally fifth unit consists of conclusion.

1.2 Objectives of the study
Each study has its objectives: general and specific. The following are the objectives of the study:

1.2.1General Objectives
a. To analyze the course book "Meanings into Words" b. To present general information of the course c. To provide some recommendations for pedagogical improvements.

1.2.2 Specific objectives
a. To state the general introduction of the course book b. To present contents of the course in detail
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c. To state appropriateness of the course to the target group d. To point out internal and external aspects of the course book e. To point out some strengths and weaknesses of the course book f. To help the teachers for the betterment of their study g. To help the students and the persons who are directly or indirectly involved in studying of the course book.

1.3 Significance of the study
The present study focuses on finding our strengths and weakness of the textbook entitled 'Meanings into Words'. It is expected that this evaluation/study will be directly or indirectly significant to those people who are involved in teaching and learning activities. More particularity it will be significant to the teachers, syllabus designers, textbook writers and those who are interested in ELT.

1.4 Limitation of study
This study is limited only to the textbook/ course book "Meanings into Words" offered in class XII by Higher secondary Education Board of Nepal.

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Chapter: Two 2 Introduction to the Course
A textbook is used in the study of a particular subject or syllabus, usually containing an orderly presentation of subject matter i.e. language items or teaching items. It is a book that provides the core materials for a course. It aims to provide as much as possible in one book and is designed so that it could serve as the only book which learner necessarily use during a course. Basically, it includes work on grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, functions and the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. In short, it often accompanied by tests, exercises and other instructional - aids. Thus, a textbook is a book containing facts about a particular subject by people studying that subject. A textbook is taken as the course book in our context as it has been followed by each and every teacher. Truly speaking, a text book helps both teacher and students. It can help the teachers to know what should be taught/ learnt, and the order in which it should be taught/ learnt, to identify what method of instruction to be applied in the classroom, to bring equality in their teaching. It provides neatly, attractively and economically, all or most of the materials needed, helps them with attractive, neat and economic items, helps a new teacher to grasp the subject matter, helps to save their time. Last but not the least it can act as a very useful learning-aid for the student. It also can afford the student a means of reviewing and reorganizing his/her knowledge. The students who do not go to class regularly use the textbook for their self- study. Thus, it is a very helpful device in teaching and learning process. However, it should be used as a means not an end. As I’m concerned with the analytic report of the compulsory English of grade XII under HSEB, this report is based on my experience and discussion with subject teacher Mr. Rudra Mani Bhattarai (Internal supervisor) of Harisiddhi Higher Secondary School, Harisiddhi, Lalitpur.
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2.1 Description of the Course
It is one of the two textbooks prescribed for compulsory English of grade XII. This book contains a Work Book, a Student's Book, a Teacher's Book, Test Book, a Book Cassette of all recorded material and Cassette (Drills). The workbook contains extra written practice of the language taught in each unit. It contains 15 units, to accompany students Book units 1-16. The Test Book contains 5 progressive tests and a final achievement test. The Drills give intensive manipulation practice for key structures introduced the units, for use in language laboratory. Likewise, the Teacher's Book includes a general description of the course as well as detailed teaching notes on each unit. And a cassette includes all the recorded materials in the students’ book. Two kinds of teacher's book are available in the market. The students Book contain 16 teaching units. Each of which is based on a major functional or notional area of English. Each unit includes presentation material which introduces key language items, Intensive controlled practice, free communicative practice and writing activities, listening and reading passages and a language summary which lists the main points covered in the unit. The textbook “Meaning into Words” upper intermediate is a part of the compulsory English course under HSEB in grade XII. It is an integrative course especially deals with the grammatical aspects of English language. The book was written by Adrian Doff, Christopher Jones and Keith Mitchell. I taught that course ‘Meaning into Words’ during my practice teaching.

2.2 General Objectives of the Course
The course aims to teach four language skills in an integrative way. It attempts to bridge the gap between traditional and communicative approaches of teaching language. The course has the following general objectives:

To develop an understanding and command of grammar in terms of form, meaning and use.
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To

train

them

in

the

functional,

notional

and

grammatical areas of English language use. • To improve students English in the area of reading, writing, listening and language use.

To provide students techniques in the use of English for academic communicative purposes.

To teach them structure in a context.

