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**K. Jagadeesh1 Asst. Professor, P.V. Dhinakar Reddy2 PG Student
**

Dept. of EEE, Samskruthi College of Engineering & Technology, Ghatkaser, Hyderabad , Andhra Pradesh, India. jagadeesh.k12@gmail.com Dept. of EEE, Vardhaman College of Engineering & Technology., Kacharam, Shamshabad, Andhra Pradesh, India pvdhinakarreddy@gmail.com

Abstract

In this paper, a new control method for matrix converters is proposed which allows, under the constraint of unity input power factor, the generation of the voltage vectors required to implement the direct torque control (DTC) of induction machines. Using this control method, it is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of the DTC schemes. Some numerical simulations are carried out, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method in steady-state and transient conditions. Some experimental tests were also carried out demonstrating the practical feasibility of this control scheme.

**Keywords—AC–AC Power Conversion, Induction Motor Drives, Direct Torque Control I. Introduction
**

THREE-PHASE matrix converters have received considerable attention in recent years because they may become a good alternative to voltage-source inverter pulse width-modulation (VSI-PWM) converters [1]–[6]. In fact, the matrix converter provides bidirectional power flow, sinusoidal input/output waveforms, and controllable input power factor. Furthermore, the matrix converter allows a compact design due to the lack of dc-link capacitors for energy storage. With reference to the control methods, two approaches are widely used. The first one is based on transfer function analysis and has been proposed in [1]. The second one is based on space-vector modulation (SVM) technique, which has some advantages, such as immediate comprehension of the required commutation processes, simplified control algorithm, and maximum voltage transfer ratio without adding third harmonic components [5], [7]–[9]. The direct torque control (DTC) technique for induction motors was initially proposed as DTC [10] or direct self-control [11], then the method was generalized to current-source-inverter-fed induction motors and to VSI-fed and current-sourceinverter-fed synchronous machines [12]. The main advantages of DTC are robust and fast torque response, no requirements for coordinate transformation, no requirements for PWM pulse generation and current regulators. In [13] and [14], a control scheme for induction motors based on DTC has been analyzed, but the rotor flux is assumed as reference, instead of stator flux, in order to achieve the highest pull-out torque. Using a VSI, different vector selection criteria can be employed to control the torque and the flux leading to different switching strategies. Each strategy affects the drive behavior in terms of torque and current ripple, switching frequency, and two- or four-quadrant operation capability [15]–[17]. In [18], a speed-dependent switching strategy has been proposed in order to achieve fast torque response in a wide speed range. In this paper, a new control method for matrix converters is proposed which allows, under the constraint of unity input power factor, the generation of the voltage vectors required to implement the DTC of induction machines. The appropriate switching configuration of the matrix converter is directly selected, at each sampling period, using an opportune switching table. The table is entered by the outputs of three hysteresis controllers applied to the errors of stator flux, electromagnetic torque, and input power factor, respectively. Using this control method, it is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of DTC schemes.

