DAVERAGE

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DAVERAGE
See Also Averages the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. Syntax DAVERAGE(database,field,criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. Field indicates which column is used in the function. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? 1. 2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Select the example in the Help topic. Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. 4. 5.

Press CTRL+C. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Tools menu, point to Formula Auditing, and then click Formula Auditing Mode.

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10,"Age",A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A3)

B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees. (105)

C

D

E

F <16

Age Yield Profit Height

Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.00 96.00 105.00 75.00 76.80 45.00

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DAVERAGE

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=DMIN (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,3,A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DSTDEVP (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) Tips

The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. (75) The total profit from apple trees. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. (2.97) The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. (2.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. (8.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. ( 7.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.

You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. For example, if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10,000 in G2, you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet, do not place the criteria range below the list. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu, the new information is added to the first row below the list. If the row below the list is not blank, Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database, enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column, type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. For example, the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio," "Buchanan," or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns, enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. For example, the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column, "Davolio" in the Salesperson column, and sales values greater than $1,000. Type Salesperson Sales >1000

Produce Davolio

One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column, enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. For example, the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column,

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DAVERAGE

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"Davolio" in the Salesperson column, or sales values greater than $1,000. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions, where each set includes conditions for more than one column, type the criteria in separate rows. For example, the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3,000, and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1,500. Salesperson Sales Davolio Buchanan >3000 >1500 Salesperson Sales

More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions, include multiple columns with the same column heading. For example, the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5,000 and 8,000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values, cell references, names, functions, or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).) as your criterion. When you use a formula to create a criterion, do not use a column label for a criteria label; either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. For example, the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula, the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. If you copy the formula, the reference automatically adjusts. A relative reference takes the form A1.) to refer to the column label (for example, Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula, the exact address of a cell, regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1.), and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. In the formula example, "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion, you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. When evaluating data, Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.

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DCOUNT

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DCOUNT
See Also Counts the cells that contain numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. The field argument is optional. If field is omitted, DCOUNT counts all records in the database that match the criteria. Syntax DCOUNT(database,field,criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. Field indicates which column is used in the function. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? 1. 2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Select the example in the Help topic. Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

3. 4. 5.

Press CTRL+C. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Tools menu, point to Formula Auditing, and then click Formula Auditing Mode.

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10,"Age",A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DMAX

B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees. (105)

C

D

E

F <16

Age Yield Profit Height

Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.00 96.00 105.00 75.00 76.80 45.00

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DCOUNT

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(A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,3,A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DSTDEVP (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3) Tips You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. For example, if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10,000 in G2, you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet, do not place the criteria range below the list. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu, the new information is added to the first row below the list. If the row below the list is not blank, Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database, enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column, type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. For example, the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio," "Buchanan," or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns, enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. For example, the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column, "Davolio" in the Salesperson column, and sales values greater than $1,000. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. (75) The total profit from apple trees. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. (2.97) The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. (2.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. (8.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. ( 7.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.

Produce Davolio

One condition in one column or another

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DCOUNT

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To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column, enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. For example, the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column, "Davolio" in the Salesperson column, or sales values greater than $1,000. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions, where each set includes conditions for more than one column, type the criteria in separate rows. For example, the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3,000, and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1,500. Salesperson Sales Davolio Buchanan >3000 >1500 Salesperson Sales

More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions, include multiple columns with the same column heading. For example, the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5,000 and 8,000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values, cell references, names, functions, or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).) as your criterion. When you use a formula to create a criterion, do not use a column label for a criteria label; either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. For example, the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula, the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. If you copy the formula, the reference automatically adjusts. A relative reference takes the form A1.) to refer to the column label (for example, Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula, the exact address of a cell, regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1.), and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. In the formula example, "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion, you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. When evaluating data, Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.

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DCOUNTA

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DCOUNTA
See Also Counts the nonblank cells in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. The field argument is optional. If field is omitted, DCOUNTA counts all records in the database that match the criteria. Syntax DCOUNTA(database,field,criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records, and columns of data are fields. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. Field indicates which column is used in the function. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks, such as "Age" or "Yield," or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column, 2 for the second column, and so on. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. You can use any range for the criteria argument, as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10,"Age",A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10,"Profit",A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10,3,A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10,"Yield",A1:A3)

B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. (75) The total profit from apple trees. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard

C

D

E

F <16

Age Yield Profit Height

Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.00 96.00 105.00 75.00 76.80 45.00

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and sales values greater than $1. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range.500. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. For example. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. (2. (2. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10."Yield". you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns.A1:A3) Tips You can use any range for the criteria argument.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10."Yield". To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. For example.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.000 in G2. For example.97) =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet.000. 14/12/05 . For example. type the criteria in separate rows." "Buchanan.DCOUNTA Page 2 of 3 population. do not place the criteria range below the list. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. Salesperson Sales Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column.000. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. ( 7. or sales values greater than $1. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. the new information is added to the first row below the list. If the row below the list is not blank."Yield". enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions.ch.000.. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population.. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range."Yield". (8." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. For example.

the exact address of a cell. If you copy the formula. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. do not use a column label for a criteria label.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. A relative reference takes the form A1.) to refer to the column label (for example. cell references. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. For example. names. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. In the formula example.. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record.000 and 8.ch.). the reference automatically adjusts. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. functions. When you use a formula to create a criterion. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list.. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values.) as your criterion. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. 14/12/05 .DCOUNTA Page 3 of 3 Davolio Buchanan >3000 >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. include multiple columns with the same column heading. For example. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. When evaluating data.

"Yield".00 75."Profit".A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10. Syntax DGET(database."Profit". 14/12/05 .00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.00 76.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10."Yield". as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10.. You can use any range for the criteria argument. Field indicates which column is used in the function. (75) The total profit from apple trees. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. such as "Age" or "Yield. (13) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. and so on."Profit". (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. Remarks If no record matches the criteria.. 2 for the second column.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10.DGET Page 1 of 3 DGET See Also Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify."Profit". How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10. (12) The average age of all trees in the database.00 96. and columns of data are fields."Age".A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10.80 45. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. If more than one record matches the criteria. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks.ch. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height."Profit".00 105.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10.field.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10. DGET returns the #VALUE! error value. DGET returns the #NUM! error value.

000. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. For example. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. and sales values greater than $1. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. (2. For example.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10.000 in G2. (8. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range.000."Yield".8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population.."Yield"."Yield". If the row below the list is not blank. type the criteria in separate rows.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. the new information is added to the first row below the list." "Buchanan. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3."Yield".97) The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column.3.ch." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column.DGET Page 2 of 3 (A4:E10. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. (2.000. 14/12/05 .. or sales values greater than $1. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. For example. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. ( 7. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range."Yield".A1:A3) Tips You can use any range for the criteria argument. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. For example. For example.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.A1:A3) =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. do not place the criteria range below the list. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition.

When evaluating data. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10.. the exact address of a cell.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. For example. do not use a column label for a criteria label.500.). and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1.ch. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list. names.000 and 8. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion.. Salesperson Sales Davolio Buchanan >3000 >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions.DGET Page 3 of 3 $1. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. A relative reference takes the form A1. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. the reference automatically adjusts. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value.) as your criterion. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. functions. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered.) to refer to the column label (for example. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. 14/12/05 . In the formula example. If you copy the formula. When you use a formula to create a criterion. For example. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. include multiple columns with the same column heading. cell references.

00 76.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10. The first row of the list contains labels for each column. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. such as "Age" or "Yield."Profit".A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.00 105.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10."Yield".00 96. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column."Yield".A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10."Age".A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10. Syntax DMAX(database. Field indicates which column is used in the function.ch."Yield". (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16.. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. and so on. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height..A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10."Profit". 14/12/05 . (12) The average age of all trees in the database. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. You can use any range for the criteria argument.80 45."Profit". 2 for the second column. (2.field.DMAX Page 1 of 3 DMAX See Also Returns the largest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify. and columns of data are fields. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.00 75. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. (75) The total profit from apple trees." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.3."Profit"."Profit".

and sales values greater than $1. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.000. ( 7. For example." "Buchanan."Yield". the new information is added to the first row below the list. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. For example.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. 14/12/05 . or sales values greater than $1. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. (8. type the criteria in separate rows. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions."Yield". Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. If the row below the list is not blank. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions."Yield". the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. (2. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. do not place the criteria range below the list."Yield". You can use any range for the criteria argument.ch.DMAX Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. For example. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. where each set includes conditions for more than one column.. For example. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.000. For example. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population.500.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.000 in G2. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition..000.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population.

If you copy the formula. When evaluating data. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. For example. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. In the formula example. the reference automatically adjusts.) to refer to the column label (for example. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.DMAX Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.). or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. do not use a column label for a criteria label. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. A relative reference takes the form A1.) as your criterion. functions. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.ch.. cell references.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. When you use a formula to create a criterion. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to.. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. 14/12/05 . You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. the exact address of a cell. names. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). For example. include multiple columns with the same column heading.000 and 8.

The first row of the list contains labels for each column. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10.field. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet."Profit".00 96."Yield".. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10.00 76.3."Yield".A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10. and so on."Profit".00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax DMIN(database.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10."Age". Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers.00 75. You can use any range for the criteria argument. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. Field indicates which column is used in the function. 2 for the second column."Profit". and columns of data are fields.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.00 105. such as "Age" or "Yield.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. (12) The average age of all trees in the database."Profit".A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105. (75) The total profit from apple trees.80 45. 14/12/05 . as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column."Yield".ch. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16..DMIN Page 1 of 3 DMIN See Also Returns the smallest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height."Profit". (2.

Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. For example. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.000. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column.."Yield". "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column.000 in G2. For example. or sales values greater than $1. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range..A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. the new information is added to the first row below the list. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. type the criteria in separate rows.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10. For example. ( 7.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range." "Buchanan. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition.ch.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.DMIN Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. (2. and sales values greater than $1. For example. If the row below the list is not blank."Yield".500. 14/12/05 . To perform an operation on an entire column in a database.000.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu."Yield". For example. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. You can use any range for the criteria argument. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.000. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. do not place the criteria range below the list. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. (8."Yield".

the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. the reference automatically adjusts.DMIN Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. For example. For example. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.).000 and 8. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula.. the exact address of a cell. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. In the formula example.ch. names. A relative reference takes the form A1. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.) to refer to the column label (for example. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. cell references. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. When evaluating data. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. When you use a formula to create a criterion..000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. do not use a column label for a criteria label. 14/12/05 . Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. If you copy the formula. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. include multiple columns with the same column heading. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). functions.) as your criterion.

A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10."Profit". You can use any range for the criteria argument.80 45.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers."Profit".A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column."Profit"." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify.00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records."Profit"."Yield"."Yield".. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height.00 76. 2 for the second column.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10. (75) The total profit from apple trees."Yield".3.00 75. and so on. 14/12/05 . (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105. and columns of data are fields. The first row of the list contains labels for each column.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10."Age".00 105. (2. Field indicates which column is used in the function.DPRODUCT Page 1 of 3 DPRODUCT See Also Multiplies the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify.00 96.ch. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.field.. Syntax DPRODUCT(database. such as "Age" or "Yield. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10."Profit".

04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. and sales values greater than $1.000. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. For example. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. ( 7. type the criteria in separate rows. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. 14/12/05 . For example. For example. (2. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. For example. You can use any range for the criteria argument.. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range."Yield". To perform an operation on an entire column in a database.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. If the row below the list is not blank.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. the new information is added to the first row below the list."Yield".A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.000. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information.ch.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population..DPRODUCT Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. or sales values greater than $1.000. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition.000 in G2. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10.500. do not place the criteria range below the list.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. For example. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3."Yield"." "Buchanan. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column."Yield". Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. (8.

. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. cell references. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. the exact address of a cell. functions. A relative reference takes the form A1. If you copy the formula.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. do not use a column label for a criteria label. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion.) as your criterion. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). names.ch.) to refer to the column label (for example. the reference automatically adjusts.000 and 8. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE.DPRODUCT Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. include multiple columns with the same column heading. 14/12/05 . When you use a formula to create a criterion. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. In the formula example. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula.). For example. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list. When evaluating data. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. For example. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula..

You can use any range for the criteria argument."Age"."Yield". The first row of the list contains labels for each column. Field indicates which column is used in the function.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks.field.00 76."Profit". Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers. 14/12/05 .00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch.3. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16.80 45." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.00 105.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10. such as "Age" or "Yield. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records.. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees."Profit". 2 for the second column."Profit". (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10.DSTDEV Page 1 of 3 DSTDEV See Also Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. and so on.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. Syntax DSTDEV(database.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10."Yield".A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.00 75. (2.00 96. (75) The total profit from apple trees.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10.."Profit"."Yield". as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column.A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10. and columns of data are fields. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10."Profit". (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.

" "Buchanan. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio."Yield".A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. or sales values greater than $1." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. and sales values greater than $1. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet.000. For example.. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu.000.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. For example. 14/12/05 .DSTDEV Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10.500. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. type the criteria in separate rows.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions."Yield".000 in G2. (8.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information.ch. For example..A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. do not place the criteria range below the list. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. (2. the new information is added to the first row below the list. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. If the row below the list is not blank. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column.000."Yield". For example. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. For example. You can use any range for the criteria argument. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. ( 7."Yield". if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10.

000 and 8. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list.). 14/12/05 . Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. For example. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1.ch. If you copy the formula. For example. the reference automatically adjusts. cell references. functions. include multiple columns with the same column heading. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).. When you use a formula to create a criterion.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. names.. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. When evaluating data.) as your criterion. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.DSTDEV Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. the exact address of a cell. In the formula example. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. do not use a column label for a criteria label. A relative reference takes the form A1. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values.) to refer to the column label (for example.

(75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16."Profit". (2. such as "Age" or "Yield. and so on.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers."Yield"."Age".80 45. (12) The average age of all trees in the database.DSTDEVP Page 1 of 3 DSTDEVP See Also Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10."Profit". A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column.00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax DSTDEVP(database.00 75.00 96. Field indicates which column is used in the function.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database."Profit".field.3. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. and columns of data are fields.00 105. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10. 2 for the second column.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10."Yield". Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.00 76.. using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. 14/12/05 ."Profit". (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. (75) The total profit from apple trees."Yield". (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.ch.A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10..A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10. The first row of the list contains labels for each column."Profit". You can use any range for the criteria argument.

You can use any range for the criteria argument. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. For example.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. or sales values greater than $1. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column.000 in G2." "Buchanan. (2. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. type the criteria in separate rows. For example. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet.."Yield". If the row below the list is not blank. ( 7.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. 14/12/05 . and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1.500. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database.000.. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. (8. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. For example. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population."Yield". Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.000. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column.DSTDEVP Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.ch."Yield". you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. the new information is added to the first row below the list.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population.000. For example."Yield". For example. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. and sales values greater than $1. do not place the criteria range below the list.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10.

A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). For example. 14/12/05 . do not use a column label for a criteria label.. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. names. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. In the formula example. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If you copy the formula.). A relative reference takes the form A1. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.ch. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula.. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to.) to refer to the column label (for example. the exact address of a cell. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. the reference automatically adjusts. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. When you use a formula to create a criterion. functions. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.DSTDEVP Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. For example. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. include multiple columns with the same column heading. When evaluating data. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record.000 and 8. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10.) as your criterion.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. cell references.

.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. 2 for the second column.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column."Yield". A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records."Profit". (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height.00 96. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank.field."Profit". The first row of the list contains labels for each column.80 45.DSUM Page 1 of 3 DSUM See Also Adds the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column. Syntax DSUM(database. Field indicates which column is used in the function. 14/12/05 . and so on."Yield". such as "Age" or "Yield.00 105.ch."Profit". and columns of data are fields. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105."Age".00 76.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.3."Profit".A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers.00 75. You can use any range for the criteria argument.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees. (12) The average age of all trees in the database.A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10."Yield". (2."Profit".A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10.00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. (75) The total profit from apple trees.

You can use any range for the criteria argument.500. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column.ch. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. For example. (8. (2."Yield". If the row below the list is not blank.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population."Yield"."Yield". For example. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. the new information is added to the first row below the list. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. For example.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population." "Buchanan. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. 14/12/05 . Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet.000. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. or sales values greater than $1. and sales values greater than $1.. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10..A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information.000 in G2.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.000.DSUM Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. ( 7. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. type the criteria in separate rows. For example. For example. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column. do not place the criteria range below the list. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions.000. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range."Yield".A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.

For example.. A relative reference takes the form A1.) to refer to the column label (for example. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. When you use a formula to create a criterion. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. cell references. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. If you copy the formula. the reference automatically adjusts. do not use a column label for a criteria label. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. In the formula example.000 and 8. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record.. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. names. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula.) as your criterion. functions. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. the exact address of a cell. include multiple columns with the same column heading.ch. When evaluating data. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.). the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. 14/12/05 . For example.DSUM Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters.

A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.00 105. 14/12/05 .A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10. (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank. such as "Age" or "Yield."Profit". You can use any range for the criteria argument.00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.80 45. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height."Yield". Syntax DVAR(database. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.field.00 76. (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16."Yield". The first row of the list contains labels for each column. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records."Profit".criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. (75) The total profit from apple trees."Age". (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees."Profit". Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10.A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10."Profit".DVAR Page 1 of 3 DVAR See Also Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. (2.3.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers."Yield"." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.00 75.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10.ch. (12) The average age of all trees in the database.00 96. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10."Profit". and columns of data are fields. Field indicates which column is used in the function.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height.. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10. 2 for the second column. and so on.

the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column. 14/12/05 . You can use any range for the criteria argument."Yield".. For example."Yield".000 in G2. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. If the row below the list is not blank.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. For example. do not place the criteria range below the list. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns. type the criteria in separate rows.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population." "Buchanan.ch. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. the new information is added to the first row below the list. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column."Yield". (2. If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range.000.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10. For example.000. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. and sales values greater than $1.. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.000. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. For example. (8. For example. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.DVAR Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10.500." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column. or sales values greater than $1. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11."Yield". where each set includes conditions for more than one column. ( 7.

include multiple columns with the same column heading. the exact address of a cell. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. A relative reference takes the form A1.) as your criterion. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE..000 in addition to sales that are less than 500.. cell references. When you use a formula to create a criterion. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. When evaluating data. functions.). In the formula example. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. For example. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record.ch. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10. the reference automatically adjusts. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula.DVAR Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. names. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.) to refer to the column label (for example. If you copy the formula.000 and 8. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. For example. 14/12/05 . do not use a column label for a criteria label. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5.

and columns of data are fields.97) C D E F <16 Age Yield Profit Height Age Yield Profit 20 12 14 15 8 9 14 10 9 10 8 6 105.A1:F2) =DPRODUCT (A4:E10.A1:F2) =DMAX (A4:E10." or as a number that represents the position of the column within the list: 1 for the first column.A1:A3) =DMIN (A4:E10. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and so on.A4:E10) =DSTDEV (A4:E10. Criteria is the range of cells that contains the conditions you specify. such as "Age" or "Yield. 2 for the second column.."Profit". (75) The total profit from apple trees.criteria) Database is the range of cells that makes up the list or database. You can use any range for the criteria argument.ch. (140) The average yield of apple trees over 10 feet in height. (1) The maximum profit of apple and pear trees.A1:F2) =DCOUNTA (A4:E10. (75) The product of the yields from apple trees with a height greater than 10.00 76.A1:B2) =DSUM (A4:E10. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tree Apple Pear Tree Apple Pear Cherry Apple Pear Apple Formula =DCOUNT (A4:E10.. Field indicates which column is used in the function. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying a condition for the column. Field can be given as text with the column label enclosed between double quotation marks.00 105.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10."Profit".3."Age". (1) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Profit fields in those records are not blank.A1:B2) =DAVERAGE (A4:E10. A database is a list of related data in which rows of related information are records.A1:A3) B Height >10 Height 18 12 13 14 9 8 Description (Result) This function looks at the records of apple trees between a height of 10 and 16 and counts how many of the Age fields in those records contain numbers.field."Profit".00 75."Yield".00 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11."Profit". 14/12/05 . (225) The total profit from apple trees with a height between 10 and 16. Syntax DVARP(database."Yield".00 96. (105) The minimum profit of apple trees over 10 in height. (12) The average age of all trees in the database. (13) The estimated standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population.DVARP Page 1 of 3 DVARP See Also Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. (2."Yield".A1:A2) =DSUM (A4:E10. The first row of the list contains labels for each column.80 45."Profit".

500. the following criteria range displays the rows that contain both "Davolio" in the Salesperson column and sales values greater than $3.A1:A3) Tips The true standard deviation in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire population. the following criteria range displays all rows that contain either "Produce" in the Type column.000.000. where each set includes conditions for more than one column. enter the criteria in different rows of the criteria range. Salesperson Sales Davolio >3000 Salesperson Sales mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11." or "Suyama" in the Salesperson column.000 in G2. you could define the range as MatchIncome and use that name as the criteria argument in the database functions. Although the criteria range can be located anywhere on the worksheet. or sales values greater than $1.A1:A3) =DVARP (A4:E10.04) Returns the #NUM! error value because more than one record meets the criteria. Make sure the criteria range does not overlap the list. Microsoft Excel cannot add the new information. type the criteria directly below each other in separate rows.. Examples of criteria Multiple conditions in a single column If you have two or more conditions for a single column. (8. ( 7."Yield". and also displays the rows for salesperson Buchanan with sales values greater than $1. and sales values greater than $1." "Buchanan. For example. For example. Salesperson Davolio Buchanan Suyama One condition in two or more columns To find data that meets one condition in two or more columns.. For example. Type Salesperson Sales >1000 Produce Davolio One condition in one column or another To find data that meets either a condition in one column or a condition in another column. enter all the criteria in the same row of the criteria range. the new information is added to the first row below the list.8) The true variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is the entire orchard population. as long as it includes at least one column label and at least one cell below the column label for specifying the condition."Yield". the following criteria range displays all rows that contain "Produce" in the Type column. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.DVARP Page 2 of 3 =DSTDEVP (A4:E10. enter a blank line below the column labels in the criteria range."Yield". the following criteria range displays the rows that contain either "Davolio. 14/12/05 . Type Produce Davolio >1000 One of two sets of conditions for two columns To find rows that meet one of two sets of conditions. type the criteria in separate rows. You can use any range for the criteria argument. For example. For example.A1:A3) =DGET (A4:E10.000. If the row below the list is not blank."Yield". If you add more information to the list by using the Form command on the Data menu.A1:A3) =DVAR (A4:E10. if the range G1:G2 contains the column label Income in G1 and the amount 10. "Davolio" in the Salesperson column.ch. To perform an operation on an entire column in a database. do not place the criteria range below the list.65) The estimated variance in the yield of apple and pear trees if the data in the database is only a sample of the total orchard population. (2.

000 and 8. or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. cell references. either keep the criteria label blank or use a label that is not a column label in the list. Sales) or the corresponding field in the first record. You can use a column label in the formula instead of a relative cell reference or a range name.). For example.. When you use a formula to create a criterion. When Microsoft Excel displays an error value such as #NAME? or #VALUE! in the cell that contains the criterion. the exact address of a cell. regardless of the position of the cell that contains the formula. A relative reference takes the form A1. Microsoft Excel does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase characters. names..) as your criterion. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.) to refer to the column label (for example.ch. the reference automatically adjusts. 14/12/05 .DVARP Page 3 of 3 Buchanan >1500 More than two sets of conditions for one column To find rows that meet greater than two sets of conditions. If you copy the formula. functions. Sales Sales >5000 <8000 <500 Conditions created as the result of a formula You can use a calculated value that is the result of a formula (formula: A sequence of values. All other references in the formula must be absolute references (absolute cell reference: In a formula. the address of a cell based on the relative position of the cell that contains the formula and the cell referred to. For example. An absolute cell reference takes the form $A$1. In the formula example. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=). include multiple columns with the same column heading. and the formula must evaluate to TRUE or FALSE. the following criteria range displays rows that have a value in column C greater than the average of cells C7:C10.000 in addition to sales that are less than 500. the following criteria range displays sales that are between 5. do not use a column label for a criteria label. you can ignore this error because it does not affect how the list is filtered. =C7>AVERAGE($C$7:$C$10) Notes The formula you use for a condition must use a relative reference (relative reference: In a formula. When evaluating data. "C7" refers to the field (column C) for the first record (row 7) of the list.

Remarks Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. If month is greater than 12. month. Click the Number tab.448 days after January 1.14. For example. Excel returns the #NUM! error value. By default.1. Excel adds that value to 1900 to calculate the year. Excel returns the #NUM! error value. DATE(2008. Excel adds that value to 1900 to calculate the year. 14/12/05 . For example.1. and then click General in the Category box.2) returns DATE(108.2) DATE(2008. January 2. January 1. For example.2) returns the serial number representing February 2.day) Year The year argument can be one to four digits. By default. For example. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. For example. Day is a number representing the day of the month. 2008 (1900+108). month adds that number of months to the first month in the year specified.B2. Excel uses that value as the year. DATE(2008. not constants. Excel uses that value as the year.2) returns January 2. DATE (108. For the 1904 date system If year is between 4 and 1899 (inclusive). If year is between 1900 and 9999 (inclusive). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and January 1. Microsoft Excel interprets the year argument according to the date system you are using. For the 1900 date system If year is between 0 (zero) and 1899 (inclusive). the result is formatted as a date.ch. Excel for Windows uses the 1900 date system. Month is a number representing the month of the year. If year is less than 0 or is 10000 or greater. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. For example. 2008. 2008.month..1. If day is greater than the number of days in the month specified.1. 2008 (1900+108).C2) Serial date for the date above. 2008. DATE(2008. The DATE function is most useful in formulas where year. day adds that number of days to the first day in the month.35) returns the serial number representing February 4.1. January 2.. returns January 2. How? A 1 Year 2 2008 Formula B Month 1 Description (Result) C Day 1 =DATE(A2.2) returns If year is less than 4 or is 10000 or greater or if year is between 1900 and 1903 (inclusive). Syntax DATE(year. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 2009. using the 1900 date system (1/1/2008 or 39448) Note To view the number as a serial number. If the cell format was General before the function was entered. and day are formulas. 1900. Excel for the Macintosh uses the 1904 date system. If year is between 1904 and 9999 (inclusive). 1900 is serial number 1.DATE Page 1 of 1 DATE See Also Returns the sequential serial number that represents a particular date.