2.3 Specific objectives of the course
This course has following specific objectives:
• • • •

To teach students language use and functions. To enable them to establish a link between structure and meaning. To provide them with more examples of language in context. To engage them in more fruitful reading.

2.4 Course contents in detail
The textbook ‘Meaning into Words’ contains seven broad areas of language functions. They are:

Action: this area consists of language used for talking about the desirability and possibility of action.

Description: this area consists of language used for physical description of place things and people.

Personal information: this area consists of language used for giving information about you to other people

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Narration: this area consists of language used for talking about past events and telling stories in the past.

Past and present: this area consists of language used for relating past and present.

Comparison: this part consists of language used for making comparison and evaluation;

Explanation: this section deals with the language used for explaining things and speculation about things.

Each of those areas is divided into a number of units, which are arranged in such a way that to provide content in natural, progressive and logical and increasing order of difficulty in language leaning. The course "Meanings into Words" incorporates the following contents in detail. 1 Experience Present Perfect and Past tense; special Present Perfect structures; be used to. 2 Appearances Look + adjective/Like/as; seem + infinitive; physical characteristics of people. 3 Relating past events Past Perfect and Past tense; non-defining relative clauses 4 Attitudes and reactions Verbs and adjectives for expressing attitudes; 'if there's one …it's….', way; character adjectives

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5 Duration Past duration structures; how long…?, for/until; in/by; duration structures using different tenses 6 Reporting Reported speech structures; 'reported thought'; reporting verbs 7 Deductions and explanations Must/might/can+ infinitive forms; second conditional, third conditional; 'significance' structures 8 Advantages and disadvantages Effect verbs; (dis)advantage of /drawback of/ trouble with/good(bad) thing about; there's no point in/ it's no use /might as well; second conditional 9 Clarifying Information questions; indirect questions; tag questions; identifying structures; reported questions. 10 Wishes and regrets I wish/ if only+ would past perfect tense; second and third conditionals; should ( n't) have done; could/needn't have done 11 Events in sequence When+ past simple and past perfect; as soon as; before/not before /not until; had only just…..when…;no sooner had…….than…. 12 Comparisons Large and small differences; numerical comparisons; comparisions involving different tenses
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13 Processes When+ present simple and present perfect; before/not before /not until; passive structures; change of state verbs 14 Predictions Bound to / certain to / sure to/ likely to; if unless/ as long as/ provided that; first and second conditionals 15 News Present perfect, present and past tenses; supposed to; other passive reporting verbs 16 Revisions

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Chapter: Three 3. Analysis of the course book 3.1 Evaluation of the book
No doubt, the textbook seen as important and effective in one context of learning has become less effective in other contexts of learning. That's why; the textbook should be evaluated properly. Teachers, basically are the textbook evaluators in the sense that teachers who are the ultimate users of the textbook are always better evaluators of that textbook than the authority such as education officers, head teachers, and so on. The reason is that they are taken as front liner practitioners. Evaluating textbook is a difficult, challenging and intellectual task because evaluator must consider the several factors that are related to the textbook i.e. linguistic aspect, pedagogical aspect, socio-linguistic and psycholinguistic aspect of target group, teaching and learning situations, experience and expertise of the teachers, level and needs of the students, features and qualities of the textbook, and so on. In order to judge or evaluate the usefulness of any textbook, many scholars have provided a comprehensive list of criteria. Such as, Harmer (2001, p.301) has provided 12 criteria, Ur (1996, p.186) has provided 18 criteria, Andrew Littlejohn has purposed two main sections: publication and design. But, I think none of them is adequate. We can generalize some useful criteria based on the different views given by various scholars .They are as follows:
a) Internal aspect

b) External aspect We can also evaluate the text book in three levels i.e. a) surface level of analysis (statement of description), b) deep level of analysis (task analysis) and c) deducing level of analysis (making subjective decision/ generalization/ findings).
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3.1.1 Internal aspect
Internal aspect of the book refers to its content features or subject matter.