Figure.1. Schematic representation of a matrix converter

It should be noted that the voltage vectors produced by a matrix converter can be utilized using the SVM technique to synthesize the instantaneous voltage vector required by field-oriented control of induction motors [5]–[9]. Using the switching table given in Table II. The zero-voltage vectors are selected when the output of the torque comparator is zero. Among these. the DTC is a hysteresis stator flux and torque control that directly selects one of the six nonzero and two zero voltage vectors generated by a VSI (Figure.The good performance of the proposed scheme has been tested using a realistic numerical simulation of the whole drive. while V5 and V6 a torque decrease. Figure. In particular. The corresponding output line-to-neutral voltage vector and input line current vector. according to the switching table given in Table II. B. as shown in Figure. Direct Torque Control by Matrix Converter A. 3 Input line current vector configurations . 2 Output line-to-neutral voltage vector configurations As an example. 5 and 6. The steady-state and the transient behavior have been investigated. The first 18 switching configurations (named ±1. the stator flux is controlled by a two-level hysteresis comparator. respectively. the most opportune VSI voltage vector is selected at each sampling period. 1. the voltage vectors V2 and V6 can be selected in order to increase the flux while V3 and V5 can be applied to decrease the flux.‖ The remaining six switching configurations have the three output phases connected to a different input phase. In both cases. ±2 … ±9) have the common feature of connecting two output phases to the same input phase. Three switching configurations determine zero input current and output voltage vectors and will be named ―zero configurations. in order to maintain the estimated stator flux and torque within the hysteresis bands. as represented in Figure. V 2 and V3 determine a torque increase. the nine bidirectional switches allow any output phase to be connected to any input phase as schematically represented in Figure. 2 and 3. among these. On the basis of the hysteresis comparator outputs and the stator flux sector number. the output voltage and input current vectors have variable direction and cannot be usefully used. 4). only 21 can be usefully employed in the DTC algorithm. considering the stator flux vector lying in sector-1. irrespective of the stator flux condition. the results obtained emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed drive system. In this case.‖ The magnitude of these vectors depends upon the instantaneous values of the input line-to-neutral voltages and output line currents respectively as shown in Table I. it is possible to implement DTC schemes having good performance. Matrix Converter Theory In three-phase/three-phase matrix converters. whereas the torque by a three-level hysteresis comparator. There are 27 possible switching configurations. have fixed directions. and will be named ―active configurations. These configurations are summarized in Table I. Figure. II. Basic DTC Principles In principle.

DTC Principles Using Matrix Converters From the previous considerations. the proposed control technique of the matrix converter selects. the proper switching configuration. the average value of the sine of the displacement angle ψi between the input line-toneutral voltage vector and the corresponding input line current vector has been chosen as a third variable. at each sampling period. This feature can be utilized to keep under control a further variable in addition to stator flux and torque. 5 Flux hysteresis comparator TABLE 1. it appears that the matrix converter generates a higher number of output voltage vectors with respect to VSI. 6 directly control this variable. which allows the compensation of instantaneous errors in flux magnitude. The criteria utilized to implement the switching table for the matrix converter can be explained referring to an example. Switching Configurations used in the Proposed Control Scheme C. and torque. In principle. This last requirement of the input side of the matrix converter is intrinsically satisfied if the average value of sin(ψi) is maintained close to zero. From . In the proposed control method. We can assume that V1 is the VSI output voltage vector selected by the DTC algorithm in a given switching period. The average value of sin(ψi) is obtained by applying a low-pass filter to its instantaneous value.Figure. under the constraint of unity input power factor. 4 VSI output line-to-neutral voltage vectors and corresponding stator flux variations in a period ∆t Figure. The hysteresis regulator shown in Figure.

As can be noted from Table I and Figure. . These estimators require the knowledge of input and output voltages and currents. ±3 must be chosen. Figure. while the other quantities are calculated on the basis of the switching states of the matrix converter. which can be utilized. one of the matrix converter switching configurations ±1. The first column contains the voltage vectors selected by the basic DTC scheme to keep the stator flux and torque within the limits of the corresponding hysteresis bands. and average value of sin(ψi). ±2. The output of the hysteresis comparators. stator flux. if the average value of sin(ψi) has to be increased. The magnitude and the direction of the corresponding output voltage vectors depend on the input line-to-neutral voltage vector. those having the same direction of V1 and the maximum magnitude are considered. However. are +1 and -3. 2 and 4 and from Table I it appears that in order to generate a voltage vector similar to V1. only the input voltages and output currents are measured. is selected. which minimize the number of commutations. Depending on the output value of the hysteresis comparator. 6. If the input line-to-neutral voltage vector lies in sector-1. then the switching configurations. 3.Figure. Then. if the average value of sin(ψi) has to be decreased. Among the six vectors. Both these switching configurations satisfy the torque and flux requirements. The switching table based on these principles is shown in Table III. the switching configuration +1 has to be applied. A schematic diagram of the proposed drive system is represented in Figure. are the input to the switching configuration selection algorithm (Tables II and III). together with the numbers of the sectors of the stator flux vector and input line-to-neutral voltage vector. When a zero-voltage vector Cψ is required from Table II. the zero configuration of the matrix converter. The other six columns are related to the sector in which the input line-to-neutral voltage vector is lying. 6 Block diagram of the DTC scheme with matrix converter TABLE 3 Matrix Converter Switching Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cψ V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 +1 -3 9 -6 3 -9 6 -1 1 -7 4 -1 7 -4 +1 2 -8 5 -2 8 -5 -1 -3 9 -6 3 -9 6 +1 -1 7 -4 1 -7 4 -1 2 -8 5 -2 8 -5 +1 3 -9 6 -3 9 -6 -1 -1 7 -4 1 -7 4 +1 -2 8 -5 2 -8 5 -1 3 -9 6 -3 9 -6 +1 1 -7 4 -1 7 -4 -1 -2 8 -5 2 -8 5 In the lower part of the diagram are shown the estimators of electromagnetic torque. On the contrary. the switching configuration -3 has to be applied. the left or the right sub column has to be used in selecting the switching configuration of the matrix converter. The reference values of torque and stator flux are compared with the estimated values. these configurations determine input current vectors lying on the directions adjacent to sectors 1 and 4.