Time information in date_text is ignored. Use DATEVALUE to convert a date represented by text to a serial number. using the 1900 date system (39682) Serial number of the text date.. and January 1. Using the default date system in Excel for the Macintosh. 9999.. If the year portion of date_text is omitted. 1904. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. date_text must represent a date from January 1. January 1.DATEVALUE Page 1 of 1 DATEVALUE See Also Returns the serial number of the date represented by date_text.ch. DATEVALUE returns the #VALUE! error value if date_text is out of this range. 1900. Syntax DATEVALUE(date_text) Date_text is text that represents a date in a Microsoft Excel date format. Remarks Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 1900 is serial number 1. 9999. and then click Date in the Category box. Click the Number tab. to December 31. "1/30/2008" or "30-Jan-2008" are text strings within quotation marks that represent dates. For example. By default. using the 1900 date system (39682) Serial number of the text date. DATEVALUE uses the current year from your computer's built-in clock. 14/12/05 . 1900. date_text must represent a date from January 1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.448 days after January 1. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. using the 1900 date system. Using the default date system in Excel for Windows. Most functions automatically convert date values to serial numbers. using the 1900 date system (39501) Serial number of the text date. Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. to December 31. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and assuming the computer's built-in clock is set to 2008 (39634) Note To view the number as a date. How? A 1 Formula 2 =DATEVALUE 3 ("8/22/2008") 4 =DATEVALUE("22-AUG2008") 5 =DATEVALUE ("2008/02/23") =DATEVALUE("5-JUL") B Description (Result) Serial number of the text date.

January 1. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Syntax DAY(serial_number) Serial_number is the date of the day you are trying to find. 14/12/05 .5. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations.23) for the 23rd day of May. MONTH and DAY functions will be values associated with the equivalent Gregorian date. if the display format of the supplied date is Hijri. Values returned by the YEAR. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. use DATE(2008. 1900 is serial number 1.DAY Page 1 of 1 DAY See Also Returns the day of a date. By default. MONTH and DAY functions will be Gregorian values regardless of the display format for the supplied date value. represented by a serial number. or as results of other formulas or functions. How? A 1 Date 2 15-Apr-2008 Formula =DAY(A2) Description (Result) Day of the date above (15) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 1900.. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.448 days after January 1.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. For example. and January 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. For example. 2008. The day is given as an integer ranging from 1 to 31.ch. the returned values for the YEAR.

By default. or as results of other formulas or functions.23) for the 23rd day of May. Remark Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Starting dates and ending dates that occur on the 31st of a month become equal to the 30th of the same month. How? A 1 Dates 2 1/30/2008 3 2/1/2008 Formula Description (Result) =DAYS360(A2.S. use DATE(2008.A3) Number of days between the two dates above. DAYS360 returns a negative number.ch. Method Method FALSE or omitted TRUE is a logical value that specifies whether to use the U.DAYS360 Page 1 of 1 DAYS360 See Also Returns the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year (twelve 30-day months). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.method) Start_date and end_date are the two dates between which you want to know the number of days. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.. January 1. 1900.. For example.end_date. If the ending date is the 31st of a month and the starting date is earlier than the 30th of a month. Defined U.5.S. Syntax DAYS360(start_date. 14/12/05 . or European method in the calculation. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. If the starting date is the 31st of a month.448 days after January 1. 1900 is serial number 1. European method. otherwise the ending date becomes equal to the 30th of the same month. (NASD) method. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. and January 1. If start_date occurs after end_date. which is used in some accounting calculations. 2008. it becomes equal to the 30th of the same month. based on a 360-day year (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. Use this function to help compute payments if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months. the ending date becomes equal to the 1st of the next month.

Months is the number of months before or after start_date.448 days after January 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 2008) =EDATE(A2. Use EDATE to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the same day of the month as the date of issue. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 2008. and then click Date in the Category box. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. a negative value yields a past date. January 1. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.. two months after the date above (March 15. or as results of other formulas or functions. If this function is not available.EDATE Page 1 of 1 EDATE See Also Returns the serial number that represents the date that is the indicated number of months before or after a specified date (the start_date). EDATE returns the #VALUE! error value. How? A 1 Date 2 01/15/2008 Formula Description (Result) =EDATE(A2. 2008) Note To view the number as a date.. 2007) =EDATE(A2. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If start_date is not a valid date. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and January 1. 1900. one month after the date above (February 15.2) The date. A positive value for months yields a future date. How? Syntax EDATE(start_date.5. By default. use DATE(2008. one month before the date above (December 15. and returns the #NAME? error.months) Start_date is a date that represents the start date. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.ch. Click the Number tab.-1) The date. it is truncated. 14/12/05 .1) The date.23) for the 23rd day of May. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. If months is not an integer. For example. 1900 is serial number 1.

or as results of other formulas or functions.1) Date of the last day of the month.. 2008. If this function is not available. a negative value yields a past date. A positive value for months yields a future date. and returns the #NAME? error.-3) Date of the last day of the month. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If start_date is not a valid date. and January 1. 2007) Note To view the number as a date.months) Start_date is a date that represents the starting date. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. three months before the date above (October 31. How? A 1 Date 2 01/01/2008 Formula Description (Result) =EOMONTH(A2. and then click Date in the Category box.. 2008) =EOMONTH(A2.23) for the 23rd day of May. use DATE(2008. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Months is the number of months before or after start_date. 1900 is serial number 1.448 days after January 1.EOMONTH Page 1 of 1 EOMONTH See Also Returns the serial number for the last day of the month that is the indicated number of months before or after start_date. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. By default. it is truncated. 14/12/05 . EOMONTH returns the #NUM! error value. If start_date plus months yields an invalid date.. Use EOMONTH to calculate maturity dates or due dates that fall on the last day of the month. one month after the date above (February 29. For example. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. If months is not an integer. 1900.5. How? Syntax EOMONTH(start_date. EOMONTH returns the #NUM! error value. Click the Number tab. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. January 1.

ranging from 0 (12:00 A.5 because it is half of a day).M. or as results of other formulas or functions (for example.ch. 14/12/05 . "6:45 PM"). which represents 6:45 PM). 0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 12:00 PM is represented as 0.. The hour is given as an integer.. Syntax HOUR(serial_number) Serial_number is the time that contains the hour you want to find.) to 23 (11:00 P. Times may be entered as text strings within quotation marks (for example.M. TIMEVALUE("6:45 PM")).HOUR Page 1 of 1 HOUR See Also Returns the hour of a time value. as decimal numbers (for example.78125. How? A 1 Time 2 3:30:30 AM 3 3:30:30 PM 4 15:30 Formula Description (Result) =HOUR(A2) Hour of first time (3) =HOUR(A3) Hour of second time (15) =HOUR(A4) Hour of third time (15) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Remark Microsoft Excel for Windows and Excel for the Macintosh use different date systems as their defaults. Time values are a portion of a date value and represented by a decimal number (for example.).

78125.. Time values are a portion of a date value and represented by a decimal number (for example. 0. 14/12/05 ..MINUTE Page 1 of 1 MINUTE See Also Returns the minutes of a time value. Remarks Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh use different date systems as their default. Times may be entered as text strings within quotation marks (for example. How? A 1 Time 2 4:48:00 PM Formula Description (Result) =MINUTE(A2) Minutes of the time above (48) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. as decimal numbers (for example. which represents 6:45 PM). since it is half of a day). TIMEVALUE("6:45 PM")).ch. "6:45 PM"). or as results of other formulas or functions (for example. ranging from 0 to 59. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The minute is given as an integer.5. Syntax MINUTE(serial_number) Serial_number is the time that contains the minute you want to find. 12:00 PM is represented as 0.

MONTH and DAY functions will be values associated with the equivalent Gregorian date. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. January 1. or as results of other formulas or functions.23) for the 23rd day of May. and January 1..ch. For example. MONTH and DAY functions will be Gregorian values regardless of the display format for the supplied date value. 2008. use DATE(2008. By default. 1900 is serial number 1. The month is given as an integer. 1900. Syntax MONTH(serial_number) Serial_number is the date of the month you are trying to find. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. How? A 1 Date 2 15-Apr-2008 Formula Description (Result) =MONTH(A2) Month of the date above (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 14/12/05 . 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.).5. the returned values for the YEAR. if the display format of the supplied date is Hijri (Hijri calendar: The lunar calendar that is used in Islamic regions. Values returned by the YEAR. For example. ranging from 1 (January) to 12 (December)..448 days after January 1. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.MONTH Page 1 of 1 MONTH See Also Returns the month of a date represented by a serial number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How? A 1 Date 2 10/01/2008 3 3/01/2009 4 11/26/2008 5 12/4/2008 6 1/21/2009 Formula =NETWORKDAYS(A2. January 1. and January 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. 1900. select reference A4:A6 in the formula and then press F9. If this function is not available. NETWORKDAYS returns the #VALUE! error value. such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.448 days after January 1. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.A3.. 2008. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. is a date that represents the end date. The list can be either a range of cells that contains the dates or an array constant (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. For example. How? Syntax NETWORKDAYS(start_date.5. By default.A3.. Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified in holidays. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations.holidays) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. excluding every holiday above (105) Note To convert the range of cells used for holidays in the last example into an array constant.A4:A6) B Description Start date of project End date of project Holiday Holiday Holiday Description (Result) Number of workdays between the start and end date above (108) Number of workdays between the start and end date above.23) for the 23rd day of May. An array range shares a common formula.) of the serial numbers that represent the dates.A3) =NETWORKDAYS(A2. Start_date End_date is a date that represents the start date. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. If any argument is not a valid date. and returns the #NAME? error.end_date. 15/12/05 . 1900 is serial number 1.NETWORKDAYS Page 1 of 1 NETWORKDAYS See Also Returns the number of whole working days between start_date and end_date. use DATE (2008. or as results of other formulas or functions.A4) =NETWORKDAYS (A2.. Holidays is an optional range of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar. excluding the first holiday (107) Number of workdays between the start and end date above. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Use NETWORKDAYS to calculate employee benefits that accrue based on the number of days worked during a specific term.

If the cell format was General before the function was entered. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. It is not updated continuously. 15/12/05 . the result is formatted as a date. Syntax NOW( ) Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 1900. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39..NOW Page 1 of 1 NOW See Also Returns the serial number of the current date and time.5 represents the time 12:00 noon. the serial number . By default. 1900 is serial number 1. For example.. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. numbers to the left represent the date. The NOW function changes only when the worksheet is calculated or when a macro that contains the function is run.448 days after January 1. January 1.ch. Numbers to the right of the decimal point in the serial number represent the time. and January 1.

.ch. Times may be entered as text strings within quotation marks (for example.SECOND Page 1 of 1 SECOND See Also Returns the seconds of a time value. Remark Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh use different date systems as their default. 12:00 PM is represented as 0. 15/12/05 . which represents 6:45 PM). How? A 1 Time 2 4:48:18 PM 3 4:48 PM Formula Description =SECOND(A2) Seconds in the first time (18) =SECOND(A3) Seconds in the second time (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. "6:45 PM"). Time values are a portion of a date value and represented by a decimal number (for example. TIMEVALUE("6:45 PM")). The second is given as an integer in the range 0 (zero) to 59. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.78125. Syntax SECOND(serial_number) Serial_number is the time that contains the seconds you want to find. as decimal numbers (for example. 0.5 because it is half of a day). or as results of other formulas or functions (for example..

. Any value greater than 59 will be converted to hours.TIME Page 1 of 1 TIME See Also Returns the decimal number for a particular time. For example.99999999.).22) = . Time values are a portion of a date value and represented by a decimal number (for example. Minute is a number from 0 to 32767 representing the minute. The decimal number returned by TIME is a value ranging from 0 (zero) to 0. For example.minute. and seconds. Any value greater than 23 will be divided by 24 and the remainder will be treated as the hour value.023148 or 12:33:20 AM Remark Microsoft Excel for Windows and Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh use different date systems as their default. Second is a number from 0 to 32767 representing the second. How? A 1 Hour 2 12 3 16 Formula B Minute 0 48 Description (Result) C Second 0 10 =TIME(A2.0) = TIME(12.700115741) Note To view the time as a decimal number. TIME(0. Click the Number tab. minutes. Any value greater than 59 will be converted to hours and minutes. TIME(27.520833 or 12:30 PM.C2) Decimal part of a day. For example. If the cell format was General before the function was entered.M.0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.0.second) Hour is a number from 0 (zero) to 32767 representing the hour.125 or 3:00 AM. the result is formatted as a date.C3) Decimal part of a day. for the second time above (0.0) = . 12:00 PM is represented as 0.5 because it is half of a day).750. for the first time above (0.B2.33. and then click General or Number in the Category box.0) = .0) = TIME(3. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.5) =TIME(A3. TIME(0..ch.B3. representing the times from 0:00:00 (12:00:00 AM) to 23:59:59 (11:59:59 P.30.0. 15/12/05 . Syntax TIME(hour. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu.2000) = TIME(0.

. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.1) 3 =TIMEVALUE("22-Aug-2008 6:35 AM") Decimal part of a day. for the time (0. Excel for Windows and Excel for the Macintosh use different date systems as their default.5 because it is half of a day). Time values are a portion of a date value and represented by a decimal number (for example. for example. for the time (0. Syntax TIMEVALUE(time_text) Time_text is a text string that represents a time in any one of the Microsoft Excel time formats. 12:00 PM is represented as 0. Remarks Date information in time_text is ignored. "6:45 PM" and "18:45" text strings within quotation marks that represent time. How? A 1 Formula 2 =TIMEVALUE("2:24 AM") B Description (Result) Decimal part of a day. Click the Number tab. 15/12/05 .99999999.). select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. and then click Time in the Category box. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The decimal number is a value ranging from 0 (zero) to 0.274305556) Note To view the number as a time.M..TIMEVALUE Page 1 of 1 TIMEVALUE See Also Returns the decimal number of the time represented by a text string.ch. representing the times from 0:00:00 (12:00:00 AM) to 23:59:59 (11:59:59 P.

To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results.BESSELI Page 1 of 1 BESSELI See Also Returns the modified Bessel function. If n is not an integer. Do not select the row or column headers. Press CTRL+C. If necessary. BESSELI returns the #NUM! error value. and returns the #NAME? error. 13/12/05 . 1) Modified Bessel function at 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. or on the Tools menu. If n is nonnumeric. follow the instructions in the setup program. Selecting an example from Help 3. On the Tools menu. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. click Add-Ins. point to Formula Auditing. and press CTRL+V.n) X N is the value at which to evaluate the function. Select the example in the Help topic. 2. The n-th order modified Bessel function of the variable x is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. it is truncated. which is equivalent to the Bessel function evaluated for purely imaginary arguments. and then click OK. How? 1. select the Analysis ToolPak box.5. 4.. press CTRL+` (grave accent). If this function is not available. BESSELI returns the #VALUE! error value.5 with an order of 1 (0. is the order of the Bessel function. select cell A1. In the Add-Ins available list. 5. and then click Formula Auditing Mode.. BESSELI returns the #VALUE! error value.981666) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? 1. 2. In the worksheet. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =BESSELI(1. 3. Remarks If x is nonnumeric. If n < 0.. Syntax BESSELI(x.

n) X N is the value at which to evaluate the function. How? Syntax BESSELJ(x. BESSELJ returns the #VALUE! error value. 2) Bessel function at 1. If n is nonnumeric. it is truncated.BESSELJ Page 1 of 1 BESSELJ See Also Returns the Bessel function. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.. BESSELJ returns the #VALUE! error value. BESSELJ returns the #NUM! error value.. If n is not an integer.329926) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and returns the #NAME? error. is the order of the Bessel function. Remarks If x is nonnumeric. If n < 0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.9 with an order of 2 (0. 13/12/05 .. The n-th order Bessel function of the variable x is: where: is the Gamma function.9. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =BESSELJ(1. If this function is not available.

The n-th order modified Bessel function of the variable x is: where Jn and Yn are the J and Y Bessel functions. If n is not an integer..BESSELK Page 1 of 1 BESSELK See Also Returns the modified Bessel function.n) X N is the value at which to evaluate the function. Remarks If x is nonnumeric.. If n < 0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If n is nonnumeric.5. If this function is not available.5 with an order of 1 (0. and returns the #NAME? error. BESSELK returns the #VALUE! error value.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. BESSELK returns the #NUM! error value.277388) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. BESSELK returns the #VALUE! error value. which is equivalent to the Bessel functions evaluated for purely imaginary arguments. it is truncated. 1) Modified Bessel function at 1. 13/12/05 . How? Syntax BESSELK(x. respectively. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =BESSELK(1. is the order of the function.

BESSELY returns the #NUM! error value. If n < 0.n) X N is the value at which to evaluate the function. How? Syntax BESSELY(x. If n is not an integer.. BESSELY returns the #VALUE! error value.5. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. The n-th order Bessel function of the variable x is: where: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks If x is nonnumeric. If this function is not available. which is also called the Weber function or the Neumann function.BESSELY Page 1 of 1 BESSELY See Also Returns the Bessel function..145918) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 13/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =BESSELY(2. BESSELY returns the #VALUE! error value. it is truncated. is the order of the function. 1) Weber's Bessel function at 2. and returns the #NAME? error. If n is nonnumeric.5 and an order of 1 (0..

How? Syntax BIN2DEC(number) Number is the binary number you want to convert. The remaining 9 bits are magnitude bits. Remark If number is not a valid binary number. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. BIN2DEC returns the #NUM! error value.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.BIN2DEC Page 1 of 1 BIN2DEC See Also Converts a binary number to decimal. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits). How? A 1 Formula 2 =BIN2DEC(1100100) B Description (Result) Converts binary 1100100 to decimal (100) 3 =BIN2DEC(1111111111) Converts binary 1111111111 to decimal (-1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 13/12/05 . If this function is not available... and returns the #NAME? error. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. or if number contains more than 10 characters (10 bits).

BIN2HEX ignores places and returns a 10-character hexadecimal number. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). BIN2HEX uses the minimum number of characters necessary. Places is the number of characters to use.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =BIN2HEX(11111011. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits).places) Number is the binary number you want to convert. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. and returns the #NAME? error. 13/12/05 . Remarks If number is not a valid binary number.. If places is not an integer. or if number contains more than 10 characters (10 bits). BIN2HEX returns the #NUM! error value. If this function is not available. BIN2HEX returns the #NUM! error value. If places is negative. it returns the #NUM! error value. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit.BIN2HEX Page 1 of 1 BIN2HEX See Also Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. 4) Converts binary 11111011 to hexadecimal with 4 characters (00FB) 3 =BIN2HEX(1110) Converts binary 1110 to hexadecimal (E) 4 =BIN2HEX(1111111111) Converts binary 1111111111 to hexadecimal (FFFFFFFFFF) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If number is negative. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. How? Syntax BIN2HEX(number. The remaining 9 bits are magnitude bits. BIN2HEX returns the #VALUE! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. it is truncated.. If places is nonnumeric. If BIN2HEX requires more than places characters. If places is omitted.

If BIN2OCT requires more than places characters. BIN2OCT uses the minimum number of characters necessary. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. If places is negative. Remarks If number is not a valid binary number. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? A 1 Formula 2 =BIN2OCT(1001. If places is omitted.places) Number is the binary number you want to convert. If number is negative. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. BIN2OCT ignores places and returns a 10-character octal number. it is truncated. If places is not an integer. BIN2OCT returns the #NUM! error value.BIN2OCT Page 1 of 1 BIN2OCT See Also Converts a binary number to octal. BIN2OCT returns the #VALUE! error value. 3) B Description (Result) Converts binary 1001 to octal with 3 characters (011) 3 =BIN2OCT(1100100) Converts binary 1100100 to octal (144) 4 =BIN2OCT(1111111111) Converts binary 1111111111 to octal (7777777777) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If places is nonnumeric. If this function is not available. Places is the number of characters to use.. it returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet... or if number contains more than 10 characters (10 bits). The remaining 9 bits are magnitude bits. and returns the #NAME? error. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). How? Syntax BIN2OCT(number. 13/12/05 . Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (10 bits). BIN2OCT returns the #NUM! error value.

is the imaginary coefficient of the complex number. COMPLEX returns the #VALUE! error value. COMPLEX returns the #VALUE! error value.1) Complex number with 0 and 1 as the real and imaginary coefficients (i) 5 =COMPLEX(1. suffix is assumed to be "i"."j") Complex number with 3 and 4 as the real and imaginary coefficients. If i_num is nonnumeric.4) B Description (Result) Complex number with 3 and 4 as the real and imaginary coefficients (3 + 4i) 3 =COMPLEX(3. If omitted.suffix) Real_num I_num Suffix is the real coefficient of the complex number. Remarks If real_num is nonnumeric... Note All complex number functions accept "i" and "j" for suffix.4. but neither "I" nor "J". install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 13/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available.COMPLEX Page 1 of 1 COMPLEX See Also Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number of the form x + yi or x + yj.0) Complex number with 1 and 0 as the real and imaginary coefficients (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and returns the #NAME? error.i_num. How? Syntax COMPLEX(real_num. Using uppercase results in the #VALUE! error value. If suffix is neither "i" nor "j". All functions that accept two or more complex numbers require that all suffixes match. How? A 1 Formula 2 =COMPLEX(3. COMPLEX returns the #VALUE! error value. and j as the suffix (3 + 4j) 4 =COMPLEX(0.. is the suffix for the imaginary component of the complex number.

If this function is not available. and returns the #NAME? error. For example... From_unit or to_unit "g" "sg" "u" Weight and mass Gram Slug U (atomic mass unit) Pound mass (avoirdupois) "lbm" Ounce mass (avoirdupois) "ozm" Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom From_unit or to_unit "m" "mi" "Nmi" "in" "ft" "yd" "ang" Pica (1/72 in.from_unit.. 13/12/05 . How? Syntax CONVERT(number. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. is the units for number.CONVERT Page 1 of 3 CONVERT See Also Converts a number from one measurement system to another. is the units for the result. CONVERT accepts the following text values (in quotation marks) for from_unit and to_unit. CONVERT can translate a table of distances in miles to a table of distances in kilometers.to_unit) Number From_unit To_unit is the value in from_units to convert.) "Pica" Time Year Day Hour From_unit or to_unit "yr" "day" "hr" Minute "mn" Second "sec" Pressure Pascal Atmosphere From_unit or to_unit "Pa" "atm" mm of Mercury "mmHg" Force Newton Dyne From_unit or to_unit "N" "dyn" Pound force "lbf" Energy Joule Erg From_unit or to_unit "J" "e" mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

.S.K.CONVERT Page 2 of 3 Thermodynamic calorie "c" IT calorie Electron volt Horsepower-hour Watt-hour Foot-pound BTU Power Watt "cal" "eV" "HPh" "Wh" "flb" "BTU" From_unit or to_unit "W" Horsepower "HP" Magnetism From_unit or to_unit Tesla Gauss "T" "ga" From_unit or to_unit "C" "K" Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Kelvin Degree Fahrenheit "F" Liquid measure From_unit or to_unit Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup U. Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation exa peta tera giga kilo 1E+18 1E+15 1E+12 1E+09 1E+03 "E" "P" "T" "G" "M" "k" "h" "e" "d" "c" "m" "u" "n" "p" "f" mega 1E+06 hecto 1E+02 dekao 1E+01 deci centi milli nano pico 1E-01 1E-02 1E-03 1E-09 1E-12 micro 1E-06 femto 1E-15 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. pint Quart Gallon Liter "tsp" "tbs" "oz" "cup" "pt" "uk_pt" "qt" "gal" "l" The following abbreviated unit prefixes can be prepended to any metric from_unit or to_unit.. pint U. 13/12/05 .

13/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula 2 =CONVERT(1.. "kg") 3 =CONVERT(68. CONVERT returns the #N/A error value. "sec") Data types are not the same so an error is returned (#N/A) 5 =CONVERT(CONVERT(100.0. If the unit does not exist. "C") B Description (Result) Converts 1 pound mass to kilograms (0.5. Unit names and prefixes are case-sensitive."ft". If the units are in different groups.."m"). "ft". CONVERT returns the #N/A error value. "F"."m") Converts 100 square feet into square meters (9.CONVERT Page 3 of 3 atto 1E-18 "a" Remarks If the input data types are incorrect. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. CONVERT returns the #N/A error value.290304). mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. CONVERT returns the #VALUE! error value."ft".453592) Converts 68 degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius (20) 4 =CONVERT(2.. If the unit does not support an abbreviated unit prefix. "lbm".

and returns the #NAME? error.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Remarks If number < -512 or if number > 511. How? Syntax DEC2BIN(number. If DEC2BIN requires more than places characters. If places is negative. If places is omitted. 4) Converts decimal 9 to binary with 4 characters (1001) 3 =DEC2BIN(-100) Converts decimal -100 to binary (1110011100) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. it returns the #NUM! error value. 14/12/05 . DEC2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. If number is negative. If places is nonnumeric. If number is nonnumeric.DEC2BIN Page 1 of 1 DEC2BIN See Also Converts a decimal number to binary. Places is the number of characters to use. DEC2BIN returns the #VALUE! error value. DEC2BIN uses the minimum number of characters necessary. DEC2BIN returns the #VALUE! error value. places is ignored and DEC2BIN returns a 10-character (10-bit) binary number in which the most significant bit is the sign bit. it is truncated. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =DEC2BIN(9. DEC2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. The remaining 9 bits are magnitude bits.places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation.. If places is not an integer. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros).

DEC2HEX returns the #VALUE! error value. If DEC2HEX requires more than places characters. it returns the #NUM! error value. How? A 1 Formula 3 =DEC2HEX(-54) B Description (Result) Converts decimal -54 to hexadecimal (FFFFFFFFCA) 2 =DEC2HEX(100. If places is not an integer. If places is nonnumeric..places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in..813. Places is the number of characters to use. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. DEC2HEX returns the #NUM! error value.DEC2HEX Page 1 of 1 DEC2HEX See Also Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal.. If places is negative. Remarks If number < -549. places is ignored and DEC2HEX returns a 10-character (40-bit) hexadecimal number in which the most significant bit is the sign bit. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.887. If number is nonnumeric. If places is omitted.813. DEC2HEX uses the minimum number of characters necessary. DEC2HEX returns the #VALUE! error value. How? Syntax DEC2HEX(number. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). If this function is not available. DEC2HEX returns the #NUM! error value.755. 4) Converts decimal 100 to hexadecimal with 4 characters (0064) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 14/12/05 .755. If number is negative. it is truncated. The remaining 39 bits are magnitude bits. and returns the #NAME? error.888 or if number > 549.