Generally internal aspect of the textbook comprises content, language, exercises, and other supplementary elements, which are analyzed below

3.1.1.1Appropriateness for the target group
A designed textbook must be appropriate to the target group in terms of their cognitive and academic level. With reference to this aspect, the textbook should be designed considering content, language, exercise and other elements. It means that a textbook should include appropriate content, language, exercises and other elements for the target group. They are discussed in the following way. A) Content The subject matter of the textbook should be adequate and suitable to the age, level, and interest of the students. In fact, content should be significant and valid. Content must be important, meaningful and factual to be significant. Similarly, content may be regarded as valid when it is authentic, true and accurate. Thus the content validity and significance of particular course is the most important thing. “Meaning into Words” has incorporated such contents which aim to develop the learners physically, mentally, emotionally ready for higher education. It is so tough that learner will feel difficult in learning. Moreover, they are selected without the need analysis of Nepalese learners and societies. In nutshell, contents are not appropriate to the Nepalese students. However, content used in this book is valid because it has authentic, true and accurate subject matter. B) Language Language used in the book should be authentic not artificial. Putting it another way, a good textbook should have appropriate vocabulary, correct spelling, short and simple sentences, clear expression, logical sequence. It means that a good textbook should avoid unnecessary idiomatic and metaphorical expressions.
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Language used in “Meaning into words” is simple and understandable. Students can understand the texts. Most of the vocabularies and structures are repeated of secondary level. Those who have got ideas in grade 9 and 10 will not find such tough time to understand the lessons in grade 12 but texts are more authentic and functional in this regard students might feel little bit problem in understanding. In fact, language of this course book is entirely based on western culture. Nepali learners of English may feel difficult. Those students who have passed SLC from government added schools may feel difficult to learn and habituate themselves with the language but those students who have passed SLC from English medium school may feel easy to learn and use the same kind of language as used in the book. C) Exercises An exercise is a set of questions or tasks in a book, which is designed to help students to learn a particular skill and to test their knowledge. A good textbook should have enough appropriate exercises for class and homework. So, exercises are also appropriate to the target group linguistically. But the exercises included in this course book require students’ speculation ability and convert them in their real life situations. So, in this case of exercise it’s ok but in the case of critical reading and writing they may feel difficulties. Moreover, due to the exercises taken out from foreign contexts, Nepalese students feel them difficult. D) Other elements Apart from language, content and exercises there are some other elements which should be evaluated i.e. footnote, glossary and so on. So, evaluator should try to find out whether these are used properly or not. This course book has not incorporated the sub- aspect of appropriateness for the target group. The subaspect encompasses footnote, glossary, appendices and references which are lacking in this course book.

3.1.1.2 Organization of items
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Content used in the book should be arranged appropriately. It means that it should be organized on the basis of two principles; logical and psychological. Former is concerned with that type of organization in which writer organize content rationally whereas later one is that type of organization in which the writer organize content on the basis of pupils' need, interest, pre-experience, abilities, and so on. Likewise, Writer should organize the content meaningfully by considering vertical and horizontal organization. So the evaluator should use those criteria to evaluate the textbook to find out whether the teaching items and other elements of the book are graded appropriately or not. The selection of the language item is found good in the book but the only problem I found is in the gradation of those items. The language items presented are not properly arranged. The inconsistency found in the arrangement makes the students feel much difficulty in the learning.

3.1.2 External aspect
External aspect of the book refers to its physical or peripheral features.

Generally physical/external aspect of the text book comprises layout of the book, lettering and spacing, printing and binding, paper quality, and availability, which are analyzed below.

3.1.2.1 Layout of the book
The layout or cover page of the book should be attractive to motivate the student towards reading the book. In other words, it should have direct impact upon the students. This book has good and attractive cover page with quality paper. Though the cover page seems good and attractive, it is not more informative and effective. The cover page is well laminated and its color also seems good.

3.1.2.2 Size of the book
The size of a textbook depends on the content it covers. The size of this course book is average and seems good uniformity .The size of this book is 7.2'' *9.6"
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while measured. But in principle, the size of the book should maintain 7"*2which is the standard size.

3.1.2.3 Paper quality
The paper quality is the most important physical aspects of the textbook .The quality of paper of existing higher secondary level textbook is almost good.

3.1.2.4 Pricing
Pricing is also one of the physical aspects of the textbook. The cost of this course is not so expensive, it costs Rs.95/ in Nepal. Regarding the class of Nepalese people the market price of this book seems reasonable.