005974H Lm=0. To analyze real phenomena such as the influence of discretization. Input 3-Ф Supply Voltage Figure. a numerical simulation of the whole system has been carried out.73kW four-pole 460-V 60-Hz cage induction motor having the following parameters: Rs=1.115Ω Lls=0. Numerical Simulations The drive system proposed in this paper has been tested by some numerical simulations in order to verify the steady-state and dynamic performance.2037H J=0. 8 Input 3-Ф Currents . and the effects of sensors and analog-to-digital converters. The test machine is a standard 3.005974H Rr=1. the delay caused by the sampling of signals. 7.III.083Ω Llr=0.02Kg-m Figure.

Figure.10 Speed response at No-Load Figure. SBa & SCa Figure.11 Torque profile at No-Load .9 Switching Pulses SAa.

14 Output Voltage Figure.Figure.12 Stator Currents Figure.15 Output Currents .13 Rotor Currents Figure.

The result is a high-performance induction motor drive system with intrinsic regenerative breaking and unity input power factor operation capability.15sec Figure. Conclusions In this paper. Furthermore. A switching table. The results show a high dynamic response with decoupled action on flux and torque. The proposed scheme has been tested in steady-state conditions in the low. Over traditional VSI-PWM converters have been combined with the advantages of the DTC technique.Figure. the drive system acts as a nearly sinusoidal. it has been verified that. has been defined. performing some numerical simulation.17 Torque profile at Load of 25 N-m at 0. unity input power factor generator. The dynamic behavior has been tested during the transient from motor to regenerative breaking operating condition. during the regenerative breaking.16 Speed at Load condition at 0. .and high-speed ranges. Input line-to-neutral voltage and input line current waveforms with 25-N-m torque command. The current and torque waveforms emphasize the effectiveness of the control scheme. 18 dq-axes stator flux linkages IV. a new induction motor drive scheme has been proposed in which a matrix converter is employed in driving an induction motor using the DTC technique.15sec Figure. which allows direct control of the matrix converter on the basis of the motor control requirements.