DEC2OCT returns the #NUM! error value. DEC2OCT returns the #VALUE! error value. If number is nonnumeric. If DEC2OCT requires more than places characters.. If places is not an integer. and returns the #NAME? error. DEC2OCT uses the minimum number of characters necessary. If number is negative. it is truncated. The remaining 29 bits are magnitude bits. If places is nonnumeric. DEC2OCT returns the #NUM! error value. Places is the number of characters to use. places) Number is the decimal integer you want to convert.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 3) Converts decimal 58 to octal (072) 3 =DEC2OCT(-100) Converts decimal to octal (7777777634) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. If places is omitted. How? Syntax DEC2OCT(number. Remarks If number < -536. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =DEC2OCT(58..912 or if number > 536. DEC2OCT returns the #VALUE! error value. it returns the #NUM! error value. places is ignored and DEC2OCT returns a 10-character (30-bit) octal number in which the most significant bit is the sign bit.911. If places is negative. If this function is not available.870.DEC2OCT Page 1 of 1 DEC2OCT See Also Converts a decimal number to octal. 14/12/05 . Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros).870. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

select the Analysis ToolPak box. 4) 3 =DELTA(5. and returns the #NAME? error. If this function is not available. and then click OK. 2. For example. DELTA returns the #VALUE! error value. This function is also known as the Kronecker Delta function.. If omitted. If necessary. 14/12/05 . How? is the first number. by summing several DELTA functions you calculate the count of equal pairs. 0) Checks whether 0. Syntax DELTA(number1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 3.number2) Number1 Number2 Remarks If number1 is nonnumeric. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.DELTA Page 1 of 1 DELTA See Also Tests whether two values are equal. click Add-Ins. A 1 Formula 2 =DELTA(5. In the Add-Ins available list. DELTA returns the #VALUE! error value. If number2 is nonnumeric. 5) B Description (Result) Checks whether 5 equals 4 (0) Checks whether 5 equals 5 (1) 4 =DELTA(0. follow the instructions in the setup program.. is the second number. Use this function to filter a set of values. returns 0 otherwise.5. Returns 1 if number1 = number2. number2 is assumed to be zero..5 equals 0 (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. On the Tools menu. How? 1.

842701) 2 =ERF(0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. ERF returns the #NUM! error value. is the upper bound for integrating ERF.upper_limit) Lower_limit Upper_limit Remarks If lower_limit is nonnumeric. How? Syntax ERF(lower_limit. is the lower bound for integrating ERF. If upper_limit is nonnumeric. ERF returns the #VALUE! error value. 14/12/05 .74500 (0. If this function is not available. ERF integrates between zero and lower_limit. ERF returns the #NUM! error value.. If lower_limit is negative. If upper_limit is negative. ERF returns the #VALUE! error value. and returns the #NAME? error.74500) Error function integrated between 0 and 0...ERF Page 1 of 1 ERF See Also Returns the error function integrated between lower_limit and upper_limit. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If omitted. How? A 1 Formula 3 =ERF(1) B Description (Result) Error function integrated between 0 and 1 (0.707929) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

1573) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If x is negative.. ERFC returns the #NUM! error value.ERFC Page 1 of 1 ERFC See Also Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity.. and returns the #NAME? error. How? A B 1 Formula Description (Result) 2 =ERFC(1) Complementary ERF function of 1 (0. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. ERFC returns the #VALUE! error value. How? Syntax ERFC(x) X is the lower bound for integrating ERF. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 14/12/05 . If this function is not available.. Remarks If x is nonnumeric.

If this function is not available. 14/12/05 ... How? Syntax FACTDOUBLE(number) Number Remarks If number is nonnumeric. it is truncated. FACTDOUBLE returns the #VALUE! error value. and returns the #NAME? error.. If number is negative. If number is not an integer. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =FACTDOUBLE(6) Double factorial of 6 (48) 3 =FACTDOUBLE(7) Double factorial of 7 (105) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If number is even: is the value for which to return the double factorial.FACTDOUBLE Page 1 of 1 FACTDOUBLE See Also Returns the double factorial of a number. If number is odd: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. FACTDOUBLE returns the #NUM! error value.

GESTEP uses zero. For example. by summing several GESTEP functions you calculate the count of values that exceed a threshold..step) Number Step is the value to test against step.GESTEP Page 1 of 1 GESTEP See Also Returns 1 if number ≥ step. and returns the #NAME? error. -5) Checks whether -4 is greater than or equal to -5 (1) 5 =GESTEP(-1.. Use this function to filter a set of values. How? Syntax GESTEP(number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remark If any argument is nonnumeric. returns 0 (zero) otherwise. How? A 1 Formula 2 =GESTEP(5. is the threshold value. 4) 3 =GESTEP(5. If this function is not available. 14/12/05 . 5) B Description (Result) Checks whether 5 is greater than or equal to 4 (1) Checks whether 5 is greater than or equal to 5 (1) 4 =GESTEP(-4. 0) Checks whether -1 is greater than or equal to 0 (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If you omit a value for step.. GESTEP returns the #VALUE! error value.

it returns the #NUM! error value. 14/12/05 . it cannot be greater than 1FF.HEX2BIN Page 1 of 1 HEX2BIN See Also Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. If HEX2BIN requires more than places characters. and returns the #NAME? error. If places is omitted. HEX2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters. How? Syntax HEX2BIN(number. HEX2BIN returns the #VALUE! error value.. with 8 characters (00001111) 3 =HEX2BIN("B7") Converts hexadecimal B7 to binary (10110111) 4 =HEX2BIN("FFFFFFFFFF") Converts hexadecimal FFFFFFFFFF to binary (1111111111) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. HEX2BIN uses the minimum number of characters necessary.. If number is negative. Remarks If number is negative.. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. If this function is not available. Places is the number of characters to use. it is truncated. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit (40th bit from the right). install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 8) B Description (Result) Converts hexadecimal F to binary. If places is not an integer. How? A 1 Formula 2 =HEX2BIN("F". If places is nonnumeric. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. it cannot be less than FFFFFFFE00. HEX2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. If places is negative. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). The remaining 9 bits are magnitude bits. If number is not a valid hexadecimal number.places) Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. HEX2BIN ignores places and returns a 10-character binary number. and if number is positive.

How? Syntax HEX2DEC(number) Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. How? A 1 Formula 2 =HEX2DEC("A5") 4 =HEX2DEC("3DA408B9") B Description (Result) Converts hexadecimal A5 to decimal (165) Converts hexadecimal 3DA408B9 to decimal (1034160313) 3 =HEX2DEC("FFFFFFFF5B") Converts hexadecimal FFFFFFFF5B to decimal (-165) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit..HEX2DEC Page 1 of 1 HEX2DEC See Also Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal. Remark If number is not a valid hexadecimal number. Negative numbers are represented using two'scomplement notation. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 14/12/05 . If this function is not available. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters (40 bits). and returns the #NAME? error.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. HEX2DEC returns the #NUM! error value. The remaining 39 bits are magnitude bits.

How? Syntax HEX2OCT(number. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). If places is omitted..HEX2OCT Page 1 of 1 HEX2OCT See Also Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. HEX2OCT returns the #NUM! error value. 3) B Description (Result) Converts hexadecimal F to octal with 3 characters (017) 3 =HEX2OCT("3B4E") Converts hexadecimal 3B4E to octal (35516) 4 =HEX2OCT("FFFFFFFF00") Converts hexadecimal FFFFFFFF00 to octal (7777777400) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. HEX2OCT returns the #VALUE! error value. and returns the #NAME? error. it cannot be less than FFE0000000. If places is nonnumeric. If number is negative. it returns the #NUM! error value. 14/12/05 . If this function is not available. How? A 1 Formula 2 =HEX2OCT("F". The remaining 39 bits are magnitude bits. If places is negative. HEX2OCT ignores places and returns a 10-character octal number. and if number is positive. HEX2OCT returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks If number is negative. Places is the number of characters to use. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. HEX2OCT uses the minimum number of characters necessary. If places is not an integer. If number is not a valid hexadecimal number. it is truncated.places) Number is the hexadecimal number you want to convert. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. Number cannot contain more than 10 characters. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. If HEX2OCT requires more than places characters.. it cannot be greater than 1FFFFFFF.

14/12/05 . and returns the #NAME? error.IMABS Page 1 of 1 IMABS See Also Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. The absolute value of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the absolute value. How? Syntax IMABS(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMABS("5+12i") Absolute value of 5+12i (13) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. where: z = x + yi Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. If this function is not available.

and returns the #NAME? error. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 14/12/05 . How? is a complex number for which you want the imaginary coefficient. A 1 Formula 3 =IMAGINARY("0-j") 4 =IMAGINARY(4) B Description (Result) Imaginary coefficient of the complex number 0-j (-1) Imaginary coefficient 4 (0) 2 =IMAGINARY("3+4i") Imaginary coefficient of the complex number 3+4i (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? Syntax IMAGINARY(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.IMAGINARY Page 1 of 1 IMAGINARY See Also Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. If this function is not available....

927295) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. an angle expressed in radians. such that: If this function is not available. 14/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMARGUMENT("3+4i") Theta argument of 3+4i.IMARGUMENT Page 1 of 1 IMARGUMENT See Also Returns the argument (theta).. Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. IMARGUMENT is calculated as follows: where: and z = x + yi Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and returns the #NAME? error. How? Syntax IMARGUMENT(inumber) Inumber is a complex number for which you want the argument .. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. in radians (0.

.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The conjugate of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the conjugate. If this function is not available. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.4i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.IMCONJUGATE Page 1 of 1 IMCONJUGATE See Also Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. 14/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMCONJUGATE("3+4i") Complex conjugate of 3+4i (3 .. and returns the #NAME? error. How? Syntax IMCONJUGATE(inumber) Inumber Remarks 2Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.

IMCOS Page 1 of 1 IMCOS See Also Returns the cosine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. How? Syntax IMCOS(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMCOS("1+i") Cosine of 1+i (0. 14/12/05 . and returns the #NAME? error. IMCOS returns the #VALUE! error value.83373 ... If inumber is a logical value.988898i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available. The cosine of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the cosine.

."10+24i") Quotient of the two complex numbers in the formula (5 + 12i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and returns the #NAME? error. How? Syntax IMDIV(inumber1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMDIV("-238+240i". If this function is not available. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. is the complex denominator or divisor.IMDIV Page 1 of 1 IMDIV See Also Returns the quotient of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format. The quotient of two complex numbers is: is the complex numerator or dividend. 14/12/05 ...inumber2) Inumber1 Inumber2 Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.

468694 + 2. The exponential of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the exponential. and returns the #NAME? error.287355i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 14/12/05 .. How? Syntax IMEXP(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. If this function is not available..IMEXP Page 1 of 1 IMEXP See Also Returns the exponential of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMEXP("1+i") Exponential of the complex number 1+i (1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.

14/12/05 . install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax IMLN(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.IMLN Page 1 of 1 IMLN See Also Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. and returns the #NAME? error.609438 + 0... The natural logarithm of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the natural logarithm..927295i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. where: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMLN("3+4i") Natural logarithm of 3+4i (1.

321928 + 1. How? Syntax IMLOG2(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.. The base-2 logarithm of a complex number can be calculated from the natural logarithm as follows: is a complex number for which you want the base-2 logarithm. and returns the #NAME? error.337804i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMLOG2("3+4i") Base-2 logarithm of 3+4i (2.. 14/12/05 . If this function is not available.IMLOG2 Page 1 of 1 IMLOG2 See Also Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

.. If this function is not available.69897 + 0. and returns the #NAME? error.402719i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMLOG10("3+4i") Logarithm (base 10) of 3+4i (0. How? Syntax IMLOG10(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. The common logarithm of a complex number can be calculated from the natural logarithm as follows: is a complex number for which you want the common logarithm..IMLOG10 Page 1 of 1 IMLOG10 See Also Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. 14/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.

install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.number) Inumber Number Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.. fractional. 3) 2+3i raised to the power of 3 (-46 + 9i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11..IMPOWER Page 1 of 1 IMPOWER See Also Returns a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format raised to a power. and returns the #NAME? error. How? Syntax IMPOWER(inumber. where: and: and: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available. or negative. IMPOWER returns the #VALUE! error value. 14/12/05 . Number can be an integer. A complex number raised to a power is calculated as follows: is a complex number you want to raise to a power. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMPOWER("2+3i".. is the power to which you want to raise the complex number. If number is nonnumeric.

.IMPRODUCT Page 1 of 1 IMPRODUCT See Also Returns the product of 2 to 29 complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format. 14/12/05 .… Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.. If this function is not available.. How? A 1 Formula 3 =IMPRODUCT("1+2i". The product of two complex numbers is: are 1 to 29 complex numbers to multiply..inumber2."5-3i") Product of the two complex numbers (27 + 11i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? Syntax IMPRODUCT(inumber1.30) B Description (Result) Product of a complex number and 30 (30 + 60i) 2 =IMPRODUCT("3+4i". inumber2. and returns the #NAME? error. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.) Inumber1..

and returns the #NAME? error. How? Syntax IMREAL(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in..IMREAL Page 1 of 1 IMREAL See Also Returns the real coefficient of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. If this function is not available. 14/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. How? is a complex number for which you want the real coefficient.. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMREAL("6-9i") Real coefficient of 6-9i (6) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

. How? Syntax IMSIN(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.016813i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMSIN("3+4i") Sine of 3+4i (3. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..853738 . If this function is not available. The sine of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the sine. 14/12/05 .IMSIN Page 1 of 1 IMSIN See Also Returns the sine of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format.27.. and returns the #NAME? error. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.

How? Syntax IMSQRT(inumber) Inumber Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number.IMSQRT Page 1 of 1 IMSQRT See Also Returns the square root of a complex number in x + yi or x + yj text format. where: and: and: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMSQRT("1+i") Square root of 1+i (1. 14/12/05 .. The square root of a complex number is: is a complex number for which you want the square root. If this function is not available.. and returns the #NAME? error.098684 + 0.45509i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

is the complex number to subtract from inumber1."5+3i") Difference between the two complex numbers in the formula (8 + i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? Syntax IMSUB(inumber1. and returns the #NAME? error. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMSUB("13+4i". The difference of two complex numbers is: is the complex number from which to subtract inumber2. If this function is not available.IMSUB Page 1 of 1 IMSUB See Also Returns the difference of two complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet...inumber2) Inumber1 Inumber2 Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. 14/12/05 .

. How? Syntax IMSUM(inumber1...) Inumber1.. The sum of two complex numbers is: are 1 to 29 complex numbers to add. 14/12/05 .IMSUM Page 1 of 1 IMSUM See Also Returns the sum of two or more complex numbers in x + yi or x + yj text format.. and returns the #NAME? error.inumber2.. Remarks Use COMPLEX to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number..."5-3i") Sum of the two complex numbers in the formula (8+i) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. If this function is not available. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =IMSUM("3+4i".inumber2. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

Remarks If number is negative. How? A 1 Formula 2 =OCT2BIN(3. and if number is positive. OCT2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. it returns the #NUM! error value. 3) B Description (Result) Converts octal 3 to binary with 3 characters (011) 3 =OCT2BIN(7777777000) Converts octal 7777777000 to binary (1000000000) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 15/12/05 . Places is the number of characters to use. it cannot be less than 7777777000. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.places) Number is the octal number you want to convert.OCT2BIN Page 1 of 1 OCT2BIN See Also Converts an octal number to binary. Number may not contain more than 10 characters.. OCT2BIN ignores places and returns a 10-character binary number. OCT2BIN uses the minimum number of characters necessary.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If number is not a valid octal number. If places is not an integer. How? Syntax OCT2BIN(number. Negative numbers are represented using two's-complement notation. it is truncated. If places is nonnumeric. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. If places is negative. If OCT2BIN requires more than places characters. OCT2BIN returns the #VALUE! error value. If number is negative. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros). and returns the #NAME? error. OCT2BIN returns the #NUM! error value. If this function is not available. If places is omitted. The remaining 29 bits are magnitude bits. it cannot be greater than 777..

How? A 1 Formula 2 =OCT2DEC(54) B Description (Result) Converts octal 54 to decimal (44) 3 =OCT2DEC(7777777533) Converts octal 7777777533 to decimal (-165) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. How? Syntax OCT2DEC(number) Number is the octal number you want to convert. Number may not contain more than 10 octal characters (30 bits). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. 15/12/05 . If this function is not available. OCT2DEC returns the #NUM! error value. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.. Negative numbers are represented using two'scomplement notation.OCT2DEC Page 1 of 1 OCT2DEC See Also Converts an octal number to decimal. Remark If number is not a valid octal number. and returns the #NAME? error. The remaining 29 bits are magnitude bits.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. OCT2HEX returns the #VALUE! error value. OCT2HEX returns the #NUM! error value. it is truncated. 15/12/05 . OCT2HEX returns the #NUM! error value. Places is useful for padding the return value with leading 0s (zeros).. Places is the number of characters to use. and returns the #NAME? error.. 4) B Description (Result) Converts octal number 100 to hexadecimal with 4 characters (0040) 3 =OCT2HEX(7777777533) Converts octal number 7777777533 to hexadecimal (FFFFFFFF5B) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If places is omitted. How? Syntax OCT2HEX(number. Negative numbers are represented using two'scomplement notation. If places is not an integer. If number is not a valid octal number. If places is negative. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Number may not contain more than 10 octal characters (30 bits).OCT2HEX Page 1 of 1 OCT2HEX See Also Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.. Remarks If number is negative. If OCT2HEX requires more than places characters.places) Number is the octal number you want to convert. OCT2HEX uses the minimum number of characters necessary. If places is nonnumeric. The most significant bit of number is the sign bit. OCT2HEX ignores places and returns a 10-character hexadecimal number. If this function is not available. The remaining 29 bits are magnitude bits. it returns the #NUM! error value. How? A 1 Formula 2 =OCT2HEX(100.

mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. If necessary. is the security's par value. If you omit par. On the Tools menu. Issue. 2. If this number contains a fraction. ACCRINT uses $1. follow the instructions in the setup program.23) for the 23rd day of May. First_interest Settlement is the security's settlement date.. settlement. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. For annual payments. and returns the #NAME? error. By default. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations.frequency. Syntax ACCRINT(issue. first_interest. If issue ≥ settlement.settlement.first_interest. or 4. If this function is not available. raise it to the next whole number. In the Add-Ins available list. frequency = 2. frequency = 4. for semiannual. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year.rate. ACCRINT returns the #NUM! error value. ACCRINT returns the #NUM! error value. and basis are truncated to integers. ACCRINT is calculated as follows: is the type of day count basis to use. or settlement is not a valid date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. 1900. 3.par. How? 1. is the security's first interest date. select the Analysis ToolPak box. NC = number of quasi-coupon periods that fit in odd period. 2. Issue is the security's issue date. 13/12/05 . and then click OK. use DATE (2008. 1900 is serial number 1. 2008. If issue. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 where: Ai = number of accrued days for the ith quasi-coupon period within odd period. and January 1. frequency. ACCRINT returns the #NUM! error value. ACCRINT returns the #NUM! error value.5. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. For example. If frequency is any number other than 1. first_interest. frequency = 1.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function..448 days after January 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. click Add-Ins. ACCRINT returns the #VALUE! error value. NLi = normal length in days of the ith quasi-coupon period within odd period.000.. Rate Par is the security's annual coupon rate.ACCRINT Page 1 of 2 ACCRINT See Also Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. January 1. or as results of other formulas or functions. for quarterly. If rate ≤ 0 or if par ≤ 0. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4.

ACCRINT Page 2 of 2 Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.0% 6 1. (15.A6.66666667) Accrued interest with the terms above.A6.3.A4. 13/12/05 . 2008 3 August 31.A7...5).A3.A5.A8) =ACCRINT(DATE (2008.A7.000 7 2 8 0 Formula =ACCRINT(A2. except the issue date is March 5..A5. 2008.A4. 2008 5 10.A3. How? A 1 Data 2 March 1.A8) B Description Issue date First interest date Settlement date Coupon rate Par value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) Accrued interest for a treasury bond with the terms above (16. 2008 4 May 1.55555556) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

For example.. use DATE (2008. On the Tools menu. select the Analysis ToolPak box. If necessary.par. If you omit par. follow the instructions in the setup program. is the security's par value. the number of days from the issue date to the maturity date is used.23) for the 23rd day of May. ACCRINTM is calculated as follows: is the security's issue date. click Add-Ins. and January 1.5. Issue. ACCRINTM returns the #VALUE! error value. By default. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Do not select the row or column headers. Select the example in the Help topic. Syntax ACCRINTM(issue. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 2. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. 1900.maturity. settlement. D = Annual Year Basis. If this function is not available. ACCRINTM returns the #NUM! error value.. If issue or settlement is not a valid date. is the security's annual coupon rate..ACCRINTM Page 1 of 2 ACCRINTM See Also Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. is the security's maturity date. and basis are truncated to integers. ACCRINTM returns the #NUM! error value. How? 1. and returns the #NAME? error. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. In the Add-Ins available list.448 days after January 1. If issue ≥ settlement. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. Issue Maturity Rate Par Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. ACCRINTM uses $1. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 3.000. and then click OK. ACCRINTM returns the #NUM! error value. 2008. is the type of day count basis to use. For interest at maturity items. 1900 is serial number 1. 2. or as results of other formulas or functions. 13/12/05 . If rate ≤ 0 or if par ≤ 0.rate. January 1. How? 1. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 where: A = Number of accrued days counted according to a monthly basis.

or on the Tools menu. point to Formula Auditing.000 6 3 Formula B Description Issue date Maturity date Percent coupon Par value Actual/365 basis (see above) Description (Result) =ACCRINTM(A2. 5. 2008 4 10. Press CTRL+C. press CTRL+` (grave accent)..A6) The accrued interest for the terms above (20.54795) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. In the worksheet. 13/12/05 . To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. 4. and press CTRL+V.A5. A 1 Data 2 April 1. and then click Formula Auditing Mode.A3.. select cell A1.A4.0% 5 $1.ACCRINTM Page 2 of 2 Selecting an example from Help 3.. 2008 3 June 15.

Date system Actual 365 days in a year 360 days in a year (European method) 0 or omitted 360 days (NASD method) Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 1900. the prorated depreciation is taken into account.5 2 2. is the date of the purchase of the asset. 1900 is serial number 1. The depreciation coefficients are: Life of assets (1/rate) Depreciation coefficient Between 3 and 4 years Between 5 and 6 years More than 6 years 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. is the period. and January 1. Date_purchased First_period Salvage Period Rate Basis Basis 1 3 4 Remarks is the date of the end of the first period. and returns the #NAME? error.first_period. the #NUM! error value is returned. 2008. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. is the year basis to be used. 13/12/05 . How? Syntax AMORDEGRC(cost. is the rate of depreciation. or as results of other formulas or functions. How? A 1 Data 2 2400 3 8/19/2008 4 B Description Cost Date purchased mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. except that a depreciation coefficient is applied in the calculation depending on the life of the assets. is the salvage value at the end of the life of the asset. 2 and 3.5 The depreciation rate will grow to 50 percent for the period preceding the last period and will grow to 100 percent for the last period. If an asset is purchased in the middle of the accounting period.23) for the 23rd day of May.. By default.AMORDEGRC Page 1 of 2 AMORDEGRC See Also Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.448 days after January 1. Cost is the cost of the asset..basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function.rate.date_purchased.5. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.period. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The function is similar to AMORLINC. If the life of assets is between 0 (zero) and 1. or 4 and 5.salvage. This function is provided for the French accounting system. For example.. January 1. 1 and 2. use DATE (2008. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If this function is not available. This function will return the depreciation until the last period of the life of the assets or until the cumulated value of depreciation is greater than the cost of the assets minus the salvage value.

A6..A5..A3.A8) First period depreciation (776) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.A4. 13/12/05 .AMORDEGRC Page 2 of 2 5 12/31/2008 6 300 7 1 8 15% 1 Formula End of the first period Salvage value Period Depreciation rate Actual basis (see above) Description (Result) =AMORDEGRC(A2.A7..

A3.5. and January 1.A6. By default. 2008. January 1.first_period.A4. Date_purchased First_period Salvage Period Rate Basis Basis 1 3 4 Remark is the date of the end of the first period. is the year basis to be used. This function is provided for the French accounting system. 13/12/05 .. 1900. or as results of other formulas or functions. If this function is not available.period.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. the prorated depreciation is taken into account. How? A 1 Data 2 2400 3 8/19/2008 4 12/31/2008 5 300 6 1 7 15% 8 1 Formula B Description Cost Date purchased End of the first period Salvage value Period Depreciation rate Actual basis (see above) Description (Result) =AMORLINC(A2. and returns the #NAME? error.A7. How? Syntax AMORLINC(cost. use DATE (2008. is the rate of depreciation..A7) First period depreciation (360) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If an asset is purchased in the middle of the accounting period. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.date_purchased. 1900 is serial number 1. Date system Actual 365 days in a year 360 days in a year (European method) 0 or omitted 360 days (NASD method) Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.rate. is the date of the purchase of the asset. is the period. is the salvage value at the end of the life of the asset.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.448 days after January 1. Cost is the cost of the asset.A5. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.23) for the 23rd day of May. For example.AMORLINC Page 1 of 1 AMORLINC See Also Returns the depreciation for each accounting period.salvage.

For example. 30 years after the January 1. Maturity is the security's maturity date. 2008. How? Syntax COUPDAYBS(settlement. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. issue date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. If settlement ≥ maturity.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. COUPDAYBS returns the #NUM! error value. How? is the type of day count basis to use. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. All arguments are truncated to integers. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. COUPDAYBS returns the #VALUE! error value. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. frequency = 1.A3. 1900.A5) B Description Settlement date Maturity date Semiannual coupon (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) The number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. frequency = 4.maturity. 2008. or as results of other formulas or functions. If frequency is any number other than 1. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. January 1.. for quarterly. 2007 3 November 15. for semiannual.448 days after January 1. and returns the #NAME? error. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. frequency = 2. If this function is not available. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. 1900 is serial number 1. For annual payments. Settlement is the security's settlement date. for a bond with the above terms (71) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 January 25. such as a bond. COUPDAYBS returns the #NUM! error value. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. 2. and the maturity date would be January 1. 2008 4 2 5 1 Formula =COUPDAYBS (A2.COUPDAYBS Page 1 of 1 COUPDAYBS See Also Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1.. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. 2008. use DATE (2008. 2008.5. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.frequency. COUPDAYBS returns the #NUM! error value.A4.23) for the 23rd day of May. or 4. The issue date would be January 1. 2008. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. 13/12/05 . By default. and January 1.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2038. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. the settlement date would be July 1. For example.

2008.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. 2008 issue date. 2007 3 November 15. frequency = 1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. All arguments are truncated to integers. 1900. COUPDAYS returns the #NUM! error value. and January 1. For example. 2008. January 1. Maturity is the security's maturity date. frequency = 2. 30 years after the January 1. 2008. or as results of other formulas or functions. Settlement is the security's settlement date. For annual payments.COUPDAYS Page 1 of 1 COUPDAYS See Also Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. If frequency is any number other than 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax COUPDAYS(settlement. for a bond with the above terms (181) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.5. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. The issue date would be January 1.A4. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 2038. for quarterly.23) for the 23rd day of May.. If this function is not available. 2008. use DATE (2008. By default. The maturity date is the date when the security expires.maturity. 13/12/05 . and returns the #NAME? error. For example. If settlement ≥ maturity. COUPDAYS returns the #NUM! error value. 1900 is serial number 1. or 4. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4.448 days after January 1.. and the maturity date is January 1. 2. for semiannual. How? is the type of day count basis to use. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. 2008 4 2 5 1 Formula =COUPDAYS (A2.A3. such as a bond. frequency = 4. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. COUPDAYS returns the #NUM! error value. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1.. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires.A5) B Description Settlement date Maturity date Semiannual coupon (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) The number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. the settlement date would be July 1. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 January 25. COUPDAYS returns the #VALUE! error value.frequency.