3.1.2.5 Printing and bind
Regarding printing of this book, I don't want to make comments. The binding of this book is durable and it permits the book to open freely.

3.1.2.6 Lettering and spacing
Textbook's texts should be legible. They should not strain reader's eyes. The size of the letters for topic and exercises, the top, bottom, left and right margins, space between words and sentences, etc. seem good. However, the size of the letters especially in the tape scripts at the end of the book is not large.

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3.2 Analysis
3.2.1 Strength of the course book
The strong points found in this course are bulleted as follow:

The course includes variety of structures along with pictures and texts, which are good to draw students’ attention.

It helps to develop an understanding command of grammar in terms of form, meaning and use.

It encompasses seven broad areas of language i.e. action, description, personal information and narration, past and present, comparison an explanation, which provides clear vision of the course to the teacher.

• •

It integrates all language skills i.e. listening speaking reading and writing. It provides plenty of exercises, activities for pair and group work. Pair work and group works are very useful for developing language skills.

The use of illustration and pictures help students to learn effectively and effortlessly.

The course includes summary of language at the end of each units helps students to revise what have they learnt and teacher to focuses on such points. Moreover, to prepare specific objectives before the lesson.

New grammar points and structures have been introduced by means of reading passage, pictures, and so on.

Writing exercises are introduced to develop students’ grammar along with imaginative and creative ability.

Course book incorporates texts based on foreign cultures and life styles which help them to familiarize with outside culture.
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3.2.2 Weaknesses of the Course book
The weak points found in this course are attempted as below:

The course is entirely based on western culture. It consists of words and expressions which reflects western culture and value.

As the course was written by foreign writers, it seems they could not study the learners’ background information before designing.

The course lacks footnotes glossaries, appendices and reference sections which are also crucial for better understanding of the course.

• The listening texts and exercises are given, but it is useless in Nepalese context. • Teacher’s book of this course is not straight forwardly available in the market. • It is said that the course is solely for the students of south Asia but it includes nothing about south Asia. • Some pictures in the book are not overt for the students. They face setbacks while describing them.

Meaning into words is a standard course in terms of its subject matter. So it demands qualified, well trained teachers which is lacking in our contexts.

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Chapter: Four 4.1 Suggestion and Recommendations
This course is a standard one on the basis of its content, language, exercises and attractive illustrations. It provides an excellent grammar reference section and covers imaginative power and critical thinking of students. But the main point, it is whole heartily related to western values and norms, culture and life styles etc. which creates boring for students because the learning will not be real life related and can’t arouse their interest. The course should reflect the nationality and culture. Therefore, I have attempted some suggestions which will be helpful for new dimension of this course book.
 Grammar should be more illustrative with nice and colorful pictures.  Things to be incorporated in the course should focus both urban and rural

areas.
 The course should include those grammatical and functional points that

are used in day to day life or communication.
 Vocabulary section is not enough. More exercises should be given for this

aspect.
 There are ample listening passages and exercises but are of no value. So it

is required to give training to the concerned teacher to teach this skill effectively.
 It has tried to incorporate grammatical and functional points through text

and context but the texts included in the course became short and few which don’t help students.
 The texts and teaching items should reflect the Nepalese context and

culture rather than western and open societies.
 Language items to be presented should be properly arranged or

grouped.

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Unit: Five 5.1 Conclusion
It is purported that there is nothing as perfect and ideal in the world. So, as there are many strong points and weaknesses of any course books. Analysis made on them helps to be improved in the days to come. ‘Meaning into Words’ is a standard course book in terms of its subject matter; it means there is no question against its quality and standard. Subject matters have been selected to meet the need of the students’ of 21st century. This book aimed to be communicative in nature by reducing the scene discrepancies between structural and functional courses. The course is attractive, interesting motivating contextual and relevant for the students of western society or countries. For Nepali learners its being tough, being out of context and culture. Students merely learn contents but not actual language in the name of learning English. This book seems it was not designed based on the need analysis of Nepalese students’ and Nepali society. But it is forcefully imposed in Nepalese context, by the way if some modifications are done on the basis of such suggestions and recommendations imparted by such evaluators; it works in our context too; on the part of learners in the particular and for the nation in general. Internal Supervisor Mr.Rudra Mani Bhattarai Harisiddhi Higher Secondary, School Harisiddhi, Lalitpur External Supervisor Dr.Tara Datta Bhatta Associate Professor Department of English Education,T.U.,Kirtipur