Taormina. vol. vol. [5] L. G.K. pp. G. Jayne. pp. 1993. G. G. pp. 18–21. Casadei. ICEM’94. 170–175. Power Electron. Serra. ―Feasibility of both vector control and displacement factor correction by voltage source type ac–ac matrix converter.REFERENCES A. Spain. Ind. and P. Power Electronics and Electrical & Drives and Control Systems P V Dhinakar Reddy received the B. Applicat. Bologna.‖ in Proc. [14] ―Rotor flux oriented torque-control of induction machines based on stator flux vector control. 1986. 3.‖ EMPS. Casadei. Electron. Sept. Venturini. 431–436. vol. EPE’93. 28. vol. L. 15. G.. G. vol. July 2000. ―Direct Self-Control (DSC) of inverter-fed induction machine. 524–530. ―Improvement of direct torque control performance by using a discrete SVM technique. ―Rectifier-inverter frequency changers with suppressed DC link components. pp.‖ IEEE Trans. 546–551. vol. Schauder. Tani. [18] D. ―Space vector control of matrix converters with unity input power factor and sinusoidal input/output waveforms. His field of interest includes Matrix Converters. pp. Kazerani and B.K. Spain. Casadei. 5–8. ―Space vector modulated three-phase to three-phase matrix converter with input power factor correction. U. 240–250. Paris. Noguchi./Oct. 7. Neft and C. May/June 1992.‖ in Proc. Sept. pp. SPEEDAM. IA-22. R. Jan. 628–633. 7.‖ IEEE Trans..K. [12] I. Tani. [13] D. Ind. 1995. pp. Space Vector Modulation. B. 1234–1246. Tani.. Hyderabad in 2007 and pursuing M. Applicat. 13–16. EMD. His field of interest includes Matrix Converters. 1995. pp. ―A comparative study of high performance speed control strategies for voltage-sourced PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives.‖ in Proc.‖ IEEE Trans. and A. 820–827. Sept. Huber and D. [9] D. Serra. Seville. A. A. [19] D. pp. 1994. EPE’95.. Casadei. 42. Power Electrical & Drives and Control Systems. Grandi. Oct.. [3] D. [2] P. and V. pp.. 1992.Power Electron. [7] D. Lochot.. G. Tani. ―Switching strategies in direct torque control of induction machines.‖ in Proc. and G.‖ IEEE Trans. [17] Ch.Tech (Power Electronics) in from the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University. Power Electron. 1993. Nov. [15] D. Y. ―Theory and design of a 30-Hp matrix converter.. 8–10. X. Grandi. Hyderabad in 2007 and received M. 5. Sept. Brighton. pp. vol. [1] K..‖ in Proc. Borojevic´. pp. ―Study and implementation of a simplified and efficient digital vector controller for induction motors. 1995. Applicat. Alesina and M. Takahashi and T. June 8–10. 299–304. 2.Tech (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) degree from the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University.‖ IEEE Trans.‖ in Proc. Serra. vol.‖ in Proc. and A. Grandi. G. 1027–1036. Jagadeesh received the B.. Oxford. ―Analysis and design of optimum. pp. Roboam. vol. 1988. Ooi. IEEE IECON’94. Ind. and A. [8] ―Analysis of space vector modulated matrix converter under unbalanced supply voltages.‖ in Proc. 135–148. G. D. 1988. Holmes and T. France. U. Sept. Serra. Ludtke and M. pp. vol. ―A new direct torque control strategy for an induction motor with constant switching frequency operation. Seville.‖ IEEE Trans. vol. 769–777. 1989.13–16./Dec. II. pp. 343–348. 196–201. ―Torque Vector Control (TVC)—A class of fast and robust torque speed and position digital controller for electric drives. G. pp. Kang. Sept. 1994. pp. Power Electron. 39–44. 4. Maussion. ―Implementation of a controlled rectifier using ac–ac matrix converter theory. Sept. U. 18–21. [6] M. Casadei. pp. pp. EPE./Dec. Nasar. Brighton.Tech (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) degree from the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University. Depenbrok. vol. Oct. G. vol. 1993. Boldea and S. Ind. EMD’95. T. 5–9. G. 420–429. 11–13. and A. 31. Durham.K. 101–112. IA-22. Italy. [16] I. [10] I. G. Sept.‖ in Proc. Italy. Jan. and A.‖ IEEE Trans. 204–209. Serra. D. ―Performance of SVM controlled matrix converter with input and output unbalanced conditions... Lipo. U. [4] C. Grandi. Serra.‖ IEEE Trans. ―Effects of flux and torque hysteresis band amplitude in direct torque control of induction machines. ―A newquick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor. Ziogas. Ind.amplitude nine-switch direct ac–ac converters. EPE.. 1995. Stefanovic. vol. Tani. Applicat. Casadei. 67–72. 1995. Sept. [11] M. Anantapur. . 1994. 15. Hyderabad.Tech (Power Electronics) in 2011 from the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University.‖ IEEE Trans. Nov. 1986.

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