For example. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.23) for the 23rd day of May. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If settlement ≥ maturity. for semiannual.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 January 25. which is 30 years after the January 1. If frequency is any number other than 1. All arguments are truncated to integers. Maturity is the security's maturity date. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. COUPDAYSNC returns the #NUM! error value. 2008 4 2 5 1 Formula =COUPDAYSNC (A2. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.maturity. 1900. 2008. By default. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. such as a bond. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 2007 3 November 15. use DATE (2008. 2008.A5) B Description Settlement date Maturity date Semiannual coupon (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) The number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.. for a bond with the above terms (110) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.frequency. and returns the #NAME? error. or 4. January 1.A4. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. and January 1. For example. 2. 1900 is serial number 1. the settlement date would be July 1. How? is the type of day count basis to use. for quarterly. COUPDAYSNC returns the #NUM! error value. or as results of other formulas or functions. frequency = 4. 13/12/05 . The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. 2038.COUPDAYSNC Page 1 of 1 COUPDAYSNC See Also Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date. frequency = 1. The maturity date is the date when the security expires..448 days after January 1. COUPDAYSNC returns the #VALUE! error value. Settlement is the security's settlement date. and the maturity date would be January 1. If this function is not available. frequency = 2.5. issue date. How? Syntax COUPDAYSNC(settlement. For annual payments. The issue date would be January 1. 2008. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. 2008.A3. 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. COUPDAYSNC returns the #NUM! error value.

For example. Maturity is the security's maturity date. and returns the #NAME? error.5. 2008.. All arguments are truncated to integers. If this function is not available.COUPNCD Page 1 of 2 COUPNCD See Also Returns a number that represents the next coupon date after the settlement date.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 2007 3 November 15. For example. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The issue date would be January 1. 2008. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2. use DATE (2008. for semiannual. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. COUPNCD returns the #VALUE! error value. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.A4. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. COUPNCD returns the #NUM! error value. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. which is 30 years after the January 1. or 4. 13/12/05 . The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer.23) for the 23rd day of May. 2007) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and the maturity date would be January 1. Settlement is the security's settlement date. frequency = 2.A3. 1900. 2008 4 2 5 1 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Semiannual coupon (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) =COUPNCD(A2. such as a bond.448 days after January 1. or as results of other formulas or functions. How? is the type of day count basis to use. If settlement ≥ maturity. COUPNCD returns the #NUM! error value. 2008. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 January 25.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. 2038. and January 1. COUPNCD returns the #NUM! error value. frequency = 4. for quarterly. the settlement date would be July 1. How? Syntax COUPNCD(settlement. If frequency is any number other than 1. January 1.maturity.frequency. for a bond with the above terms (May 15.A5) The next coupon date after the settlement date. For annual payments. By default. issue date.. frequency = 1. 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. 1900 is serial number 1. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. 2008.

.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and then click Date in the Category box. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu.. 13/12/05 . Click the Number tab.COUPNCD Page 2 of 2 Note To view the number as a date.

and returns the #NAME? error.. or pv ≤ 0. How? Syntax CUMIPMT(rate. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at an annual interest rate of 10 percent.0) Total interest paid in the second year of payments. is the first period in the calculation.50) =CUMIPMT(A2/12.13.A4.end_period. How? A 1 Data 2 9% 3 30 4 125. end_period < 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.A3*12. If type is any number other than 0 or 1.1.nper. nper ≤ 0. If start_period < 1. is the present value.24. CUMIPMT returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1.000 Formula =CUMIPMT(A2/12. is the last period in the calculation. and type are truncated to integers.pv.CUMIPMT Page 1 of 1 CUMIPMT See Also Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan between start_period and end_period. CUMIPMT returns the #NUM! error value.A3*12. If you make annual payments on the same loan. periods 13 through 24 (-11135. Start_period End_period Type Type 1 is the timing of the payment.type) Rate Nper Pv is the interest rate. The years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. is the total number of payment periods. 14/12/05 . CUMIPMT returns the #NUM! error value.23) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate.0) B Description Annual interest rate Years of the loan Present value Description (Result) Interest paid in a single payment in the first month (-937. start_period.start_period. If rate ≤ 0. Payment periods are numbered beginning with 1. Timing Payment at the beginning of the period 0 (zero) Payment at the end of the period Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. Nper. end_period. use 10%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. use 10% for rate and 4 for nper.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If this function is not available.A4.. or start_period > end_period.

use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper..1..000 Formula =CUMPRINC (A2/12. is the total number of payment periods. is the present value. 14/12/05 . If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at an annual interest rate of 12 percent.start_period. Nper. start_period. If start_period < 1.A4. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. If you make annual payments on the same loan.end_period. end_period. and returns the #NAME? error.0) =CUMPRINC(A2/12.A3*12. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If this function is not available.27827) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate.0) B Description Interest rate per annum Term in years Present value Description (Result) The total principal paid in the second year of payments. If type is any number other than 0 or 1.1071) The principal paid in a single payment in the first month (-68.00% 3 30 4 125.1.CUMPRINC Page 1 of 1 CUMPRINC See Also Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between start_period and end_period. CUMPRINC returns the #NUM! error value. How? Syntax CUMPRINC(rate.A3*12.A4. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.type) Rate Nper Pv is the interest rate. nper ≤ 0. periods 13 through 24 (934. How? A 1 Data 2 9. If rate ≤ 0.13. end_period < 1. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper.24. Timing Payment at the beginning of the period 0 (zero) Payment at the end of the period Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper.nper. Payment periods are numbered beginning with 1. and type are truncated to integers. or start_period > end_period. or pv ≤ 0. CUMPRINC returns the #NUM! error value. CUMPRINC returns the #NUM! error value. is the last period in the calculation.pv. Start_period End_period Type Type 1 is the timing of the payment. The years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. is the first period in the calculation..

1. with only 7 months calculated (186.7) Depreciation in third year (176.4.083.64) =DB(A2. Syntax DB(cost.7) Depreciation in fifth year (81.period.month)) / 12 Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.845.42) =DB(A2.7) Depreciation in fourth year (120.000 3 100.A4.. it is assumed to be 12.7) Depreciation in second year (259.44) =DB(A2.33) =DB(A2.6.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). 14/12/05 .A3. is the period for which you want to calculate the depreciation. DB uses this formula: ((cost .2.A3.A3.A4. is the number of months in the first year.7) Depreciation in sixth year (55.64) =DB(A2. is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).ch.410. with only 5 months calculated (15. DB uses this formula: cost * rate * month / 12 For the last period. rounded to three decimal places Depreciation for the first and last periods is a special case.A4.814.total depreciation from prior periods) * rate where: rate = 1 .5.A3.total depreciation from prior periods) * rate * (12 .841. If month is omitted.salvage.A3.7.10) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. For the first period.life. Salvage Life Period Month is the number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).A3. How? A 1 Data 2 1.3.DB Page 1 of 1 DB See Also Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method.A4.A4.76) =DB(A2. Remarks The fixed-declining balance method computes depreciation at a fixed rate.7) Depreciation in seventh year.000.A4. Period must use the same units as life.A4.7) Depreciation in first year.639.A3. DB uses the following formulas to calculate depreciation for a period: (cost .999.month) Cost is the initial cost of the asset.000 4 6 Formula B Description Initial cost Salvage value Lifetime in years Description (Result) =DB(A2.

ch.A4. (1. Period must use the same units as life. Microsoft Excel automatically assumes that factor is 2.32) Note The results are rounded to two decimal places. it is assumed to be 2 (the double-declining balance method).A3.5 instead of the double-declining balance method (306.salvage. Important All five arguments must be positive numbers.A3. is the period for which you want to calculate the depreciation.A3.factor) Cost is the initial cost of the asset.00) Tenth year's depreciation.1) First day's depreciation. Use the VDB function if you want to switch to the straight-line depreciation method when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation.period.12) =DDB(A2.A3.00) First year's depreciation (480.10) B Description Initial cost Salvage value Lifetime in years Description (Result) First month's depreciation (40.A4*12. Microsoft Excel automatically assumes that factor is 2 (22.5) =DDB(A2.DDB Page 1 of 1 DDB See Also Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify.00) Second year's depreciation using a factor of 1.2) =DDB(A2.A4.total depreciation from prior periods) * (factor/life) Change factor if you do not want to use the double-declining balance method. DDB uses the following formula to calculate depreciation for a period: ((cost-salvage) .2) =DDB(A2.A3.life.1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. is the rate at which the balance declines. is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset). Syntax DDB(cost.A4. Salvage Life Period Factor is the number of periods over which the asset is being depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1.A4*365. Depreciation is highest in the first period and decreases in successive periods.. How? A 1 Data 2 2400 3 300 4 10 Formula =DDB (A2.2. Remarks The double-declining balance method computes depreciation at an accelerated rate.1.. If factor is omitted. 14/12/05 .

January 1. If settlement ≥ maturity. 2008. If settlement or maturity is not a valid serial date number. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.23) for the 23rd day of May. DISC returns the #NUM! error value.maturity. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. issue date. 2008. How? A B mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. DSM = number of days between settlement and maturity. such as a bond.redemption. How? Syntax DISC(settlement. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. 2038.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. Redemption Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks is the type of day count basis to use. or as results of other formulas or functions. the settlement date would be July 1. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. 2008. DISC returns the #NUM! error value. The maturity date is the date when the security expires..pr. If this function is not available. and basis are truncated to integers. DISC returns the #NUM! error value. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. By default. DISC returns the #VALUE! error value. Maturity Pr is the security's maturity date. Settlement.5. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. and the maturity date would be January 1. For example. use DATE (2008.. maturity. 14/12/05 . 1900 is serial number 1. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1.448 days after January 1. Settlement is the security's settlement date. depending on the year basis. The issue date would be January 1. If pr ≤ 0 or if redemption ≤ 0. 1900. 30 years after the January 1. For example. and January 1. 2008. DISC is calculated as follows: where: B = number of days in a year.DISC Page 1 of 2 DISC See Also Returns the discount rate for a security.. 2008. and returns the #NAME? error. is the security's price per $100 face value. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.

A5. 14/12/05 .A4. 2007 3 June 15.24%) Note To view the number as a percent. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu.A6) The bond discount rate. and then click Percentage in the Category box...975 5 100 6 1 Formula Description Settlement date Maturity date Price Redemption value Actual/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =DISC(A2. 2007 4 97.DISC Page 2 of 2 1 Data 2 January 25.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.052420213 or 5. Click the Number tab. for a bond with the above terms (0.A3.

Press CTRL+C. Syntax DOLLARDE(fractional_dollar. and press CTRL+V. Selecting an example from Help 3. point to Formula Auditing. such as securities prices.1. If fraction is 0.. DOLLARDE returns the #NUM! error value. is a number expressed as a fraction. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. and returns the #NAME? error. How? 1. to a decimal number (1. If necessary. to decimal numbers. If this function is not available. press CTRL+` (grave accent). to a decimal number (1.02. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Use DOLLARDE to convert fractional dollar numbers. 2. it is truncated. 5. If fraction is less than 0. 2. click Add-Ins. In the worksheet.1. In the Add-Ins available list.DOLLARDE Page 1 of 1 DOLLARDE See Also Converts a dollar price expressed as a fraction into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number.125) 3 =DOLLARDE(1.3125) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. is the integer to use in the denominator of the fraction. 4. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. or on the Tools menu. How? 1.fraction) Fractional_dollar Fraction Remarks If fraction is not an integer. read as 1 and 10/32. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =DOLLARDE(1. On the Tools menu. read as 1 and 2/16.. select the Analysis ToolPak box.16) Converts 1. and then click OK. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. Select the example in the Help topic. DOLLARDE returns the #DIV/0! error value.32) Converts 1. Do not select the row or column headers. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. 14/12/05 . 3.02. select cell A1. follow the instructions in the setup program..

How? Syntax DOLLARFR(decimal_dollar. is the integer to use in the denominator of a fraction. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. it is truncated.02) 3 =DOLLARFR(1. If fraction is 0. If this function is not available.125.16) Converts the decimal number 1.fraction) Decimal_dollar Fraction Remarks If fraction is not an integer. If fraction is less than 0. DOLLARFR returns the #DIV/0! error value. such as securities prices.. How? is a decimal number.32) Converts the decimal number 1. 14/12/05 .125 to a number read as 1 and 1/8 (1.125 to a number read as 1 and 2/16 (1.04) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. DOLLARFR returns the #NUM! error value. Use DOLLARFR to convert decimal numbers to fractional dollar numbers. and returns the #NAME? error..125. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =DOLLARFR(1.DOLLARFR Page 1 of 1 DOLLARFR See Also Converts a dollar price expressed as a decimal number into a dollar price expressed as a fraction.

or 4. By default. which is 30 years after the January 1. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.coupon. maturity. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 January 1.maturity. If this function is not available. January 1. For example. Duration is defined as the weighted average of the present value of the cash flows and is used as a measure of a bond price's response to changes in yield. 2008. Settlement. DURATION returns the #NUM! error value.448 days after January 1. How? Syntax DURATION(settlement. frequency = 2. 1900 is serial number 1. 2. If settlement ≥ maturity. use DATE (2008. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 2008.. and the maturity date would be January 1.. If coupon < 0 or if yld < 0. frequency. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. If frequency is any number other than 1. 14/12/05 . Settlement is the security's settlement date. is the security's annual coupon rate. 2016 B Description Settlement date Maturity date mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. issue date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer.23) for the 23rd day of May. DURATION returns the #NUM! error value. or as results of other formulas or functions. the settlement date would be July 1. Maturity Coupon Yld is the security's maturity date. for quarterly. 2008 3 January 1. 2008. 2038. DURATION returns the #VALUE! error value.frequency. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. for semiannual. frequency = 1. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? is the type of day count basis to use. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. 2008. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires..yld. is the security's annual yield. 1900. and basis are truncated to integers. DURATION returns the #NUM! error value. For annual payments. DURATION returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and returns the #NAME? error. frequency = 4. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. and January 1.5. The issue date would be January 1.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. 2008.DURATION Page 1 of 2 DURATION See Also Returns the Macauley duration for an assumed par value of $100. such as a bond. For example.

0% 6 2 7 1 Formula Percent coupon Percent yield Frequency is semiannual (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) =DURATION(A2.A6.A3..A7) The duration..993775) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.A5. 14/12/05 .A4.DURATION Page 2 of 2 4 8% 5 9.. for the bond with the terms above (5.

EFFECT

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EFFECT
See Also Returns the effective annual interest rate, given the nominal annual interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax EFFECT(nominal_rate,npery) Nominal_rate Npery is the nominal interest rate.

is the number of compounding periods per year.

Remarks Npery is truncated to an integer. If either argument is nonnumeric, EFFECT returns the #VALUE! error value. If nominal_rate ≤ 0 or if npery < 1, EFFECT returns the #NUM! error value. EFFECT is calculated as follows:

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 5.25% 3 4 Formula

B Description Nominal interest rate Number of compounding periods per year Description (Result)

=EFFECT(A2,A3) Effective interest rate with the terms above (0.053543 or 5.3543 percent)

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FV

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FV
See Also Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Syntax FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type) For a more complete description of the arguments in FV and for more information on annuity functions, see PV. Rate Nper is the interest rate per period. is the total number of payment periods in an annuity.

Pmt is the payment made each period; it cannot change over the life of the annuity. Typically, pmt contains principal and interest but no other fees or taxes. If pmt is omitted, you must include the pv argument. Pv is the present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now. If pv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), and you must include the pmt argument. Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. If type is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.

Set type equal to If payments are due 0 1 Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at 12 percent annual interest, use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. If you make annual payments on the same loan, use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. For all the arguments, cash you pay out, such as deposits to savings, is represented by negative numbers; cash you receive, such as dividend checks, is represented by positive numbers. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? At the end of the period At the beginning of the period

A 1 Data 2 6% 3 10 4 -200 5 -500 6 1 Formula

B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Present value Payment is due at the beginning of the period (see above) Description (Result)

=FV(A2/12, A3, A4, A5, A6) Future value of an investment with the above terms (2581.40) Note The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly. Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 12% 3 12 4 -1000 Formula

B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Description (Result)

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FV

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=FV(A2/12, A3, A4) Future value of an investment with the above terms (12,682.50) Note The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly. Example 3 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 11% 3 35 4 -2000 5 1 Formula

B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Payment is due at the beginning of the year (see above) Description (Result)

=FV(A2/12, A3, A4,, A5) Future value of an investment with the above terms (82,846.25) Note The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly. Example 4 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 6% 3 12 4 -100 5 -1000 6 1 Formula

B Description Annual interest rate Number of payments Amount of the payment Present value Payment is due at the beginning of the year (see above) Description (Result)

=FV(A2/12, A3, A4, A5, A6) Future value of an investment with the above terms (2301.40) Note The annual interest rate is divided by 12 because it is compounded monthly.

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FVSCHEDULE

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FVSCHEDULE
See Also Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. Use FVSCHEDULE to calculate the future value of an investment with a variable or adjustable rate. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax FVSCHEDULE(principal,schedule) Principal Schedule Remark The values in schedule can be numbers or blank cells; any other value produces the #VALUE! error value for FVSCHEDULE. Blank cells are taken as zeros (no interest). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is the present value. is an array of interest rates to apply.

A 1 Formula

B Description (Result)

2 =FVSCHEDULE(1,{0.09,0.11,0.1}) Future value of 1 with compound interest rates of 0.09,0.11,0.1 (1.33089)

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INTRATE

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INTRATE
See Also Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax INTRATE(settlement,maturity,investment,redemption,basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE (2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Settlement is the security's settlement date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. Maturity is the security's maturity date. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. is the amount invested in the security. is the amount to be received at maturity.

Investment Redemption Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks

is the type of day count basis to use. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360

0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360

Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon, such as a bond. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. For example, suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1, 2008, and is purchased by a buyer six months later. The issue date would be January 1, 2008, the settlement date would be July 1, 2008, and the maturity date would be January 1, 2038, which is 30 years after the January 1, 2008, issue date. Settlement, maturity, and basis are truncated to integers. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date, INTRATE returns the #VALUE! error value. If investment ≤ 0 or if redemption ≤ 0, INTRATE returns the #NUM! error value. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4, INTRATE returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement ≥ maturity, INTRATE returns the #NUM! error value. INTRATE is calculated as follows:

where: B = number of days in a year, depending on the year basis. DIM = number of days from settlement to maturity. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A

B

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INTRATE

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1 Data 2 February 15, 2008 3 May 15, 2008 4 1,000,000 5 1,014,420 6 2 Formula

Description Settlement date Maturity date Investment Redemption value Actual/360 basis (see above) Description (Result)

=INTRATE(A2,A3,A4,A5,A6) Discount rate, for the terms of the bond above (0.05768 or 5.77%) Note To view the number as a percentage, select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. Click the Number tab, and then click Percentage in the Category box.

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IPMT

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IPMT
See Also Returns the interest payment for a given period for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. For a more complete description of the arguments in IPMT and for more information about annuity functions, see PV. Syntax IPMT(rate,per,nper,pv,fv,type) Rate Per Nper Pv is the interest rate per period. is the period for which you want to find the interest and must be in the range 1 to nper. is the total number of payment periods in an annuity. is the present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now.

Fv is the future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan, for example, is 0). Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. If type is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.

Set type equal to If payments are due 0 1 Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at 12 percent annual interest, use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. If you make annual payments on the same loan, use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. For all the arguments, cash you pay out, such as deposits to savings, is represented by negative numbers; cash you receive, such as dividend checks, is represented by positive numbers. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? At the end of the period At the beginning of the period

A 1 Data 2 10% 3 1 4 3 5 8000 Formula =IPMT(A2/12, A3*3, A4, A5) =IPMT(A2, 3, A4, A5)

B Description Annual interest Period for which you want to find the interest Years of loan Present value of loan Description (Result) Interest due in the first month for a loan with the terms above (-22.41) Interest due in the last year for a loan with the terms above, where payments are made yearly (292.45)

Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate. The years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments.

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IRR cycles through the calculation until the result is accurate within 0. the #NUM! error value is returned. those values are ignored.guess) Values is an array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to calculate the internal rate of return. 14/12/05 . If an array or reference argument contains text. These cash flows do not have to be even. Be sure to enter your payment and income values in the sequence you want.000 4 15. However. Starting with guess. If IRR can't find a result that works after 20 tries.000 5 18. it is assumed to be 0. Guess is a number that you guess is close to the result of IRR. Microsoft Excel uses an iterative technique for calculating IRR. Syntax IRR(values. the value 3. such as monthly or annually. If IRR gives the #NUM! error value.60E-08 [Within the accuracy of the IRR calculation. or empty cells.000 3 12. the net present value function.00001 percent.1 (10 percent)..] Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If guess is omitted. IRR uses the order of values to interpret the order of cash flows.60E-08 is effectively 0 (zero).000 6 21.-10%) To calculate the internal rate of return after two years. or if the result is not close to what you expected. as they would be for an annuity.B1:B6) equals 3.IRR Page 1 of 1 IRR See Also Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows represented by the numbers in values.. The following formula demonstrates how NPV and IRR are related: NPV(IRR(B1:B6). In most cases you do not need to provide guess for the IRR calculation.000 Formula =IRR(A2:A6) =IRR(A2:A7) B Description Initial cost of a business Net income for the first year Net income for the second year Net income for the third year Net income for the fourth year Net income for the fifth year Description (Result) Investment's internal rate of return after four years (-2%) Internal rate of return after five years (9%) =IRR(A2:A4. The internal rate of return is the interest rate received for an investment consisting of payments (negative values) and income (positive values) that occur at regular periods. try again with a different value for guess.000 7 26. Values must contain at least one positive value and one negative value to calculate the internal rate of return. How? A 1 Data 2 -70. you need to include a guess (-44%) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The rate of return calculated by IRR is the interest rate corresponding to a 0 (zero) net present value. the cash flows must occur at regular intervals. logical values.ch. Remarks IRR is closely related to NPV.

A4. is represented by positive numbers. For all the arguments.nper. 14/12/05 .per. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.8) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate.. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. the cash you pay out. pv is the loan amount. such as deposits to savings or other withdrawals.. This function is provided for compatibility with Lotus 1-2-3. is the period for which you want to find the interest. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.A5) B Description Annual interest rate Period Number of years in the investment Amount of loan Description (Result) Interest paid in the first year of a loan with the above terms (-533333) =ISPMT(A2/12. see the PV function. Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper.ch.A3.pv) Rate Per Nper Pv is the interest rate for the investment. the cash you receive. For a loan. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at an annual interest rate of 12 percent. is represented by negative numbers. and must be between 1 and nper. The number of years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments.ISPMT Page 1 of 1 ISPMT See Also Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. is the present value of the investment. How? A 1 Data 2 10% 3 1 4 3 5 8000000 Formula =ISPMT(A2. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. is the total number of payment periods for the investment. Syntax ISPMT(rate. such as dividend checks and other deposits.A5) Interest paid for the first monthly payment of a loan with the above terms (-64814.A4*12. For additional information about financial functions. If you make annual payments on the same loan.1.

2008. such as a bond. or as results of other formulas or functions. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. How? Syntax MDURATION(settlement. For annual payments. MDURATION returns the #NUM! error value.maturity. frequency = 1. is the security's annual coupon rate. 2. 2008. If yld < 0 or if coupon < 0. The issue date would be January 1.coupon. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. the settlement date would be July 1.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. If settlement ≥ maturity. Maturity Coupon Yld is the security's maturity date. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. is the security's annual yield. and the maturity date is January 1. How? mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. January 1. MDURATION returns the #VALUE! error value. 2008. issue date. use DATE (2008. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. 2008. and January 1. Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year.23) for the 23rd day of May. frequency = 2. frequency = 4. frequency. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. If frequency is any number other than 1. or 4. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. for quarterly. Settlement. Modified duration is defined as follows: is the type of day count basis to use. maturity. and returns the #NAME? error. 1900 is serial number 1. and basis are truncated to integers. 2038. For example. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.448 days after January 1. MDURATION returns the #NUM! error value. 1900. MDURATION returns the #NUM! error value. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Settlement is the security's settlement date.5. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. If this function is not available. By default.. 14/12/05 . for semiannual.. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. For example.MDURATION Page 1 of 2 MDURATION See Also Returns the modified Macauley duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100..yld. 2008. which is 30 years after the January 1. MDURATION returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date.frequency.

MDURATION Page 2 of 2 A 1 Data 2 January 1. for the bond with the terms above (5.. 2008 3 January 1.73567) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. 14/12/05 .A3.A4. 2016 4 8% 5 9.0% 6 2 7 1 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent coupon Percent yield Frequency is semiannual (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) =MDURATION(A2..A5.A6.A7) The modified duration.

How? A 1 Data 2 -$120. however. A8.000 8 9 10. then the formula for MIRR is: is the interest rate you pay on the money used in the cash flows.000 4 30. If an array or reference argument contains text.000 6 37.00% 12. 14/12/05 .000 loan Annual interest rate for the reinvested profits Description (Result) Investment's modified rate of return after five years (13%) Modified rate of return after three years (-5%) =MIRR(A2:A7. and rrate is the reinvest_rate. A8.000 3 39.. MIRR returns the #DIV/0! error value. A9) =MIRR(A2:A5.reinvest_rate) Values is an array or a reference to cells that contain numbers. 14%) Five-year modified rate of return based on a reinvest_rate of 14 percent (13%) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. is the interest rate you receive on the cash flows as you reinvest them. A9) B Description Initial cost Return first year Return second year Return third year Return fourth year Return fifth year Annual interest rate for the 120. Finance_rate Reinvest_rate Remarks MIRR uses the order of values to interpret the order of cash flows. those values are ignored. Syntax MIRR(values.000 5 21.ch.000 7 46. or empty cells.MIRR Page 1 of 1 MIRR See Also Returns the modified internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows. MIRR considers both the cost of the investment and the interest received on reinvestment of cash. If n is the number of cash flows in values. logical values. Values must contain at least one positive value and one negative value to calculate the modified internal rate of return.. negative values for cash paid). Otherwise. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. These numbers represent a series of payments (negative values) and income (positive values) occurring at regular periods. cells with the value zero are included.finance_rate. A8. frate is the finance_rate. Be sure to enter your payment and income values in the sequence you want and with the correct signs (positive values for cash received.00% Formula =MIRR(A2:A7.