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References
Bhattari,G.R. (2001). Evaluating Textbooks. Kathmandu. Ratnapustak Bhandar. Doff, A. et. al. (2000). Meaning into Words. Student’s Book. Uk: CUP. Doff, A. et. Al. (2000) Meaning into Words, Upper – intermediate- Teachers’ book, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Harmer, J (2001). The Practice of English Language Teaching (third edition), London: Longman. Harmer, J. (2008). How to teach English. London: Pearson Longman. Tomlinson, B. (1997). Materials Development in Language Teaching (Ed.). Cambridge: CUP. Rai,V.S. (1998). ELT Materials and Practices. Kathmandu: Bhudipuran Prakashan. Ur, P. (1991). A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory. Cambridge: CUP.

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AN INTENSIVE STUDY ON THE TEXTBOOK

Meanings into Words
Offered to Higher Secondary Level Grade XII

Submitted to The Department of English Education In partial fulfillment for the master of education in English Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Submitted by Yogendra Chapagain M. Ed. Second Year T.U. Regd. No: 9-1-9-584-2004 Exam Roll No: …………………Class Roll No: 069
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Acknowledgements
The present work i.e. an intensive study of meanings into words is a fruit of my meticulous endeavor made during my practice teaching at Shree Harisiddhi Higher Secondary School, Harisiddhi, Lalitpur. As a student teacher, I taught ‘Meaning into Words’ for grade 12 in that college. First of all, I would like to express my profound gratitude to Dr.Tara Datta Bhatta who was my facilitator during micro teaching, whose scholarly guidance and suggestions remained fruitful. He has always been an infallible source of inspiration for my academic pursuit. I would like to present my heartfelt thanks to my internal supervisor Mr.Rudra Mani Bhattarai for his assistance, suggestions and supervision during my practice teaching. Similarly I’d like to express my sincere gratitude to my external supervisor Dr.Tara Datta Bhatta for his inspiration and worthy suggestions. I’m equally grateful to the principal and teachers of Harisiddhi Higher Secondary School for their kind considerations revealed upon us by providing classes for practice teaching. My special thanks go to my students of grade 12 who became co-operative, helpful and made classroom interactive during my teaching. I am exceedingly grateful to Professor Dr.Jai Raj Awasthi, the vice-chancellor of Far-Western University for his continuous guidance and suggestions. His remarks and comments in my academic life remained as a long imprinted impression in my mind. Likewise, I am indebted to Prof. Dr.Govinda Raj Bhattarai, Prof. Dr. Tirth Raj Khaniya, Prof. Dr. Anju Giri, Prof. Dr. Chandreshwor Mishra, Dr. Anjana Bhattarai, Dr. Vishnu Singh Rai, Dr. L.B. Maharjan and other faculties from the department of English Education, who have always been source of inspiration and encouragement for my academic prosperity. We would record our appreciation to those authors whose works have been consulted and cited here. Finally, all our practice teaching colleagues, who added fuel to my curiosity to teach in this school, deserve my special thanks. Date: 2069-06-03
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Yogendra Chapagain

Contents Acknowledgements …………..………………………………..I Contents …………………………………………………II-III Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………………………1-2
1.1 Introduction to the study ………………………………...………1 1.2 Objectives of the study ………………………………………….1 1.3 Significance of the study …………………...……………..…….2 1.4 Limitation of the study ……………………………………….…2

Chapter 2: Introduction to the course ……………….……3-8
2.1 Description of the course.……………………….……...……….4
2.2 General objectives of the course …….………………..………….4 2.3 Specific objectives of the course……………………..………..…5

2.4 Course contents in detail ………………………………………… 5

Chapter 3: Analysis of the course……………...…………9-15
3.1 Evaluation of the book…………………...……..………………9 3.1.1 3.1.2

Internal aspect ………………………….………………10 External aspect …………….……………….………….12

3.2 Analysis ……………………..………………………..……….14
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3.2.1 Strength of the book……………………….....………….14 3.2.2 Weaknesses of the book…………………………………15
II

Chapter 4: Suggestions and recommendation..…….……..16 Chapter 5: Conclusion ………………………………………17 References

23 III