ECG data acquisition and recording A Brief Report

II. . LEADS: The word lead may be used to refer to the electrical cable attaching the electrodes to the ECG recorder. The word lead may also refer to the tracing of the voltage difference between two of the electrodes and is what is actually produced by the ECG recorder. BLOCK DIAGRAM Block diagram BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION 1.

These variations consist of a number of memory configurations. amount of support hardware required. It is compatible with all forms of logic and power drain suitable for battery operation. The AD620 is a low cost. different I/O pin arrangements. The output of the sensor is given to the input of the amplifier. 4.” Originally known as the PIC (for Peripheral Interface Controller). 3. the PIC microcontroller MCU consists of over 400 variations (or Part Numbers). One of the most popular and easy to use microcontroller families available in the market today is the Microchip “PIC microcontroller. high accuracy instrumentation amplifier that requires only one external resistor to set gains of 1 to 1000. Alternate instrumentation amplifiers like AD624 are also possible. AMPLIFIER: It consists of an instrumentation amplifier (AD620).2. The output of the sample and hold capacitor is the input into the converter. The signals are filtered using LM358 OP-amp. It is to avoid the noise of the signals. many other microcontrollers can boast a similar menu of part numbers with different options for the designer. LCD interfacing. USART communication part. packaging. Allows direct sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND. The analog input charges a sample and hold capacitor. FILTER A low pass filter is incorporated in this stage to avoid the high frequency region of the amplified signal. MICROCONTROLLER For meeting our project requirements we are using PIC16F877A as the microcontroller. each designed to be optimal in different applications. MMC interfacing. This section has the portions of A/D conversion. This wide range of device options is not unique to the PIC microcontroller. . It has two internally compensated op amps and eliminates need for dual supplies. and available peripheral functions.

5. and the MMC specifications state a maximum clock frequency of 52MHz depending on the device. and are compatible though having different initialization. Both card types also support a basic SPI type interface for simple connection to embedded devices. The MMC card supports additional bus widths (up to 8 bits). and are physically very similar. including SDIO (secure digital input/output) that can be used as an external communications interface using the standard SD card format. Both card types support proprietary data transfer protocols using four data bits. The SD card also supports several modes that are not present in the MMC card. The SD card specifications state a maximum clock frequency of 25MHz. Figure shows the MMC/SD card connections when configured for SPI mode operation. MMC The MMC card and the SD card are flash memory storage based devices. . The major difference is that the SD card is designed to provide optional security by allowing encryption of the device contents.

A Visual basic program is installed in the computer which is intended to view the recorded data as real time as well as recorded format. COMPUTER Computer is the final device required for the completion of the project. It works as a buffer between the TTL logic supported by the microcontroller and the RS232 standard used in PC. The communication is done using the IC MAX232 which act as a level converter. .1 6. 7. INTERFACE Here interface refers to the communication with the software installed in PC.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Amplifier section Microcontroller section .

and offers lower power (only 1. low input bias current and low power of the AD620 make it . high accuracy instrumentation amplifier that requires only one external resistor to set gains of 1 to 1000. portable (or remote) applications. with its high accuracy of 40 ppm maximum nonlinearity.PC Interface section MMC Interfacing WORKING We developed a small stand alone device that can monitor the ECG of a patient and store the data in Multimedia Card attached to it up to 1 month continuously. making it a good fit for battery powered. This data can be verified at the hospital or by the doctor at his home PC. such as weigh scales and transducer interfaces. The output of the sensor is given to the input of the amplifier. It consists of an instrumentation amplifier (AD620). Furthermore. the AD620 features 8-lead SOIC and DIP packaging that is smaller than discrete designs. is ideal for use in precision data acquisition systems. The AD620 is a low cost. Furthermore. The output of the sensor is analog voltage. low offset voltage of 50 mV max and offset drift of 0.3 mA max supply current). This output varies upon the pulse variation.6 mV/°C max. This system can be used to record the ECG data of the patients at home or any other place. the low noise. The AD620. Lead1 and lead 2 are ECG sensors.