3543 % 3 4 Formula B Description Effective interest rate Number of compounding periods per year Description (Result) =NOMINAL(A2. is the number of compounding periods per year.0525 or 5. How? Syntax NOMINAL(effect_rate. NOMINAL returns the #NUM! error value.. and returns the #NAME? error.npery) Effect_rate Npery is the effective interest rate.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 15/12/05 . Remarks Npery is truncated to an integer. NOMINAL is related to EFFECT as shown in the following equation: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If effect_rate ≤ 0 or if npery < 1. given the effective rate and the number of compounding periods per year. If either argument is nonnumeric. NOMINAL returns the #VALUE! error value.A3) Nominal interest rate with the terms above (0.25 percent) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? A 1 Data 2 5.NOMINAL Page 1 of 1 NOMINAL See Also Returns the nominal annual interest rate.. If this function is not available.

A3. fv. type) For a more complete description of the arguments in NPER and for more information about annuity functions. or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now. Pmt is the payment made each period. it cannot change over the life of the annuity.. Syntax NPER(rate.. A4) Periods for the investment with the above terms. is 0). constant payments and a constant interest rate.NPER Page 1 of 1 NPER See Also Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic. for example. see PV. pmt contains principal and interest but no other fees or taxes. Typically. If fv is omitted. A5) Periods for the investment with the above terms. Periods for the investment with the above terms (60) 1) =NPER(A2/12. How? At the end of the period At the beginning of the period A 1 Data 2 12% 3 -100 4 -1000 5 10000 6 1 Formula B Description Annual interest rate Payment made each period Present value Future value Payment is due at the beginning of the period (see above) Description (Result) =NPER(A2/12. 15/12/05 . Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due.ch. Rate is the interest rate per period. pv. except with a future value of 0 (-9.578) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A5. except payments are made at the beginning of the period (60) =NPER(A2/12. A3. Set type equal to If payments are due 0 or omitted 1 Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. A3. it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan. A4. A4. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. Pv is the present value. pmt. Fv is the future value.

are 1 to 29 arguments representing the payments and income. Unlike the variable NPV cash flow values. you include the initial $10. . . 15/12/05 .. For information about annuities and financial functions. If n is the number of cash flows in the list of values. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. value2..). must be equally spaced in time and occur at the end of each period. value2..value2. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows. NPV uses the order of value1. . logical values. A6) Net present value of this investment (1. Syntax NPV(rate.NPV Page 1 of 2 NPV See Also Calculates the net present value of an investment by using a discount rate and a series of future payments (negative values) and income (positive values).44) In the preceding example. How? A 1 Data B Description mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Remarks The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value1 cash flow and ends with the last cash flow in the list.000 4 3.800 Formula B Description Annual discount rate Initial cost of investment one year from today Return from first year Return from second year Return from third year Description (Result) =NPV(A2. empty cells. For more information.ch. . or text representations of numbers are counted. see the examples below. arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers are ignored.. to interpret the order of cash flows. A3. value2. A4.. PV cash flows must be constant throughout the investment. IRR is the rate for which NPV equals zero: NPV(IRR(. only numbers in that array or reference are counted. NPV is also related to the IRR function (internal rate of return). Value1.. because the payment occurs at the end of the first period..188. Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.) = 0. see PV. text. Value1.. the first value must be added to the NPV result. The primary difference between PV and NPV is that PV allows cash flows to begin either at the end or at the beginning of the period.. not included in the values arguments.value1.. the formula for NPV is: NPV is similar to the PV function (present value). If your first cash flow occurs at the beginning of the first period.000 5 4. logical values.. A5..200 6 6. How? A 1 Data 2 10% 3 -10. .. Empty cells. Arguments that are numbers. If an argument is an array or reference. or error values in the array or reference are ignored..000 cost as one of the values. Be sure to enter your payment and income values in the correct sequence.) Rate is the rate of discount over the length of one period.

ch.200 7 10.749. with a loss in the sixth year of 9000 (-3. Initial cost of investment Return from first year Return from second year Return from third year Return from fourth year Return from fifth year Description (Result) Net present value of this investment (1.NPV Page 2 of 2 2 8% 3 4 -40... A4:A8)+A3 =NPV(A2.000 6 9.922.000 5 8.000 8 12.06) Net present value of this investment.000 cost as one of the values. -9000) +A3 Annual discount rate. 15/12/05 .500 Formula =NPV(A2. because the payment occurs at the beginning of the first period. This might represent the rate of inflation or the interest rate of a competing investment. you don't include the initial $40.000 14. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A4:A8.47) In the preceding example.

is the security's first coupon date. the settlement date would be July 1. How? 1.ODDFPRICE Page 1 of 3 ODDFPRICE See Also Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period.. otherwise. For example. If settlement.23) for the 23rd day of May.issue. For annual payments. and January 1. ODDFPRICE returns the #NUM! error value: maturity > first_coupon > settlement > issue ODDFPRICE is calculated as follows: Odd short first coupon: is the type of day count basis to use. If necessary.first_coupon. use DATE (2008.5. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. Settlement is the security's settlement date. is the security's annual yield. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer.redemption. frequency = 1. Syntax ODDFPRICE(settlement. On the Tools menu. By default. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 2008. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. frequency = 4. First_coupon Rate Yld is the security's interest rate. The issue date would be January 1. 2038. ODDFPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. 2008.rate. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires.yld. and returns the #NAME? error. 2008. For example.. select the Analysis ToolPak box. If this function is not available. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. January 1. and basis are truncated to integers. click Add-Ins. 2008. issue date. 1900. such as a bond. 2008. for quarterly. 15/12/05 . ODDFPRICE returns the #VALUE! error value. Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year.frequency. which is 30 years after the January 1. maturity. 1900 is serial number 1.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. In the Add-Ins available list. or as results of other formulas or functions. first_coupon. Settlement. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. 2. If rate < 0 or if yld < 0. and then click OK. issue.maturity. and the maturity date would be January 1. is the security's issue date. ODDFPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. Maturity Issue is the security's maturity date. follow the instructions in the setup program. The following date condition must be satisfied. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. maturity. issue. or first_coupon is not a valid date. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. for semiannual.448 days after January 1. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. frequency = 2. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. 3.

it is raised to the next whole number. DFC = number of days from the beginning of the odd first coupon to the first coupon date..) Odd long first coupon: where: Ai = number of days from the beginning of the ith.. 15/12/05 . N = number of coupons payable between the settlement date and the redemption date. E = number of days in the coupon period. i = NC).. (If this number contains a fraction.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. DSC = number of days from the settlement to the next coupon date. or last. DCi = number of days from dated date (or issue date) to first quasi-coupon (i = 1) or number of days in quasi-coupon (i = 2. quasi-coupon period within odd period...ODDFPRICE Page 2 of 3 where: A = number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date (accrued days).

ODDFPRICE Page 3 of 3 DSC = number of days from settlement to next coupon date.A3. (If this number contains a fraction.A7.25% 100 2 1 Formula =ODDFPRICE (A2. 2009 7.A4. for the bond with the above terms (113..) NC = number of quasi-coupon periods that fit in odd period.A6.) NLi = normal length in days of the full ith.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. (If this number contains a fraction. N = number of coupons payable between the first real coupon date and redemption date.A5. 2008 March 1. it is raised to the next whole number. E = number of days in coupon period. Nq = number of whole quasi-coupon periods between settlement date and first coupon.85% 6. 2021 October 15. or last.A9. 15/12/05 .5977) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.A8. 2008 March 1.A10) B Description (Result) Settlement date Maturity date Issue date First coupon date Percent coupon Percent yield Redemptive value Frequency is semiannual (see above) Actual/actual basis (see above) Description (Result) The price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) first period. quasi-coupon period within odd period. it is raised to the next whole number. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Data November 11.

Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. 1900 is serial number 1. Maturity Issue is the security's maturity date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. for semiannual. issue date.. which is 30 years after the January 1. 2008. Settlement is the security's settlement date. maturity. The issue date would be January 1. is the security's price. use DATE (2008. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. ODDFYIELD returns the #NUM! error value: maturity > first_coupon > settlement > issue Excel uses an iterative technique to calculate ODDFYIELD. ODDFYIELD returns the #VALUE! error value. ODDFYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. This function uses the Newton method based on the formula used for the function ODDFPRICE.frequency. and January 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The following date condition must be satisfied. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. ODDFYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. 1900. is the security's first coupon date. If this function is not available.first_coupon. How? Syntax ODDFYIELD(settlement. See ODDFPRICE for the formula that ODDFYIELD uses. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. otherwise. How? is the type of day count basis to use. For example.ODDFYIELD Page 1 of 2 ODDFYIELD See Also Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. By default. and basis are truncated to integers. January 1. 2038. Settlement. or as results of other formulas or functions. If settlement. 15/12/05 . The yield is changed through 100 iterations until the estimated price with the given yield is close to the price. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. is the security's issue date. issue. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.rate.issue. issue. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. and returns the #NAME? error. first_coupon. 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. and the maturity date would be January 1. or first_coupon is not a valid date. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. for quarterly. 2008.redemption.. For annual payments.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. frequency = 4.5. the settlement date would be July 1. 2008. such as a bond. frequency = 1.maturity.23) for the 23rd day of May. For example. The maturity date is the date when the security expires.448 days after January 1. First_coupon Rate Pr is the security's interest rate. 2008. maturity.pr. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. If rate < 0 or if pr ≤ 0. frequency = 2.

.A9.A5.A8. and then click Percentage in the Category box. 15/12/05 . select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. 2008 March 1.A4. for the bond with the terms above (0.72%) Note To view the number as a percentage.. 2021 October 15.A7.. Click the Number tab.A10) B Description (Result) Settlement date Maturity date Issue date First coupon date Percent coupon Price Redemptive value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) The yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) first period.077245542 or 7.ODDFYIELD Page 2 of 2 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Data November 11.50 100 2 0 Formula =ODDFYIELD (A2. 2008 March 1. 2009 5. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.A3.A6.75% 84.

. use DATE (2008. frequency = 2. Maturity is the security's maturity date. January 1.last_interest. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 A 1 Data 2 February 7. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. Last_interest Rate Yld is the security's interest rate. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.. If rate < 0 or if yld < 0. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 2008. If settlement. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. How? is the type of day count basis to use.maturity. frequency = 1. issue date. 2008 B Description (Result) Settlement date mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.23) for the 23rd day of May. For annual payments. 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. 2038. By default. ODDLPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.yld. maturity.448 days after January 1. and returns the #NAME? error. otherwise. 2008. frequency = 4. for semiannual. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. maturity. such as a bond. is the security's last coupon date. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. 2008.redemption. The following date condition must be satisfied. or as results of other formulas or functions. and the maturity date would be January 1. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. is the security's annual yield. For example.5. If this function is not available. or last_interest is not a valid date. which is 30 years after the January 1. Settlement. and January 1. and basis are truncated to integers. The issue date would be January 1.rate. 1900 is serial number 1. 2008.frequency. 15/12/05 . for quarterly.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. last_interest. ODDLPRICE returns the #VALUE! error value. ODDLPRICE returns the #NUM! error value: maturity > settlement > last_interest Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. ODDLPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. For example. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. How? Syntax ODDLPRICE(settlement. 1900. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1.. the settlement date would be July 1. Settlement is the security's settlement date.ODDLPRICE Page 1 of 2 ODDLPRICE See Also Returns the price per $100 face value of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period.

A4. 15/12/05 . for a bond with the above terms (99.A5... 2008 4 October 15.75% 6 4.A3.A6.05% 7 $100 8 2 9 0 Formula =ODDLPRICE (A2.A8.A7.ODDLPRICE Page 2 of 2 3 June 15.87829) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11..A9) Maturity date Last interest date Percent coupon Percent yield Redemptive value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) The price per $100 of a security having an odd (short or long) last coupon period. 2007 5 3.

and is purchased by a buyer six months later. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. Settlement is the security's settlement date. for semiannual. and basis are truncated to integers. 2008. 15/12/05 . frequency = 1. and the maturity date would be January 1.maturity. ODDLYIELD returns the #VALUE! error value. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. For annual payments.pr. January 1. Maturity is the security's maturity date.448 days after January 1. 2008. 2038. for quarterly. and January 1. maturity.redemption. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. How? Syntax ODDLYIELD(settlement. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. 2008. 1900 is serial number 1. Settlement. use DATE (2008. The issue date would be January 1. issue date. the settlement date would be July 1.frequency. frequency = 4. ODDLYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. is the security's last coupon date. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. such as a bond. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. otherwise. last_interest. or as results of other formulas or functions.. or last_interest is not a valid date. 1900.last_interest. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. If settlement. For example. frequency = 2. ODDLYIELD returns the #NUM! error value: maturity > settlement > last_interest ODDLYIELD is calculated as follows: is the type of day count basis to use. is the security's price. which is 30 years after the January 1. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1.ODDLYIELD Page 1 of 2 ODDLYIELD See Also Returns the yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period..5. If rate < 0 or if pr ≤ 0. Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. ODDLYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. maturity. For example. Last_interest Rate Pr is the security's interest rate. The following date condition must be satisfied. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.23) for the 23rd day of May. If this function is not available. By default. and returns the #NAME? error. 2008.rate.. 2008.

or last.A5.875 7 $100 8 9 2 0 Formula =ODDLYIELD (A2. quasi-coupon period within odd period counting forward from last interest date before redemption.A7. 2007 5 3.A9) B Description Settlement date Maturity date Last interest date Percent coupon Price Redemption value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) The yield of a security that has an odd (short or long) last period.A4. or last. if this number contains a fraction it will be raised to the next whole number.ODDLYIELD Page 2 of 2 where: Ai = number of accrued days for the ith.A6.045192) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 15/12/05 . or last... NC = number of quasi-coupon periods that fit in odd period. DCi = number of days counted in the ith. quasi-coupon period as delimited by the length of the actual coupon period. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Data 2 April 20. for the bond with the terms above (0..A8.A3. 2008 4 December 24. 2008 3 June 15. quasi-coupon period within odd coupon period.75% 6 $99. NLi = normal length in days of the ith.

multiply the returned PMT value by nper. except payments are due at the beginning of the 1) period (-1. If you make annual payments on the same loan. A3. the future value of a loan is 0.PMT Page 1 of 2 PMT See Also Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.16) Example 2 You can use PMT to determine payments to annuities other than loans. is the present value. A3.type) For a more complete description of the arguments in PMT. Rate Nper Pv is the interest rate for the loan. 15/12/05 . it is assumed to be 0 (zero). or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.ch. If fv is omitted. is the total number of payments for the loan. see the PV function. Monthly payment for a loan with the above terms. How? A 1 Data 2 6% 3 18 B Description Annual interest rate Years you plan on saving mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at an annual interest rate of 12 percent.037. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Tip To find the total amount paid over the duration of the loan. A4) B Description Annual interest rate Number of months of payments Amount of loan Description (Result) Monthly payment for a loan with the above terms (-1. that is.. or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. How? At the end of the period At the beginning of the period A 1 Data 2 8% 3 10 4 10000 Formula =PMT(A2/12. 0.. Fv is the future value. A4.fv.03) =PMT(A2/12.030. Syntax PMT(rate. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. reserve payments. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.nper. or fees sometimes associated with loans. Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. use 12 percent for rate and 4 for nper.pv. also known as the principal. Set type equal to If payments are due 0 or omitted 1 Remarks The payment returned by PMT includes principal and interest but no taxes. Type is the number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due.

08) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate.PMT Page 2 of 2 4 50.000 at the end of 18 years (-129..000 Formula Amount you want to have save in 18 years Description (Result) =PMT(A2/12. A3*12. The number of years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. 0.. 15/12/05 . mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A4) Amount to save each month to have 50.ch.

that is. specifies the period and must be in the range 1 to nper. Syntax PPMT(rate.PPMT Page 1 of 2 PPMT See Also Returns the payment on the principal for a given period for an investment based on periodic. Rate Per Nper Pv is the interest rate per period..pv. How? At the end of the period At the beginning of the period A 1 Data 2 10% 3 2 4 2000 Formula B Description (Result) Annual interest rate Number of years in the loan Amount of loan Description (Result) =PPMT(A2/12.000 Formula B Description (Result) Annual interest rate Number of years in the loan Amount of loan Description (Result) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 . constant payments and a constant interest rate. Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. see PV. Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. If fv is omitted.per. is the total number of payment periods in an annuity.62) Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate. it is assumed to be 0 (zero). How? A 1 Data 2 8% 3 10 4 200. A4) Payment on principle for the first month of loan (-75. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. The number of years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments.ch. If you make annual payments on the same loan.type) For a more complete description of the arguments in PPMT. is the present value— the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.fv. Fv is the future value. If you make monthly payments on a four-year loan at 12 percent annual interest. the future value of a loan is 0.. A3*12. Set type equal to If payments are due 0 or omitted 1 Remark Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper.nper. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper. 1. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

. 10.ch. A3.PPMT Page 2 of 2 =PPMT(A2..598. 15/12/05 .05) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A4) Principal payment for the last year of the loan with the above terms (-27.

1900 is serial number 1. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. frequency = 4. use DATE (2008. If frequency is any number other than 1.redemption. or 4. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. maturity.23) for the 23rd day of May. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. For example. frequency = 2. the settlement date would be July 1. and basis are truncated to integers.. Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year.PRICE Page 1 of 2 PRICE See Also Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If redemption ≤ 0.448 days after January 1. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. The issue date would be January 1.frequency. is the security's annual coupon rate.rate.maturity. which is 30 years after the January 1. 1900. If settlement ≥ maturity..yld. 2008. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. PRICE returns the #NUM! error value. 2. How? Syntax PRICE(settlement.. If yld < 0 or if rate < 0. and January 1. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 2008. Settlement. January 1. PRICE returns the #NUM! error value.5.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. 2008. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. 2008. Maturity Rate Yld is the security's maturity date. For example. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. If this function is not available. for quarterly. PRICE returns the #VALUE! error value. such as a bond. and returns the #NAME? error. for semiannual. 2038. PRICE returns the #NUM! error value. For annual payments. or as results of other formulas or functions. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. is the security's annual yield. PRICE returns the #NUM! error value. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. frequency. issue date. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. and the maturity date would be January 1. PRICE is calculated as follows: is the type of day count basis to use. PRICE returns the #NUM! error value. 15/12/05 . Settlement is the security's settlement date. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. By default. frequency = 1. 2008.

. A = number of days from beginning of coupon period to settlement date.63436) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? A 1 Data 2 February 15. N = number of coupons payable between settlement date and redemption date.50% 6 $100 7 2 8 0 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent semiannual coupon Percent yield Redemption value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =PRICE(A2.A3.A6.75% 5 6. 15/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. 2017 4 5. for the bond with the terms above (94.A7.A5.. 2008 3 November 15.A8) The bond price. E = number of days in coupon period in which the settlement date falls.PRICE Page 2 of 2 where: DSC = number of days from settlement to next coupon date.A4.

PRICEDISC returns the #NUM! error value. Settlement.. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. For example. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires.5. issue date. is the security's discount rate. and January 1.maturity. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. and basis are truncated to integers. 15/12/05 . 2008. which is 30 years after the January 1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.448 days after January 1. For example. and the maturity date would be January 1. If settlement ≥ maturity. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. Redemption Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks is the type of day count basis to use. PRICEDISC returns the #NUM! error value. and returns the #NAME? error. or as results of other formulas or functions. 2038. How? Syntax PRICEDISC(settlement. PRICEDISC returns the #NUM! error value. 2008.redemption.discount. maturity.PRICEDISC Page 1 of 2 PRICEDISC See Also Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security. use DATE (2008. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. 2008. 2008. DSM = number of days from settlement to maturity. If this function is not available.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function.. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. By default. The issue date would be January 1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. depending on year basis. Maturity Discount is the security's maturity date.. 1900 is serial number 1. Settlement is the security's settlement date. 1900. the settlement date would be July 1. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date.23) for the 23rd day of May. 2008. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. PRICEDISC is calculated as follows: where: B = number of days in year. How? A B mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. PRICEDISC returns the #VALUE! error value. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. If discount ≤ 0 or if redemption ≤ 0. January 1. such as a bond.

79583) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.PRICEDISC Page 2 of 2 1 Data 2 February 16.. 2008 3 March 1.A4. 2008 4 5.25% 5 $100 6 2 Formula Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent discount rate Redemption value Actual/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =PRICEDISC(A2. for the bond with the terms above (99..A3.A5. 15/12/05 ..A6) The bond price.

depending on year basis.rate. By default. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. and the maturity date would be January 1. January 1. For example. is the security's annual yield. If rate < 0 or if yld < 0. A = number of days from issue to settlement. is the security's issue date. PRICEMAT returns the #NUM! error value. Settlement is the security's settlement date. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text.yld. 1900 is serial number 1. 1900. which is 30 years after the January 1. and January 1. How? Syntax PRICEMAT(settlement.issue. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. the settlement date would be July 1.448 days after January 1. Maturity Issue Rate Yld Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. issue. is the security's interest rate at date of issue. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 (zero) or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 where: B = number of days in year. 2008. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. expressed as a serial date number.. PRICEMAT returns the #NUM! error value.maturity. or issue is not a valid date. 2008. 2008. such as a bond. PRICEMAT is calculated as follows: is the security's maturity date. For example.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. If this function is not available.23) for the 23rd day of May. is the type of day count basis to use. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. Example mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 2038. DSM = number of days from settlement to maturity. maturity. 2008. 15/12/05 . If settlement ≥ maturity. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. PRICEMAT returns the #NUM! error value. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. use DATE (2008. 2008.. maturity. or as results of other formulas or functions.5. Settlement. and basis are truncated to integers.PRICEMAT Page 1 of 2 PRICEMAT See Also Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. If settlement. issue date. and returns the #NAME? error. DIM = number of days from issue to maturity. The issue date would be January 1. PRICEMAT returns the #VALUE! error value.. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires.

A6. 2007 5 6.. 2008 4 November 11. 2008 3 April 13..A5.. How? A 1 Data 2 February 15.98449888) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.1% 7 0 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Issue date Percent semiannual coupon Percent yield 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =PRICEMAT(A2.A3.A4. 15/12/05 .PRICEMAT Page 2 of 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1% 6 6. for the bond with the terms above (99.A7) The price.

the loan amount is the present value to the lender. your interest rate per month is 10%/12. use 12%/12 for rate and 4*12 for nper.33. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now.0083. a car loan or a mortgage is an annuity. the monthly payments on a $10. Syntax PV(rate. such as a dividend check. is represented by a negative number. Microsoft Excel solves for one financial argument in terms of the others. If pmt is omitted. use 12% for rate and 4 for nper. For example. Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. If you make annual payments on the same loan. You would enter 10%/12.000 is the future value. How? mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If rate is not 0. The following functions apply to annuities: CUMIPMT CUMPRINC FV IPMT PMT An annuity is a series of constant cash payments made over a continuous period. If fv is omitted. it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan.. pmt includes principal and interest but no other fees or taxes.ch. You would enter -263. if you obtain an automobile loan at a 10 percent annual interest rate and make monthly payments.33 into the formula as the pmt. if you get a four-year car loan and make monthly payments.83%. For example.. Fv is the future value. For example. you must include the pmt argument. For example. You could then make a conservative guess at an interest rate and determine how much you must save each month. You would enter 48 into the formula for nper. you must include the fv argument. 15/12/05 . then: PPMT PV RATE XNPV At the end of the period At the beginning of the period FVSCHEDULE XIRR If rate is 0. or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. is represented by a positive number. your loan has 4*12 (or 48) periods. or 0. then: (pmt * nper) + pv + fv = 0 Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. For more information.000 to pay for a special project in 18 years. Set type equal to If payments are due 0 or omitted 1 Remarks Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying rate and nper. For example. Pmt is the payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity.type) Rate is the interest rate per period. is 0). Nper is the total number of payment periods in an annuity. a $1. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at 12 percent annual interest. cash you pay out. then $50.fv.83%. or 0. or 0. such as a deposit to savings. Typically. four-year car loan at 12 percent are $263. when you borrow money. if you want to save $50. for example.pmt.nper. If fv is omitted. For example.000. cash you receive. into the formula as the rate. see the description for each annuity function.PV Page 1 of 2 PV See Also Returns the present value of an investment.000 deposit to the bank would be represented by the argument -1000 if you are the depositor and by the argument 1000 if you are the bank. In annuity functions. For example.

you would determine this would not be a good investment because the present value of the annuity (59.ch. an outgoing cash flow. Note The interest rate is divided by 12 to get a monthly rate. .PV Page 2 of 2 A 1 Data 2 500 3 8% 4 20 Formula B Description Money paid out of an insurance annuity at the end of every month Interest rate earned on the money paid out Years the money will be paid out Description (Result) =PV(A3/12.777.. 15/12/05 .15).777. If you are asked to pay (60.000) for the annuity. The years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the number of payments. 0) Present value of an annuity with the terms above (-59.. A2.15) is less than what you are asked to pay. 12*A4. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The result is negative because it represents money that you would pay.

or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.ch. If pmt is omitted. pmt includes principal and interest but no other fees or taxes. 15/12/05 .pv. Set type equal to If payments are due 0 or omitted 1 At the end of the period At the beginning of the period Guess is your guess for what the rate will be. RATE is calculated by iteration and can have zero or more solutions. If fv is omitted.. Fv is the future value. use 12% for guess and 4 for nper. Remark Make sure that you are consistent about the units you use for specifying guess and nper. If you make annual payments on the same loan. Pv is the present value— the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. is 0).0000001 after 20 iterations.24%) Note The number of years of the loan is multiplied by 12 to get the number of months. try different values for guess.. If you make monthly payments on a fouryear loan at 12 percent annual interest. and type.type. A3.RATE Page 1 of 1 RATE See Also Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. Type is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. use 12%/12 for guess and 4*12 for nper. If RATE does not converge. fv. If the successive results of RATE do not converge to within 0. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. pmt. A3. If you omit guess. Nper is the total number of payment periods in an annuity. RATE returns the #NUM! error value. you must include the fv argument. A4) B Description Years of the loan Monthly payment Amount of the loan Description (Result) Monthly rate of the loan with the above terms (1%) =RATE(A2*12. Syntax RATE(nper.fv.pmt. for example. RATE usually converges if guess is between 0 and 1. it is assumed to be 10 percent.09241767 or 9. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 -200 4 8000 Formula =RATE(A2*12. see PV. pv. it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan. Pmt is the payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity. Typically. A4)*12 Annual rate of the loan with the above terms (0.guess) For a complete description of the arguments nper. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

maturity.maturity. If investment ≤ 0 or if discount ≤ 0.. RECEIVED returns the #VALUE! error value. the settlement date would be July 1. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. For example. is the amount invested in the security. depending on the year basis. Investment Discount Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks is the type of day count basis to use.RECEIVED Page 1 of 2 RECEIVED See Also Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. 2008.. 2008. For example. RECEIVED returns the #NUM! error value. 2038. Settlement.discount. The issue date would be January 1. RECEIVED returns the #NUM! error value. 1900 is serial number 1. 1900. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon. 2008. If settlement ≥ maturity. which is 30 years after the January 1.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. and returns the #NAME? error. If this function is not available. How? mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. RECEIVED returns the #NUM! error value. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer.. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. 15/12/05 . or as results of other formulas or functions. Maturity is the security's maturity date. 2008.5. 2008. use DATE (2008. By default.23) for the 23rd day of May. DIM = number of days from issue to maturity. is the security's discount rate. and the maturity date would be January 1. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Settlement is the security's settlement date. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. January 1. such as a bond.investment. issue date. and January 1. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. and basis are truncated to integers.448 days after January 1. RECEIVED is calculated as follows: where: B = number of days in a year. How? Syntax RECEIVED(settlement.

