Faculty of Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Experiment 8: Classification of Organic Halides 2B-MT Ciara Morales, Ian Nacino, Dean New, Jason

Ong, Mark Kenneth Ong, Kristine Reyes

09/20/12 Abstract The experiment aims to differentiate primary, secondary, and tertiary organic halides by observing their SN activity and to be able to differ SN1 and SN2 mechanisms. Organic halides are compounds that have halogen atoms in place of hydrogen atoms. The samples used in the experiment were n-butyl chloride, sec-butyl chloride, tert-butyl chloride and chlorobenzene. They underwent the Beilstein test and further reacted and introduced to 2% ethanolic silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 15% sodium iodide (NaI) in anhyrdous acetone. This was done to determine favored reactivity to SN1 or SN2 within the set of compounds. Introduction Organic halides are compounds in which halogen atoms are substituted with hydrogen atoms inside a compound. The degree of substitution determines the classification of the compound if only the a-carbon atom is tetragonal or sp3 hybridized. Classification is as follows: primary, secondary, and tertiary Unlike other organic compounds, most organic halides are synthetic. Organic halides are not flammable. Reactivity of these types of organic halides can be differentiated via substitution reaction with a nucleophile, depending on which reactant molecule is involved in the ratedetermining step. If the rate of the reaction is dependent on the organic halide, then the reaction is unimolecular (SN1), but if the rate is dependent on both the halide and the nuceophile, then it is bimolecular (SN2). [2] Methodology Materials used: Test tubes, matches, copper wire, burner, test tube holder and rack, 2% ethanolic AgNO3, 15% NaI in anhyrdous acetone, droppers, and the sample compounds (n-butyl chloride, sec-butyl chloride, tert-butyl chloride, chlorobenzene A. Beilstein Test: Copper Halide Test A loop was made with one end of the copper wire. The loop was heated directly in the oxidizing zone of a non-luminous flame until the green color imparted from the flame. It was then cooled to room temperature. We dipped the loop in a sample then placed it in the flame. This time it was heated in the inner zone and then moved to the outer zone. [1]

sec-butyl chloride. 5 drops of the sample was introduced to 2 drops of 15% NaI in anhydrous acetone. SN2 reactivity: reaction with NaI in Acetone The solution of the reagent should not be turbid when used in this experiment. tert-butyl chloride. The sample was shaken.B. Color and time to form the silver halide precipitate was recorded. 5 drops of the sample (n-butyl chloride. [1] C. Results and Discussion . The contents were mixed. SN1 reactivity: reaction with Alcoholic AgNO3 The solution of the reagent should not be turbid when used in this experiment. and chlorobenzene. Color and time to form the silver halide precipitate was recorded.