palmtops. Calibrate these values and stores its in MMC card through SPI module of the pic microcontroller. called the Multi Media Card system standard define in the Multi Media Card System specification. The converter then generates a digital result of this analog level via successive approximation. etc. The RS-MMC Cards are highly integrated flash memories with serial and random access capability.well suited for medical applications such as ECG and noninvasive blood pressure monitors. This A/D conversion. organizers. A low power consumption and a wide supply voltage range favors mobile. Using very effective data compression . internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltage. DC gain blocks and all the conventional OP-AMP circuits which now can be easily implemented in single power supply systems. Application areas include transducer amplifier. of the analog input signal. It is accessible via a dedicated serial interface optimized for fast and reliable data transmission. The microcontroller consist a10 bit ADC. The MSSP module can operate Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). The output of the sample and hold capacitor is the input into the converter. results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number. It has been developed to provide an inexpensive. which converts the analog voltage to corresponding digital values. display drivers. high gain. This analog signal is given to the ADC channel of the input. RS-MMC Card allows the design of inexpensive players and drivers without moving parts. The output of the amplifier is analog signal. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. These values are stored in its memories. electronic books. A/D converters. These signals are given to the filter to avoid the noise of the signals (LM358). The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is a serial interface useful for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. The Multi Media Card system is a new mass-storage system based on innovations in semiconductor technology. These peripheral devices may be serial EEPROMs. The LM358 consist of two independent. shift registers. battery-powered application such as audio players. These RS-MMC Cards are fully compatible to a new consumer standard. The analog input charges a sample and hold capacitor. encyclopedia and dictionaries. mechanically robust storage medium in card form for multimedia consumer applications. This interface allows several cards to be stacked by through connecting their peripheral contacts.

The USART can be configured as a full duplex asynchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as CRT terminals and personal computers. The HIN232 or MAX 232 is RS-232 transmitters/receivers interface circuits meet all ElA RS-232E and V.MMC card up to more than ten days.28 specifications. The computer receives these data and plot an EGC graph using system level language such as visual basic or visual c++. They require a single +5V power supply and feature onboard charge pump voltage converters which generate +10V and -10V supplies from the 5V supply.schemes such as MPEG. or it can be configured as a half duplex synchronous system that can communicate with peripheral devices such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits. The ECG data are stored in RS. But computer has RS standard. The Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART) module is one of the two serial I/O modules. The microcontroller has CMOS standard. If the device is connected to the computer recorded data (stored in MMC) send to the computer through USART module of the microcontroller. and are particularly suited for those applications where ±12V is not available. the RS-MMC Card will deliver enough capacity for all kinds of multimedia data. (USART is also known as a Serial Communications Interface or SCI). Serial EEPROMs etc. So a interface circuit is used (MAX 232 or HIN 232). .

19 (SPI out) and 20(SPI in)) are connected to the MMC card. then the voltage is grounded and system reset. So reset switch press. one is used for oscillation start and other is used for phase shifting. If a zero potential across the 1st pin then the system is reset. 13 and 14 pins are used to clock of the pic. So a crystal is connected to that pins.1 st pin is reset pin. The capacitor is used for to ground the AC content of the vcc. The SPI pins (pin number 18(clock). . Two capacitors.MICROCONTROLLER SECTION The VCC is connected to 11th pin of pic. The output of the ECG is connected to the 2nd pin of the PIC (Channel 0 of ADC). These are connected to the serial port. The USART pins are 25th (TX) and 26th (RX) of the PIC. connected to that pins.

The software is user friendly and very easy to use. The screen shot is given below.Plotting of recorded The software developed in visual basic is intended for plotting the real time as well as the recorded data which is transmitted through serial port. .

Proteus is the software used for simulating the designed circuit. Tiny bid is the boot loader used.  . Visual Basic application is also designed for plotting the real time ECG as well as the recorded ECG. MPLAB IDE is the software used for compiling the code and for generating the HEX file for loading in to the IC.SOFTWARES USED     ‘Embedded c’ is used for programming the microcontroller.