RECEIVED

Page 2 of 2

A 1 Data 2 February 15, 2008 3 May 15, 2008 4 1,000,000 5 5.75% 6 2 Formula

B Description Settlement (issue) date Maturity date Investment Percent discount rate Actual/360 basis (see above) Description (Result)

=RECEIVED(A2,A3,A4,A5,A6) The total amount to be received at maturity, for the bond with the terms above (1014584.654)

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SLN

Page 1 of 1

SLN
See Also Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. Syntax SLN(cost,salvage,life) Cost is the initial cost of the asset. is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).

Salvage Life

is the number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset).

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 30,000 3 7,500 4 10 Formula

B Description Cost Salvage value Years of useful life Description (Result)

=SLN(A2, A3, A4) The depreciation allowance for each year (2,250)

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SYD

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SYD
See Also Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. Syntax SYD(cost,salvage,life,per) Cost is the initial cost of the asset. is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).

Salvage Life Per

is the number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset). is the period and must use the same units as life.

Remark SYD is calculated as follows:

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 30,000 3 7,500 4 10 Formula

B Description Initial cost Salvage value Lifespan in years Description (Result)

=SYD(A2,A3,A4,1) Yearly depreciation allowance for the first year (4,090.91) =SYD(A2,A3,A4,10) Yearly depreciation allowance for the tenth year (409.09)

mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch...

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TBILLEQ

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TBILLEQ
See Also Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax TBILLEQ(settlement,maturity,discount) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE (2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Settlement is the Treasury bill's settlement date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the Treasury bill is traded to the buyer. Maturity Discount Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Settlement and maturity are truncated to integers. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date, TBILLEQ returns the #VALUE! error value. If discount ≤ 0, TBILLEQ returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement > maturity, or if maturity is more than one year after settlement, TBILLEQ returns the #NUM! error value. TBILLEQ is calculated as TBILLEQ = (365 x rate)/(360-(rate x DSM)), where DSM is the number of days between settlement and maturity computed according to the 360 days per year basis. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is the Treasury bill's maturity date. The maturity date is the date when the Treasury bill expires. is the Treasury bill's discount rate.

A 1 Data 2 March 31, 2008 3 June 1, 2008 4 9.14% Formula

B Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent discount rate Description (Result)

=TBILLEQ(A2,A3,A4) The bond equivalent yield, for the Treasury bill with the terms above (0.094151 or 9.42%) Note To view the number as a percent, select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. Click the Number tab, and then click Percentage in the Category box.

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TBILLPRICE

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TBILLPRICE
See Also Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax TBILLPRICE(settlement,maturity,discount) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE (2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Settlement is the Treasury bill's settlement date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the Treasury bill is traded to the buyer. Maturity Discount Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Settlement and maturity are truncated to integers. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date, TBILLPRICE returns the #VALUE! error value. If discount ≤ 0, TBILLPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement > maturity, or if maturity is more than one year after settlement, TBILLPRICE returns the #NUM! error value. TBILLPRICE is calculated as follows: is the Treasury bill's maturity date. The maturity date is the date when the Treasury bill expires. is the Treasury bill's discount rate.

where: DSM = number of days from settlement to maturity, excluding any maturity date that is more than one calendar year after the settlement date. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 March 31, 2008 3 June 1, 2008 4 9% Formula

B Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent discount rate Description (Result)

=TBILLPRICE(A2,A3,A4) The price, for the Treasury bill with the terms above (98.45)

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TBILLYIELD

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TBILLYIELD
See Also Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. If this function is not available, and returns the #NAME? error, install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. How? Syntax TBILLYIELD(settlement,maturity,pr) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE (2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Settlement is the Treasury bill's settlement date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the Treasury bill is traded to the buyer. Maturity Pr is the Treasury bill's maturity date. The maturity date is the date when the Treasury bill expires.

is the Treasury bill's price per $100 face value.

Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. Settlement and maturity are truncated to integers. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date, TBILLYIELD returns the #VALUE! error value. If pr ≤ 0, TBILLYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement ≥ maturity, or if maturity is more than one year after settlement, TBILLYIELD returns the #NUM! error value. TBILLYIELD is calculated as follows:

where: DSM = number of days from settlement to maturity, excluding any maturity date that is more than one calendar year after the settlement date. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 March 31, 2008 3 June 1, 2008 4 98.45 Formula

B Description Settlement date Maturity date Price per $100 face value Description (Result)

=TBILLYIELD(A2,A3,A4) The yield, for the treasury bill with the terms above (0.091417 or 9.1417 percent)

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VDB

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VDB
See Also Returns the depreciation of an asset for any period you specify, including partial periods, using the double-declining balance method or some other method you specify. VDB stands for variable declining balance. Syntax VDB(cost,salvage,life,start_period,end_period,factor,no_switch) Cost is the initial cost of the asset. is the value at the end of the depreciation (sometimes called the salvage value of the asset).

Salvage Life

is the number of periods over which the asset is depreciated (sometimes called the useful life of the asset). is the starting period for which you want to calculate the depreciation. Start_period must use the same units as life. is the ending period for which you want to calculate the depreciation. End_period must use the same units as life.

Start_period End_period

Factor is the rate at which the balance declines. If factor is omitted, it is assumed to be 2 (the double-declining balance method). Change factor if you do not want to use the double-declining balance method. For a description of the double-declining balance method, see DDB. No_switch is a logical value specifying whether to switch to straight-line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation. If no_switch is TRUE, Microsoft Excel does not switch to straight-line depreciation even when the depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation. If no_switch is FALSE or omitted, Excel switches to straight-line depreciation when depreciation is greater than the declining balance calculation. All arguments except no_switch must be positive numbers. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 2400 3 300 4 10 Formula =VDB(A2, A3, A4*365, 0, 1) =VDB(A2, A3, A4*12, 0, 1) =VDB(A2, A3, A4, 0, 1) =VDB(A2, A3, A4*12, 6, 18) =VDB(A2, A3, A4*12, 6, 18, 1.5) =VDB(A2, A3, A4, 0, 0.875, 1.5)

B Description Initial cost Salvage value Lifetime in years Description (Result) First day's depreciation. Excel automatically assumes that factor is 2 (1.32) First month's depreciation (40.00) First year's depreciation (480.00) Depreciation between the sixth month and the eighteenth month (396.31) Depreciation between the sixth month and the eighteenth month using a factor of 1.5 instead of the doubledeclining balance method (311.81) Depreciation for the first fiscal year that you own the asset, assuming that tax laws limit you to 150-percent depreciation of the declining balance. Asset is purchased in the middle of the first quarter of the fiscal year. (315.00)

Note The results are rounded to two decimal places.

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XIRR cycles through the calculation until the result is accurate within 0. If XIRR can't find a result that works after 100 tries. d1 = the 0th payment date. otherwise. use DATE(2008.23) for the 23rd day of May. Excel uses an iterative technique for calculating XIRR. The first payment is optional and corresponds to a cost or payment that occurs at the beginning of the investment. Pi = the ith. XIRR returns the #NUM! error value. Guess is a number that you guess is close to the result of XIRR.750 4 4. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.1 (10 percent). install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. The rate is changed until: where: di = the ith.. or as results of other formulas or functions. guess is assumed to be 0. For example. 1900 is serial number 1. How? A 1 Values 2 -10. use the IRR function. The series of values must contain at least one positive and one negative value. January 1. but they may occur in any order. XIRR is closely related to XNPV.250 B Dates January 1. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. 15/12/05 .000001 percent. Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. The rate of return calculated by XIRR is the interest rate corresponding to XNPV = 0. it must be a negative value. All other dates must be later than this date.dates. Dates is a schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments. the net present value function.000 3 2. XIRR expects at least one positive cash flow and one negative cash flow. and January 1. 2008 October 30.. the #NUM! error value is returned.. If the first value is a cost or payment. XIRR returns the #VALUE! error value.guess) Values is a series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates. How? Syntax XIRR(values. 1900. If values and dates contain a different number of values. Using a changing rate (starting with guess). By default. In most cases you do not need to provide guess for the XIRR calculation. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or last. 2008 March 1. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. If any number in dates is not a valid date. The first payment date indicates the beginning of the schedule of payments. If this function is not available.448 days after January 1. payment. XIRR returns the #NUM! error value. payment date. If any number in dates precedes the starting date. and returns the #NAME? error. 2008 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 2008.XIRR Page 1 of 2 XIRR See Also Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. All succeeding payments are discounted based on a 365-day year. XIRR returns the #NUM! error value. If omitted.5. or last. To calculate the internal rate of return for a series of periodic cash flows. Numbers in dates are truncated to integers.

..373362535 or 37.34%) Note To view the number as a percentage. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. 2009 April 1.250 6 2. and then click Percentage in the Category box.XIRR Page 2 of 2 5 3.0.B2:B6.. 15/12/05 .750 Formula February 15.1) The internal rate of return (0. 2009 Description (Result) =XIRR(A2:A6. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Click the Number tab.

If any number in dates precedes the starting date. 15/12/05 .A2:A6.6476 or 2086. To calculate the net present value for a series of cash flows that is periodic. it must be a negative value. If this function is not available. payment date. All succeeding payments are discounted based on a 365-day year.65) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.750 4 4.. and returns the #NAME? error.09. If the first value is a cost or payment. How? A 1 Values 2 -10.XNPV Page 1 of 1 XNPV See Also Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. 2008 October 30. Dates is a schedule of payment dates that corresponds to the cash flow payments. XNPV returns the #VALUE! error value. payment. January 1.448 days after January 1. XNPV returns the #NUM! error value. or last. 2008 March 1. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39.. If any argument is nonnumeric. The series of values must contain at least one positive value and one negative value. XNPV returns the #VALUE! error value. Values is a series of cash flows that corresponds to a schedule of payments in dates. The cash flows are discounted at 9 percent. and January 1. If values and dates contain a different number of values. (2086. The first payment date indicates the beginning of the schedule of payments.250 5 3. 1900. d1 = the 0th payment date. 2009 April 1. All other dates must be later than this date. Pi = the ith. 2009 Description (Result) The net present value for an investment with the above cost and returns. XNPV is calculated as follows: where: di = the ith. but they may occur in any order. XNPV returns the #NUM! error value. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.. or last.dates) Rate is the discount rate to apply to the cash flows. Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations.000 3 2. Numbers in dates are truncated to integers. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.values. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. use the NPV function. The first payment is optional and corresponds to a cost or payment that occurs at the beginning of the investment. 1900 is serial number 1.B2:B6) B Dates January 1.250 6 2. By default.750 Formula =XNPV (. If any number in dates is not a valid date. 2008 February 15. How? Syntax XNPV(rate.

frequency = 4. frequency = 1.frequency. January 1. such as a bond. For example.maturity. If this function is not available. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. maturity.. Use YIELD to calculate bond yield. YIELD returns the #NUM! error value. and January 1. use DATE (2008. 2038. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. and basis are truncated to integers.pr. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. YIELD returns the #VALUE! error value. is the security's annual coupon rate.. YIELD returns the #NUM! error value. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. and is purchased by a buyer six months later.. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.YIELD Page 1 of 2 YIELD See Also Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Settlement. If pr ≤ 0 or if redemption ≤ 0. YIELD is calculated as follows: is the type of day count basis to use.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. If frequency is any number other than 1. YIELD returns the #NUM! error value. 2008. for quarterly.23) for the 23rd day of May. and the maturity date would be January 1. If rate < 0. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. By default. For annual payments.448 days after January 1. 2. or as results of other formulas or functions. frequency = 2. YIELD returns the #NUM! error value.5. for semiannual. How? Syntax YIELD(settlement. 15/12/05 . YIELD returns the #NUM! error value.rate. is the security's price per $100 face value. The issue date would be January 1. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. If settlement ≥ maturity.redemption. Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. Settlement is the security's settlement date. 2008. 2008. For example. 2008. and returns the #NAME? error. 1900. Maturity Rate Pr is the security's maturity date. If there is one coupon period or less until redemption. frequency. Redemption Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. 1900 is serial number 1. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. issue date. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. which is 30 years after the January 1. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 where: A = number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date (accrued days). 2008. or 4. the settlement date would be July 1.

select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. and then click Percentage in the Category box.5%) Note To view the number as a percentage. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.04287 6 $100 7 2 8 0 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Percent coupon Price Redemption value Frequency is semiannual (see above) 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =YIELD(A2. Click the Number tab...A8) The yield.75% 5 95.A7.065 or 6. 2016 4 5. 2008 3 November 15.A4.A3. The resolution uses the Newton method.A5. based on the formula used for the function PRICE. YIELD is calculated through a hundred iterations.A6. 15/12/05 . for the bond with the terms above (0. E = number of days in the coupon period. The yield is changed until the estimated price given the yield is close to price. If there is more than one coupon period until redemption. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11..YIELD Page 2 of 2 DSR = number of days from the settlement date to the redemption date. How? A 1 Data 2 February 15.

2008. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. and January 1. 15/12/05 . How? A 1 Data 2 February 16. 1900 is serial number 1. 2008 3 March 1.YIELDDISC Page 1 of 2 YIELDDISC See Also Returns the annual yield for a discounted security. YIELDDISC returns the #NUM! error value. If settlement or maturity is not a valid date. 2008. The issue date would be January 1. is the security's price per $100 face value.23) for the 23rd day of May. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires.795 5 $100 6 2 Formula B Description Settlement date Maturity date Price Redemption value Actual/360 basis Description (Result) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. Settlement. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. If settlement ≥ maturity. How? Syntax YIELDDISC(settlement. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations... issue date. 2008 4 99. 2038. January 1.448 days after January 1. the settlement date would be July 1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.redemption. 2008. Maturity Pr is the security's maturity date.5. If pr ≤ 0 or if redemption ≤ 0. For example. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4. 2008. use DATE (2008. such as a bond.maturity. and basis are truncated to integers. The maturity date is the date when the security expires.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. maturity.. is the security's redemption value per $100 face value. Redemption Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 Remarks is the type of day count basis to use. 2008. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. By default. or as results of other formulas or functions. If this function is not available. YIELDDISC returns the #VALUE! error value. 1900. YIELDDISC returns the #NUM! error value. and the maturity date would be January 1.pr. and returns the #NAME? error. For example. Settlement is the security's settlement date. YIELDDISC returns the #NUM! error value. which is 30 years after the January 1.

052823 or 5.A6) The yield..A3. 15/12/05 ..A5. and then click Percentage in the Category box. for the bond with the terms above (0.. Click the Number tab. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu.A4.YIELDDISC Page 2 of 2 =YIELDDISC(A2. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.28%) Note To view the number as a percentage.

Maturity Issue Rate Pr is the security's maturity date. The settlement date is the date a buyer purchases a coupon.23) for the 23rd day of May. 2007 5 6. suppose a 30-year bond is issued on January 1. By default. use DATE (2008. 2038.. the settlement date would be July 1.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. expressed as a serial date number. 1900. and January 1. and returns the #NAME? error. 2008 3 November 3.448 days after January 1.maturity. The maturity date is the date when a coupon expires. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. and the maturity date would be January 1. 1900 is serial number 1. 2008. or issue is not a valid date. YIELDMAT returns the #NUM! error value.5. such as a bond..25% 6 100.YIELDMAT Page 1 of 2 YIELDMAT See Also Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity. 2008 4 November 8. YIELDMAT returns the #VALUE! error value. YIELDMAT returns the #NUM! error value. is the security's issue date. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.pr.0123 B Description Settlement date Maturity date Issue date Percent semiannual coupon Price mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. which is 30 years after the January 1. If settlement. How? Syntax YIELDMAT(settlement. 2008. 2008. The maturity date is the date when the security expires. YIELDMAT returns the #NUM! error value. 2008. If rate < 0 or if pr ≤ 0. 2008. If this function is not available. For example. Day count basis Actual/actual Actual/360 Actual/365 European 30/360 Basis Basis 1 2 3 4 0 or omitted US (NASD) 30/360 Remarks Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. is the security's interest rate at date of issue. If basis < 0 or if basis > 4.basis) Important Dates should be entered by using the DATE function. January 1. Settlement. If settlement ≥ maturity. is the security's price per $100 face value. issue. How? A 1 Data 2 March 15. The security settlement date is the date after the issue date when the security is traded to the buyer. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. issue date.rate. and is purchased by a buyer six months later. and basis are truncated to integers.issue. is the type of day count basis to use. 15/12/05 . or as results of other formulas or functions. The issue date would be January 1. Settlement is the security's settlement date. For example. maturity. maturity.

060954 or 6. for the bond with the terms above (0.A7) The yield. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu.A6.YIELDMAT Page 2 of 2 7 0 Formula 30/360 basis (see above) Description (Result) =YIELDMAT(A2.... 15/12/05 . mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.09%) Note To view the number as a percentage.A5. and then click Percentage in the Category box. Click the Number tab.A3.A4.

[Red]($#. as text. "prefix" "protect" "row" "type" "width" Reference is the cell that you want information about. information specified in info_type is returned for the last cell that was changed. Returns single quotation mark (') if the cell contains leftaligned text. and "v" for value if the cell contains anything else. "parentheses" 1 if the cell is formatted with parentheses for positive or all values. or contents of the upper-left cell in a reference. The following list describes the text values CELL returns when info_type is "format".00 #.00) $#.CELL Page 1 of 2 CELL See Also Returns information about the formatting.[Red]($#. 13/12/05 . otherwise returns 0 (zero). Column number of the cell in reference. Column width of the cell rounded off to an integer.##0_). Value of the upper-left cell in reference.00_).00 $#. Text value corresponding to the type of data in the cell.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? d-mmm-yy or dd-mmm-yy d-mmm or dd-mmm mmm-yy mm/dd CELL returns "G" "F0" ". 1 if the cell is formatted in color for negative values.##0. Returns "b" for blank if the cell is empty. caret (^) if the cell contains centered text. Text value corresponding to the "label prefix" of the cell. and empty text ("") if the cell contains anything else.##0_). Row number of the cell in reference. The following list shows the possible values of info_type and the corresponding results. Filename (including full path) of the file that contains reference. otherwise returns 0. and 1 if the cell is locked. Syntax CELL(info_type..00) 0% 0.reference) Info_type is a text value that specifies what type of cell information you want. The text values for the various formats are shown in the following table. location. backslash (\) if the cell contains fill-aligned text. and reference is a cell formatted with a built-in number format. Each unit of column width is equal to the width of one character in the default font size.##0.##0. Returns "-" at the end of the text value if the cell is formatted in color for negative values. Text value corresponding to the number format of the cell. If the Microsoft Excel format is General 0 #. Info_type "address" "col" "color" "contents" "filename" "format" Returns Reference of the first cell in reference.00% 0. 0 if the cell is not locked. "l" for label if the cell contains a text constant..00_). not a formula. Returns empty text ("") if the worksheet that contains reference has not yet been saved.##0) $#.ch.##0) $#. as text. If omitted. Returns "()" at the end of the text value if the cell is formatted with parentheses for positive or all values.##0 0.($#.0" "F2" ".##0.($#.2" "C0" "C0-" "C2" "C2-" "P0" "P2" "S2" "G" "D1" "D2" "D3" "D5" m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy "D4" mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.##0. double quotation mark (") if the cell contains right-aligned text.

see above) =CELL("contents".A20) =CELL("format"... A2) Description (Result) The row number of cell A20 (20) The format code of the first string (D2. then you must recalculate the worksheet to update the CELL formula.CELL Page 2 of 2 h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss "D7" "D6" "D9" "D8" If the info_type argument in the CELL formula is "format". and if the cell is formatted later with a custom format. How? A 1 Data 2 5-Mar 3 TOTAL Formula =CELL("row". A3) The content of cell A3 (TOTAL) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 13/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remark The CELL function is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.ch.

it will usually be a reference to a cell containing a formula that you want to test. such as a message. 14/12/05 .TYPE Page 1 of 1 ERROR."The divisor is zero")) Description (Result) Number of the #NULL! error (1) Checks cell A3 to see whether the cell contains either the #NULL! error value or the #DIV/0! error value.) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ERROR. If error_val is ERROR. If it does.ch.. then the number for the error value is used in the CHOOSE worksheet function to display one of two messages. How? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 #N/A A 1 Data 2 #NULL! 3 =1/0 Formula =ERROR..TYPE(A2) =IF(ERROR. You can use ERROR. (The divisor is zero. Syntax ERROR. Although error_val can be the actual error value.TYPE(A3)<3.TYPE(A3). instead of the error value.TYPE returns #NULL! #DIV/0! #VALUE! #REF! #NAME? #NUM! #N/A Anything else Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.TYPE See Also Returns a number corresponding to one of the error values in Microsoft Excel or returns the #N/A error if no error exists."Ranges do not intersect".CHOOSE (ERROR. otherwise. the #N/A error value is returned.TYPE(error_val) Error_val is the error value whose identifying number you want to find.TYPE in an IF function to test for an error value and return a text string.

in bytes. as text. returns "Automatic" or "Manual". Name of the operating environment: Macintosh = "mac" Windows = "pcdos" Total memory available. Current recalculation mode. Sensitive or confidential information could be revealed to other users. in bytes. including memory already in use.INFO Page 1 of 1 INFO See Also Security Use this feature with caution.x compatibility.ch.. 14/12/05 .. Syntax INFO(type_text) Type_text is text that specifies what type of information you want returned. "numfile" "origin" Number of active worksheets in the open workbooks. How? A 1 Formula =INFO("recalc") B Description (Result) Recalculation mode for the workbook (Automatic or Manual) 2 =INFO("numfile") Number of active worksheets (varies) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Returns information about the current operating environment. "memavail" Amount of memory available. Version of Microsoft Excel. "osversion" Current operating system version. prepended with "$A:" for Lotus 1-2-3 release 3. as text. based on the current scrolling position. "recalc" "release" "system" "totmem" Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Type_text Returns "directory" Path of the current directory or folder. "memused" Amount of memory being used for data. Absolute A1-style reference. Returns the cell reference of the top and leftmost cell visible in the window. as text.

(Note that this function returns TRUE if value refers to a blank cell. How? A mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Each of these functions. number.) ISNUMBER Value refers to a number. and the ISNUMBER function returns FALSE. Value refers to any error value (#N/A.. #NAME?. ISLOGICAL Value refers to a logical value. Value refers to text. ISREF ISTEXT Remarks The value arguments of the IS functions are not converted. or reference value. Function ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISNA Returns TRUE if Value refers to an empty cell. A 1 Formula 2 =ISLOGICAL(TRUE) 4 =ISNUMBER(4) Example 2 B Description (Result) Checks whether TRUE is a logical value (TRUE) Checks whether 4 is a number (TRUE) 3 =ISLOGICAL("TRUE") Checks whether "TRUE" is a logical value (FALSE) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. text. checks the type of value and returns TRUE or FALSE depending on the outcome. that you want to test. or a name referring to any of these.IS Functions Page 1 of 2 IS Functions See Also This section describes the nine worksheet functions used for testing the type of a value or reference. For example. Value refers to the #N/A (value not available) error value. When combined with the IF function. #DIV/0!. Value refers to any error value except #N/A. error.ch. Syntax ISBLANK(value) ISERR(value) ISERROR(value) ISLOGICAL(value) ISNA(value) ISNONTEXT(value) ISNUMBER(value) ISREF(value) ISTEXT(value) Value is the value you want tested. Value can be a blank (empty cell). the text value "19" is converted to the number 19. "19" is not converted from a text value. For example. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. ISNONTEXT Value refers to any item that is not text. The IS functions are useful in formulas for testing the outcome of a calculation. in most other functions where a number is required. referred to collectively as the IS functions. How? Value refers to a reference. #VALUE!. 14/12/05 . otherwise it returns FALSE. the ISBLANK function returns the logical value TRUE if value is a reference to an empty cell. However. logical. #NUM!. they provide a method for locating errors in formulas (see the following examples). #REF!. in the formula ISNUMBER("19"). or #NULL!)..

IS Functions Page 2 of 2 1 Data 2 Gold 3 Region1 4 #REF! 5 330..ch..92 6 #N/A Formula =ISBLANK(A2) =ISERROR(A4) =ISNA(A4) =ISNA(A6) =ISERR(A6) =ISTEXT(A3) Description (Result) Checks whether cell C2 is blank (FALSE) Checks whether #REF! is an error (TRUE) Checks whether #REF! is the #N/A error (FALSE) Checks whether #N/A is the #N/A error (TRUE) Checks whether #N/A is an error (FALSE) Checks whether Region1 is text (TRUE) =ISNUMBER(A5) Checks whether 330. 14/12/05 .92 is a number (TRUE) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

see above) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default. see above) Because A5 is a date. By default. 14/12/05 .. the serial number is returned (varies with the date system used) Because "7" is text. in one of the built-in date formats available in Microsoft Excel The serial number of that date It is not generally necessary to use the N function in a formula. This function is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.448 days after January 1. How? A 1 Data 2 7 3 Even 4 TRUE 5 4/17/2008 Formula Description (Result) =N(A2) =N(A3) =N(A4) =N(A5) =N("7") Because A2 contains a number. N converts values listed in the following table. 0 is returned (0. such as #DIV/0! Anything else Remarks A date. 1900. 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39. 1900 is serial number 1. 0 is returned (0.ch. Syntax N(value) Value is the value you want converted.N Page 1 of 1 N See Also Returns a value converted to a number. January 1. see above) Because A4 is the logical value TRUE. Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. and January 1. it is returned (7) Because A3 contains text. 1 is returned (1. N returns That number 1 0 The error value 0 If value is or refers to A number TRUE FALSE An error value.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. because Excel automatically converts values as necessary.

ch. (When a formula refers to a cell containing #N/A. Microsoft Excel will not recognize it as a function. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. You can also type the value #N/A directly into a cell. 15/12/05 .NA Page 1 of 1 NA See Also Returns the error value #N/A.) Syntax NA( ) Remarks You must include the empty parentheses with the function name. you can avoid the problem of unintentionally including empty cells in your calculations. the formula returns the #N/A error value. #N/A is the error value that means "no value is available. Otherwise." Use NA to mark empty cells.. The NA function is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. By entering #N/A in cells where you are missing information.

. and so on. You cannot use TYPE to determine whether a cell contains a formula. such as ARGUMENT and INPUT.4}) Checks the type of an array constant (64) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.TYPE Page 1 of 1 TYPE See Also Returns the type of value. Use TYPE to find out what type of data is returned by a function or formula.) Remarks TYPE is most useful when you are using functions that can accept different types of data. 15/12/05 . or displayed. Syntax TYPE(value) Value can be any Microsoft Excel value. such as a number. "&A2) Checks the type of "Mr. TYPE only determines the type of the resulting. text. value.3. Use TYPE when the behavior of another function depends on the type of value in a particular cell.ch. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.2. logical value. TYPE returns 1 2 4 16 If value is Number Text Logical value Error value Array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are 64 arranged in rows and columns. which returns the error #VALUE! (16) =TYPE("Mr. Smith" (2) =TYPE({1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Data 2 Smith Formula =TYPE(A2) =TYPE(2+A2) Description (Result) Checks the type of the value above (2) Checks the type of the formula.. An array range shares a common formula. If value is a cell reference to a cell that contains a formula. TYPE returns the type of the formula's resulting value.

... . Select the example in the Help topic.. 2.) Logical1. Selecting an example from Help mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. or on the Tools menu. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Do not select the row or column headers. 2+3=5) All arguments evaluate to TRUE (TRUE) Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 4.AND Page 1 of 2 AND See Also Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE. 5. TRUE) 3 =AND(TRUE. 13/12/05 . To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. If the specified range contains no logical values. Syntax AND(logical1. AND returns the #VALUE! error value. logical2. How? 1. and press CTRL+V. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument... Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. press CTRL+` (grave accent).ch. Select the example in the Help topic. In the worksheet.logical2. Do not select the row or column headers. How? 1. If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells. . point to Formula Auditing. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. or the arguments must be arrays (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.) or references that contain logical values. Selecting an example from Help 3. Press CTRL+C. Remarks The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE. FALSE) B Description (Result) All arguments are TRUE (TRUE) One argument is FALSE (FALSE) 4 =AND(2+2=4. A 1 Formula 2 =AND(TRUE. An array range shares a common formula. returns FALSE if one or more argument is FALSE. 2. those values are ignored. select cell A1.

. press CTRL+` (grave accent). point to Formula Auditing. A 1 Data 2 50 3 104 Formula =AND(1<A2. and press CTRL+V.ch. A2<100). "The value is out of range. Press CTRL+C. or on the Tools menu. otherwise displays a message (50) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. if it is between 1 and 100. A3<100). if it is between 1 and 100. A2.") Description (Result) Because 50 is between 1 and 100 (TRUE) Displays the second number above. A3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results.") =IF(AND(1<A2. select cell A1. 13/12/05 . "The value is out of range. In the worksheet.) Displays the first number above.AND Page 2 of 2 3. 4. and then click Formula Auditing Mode.. A2<100) =IF(AND(1<A3. otherwise displays a message (The value is out of range. 5.

and Microsoft Excel interprets it as the logical value FALSE.FALSE Page 1 of 1 FALSE See Also Returns the logical value FALSE. Syntax FALSE( ) Remark You can also type the word FALSE directly onto the worksheet or into the formula.ch. 14/12/05 . mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11...

This argument can use any comparison calculation operator. if this argument is the text string "Within budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to TRUE. See the last of the following examples. Do not select the row or column headers. To display the word TRUE. Select the example in the Help topic. If logical_test is FALSE and value_if_false is omitted. A 1 Data 2 50 Formula Description (Result) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. For example. 5. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. then the IF function displays the text "Over budget". the expression evaluates to FALSE. Learn about calculating a value based on a condition. Value_if_false is the value that is returned if logical_test is FALSE. this argument returns 0 (zero). If logical_test is FALSE and value_if_false is blank (that is. then the IF function displays the text "Within budget".value_if_false) Logical_test is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. IF returns the value returned by those statements. the expression evaluates to TRUE. An array range shares a common formula. after value_if_true. then the logical value FALSE is returned. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Microsoft Excel provides additional functions that can be used to analyze your data based on a condition. point to Formula Auditing.value_if_true. When the value_if_true and value_if_false arguments are evaluated. Value_if_true is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE. For example. Remarks Up to seven IF functions can be nested as value_if_true and value_if_false arguments to construct more elaborate tests. 2. Selecting an example from Help 3. there is a comma followed by the closing parenthesis). 4. Value_if_false can be another formula. use the SUMIF worksheet function.ch. use the COUNTIF worksheet function. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. (that is.. Otherwise. use the logical value TRUE for this argument. if the value in cell A10 is equal to 100. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas. For example. A10=100 is a logical expression. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 14/12/05 . How? 1. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. Syntax IF(logical_test. or on the Tools menu. If logical_test is TRUE and value_if_true is blank. To calculate a sum based on a string of text or a number within a range.IF Page 1 of 3 IF See Also Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. In the worksheet. select cell A1. every element of the array is evaluated when the IF statement is carried out. Value_if_true can be another formula.). to count the number of occurrences of a string of text or a number within a range of cells. press CTRL+` (grave accent). For example. if this argument is the text string "Over budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE. then the value 0 (zero) is returned. Press CTRL+C. If any of the arguments to IF are arrays (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.. there is no comma). after value_if_true. and press CTRL+V.

Press CTRL+C. Create a blank workbook or worksheet."Over Budget". In the worksheet. select cell A1. How? 1. 4. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results.SUM(B5:B15). empty text ("") is returned () Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. then the range B5:B15 is calculated. 2.. Otherwise. Do not select the row or column headers. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. 5. press CTRL+` (grave accent)."Within budget". and then click Formula Auditing Mode. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A 1 Actual Expenses 2 1500 3 500 4 500 Formula B Predicted Expenses 900 900 925 Description (Result) =IF(A2>B2. or on the Tools menu. 5."OK") Checks whether the second row is over budget (OK) Example 3 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Select the example in the Help topic. Press CTRL+C. Selecting an example from Help 3. the function displays "Over budget" (Within budget) If the number above is 100. and press CTRL+V."OK") Checks whether the first row is over budget (Over Budget) =IF(A3>B3. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. and then click Formula Auditing Mode.. 2.ch. and press CTRL+V. How? 1. Otherwise.IF Page 2 of 3 =IF(A2<=100. 14/12/05 . 4."Over budget") =IF(A2=100. press CTRL+` (grave accent). Do not select the row or column headers. select cell A1."") If the number above is less than or equal to 100. In the worksheet. or on the Tools menu. Selecting an example from Help 3. point to Formula Auditing."Over Budget". point to Formula Auditing. Select the example in the Help topic. then the formula displays "Within budget".

"A".IF Page 3 of 3 A 1 Score 2 45 3 90 4 78 Formula Description (Result) =IF(A2>89. the second IF statement is also the value_if_false argument to the first IF statement.IF(A4>79."B". the third IF statement is the value_if_false argument to the second IF statement. The letter grades are assigned to numbers using the following key."A"."D". 14/12/05 .IF(A2>59."C".IF(A3>79."A"..."F")))) Assigns a letter grade to the second score (A) =IF(A4>89."C"."C"."D". and so on.IF(A2>79. IF(A2>69. If Score is From 80 to 89 From 70 to 79 From 60 to 69 Less than 60 Then return B C D F Greater than 89 A mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. if the first logical_test (Average>89) is TRUE."B". For example. IF(A3>69.IF(A3>59. the second IF statement is evaluated. Similarly. If the first logical_test is FALSE."B". IF(A4>69."D". "A" is returned."F")))) Assigns a letter grade to the first score (F) =IF(A3>89.IF(A4>59.ch."F")))) Assigns a letter grade to the third score (C) In the preceding example.

use the following arithmetic operators. Excel calculates the formula from left to right. and reference. subtraction. (comma) (space) Combine ranges of cells for calculations with the following operators. combine numbers. which are separated by calculation operators. Arithmetic operator Meaning (Example) + (plus sign) – (minus sign) * (asterisk) / (forward slash) % (percent sign) ^ (caret) Addition (3+3) Subtraction (3–1) Negation (–1) Multiplication (3*3) Division (3/3) Percent (20%) Exponentiation (3^2) Comparison operators You can compare two values with the following operators. Types of operators Arithmetic operators To perform basic mathematical operations such as addition. Operator precedence If you combine several operators in a single formula. if a formula contains both a multiplication and division operator— Excel evaluates the operators from left to right. the result is a logical value either TRUE or FALSE. or multiplication. two values to produce one continuous text value ("North"&"wind") Reference operators Reference operator : (colon) . comparison. The equal sign tells Excel that the succeeding characters constitute a formula. which produces on reference to cells common to the two references (B7:D7 C6:C8) The order in which Excel performs operations in formulas Formulas calculate values in a specific order. Microsoft Excel includes four different types of calculation operators: arithmetic. A formula in Excel always begins with an equal sign (=). including the two references (B5:B15) Union operator.. Meaning (Example) Equal to (A1=B1) Greater than (A1>B1) Less than (A1<B1) Less than or equal to (A1<=B1) Not equal to (A1<>B1) Use the ampersand (&) to join..About calculation operators Page 1 of 2 About calculation operators Operators specify the type of calculation that you want to perform on the elements of a formula. Operator : (colon) (single space) . text. which produces one reference to all the cells between two references. If a formula contains operators with the same precedence— for example. one or more text strings to produce a single piece of >= (greater than or equal to sign) Greater than or equal to (A1>=B1) Text operator Meaning (Example) & (ampersand) Connects.D5:D15)) Intersection operator. Following the equal sign are the elements to be calculated (the operands). (comma) Description Reference operators mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or concatenates. and produce numeric results. Excel performs the operations in the order shown in the following table. or concatenate. When two values are compared by using these operators. Meaning (Example) Range operator. which combines multiple references into one reference (SUM(B5:B15. 14/12/05 . Comparison operator = (equal sign) > (greater than sign) < (less than sign) <= (less than or equal to sign) <> (not equal to sign) Text concatenation operator text.ch. according to a specific order for each operator in the formula.

For example. The formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 to the result. and F5.. Excel adds 5 and 2 together and then multiplies the result by 3 to produce 21. =5+2*3 In contrast. the following formula produces 11 because Excel calculates multiplication before addition. the parentheses around the first part of the formula force Excel to calculate B4+25 first and then divide the result by the sum of the values in cells D5. enclose in parentheses the part of the formula to be calculated first. =(B4+25)/SUM(D5:F5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. if you use parentheses to change the syntax. 14/12/05 .About calculation operators Page 2 of 2 – % ^ * and / + and – & Negation (as in –1) Percent Exponentiation Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction Connects two strings of text (concatenation) = < > <= >= <> Comparison Use of parentheses To change the order of evaluation. =(5+2)*3 In the example below..ch. E5.

or any other value other than TRUE or FALSE. and operators (operator: A sign or symbol that specifies the type of calculation to perform within an expression. "OK". "Not OK") The IF function uses the following arguments. and NOT functions. (Not OK) Formula with the IF function logical_test: the condition you want to check value_if_true: the value to return if the condition is true mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. (OK) If 15 is greater than 9 or less than 8. logical. "Not OK") =IF(OR(A2>A3. and reference operators. Worksheet example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. "Not OK") If 15 is greater than 9 and less than 8. then return "OK". then return "OK". and OR functions to do this task. 14/12/05 . OR. comparison. "OK". Worksheet example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.) to do this task. A2<A4) =NOT(A2+A3=24) Description (Result) Is 15 greater than 9 or less than 8? (TRUE) Is 15 plus 9 not equal to 24? (FALSE) =AND(A2>A3. AND.. Description (Result) If the value in cell A2 equals 15. "OK". then return "OK".ch. Use the IF.. A2<A4). A2<A4). How? A 1 Data 2 15 3 9 4 8 Formula =OR(A2>A3. How? A 1 Data 2 15 3 9 4 8 Formula =IF(A2=15. There are mathematical.Create conditional formulas by using the IF function Page 1 of 2 Create conditional formulas by using the IF function For a result that is a logical value (TRUE or FALSE) Use the AND. (OK) =IF(AND(A2>A3. A2<A4) Is 15 greater than 9 and less than 8? (FALSE) Function details AND OR NOT For a result is another calculation.

..Create conditional formulas by using the IF function Page 2 of 2 value_if_false: the value to return if the condition is false Function details AND OR IF mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 14/12/05 .ch.

NOT returns FALSE.NOT Page 1 of 1 NOT See Also Reverses the value of its argument. if logical is TRUE. NOT returns TRUE... A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =NOT(FALSE) Reverses FALSE (TRUE) 3 =NOT(1+1=2) Reverses an equation that evaluates to TRUE (FALSE) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 .ch. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is a value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. Syntax NOT(logical) Logical Remark If logical is FALSE. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value.

Syntax OR(logical1. those values are ignored.ch...FALSE. returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE.) Logical1... OR returns the #VALUE! error value. Remarks The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE.TRUE) At least one argument is TRUE (TRUE) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. To enter an array formula.logical2. How? are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells. 15/12/05 .. If the specified range contains no logical values..logical2. press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER... Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. You can use an OR array formula to see if a value occurs in an array.OR Page 1 of 1 OR See Also Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. or in arrays or references that contain logical values.2+2=5) B Description (Result) One argument is TRUE (TRUE) All arguments evaluate to FALSE (FALSE) 4 =OR(TRUE. A 1 Formula 2 =OR(TRUE) 3 =OR(1+1=1.

Syntax TRUE( ) Remark You can enter the value TRUE directly into cells and formulas without using this function. 15/12/05 .. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The TRUE function is provided primarily for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.ch..TRUE Page 1 of 1 TRUE See Also Returns the logical value TRUE.

ADDRESS returns an A1-style reference. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. relative column Relative row. is the column number to use in the cell reference. relative column in R1C1 reference style (R2C[3]) 5 =ADDRESS(2.3.. How? A 1 Formula 2 =ADDRESS(2. relative column (C$2) 4 =ADDRESS(2."[Book1]Sheet1") Absolute reference to another workbook and worksheet ([Book1]Sheet1!R2C3) 6 =ADDRESS(2. if FALSE.sheet_text) Row_num is the row number to use in the cell reference.3. Returns this type of reference Absolute row. absolute column Relative 1 or omitted Absolute A1 is a logical value that specifies the A1 or R1C1 reference style.ch. Syntax ADDRESS(row_num. given specified row and column numbers. Sheet_text is text specifying the name of the worksheet to be used as the external reference. no sheet name is used.3) 3 =ADDRESS(2.FALSE. If a1 is TRUE or omitted."EXCEL SHEET") Absolute reference to another worksheet ('EXCEL SHEET'!R2C3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Column_num Abs_num Abs_num 2 3 4 specifies the type of reference to return.2.FALSE) Absolute row.2) B Description (Result) Absolute reference ($C$2) Absolute row. ADDRESS returns an R1C1-style reference.column_num. If sheet_text is omitted.ADDRESS Page 1 of 1 ADDRESS See Also Creates a cell address as text.abs_num. 13/12/05 .3.3.1..a1.1.FALSE.

E5. How? A 1 Formula 2 =AREAS(B2:D4) 4 =AREAS(B2:D4 B2) B Description (Result) Number of areas in the range (1) Number of areas in the range (1) 3 =AREAS((B2:D4. An area is a range of contiguous cells or a single cell. then you must include extra sets of parentheses so that Microsoft Excel will not interpret the comma as a field separator. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax AREAS(reference) Reference is a reference to a cell or range of cells and can refer to multiple areas.AREAS Page 1 of 1 AREAS See Also Returns the number of areas in a reference.. See the following example. If you want to specify several references as a single argument.ch.. 13/12/05 .F6:I9)) Number of areas in the range (3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

defined names. The SUM function is then evaluated using B1:B10. 13/12/05 .A4..value1. Value1. if value1 through value7 are the days of the week. formulas. The CHOOSE function is evaluated first. CHOOSE returns value2. functions. every value is evaluated when CHOOSE is evaluated. CHOOSE returns value1.B2. returning the reference B1:B10.ch. For example. Remarks If index_num is an array.. the result of the CHOOSE function. The value arguments to CHOOSE can be range references as well as single values. How? A 1 Data 2 1st 3 2nd 4 3rd 5 Finished Formula B Data Nails Screws Nuts Bolts Description (Result) =CHOOSE(2. If index_num is 1. or a formula or reference to a cell containing a number between 1 and 29.value2.B5) Value from the fourth argument B5 (Bolts) Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.value2. are 1 to 29 value arguments from which CHOOSE selects a value or an action to perform based on index_num. cell references.. Syntax CHOOSE(index_num. if it is 2. as its argument. it is truncated to the lowest integer before being used.A3. and so on. the formula: =SUM(CHOOSE(2.) Index_num specifies which value argument is selected. How? A 1 Data 2 23 3 45 4 12 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.B4. The arguments can be numbers. For example. If index_num is less than 1 or greater than the number of the last value in the list.A5) Value from the second argument A3 (2nd) =CHOOSE(4.. CHOOSE returns one of the days when a number between 1 and 7 is used as index_num. If index_num is a fraction.C1:C10)) evaluates to: =SUM(B1:B10) which then returns a value based on the values in the range B1:B10. Use CHOOSE to select one of up to 29 values based on the index number. Index_num must be a number between 1 and 29..B3..CHOOSE Page 1 of 2 CHOOSE See Also Uses index_num to return a value from the list of value arguments.A1:A10...A2. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.B1:B10. CHOOSE returns the #VALUE! error value. or text.

CHOOSE Page 2 of 2 5 10 Formula Description (Result) =SUM(A2:CHOOSE(2..A5)) Sums the range A2:A4 (80) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.A3.ch.A4.. 13/12/05 .

If reference is a range of cells.ch.COLUMN Page 1 of 1 COLUMN See Also Returns the column number of the given reference. and if COLUMN is entered as a horizontal array. 13/12/05 . If reference is omitted. How? A 1 Formula 2 =COLUMN() B Description (Result) Column in which the formula appears (1) 3 =COLUMN(A10) Column of the reference (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax COLUMN(reference) Reference is the cell or range of cells for which you want the column number.. it is assumed to be the reference of the cell in which the COLUMN function appears. COLUMN returns the column numbers of reference as a horizontal array. Reference cannot refer to multiple areas.

3.) or reference. and then returns either a single result or multiple results.). 13/12/05 .6}) Number of columns in the array constant (3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.4..ch.. or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of columns. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.COLUMNS Page 1 of 1 COLUMNS See Also Returns the number of columns in an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.5. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax COLUMNS(array) Array is an array or array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. How? A 1 Formula 2 =COLUMNS(C1:E4) B Description (Result) Number of columns in the reference (3) 3 =COLUMNS({1.2. An array range shares a common formula.

Item2 are one to 14 pairs of field names and item names that describe the data you want to retrieve."Month". or named range of cells in a PivotTable report. GETPIVOTDATA("Sales". data will be retrieved from whichever report was created most recently in the range."Produce".. or as its root (without "Sum of.[Baked Goods]" Remarks Calculated fields or items and custom calculations are included in GETPIVOTDATA calculations."March") returns the grand total for March. This information is used to determine which PivotTable report contains the data you want to retrieve.5).[Foods]. Pivot_table is a reference to any cell."Davolio") returns #REF! because there is no total value of beverage sales for Davolio. 14/12/05 . You can use GETPIVOTDATA to retrieve summary data from a PivotTable report.item1. number."Beverages". A field and item pair for an OLAP PivotTable might look like this: "[Product]"."March".325. If the field and item arguments describe a single cell. GETPIVOTDATA("Sales".$A$4.pivot_table.$A$4) returns the grand total of the Sales field. If pivot_table is not a range in which a PivotTable report is found. the value of that cell is returned regardless of whether it is a string. Field1.GETPIVOTDATA Page 1 of 1 GETPIVOTDATA See Also Returns data stored in a PivotTable report.$A$4. error. For OLAP PivotTable reports.) Data_field is the name.201. Field names and names for items other than dates and numbers are enclosed in quotation marks. an item referring to the date March 5. If the arguments do not describe a visible field. GETPIVOTDATA returns #REF!."Salesperson".$A$4. GETPIVOTDATA returns #REF!. GETPIVOTDATA("Sales". the field name can be entered exactly as it looks on the sheet. provided the summary data is visible in the report.[All Products]. enclosed in quotation marks. If an item contains a date. $49. Syntax GETPIVOTDATA(data_field. or if they include a page field that is not displayed. Times can be entered as decimal values or by using the TIME function. Note You can quickly enter a simple GETPIVOTDATA formula by typing = in the cell you want to return the value to and then clicking the cell in the PivotTable report that contains the data you want to return. Examples The range that contains the PivotTable report is: GETPIVOTDATA("Sales". for the data field that contains the data you want to retrieve.325. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. GETPIVOTDATA("Sum of Sales"."Product". For example. the value must be expressed as a serial number or populated by using the DATE function so that the value will be retained if the spreadsheet is opened in a different locale.. items can contain the source name of the dimension as well as the source name of the item.337."South") returns #REF! because the South region data is not visible. range of cells.$A$4. $49.ch. Item1.$A$4) also returns the grand total of the Sales field.3.item2. GETPIVOTDATA ("Sales". Field2. and so on.."Buchanan") returns $10. The pairs can be in any order.."Month"."Product"."Salesperson".field2. 1999 could be entered as 36224 or DATE(1999.field1." "Count of. If pivot_table is a range that includes two or more PivotTable reports. $30.."Region"." and so forth)."[Product].

Lookup_value can be a value. and returns the value from row 2 that's in the same column.2. and then click Ascending. 1. A-Z. table_array does not need to be sorted. and returns the value from row 4 that's in the same column. If row_index_num is less than 1. if an exact match is not found. and returns the value from row 2 in same column. and returns the value from row 3 that's in the same column. left to right. by selecting the values and then clicking Sort on the Data menu. 0. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first row of table_array. TRUE. The H in HLOOKUP stands for "Horizontal. You can put values in ascending order.HLOOKUP Page 1 of 1 HLOOKUP See Also Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. If FALSE. (7) Looks up B in row 1.row_index_num.TRUE) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. In other words. numbers. the values in the first row of table_array must be placed in ascending order: ..A1:C4. the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. or a text string."e".TRUE) =HLOOKUP("Bearings".3. 2. and range_lookup is TRUE. Row_index_num is the row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned. Click Options. the next largest value that is less than B is used: Axles.. and so on.. An array range shares a common formula. If range_lookup is TRUE.3. -1. is a table of information in which data is looked up.range_lookup) Lookup_value Table_array is the value to be found in the first row of the table. 14/12/05 ."b". click the row in the list. {1.4) =HLOOKUP(3. HLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value."a". If TRUE or omitted.. and then click OK. If one is not found. it uses the largest value that is less than lookup_value. (c) C Bolts 9 10 11 =HLOOKUP("Bolts"."f"}."c". Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. a row_index_num of 2 returns the second row value in table_array. (4) Looks up Bearings in row 1. Use a reference to a range or a range name. the error value #N/A is returned. click Sort left to right. (11) Looks up 3 in the first row of the array constant.-2.) of values. Under Sort by. FALSE.A1:C4. and returns the value from row 3 that's in the same column. Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. or logical values. . if row_index_num is greater than the number of rows on table_array.A1:C4."d". How? A 1 Axles 2 4 3 5 4 6 Formula =HLOOKUP("Axles". otherwise. and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array.2. If range_lookup is FALSE.ch. (5) Looks up Bolts in row 1.table_array. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.. HLOOKUP will find an exact match. and you want to look down a specified number of rows. Remarks If HLOOKUP can't find lookup_value. HLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data.TRUE) B Bearings 4 7 8 Description (Result) Looks up Axles in row 1.A1:C4." Syntax HLOOKUP(lookup_value. HLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value... Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.3. A row_index_num of 1 returns the first row value in table_array. The values in the first row of table_array can be text.2. a reference. Because B is not an exact match.FALSE) =HLOOKUP("B". HLOOKUP may not give the correct value. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. an approximate match is returned.

doc located at example..xls".microsoft. When you click the cell that contains the HYPERLINK function.doc]QrtlyProfits". or a cell that contains the jump text or value. which is stored on the server named FINANCE in the Statements share.xls". click the cell and hold the mouse button until the cursor becomes a cross Examples The following example opens a worksheet named Budget Report. If friendly_name is omitted.friendly_name) Link_location is the path and file name to the document to be opened as text.xls. a text string. the following example creates a hyperlink to the area named Totals in another (external) workbook.xls]Annual!F10". an error appears when you click the cell.com/report/budget report.HYPERLINK Page 1 of 2 HYPERLINK See Also Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server. Link_location can be a text string enclosed in quotation marks or a cell that contains the link as a text string.xls: mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. and displays the numeric value stored in cell H10: =HYPERLINK("D:\FINANCEstqtr. Syntax HYPERLINK(link_location. This example uses a UNC path: =HYPERLINK("\FINANCE\Statementsstqtr.). or the path can be a universal naming convention (UNC) path on a server (in Microsoft Excel for Windows) or a Uniform Resource Locator (URL (Uniform Resource Locator (URL): An address that specifies a protocol (such as HTTP or FTP) and a location of an object. pages.microsoft.com/Annual Report.microsoft. or other destination on the Internet or an intranet. documents. which is stored on the Internet at the location named example. "Quarterly Profit Report") In Excel for Windows. the cell displays the link_location as the jump text. The cell on the worksheet that contains the hyperlink displays the contents of cell D1 as the jump text: =HYPERLINK("[http://example.xls.ch.microsoft. and other destinations on the intranet. If the jump specified in link_location does not exist or cannot be navigated. the following example displays the contents of cell D5 as the jump text in the cell and opens the file named 1stqtr. H10) In Excel for Windows. a name. Mybook. or to a bookmark in a Microsoft Word document.microsoft. or the Internet.com: =HYPERLINK("[http://example. World Wide Web page.microsoft. for example: http://www. 14/12/05 . Remark To select a cell that has a hyperlink in it without jumping to the hyperlink destination.xls". an intranet (intranet: A network within an organization that uses Internet technologies (such as the HTTP or FTP protocol). Friendly_name can be a value.com/report . The path can be to a file stored on a hard disk drive. example. you must use a bookmark to define the location you want to jump to in the document. By using hyperlinks. then release the mouse button.xls in Excel for Windows that is stored in a directory named Finance on drive D. the cell displays the error instead of the jump text. The cell on the worksheet that contains the hyperlink displays the text "Click to see First Quarter Department Total": =HYPERLINK("[http://example. which is stored on the Internet at the location named example. Link_location can refer to a place in a document— such as a specific cell or named range in an Excel worksheet or workbook. "Click to see First Quarter Department Total") To create a hyperlink to a specific location in a Microsoft Word document. Friendly_name is displayed in blue and is underlined. Microsoft Excel opens the file stored at link_location.com/.com/report/budget report. D1) The following example creates a hyperlink to the range named DeptTotal on the worksheet named First Quarter in the workbook Budget Report. Friendly_name is the jump text or numeric value that is displayed in the cell.microsoft.microsoft.com/report/budget report. you can explore objects. If friendly_name returns an error value (for example.xls. document.microsoft. "Click for report") The following example creates a hyperlink to cell F10 on the worksheet named Annual in the workbook Budget Report.com/report and displays the text "Click for report": =HYPERLINK("http://example.xls]First Quarter!DeptTotal".. #VALUE!). D5) The following example opens the file 1stqtr. The following example creates a hyperlink to the bookmark named QrtlyProfits in the document named Annual Report.xls that is stored on the Internet at the location named .com/report .)) path on the Internet or an intranet.

For example.HYPERLINK Page 2 of 2 =HYPERLINK("[C:\My Documents\Mybook. to create a link to cell E56 on the September sheet. the following example displays "Click here" in the cell and opens the file named First Quarter that is stored in a folder named Budget Reports on the hard drive named Macintosh HD: =HYPERLINK("Macintosh HD:Budget Reports:First Quarter". E56) To jump to a different sheet in the same workbook.ch. The link text itself is the value in cell E56. change the word "June" to "September.. 14/12/05 . if the active worksheet is the sheet named June in the workbook named Budget.xls]Totals") In Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh. =HYPERLINK("[Budget]June!E56".." mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. "Click here") You can create hyperlinks within a worksheet to jump from one cell to another cell. the following formula creates a hyperlink to cell E56. In the previous example. change the name of the sheet in the link.

) and reference.INDEX Page 1 of 1 INDEX See Also Returns a value or the reference to a value from within a table or range. 14/12/05 . an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. The array form always returns a value or an array of values.ch. There are two forms of the INDEX() function: array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.column_num...area_num) returns a reference to specified cells within reference. INDEX(reference. An array range shares a common formula.column_num) returns the value of a specified cell or array of cells within array. INDEX(array. the reference form always returns a reference.row_num.row_num. Syntax 1 (array) Syntax 2 (reference) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

and in a vertical range of cells for a column.2. How? A 1 Formula 3 B Description (Result) Value in the second row. and only row_num or column_num is used.. second column in the array constant (2) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. Use the array form if the first argument to INDEX is an array constant. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. respectively.2.2. The array form always returns a value or array of values. and then returns either a single result or multiple results.0. second column in the array constant (4) 2 =INDEX({1. press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Column_num Remarks If both the row_num and column_num arguments are used. column_num is required.column_num) Array is a range of cells or an array constant.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.2) Value at the intersection of the second row and second column in the range (Pears) =INDEX(A2:B3. To enter an array formula. An array range shares a common formula. INDEX returns the array of values for the entire column or row. Press F2. If row_num is omitted.1) Value at the intersection of the second row and first column in the range (Bananas) Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. the reference form always returns a reference. Row_num selects the row in array from which to return a value. Syntax 1 Array form INDEX(array. INDEX returns the value in the cell at the intersection of row_num and column_num. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. otherwise. INDEX returns an array of the entire row or column in array. row_num is required.) in a horizontal range of cells for a row. If array has more than one row and more than one column. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.). If column_num is omitted. selects the column in array from which to return a value. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. selected by the row and column number indexes. INDEX returns the #REF! error value. enter the INDEX function as an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values. To use values returned as an array. If you set row_num or column_num to 0 (zero).3. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.ch. the single result is 2.2) Value in the first row. How? A 1 Data 2 Apples 3 Bananas Formula B Data Lemons Pears Description (Result) =INDEX(A2:B3. Row_num and column_num must point to a cell within array.4}. select the range A2:A3 starting with the formula cell. The INDEX function has two syntax forms: array and reference. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. 14/12/05 .INDEX Page 1 of 1 INDEX See Also Returns the value of an element in a table or an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. If array contains only one row or column. the corresponding row_num or column_num argument is optional.row_num.

14/12/05 . row_num and column_num select a particular cell: row_num 1 is the first row in the range. The CELL function uses the return value of INDEX as a cell reference. INDEX uses area 1. if reference describes the cells (A1:B4. column_num 1 is the first column. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.G1:H4). The first area selected or entered is numbered 1.B1). otherwise.INDEX(A1:B2. area_num 2 is the range D1:E4.3) B Price 0. the row_num or column_num argument.55 1. the return value of INDEX may be used as a reference or as a value. INDEX returns the area in reference specified by area_num.25 1. Depending on the formula.column_num).INDEX Page 1 of 2 INDEX See Also Returns the reference of the cell at the intersection of a particular row and column. If you are entering a nonadjacent range for the reference. An array range shares a common formula. the formula CELL("width". For example. then area_num 1 is the range A1:B4. and area_num 3 is the range G1:H4. enclose reference in parentheses.2.D1:E4. a formula such as 2*INDEX(A1:B2.80 3..75 Description (Result) The intersection of the second row and third column in the range A2:C6. INDEX returns the reference for the entire column or row. Row_num. The INDEX function has two syntax forms: array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.25 0. use INDEX(reference. respectively. column_num.1.column_num. The result of the INDEX function is a reference and is interpreted as such by other formulas. is optional. The array form always returns a value or an array of values..34 0. Syntax 2 Reference form INDEX(reference. If row_num and column_num are omitted. Remarks After reference and area_num have selected a particular range. On the other hand. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.59 2. which is the C Count 40 38 15 25 40 10 16 20 12 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If area_num is omitted.69 0.2)) is equivalent to CELL("width".55 0. Row_num is the number of the row in reference from which to return a reference. For example. and so on.1. If the reference is made up of nonadjacent selections. respectively. Column_num Area_num selects a range in reference from which to return the intersection of row_num and column_num. INDEX returns the #REF! error value. the second is 2.ch.2) translates the return value of INDEX into the number in cell B1.area_num) Reference is a reference to one or more cell ranges. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Fruit Apples Bananas Lemons Oranges Pears Almonds Cashews Peanuts Walnuts Formula =INDEX(A2:C6. If you set row_num or column_num to 0 (zero). The reference returned by INDEX is the intersection of row_num and column_num. you can pick the selection to look in. for a single row reference. is the number of the column in reference from which to return a reference..) and reference. and area_num must point to a cell within reference. the reference form always returns a reference. and so on.row_num. For example. If each area in reference contains only one row or column.

. and ending at the intersection of the fifth row and the second column of the range A2:A6. which is the sum of B2:B6.42) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 14/12/05 . (3.A8:C11).0. (38) =INDEX ((A1:C6. which is the content of cell B9.55) The sum of the third column in the first area of the range A1:C11.2)) The intersection of the second row and second column in the second area of A8:C11. (216) The sum of the range starting at B2.1)) =SUM(B2:INDEX (A2:C6.2.3. (2.INDEX Page 2 of 2 content of cell C3.2. which is the sum of C1:C6.ch..2) =SUM(INDEX (A1:C11.5.

. Syntax INDIRECT(ref_text. If a1 is FALSE.333) Value of the reference in cell A3 (45) If the cell B4 has the defined name "George. A1 is a logical value that specifies what type of reference is contained in the cell ref_text. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch.333 45 10 62 Description (Result) Value of the reference in cell A2 (1. If ref_text refers to another workbook (an external reference). How? A 1 Data 2 B2 3 B3 4 George 5 5 Formula =INDIRECT($A$2) =INDIRECT($A$3) =INDIRECT($A$4) B Data 1. if you always want to refer to cell A10. use the INDIRECT worksheet function. the reference to the cell will be updated if: (1) the cell is moved by using the Cut command to delete the cell or (2) the cell is moved because rows or columns are inserted or deleted. If a1 is TRUE or omitted. ref_text is interpreted as an R1C1-style reference. For example. the other workbook must be open. 14/12/05 . a name defined as a reference. Use INDIRECT when you want to change the reference to a cell within a formula without changing the formula itself. or a reference to a cell as a text string. an R1C1-style reference." the value of the defined name is returned (10) =INDIRECT("B"&$A$5) Value of a reference in cell A5 (62) When you create a formula that refers to a cell. ref_text is interpreted as an A1-style reference.a1) Ref_text is a reference to a cell that contains an A1-style reference. If the source workbook is not open. INDIRECT returns the #REF! error value. If you always want the formula to refer to the same cell regardless of whether the row above the cell is deleted or the cell is moved. INDIRECT returns the #REF! error value. use the following syntax: =INDIRECT("A10") mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.INDIRECT Page 1 of 1 INDIRECT See Also Returns the reference specified by a text string. If ref_text is not a valid cell reference.. References are immediately evaluated to display their contents.

).LOOKUP Page 1 of 1 LOOKUP See Also Returns a value either from a one-row or one-column range or from an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. 14/12/05 . an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. The vector form of LOOKUP looks in a one-row or one-column range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a value from the same position in a second one-row or one-column range.. An array range shares a common formula. The LOOKUP function has two syntax forms: vector and array. Syntax 1 (vector) Syntax 2 (array) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. The array form of LOOKUP looks in the first row or column of an array for the specified value and returns a value from the same position in the last row or column of the array.ch.

77 6 6. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.lookup_vector. or logical Important The values in lookup_vector must be placed in ascending order: .17 5 5. How? is a range that contains only one row or column.B2:B6) Looks up 0 in column A...14 3 4. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. TRUE. and returns an error because 0 is less than the smallest value in the lookup_vector A2:A7 (#N/A) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A-Z.91. LOOKUP may not give the correct value..00 in column A. numbers. .). The other form of LOOKUP automatically looks in the first column or row.B2:B6) =LOOKUP (5.ch. is a range that contains only one row or one column.A2:A6. or a name or reference that refers to a value. LOOKUP gives the #N/A error value. text..LOOKUP Page 1 of 1 LOOKUP See Also The LOOKUP function has two syntax forms: vector and array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.39). The vector form of LOOKUP looks in a one-row or one-column range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a value from the same position in a second one-row or one-column range. Use this form of the LOOKUP function when you want to specify the range that contains the values you want to match.19 in column A. FALSE.A2:A6. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent.B2:B6) B Color red orange yellow green blue Description (Result) Looks up 4. An array range shares a common formula. Result_vector Remarks If LOOKUP can't find the lookup_value. Syntax 1 Vector form LOOKUP(lookup_value. matches the next smallest value (6.. Lookup_value can be a number. 2. otherwise...66 in column A.00.19 4 5. A vector is a range of only one row or one column. 14/12/05 . A 1 Frequency 2 4. Lookup_vector values. a logical value. it matches the largest value in lookup_vector that is less than or equal to lookup_value.39 Formula =LOOKUP (4. It must be the same size as lookup_vector. The values in lookup_vector can be text.A2:A6. -1. and returns the value from column B that's in the same row (orange) Looks up 7. 1.66.B2:B6) =LOOKUP (7..-2. and returns the value from column B that's in the same row (blue) =LOOKUP(0.result_vector) Lookup_value is a value that LOOKUP searches for in the first vector. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in lookup_vector. 0.A2:A6. and returns the value from column B that's in the same row (orange) Looks up 5.

Array is a range of cells that contains text.3. numbers.3}) B Description (Result) Looks up "C" in first row of the array and returns the value in the last row that's in the same column (3) Looks up "bump" in first row of the array and returns the value in the last column that's in the same row (2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. -1. A-Z.).."c".1."d". Use the other form of LOOKUP when you want to specify the location of the column or row.2. .. The array form of LOOKUP is very similar to the HLOOKUP and VLOOKUP functions.. a logical value.4}) =LOOKUP("bump". The array form of LOOKUP looks in the first row or column of an array for the specified value and returns a value from the same position in the last row or column of the array..1. but LOOKUP always selects the last value in the row or column. it's best to use the HLOOKUP or VLOOKUP function instead of the array form of LOOKUP. or a name or reference that refers to a value.. If array is square or is taller than it is wide (more rows than columns). 3 {"a". 14/12/05 . Important The values in array must be placed in ascending order: . it uses the largest value in the array that is less than or equal to lookup_value.. you can index down or across. 1. LOOKUP searches for lookup_value in the first row. If LOOKUP can't find the lookup_value. An array range shares a common formula. Lookup_value can be a number. otherwise. LOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. With HLOOKUP and VLOOKUP."c". Tip In general. text. {"a".-2. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first row or column (depending on the array dimensions). 2. This form of LOOKUP is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. LOOKUP searches in the first column. FALSE. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or logical values that you want to compare with lookup_value.ch. How? A 1 Formula 2 =LOOKUP("C". The difference is that HLOOKUP searches for lookup_value in the first row. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent..array) Lookup_value is a value that LOOKUP searches for in an array. Use this form of LOOKUP when the values you want to match are in the first row or column of the array. and LOOKUP searches according to the dimensions of array. If array covers an area that is wider than it is tall (more columns than rows)."b". TRUE."b".LOOKUP Page 1 of 1 LOOKUP See Also The LOOKUP function has two syntax forms: vector and array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. VLOOKUP searches in the first column. LOOKUP may not give the correct value.. 0.2. Syntax 2 Array form LOOKUP(lookup_value.

MATCH finds the smallest value that is greater than or equal to lookup_value.."b". not the value itself. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.ch. 2. FALSE. MATCH does not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters when matching text values.. Syntax MATCH(lookup_value.B2:B5. text. (2) =MATCH(41.1) Because there is not an exact match.match_type) Lookup_value is the value you use to find the value you want in a table. If match_type is omitted.."c"}. If match_type is 0. the relative position of "b" within the array {"a". 14/12/05 . .0) The position of 41 in the range B2:B5.) that matches a specified value in a specified order.-2. If match_type is -1. is the number -1.. Use MATCH instead of one of the LOOKUP functions when you need the position of an item in a range instead of the item itself. Lookup_array must be an array or an array reference. MATCH("b". text. MATCH finds the largest value that is less than or equal to lookup_value.. (4) =MATCH(40. Lookup_array must be placed in descending order: TRUE. If match_type is 0 and lookup_value is text. An asterisk matches any sequence of characters. 1.. A-Z.2.. but the telephone number is the value you want.B2:B5. you are using the person's name as the lookup value."b". -1. or logical value) or a cell reference to a number. TRUE. Remarks MATCH returns the position of the matched value within lookup_array. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Lookup_array must be placed in ascending order: .1) Returns an error because the range B2:B5 is not in descending order. when you look up someone's number in a telephone book. 1. and so on. 0.. it is assumed to be 1. -2. If match_type is 1. the position of the next lowest value (38) in the range B2:B5 is returned. or logical value. Lookup_value can be a value (number.. 0. An array range shares a common formula. . If MATCH is unsuccessful in finding a match.. Lookup_value is the value you want to match in lookup_array. 0. or 1. For example. -1. it returns the #N/A error value. Match_type specifies how Microsoft Excel matches lookup_value with values in lookup_array. Lookup_array Match_type is a contiguous range of cells containing possible lookup values. .lookup_array.0) returns 2."c"}.B2:B5. FALSE. MATCH finds the first value that is exactly equal to lookup_value.. Lookup_array can be in any order. a question mark matches any single character. (#N/A) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Z-A..{"a". For example.MATCH Page 1 of 1 MATCH See Also Returns the relative position of an item in an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. lookup_value can contain the wildcard characters asterisk (*) and question mark (?). How? A 1 Product 2 Bananas 3 Oranges 4 Apples 5 Pears Formula B Count 25 38 40 41 Description (Result) =MATCH(39.

Cols is the number of columns. Width must be a positive number.height. up or down.1) 4 =OFFSET(C3:E5. 15/12/05 .2. in number of rows. to the left or right. The reference that is returned can be a single cell or a range of cells.3. otherwise.1.3.3. You can specify the number of rows and the number of columns to be returned. Height Width is the height.cols.1.0. that you want the upper-left cell of the result to refer to. is the width.3.OFFSET Page 1 of 1 OFFSET See Also Returns a reference to a range that is a specified number of rows and columns from a cell or range of cells.3) B Description (Result) Displays the value in cell F5 (0) Returns an error. Rows is the number of rows.1)) calculates the total value of a 3-row by 1column range that is 1 row below and 2 columns to the right of cell C2. Remarks If rows and cols offset reference over the edge of the worksheet.. that you want the returned reference to be. Using 5 as the rows argument specifies that the upper-left cell in the reference is five rows below reference. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. OFFSET returns the #VALUE! error value.-3. Syntax OFFSET(reference.width) Reference is the reference from which you want to base the offset.rows.0. If height or width is omitted. because the reference is not on the worksheet (#REF!) 3 =SUM(OFFSET(C3:E5. How? A 1 Formula 2 =OFFSET(C3. that you want the upper-left cell to refer to. Rows can be positive (which means below the starting reference) or negative (which means above the starting reference). Cols can be positive (which means to the right of the starting reference) or negative (which means to the left of the starting reference). For example.2. in number of columns.ch.3)) Sums the range C2:E4 (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. Height must be a positive number.-1. OFFSET doesn't actually move any cells or change the selection. Using 5 as the cols argument specifies that the upper-left cell in the reference is five columns to the right of reference. OFFSET can be used with any function expecting a reference argument. OFFSET returns the #REF! error value. the formula SUM(OFFSET(C2. Reference must refer to a cell or range of adjacent cells. it is assumed to be the same height or width as reference. it just returns a reference. that you want the returned reference to be.

If reference is a range of cells.). and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. the single result is 4. Reference cannot refer to multiple areas.. select the range A2:A4 starting with the formula cell. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument. An array range shares a common formula. ROW returns the row numbers of reference as a vertical array. If reference is omitted. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.). If the formula is not entered as an array formula. and if ROW is entered as a vertical array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. and then returns either a single result or multiple results. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Formula 2 =ROW() B Description (Result) Row in which the formula appears (2) 3 =ROW(C10) Row of the reference (10) Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Press F2.. 15/12/05 .ROW Page 1 of 1 ROW See Also Returns the row number of a reference. it is assumed to be the reference of the cell in which the ROW function appears. Syntax ROW(reference) Reference is the cell or range of cells for which you want the row number. How? A 1 Formula 3 4 B Description (Result) Second row in the reference (5) Third row in the reference (6) 2 =ROW(C4:D6) First row in the reference (4) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values.

ROWS Page 1 of 1 ROWS See Also Returns the number of rows in a reference or array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. Syntax ROWS(array) Array is an array.ch.2. or a reference to a range of cells for which you want the number of rows.). an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values. and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.5. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..4. An array range shares a common formula. 15/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula 2 =ROWS(C1:E4) B Description (Result) Number of rows in the reference (4) 3 =ROWS({1..3.6}) Number of rows in the array constant (2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.).

. Syntax =RTD(ProgID.[topic2]..) that has been installed on the local computer. unlike other functions.server. Enclose the name in quotation marks. enter quotation marks ("") around the server name. leave the argument blank. topic1. double quotation marks or the VBA NullString property are required for the server.Progid". COM add-ins can run in one or more Office programs.ch."LOREM_IPSUM".dll or . and the program is run locally. When the server has been programmed to continually update results...). When using RTD within Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (VBA: A macro-language version of Microsoft Visual Basic that is used to program Windows applications and is included with several Microsoft applications..RTD Page 1 of 1 RTD See Also Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation (COM add-in: A supplemental program that extends the capabilities of a Microsoft Office program by adding custom commands and specialized features. COM add-ins use the file name extension . Otherwise. RTD formulas will change when Microsoft Excel is in automatic calculation mode. server name of the server where the add-in should be run.).. If there is no server. topic2. you will get an error message in a cell when you try to use the RTD function.topic1.exe. =RTD("MyComAddIn.. Example Formula Description (Result) 1 to 28 parameters that together represent a unique piece of real-time data.. 15/12/05 .) ProgID the name of the ProgID of a registered COM automation add-in (add-in: A supplemental program that adds custom commands or custom features to Microsoft Office. Remarks The RTD COM automation add-in must be created and registered on a local computer.. If you haven't installed a real-time data server. even if the server is running locally."Price") Data mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

and so on. 15/12/05 . TRANSPOSE must be entered as an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or vice versa.) has columns and rows. the single result is 1. LINEST returns a horizontal array of the slope and Y-intercept for a line. The following formula returns a vertical array of the slope and Y-intercept from LINEST. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Example 2 Some functions. and then returns either a single result or multiple results. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. the single result is 2. The transpose of an array is created by using the first row of the array as the first column of the new array. select the range A7:A8 starting with the formula cell. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Press F2. respectively.B2:B5.) in a range that has the same number of rows and columns. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Data 2 1 Formula B Data 2 Description (Result) Value from second column (2) Value from third column (3) C Data 3 =TRANSPOSE($A$2:$C$2) Value from first column (1) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.. An array range shares a common formula. Use TRANSPOSE to shift the vertical and horizontal orientation of an array on a worksheet. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Known y 2 1 3 9 4 5 5 7 Formula B Known x 0 4 2 3 Description (Result) Y-intercept (1) =TRANSPOSE(LINEST(A2:A5.ch.. Syntax TRANSPOSE(array) Array is an array or range of cells on a worksheet that you want to transpose. such as LINEST. return horizontal arrays. select the range A5:A7 starting with the formula cell. Press F2. the second row of the array as the second column of the new array.. an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.FALSE)) Slope (2) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. as an array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns.TRANSPOSE Page 1 of 1 TRANSPOSE See Also Returns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range.

VLOOKUP

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VLOOKUP
See Also Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table, and then returns a value in the same row from a column you specify in the table. Use VLOOKUP instead of HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. The V in VLOOKUP stands for "Vertical." Syntax VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value is the value to be found in the first column of the array (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. An array range shares a common formula; an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.). Lookup_value can be a value, a reference, or a text string. Table_array List. is the table of information in which data is looked up. Use a reference to a range or a range name, such as Database or

If range_lookup is TRUE, the values in the first column of table_array must be placed in ascending order: ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ..., A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise VLOOKUP may not give the correct value. If range_lookup is FALSE, table_array does not need to be sorted. You can put the values in ascending order by choosing the Sort command from the Data menu and selecting Ascending. The values in the first column of table_array can be text, numbers, or logical values. Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. Col_index_num is the column number in table_array from which the matching value must be returned. A col_index_num of 1 returns the value in the first column in table_array; a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array, and so on. If col_index_num is less than 1, VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value; if col_index_num is greater than the number of columns in table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If FALSE, VLOOKUP will find an exact match. If one is not found, the error value #N/A is returned. Remarks If VLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is TRUE, it uses the largest value that is less than or equal to lookup_value. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first column of table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. If VLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is FALSE, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? The example uses values for air at 1 atm pressure.

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Density 0.457 0.525 0.616 0.675 0.746 0.835 0.946 1.09 1.29 Formula =VLOOKUP(1,A2:C10,2)

B Viscosity 3.55 3.25 2.93 2.75 2.57 2.38 2.17 1.95 1.71 Description (Result) Looks up 1 in column A, and returns the value from column B in the same row (2.17)

C Temperature 500 400 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

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VLOOKUP

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=VLOOKUP (1,A2:C10,3,TRUE) =VLOOKUP (.7,A2:C10,3,FALSE) =VLOOKUP (0.1,A2:C10,2,TRUE) =VLOOKUP (2,A2:C10,2,TRUE)

Looks up 1 in column A, and returns the value from column C in the same row (100) Looks up 0.746 in column A. Because there is no exact match in column A, an error is returned (#N/A) Looks up 0.1 in column A. Because 0.1 is less than the smallest value in column A, an error is returned (#N/A) Looks up 2 in column A, and returns the value from column B in the same row (1.71)

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ABS

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ABS
See Also Returns the absolute value of a number. The absolute value of a number is the number without its sign. Syntax ABS(number) Number is the real number of which you want the absolute value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 -4 Formula Description (Result) =ABS(2) Absolute value of 2 (2) =ABS(-2) Absolute value of -2 (2) =ABS(A2) Absolute value of -4 (4)

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ACOSH

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ACOSH
See Also Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. Number must be greater than or equal to 1. The inverse hyperbolic cosine is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is number, so ACOSH(COSH(number)) equals number. Syntax ACOSH(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is any real number equal to or greater than 1.

A 1 Formula

B Description (Result)

2 =ACOSH(1) Inverse hyperbolic cosine of 1 (0) 3 =ACOSH(10) Inverse hyperbolic cosine of 10 (2.993223)

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ACOSH

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ACOSH
See Also Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. Number must be greater than or equal to 1. The inverse hyperbolic cosine is the value whose hyperbolic cosine is number, so ACOSH(COSH(number)) equals number. Syntax ACOSH(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is any real number equal to or greater than 1.

A 1 Formula

B Description (Result)

2 =ACOSH(1) Inverse hyperbolic cosine of 1 (0) 3 =ACOSH(10) Inverse hyperbolic cosine of 10 (2.993223)

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ASIN

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ASIN
See Also Returns the arcsine, or inverse sine, of a number. The arcsine is the angle whose sine is number. The returned angle is given in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2. Syntax ASIN(number) Number Remark To express the arcsine in degrees, multiply the result by 180/PI( ) or use the DEGREES function. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is the sine of the angle you want and must be from -1 to 1.

A 1 Formula 2 =ASIN(-0.5) 3 =ASIN(-0.5)*180/PI()

B Description (Result) Arcsine of -0.5 in radians, -pi/6 (-0.5236) Arcsine of -0.5 in degrees (-30)

4 =DEGREES(ASIN(-0.5)) Arcsine of -0.5 in degrees (-30)

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ASINH

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ASINH
See Also Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. The inverse hyperbolic sine is the value whose hyperbolic sine is number, so ASINH(SINH(number)) equals number. Syntax ASINH(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? 1. 2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Select the example in the Help topic. Do not select the row or column headers. is any real number.

Selecting an example from Help

3. 4. 5.

Press CTRL+C. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Tools menu, point to Formula Auditing, and then click Formula Auditing Mode.

A 1 Formula 3 =ASINH(10)

B Description (Result) Inverse hyperbolic sine of 10 (2.998223)

2 =ASINH(-2.5) Inverse hyperbolic sine of -2.5 (-1.64723)

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multiply the result by 180/PI( ) or use the DEGREES function. excluding -pi. The arctangent is the angle from the x-axis to a line containing the origin (0. except that a can equal 0 in ATAN2. If both x_num and y_num are 0. -1)*180/PI() Arctangent of the point 1. pi/4 (0. -1) Arctangent of the point -1. is the y-coordinate of the point. of the specified x. a negative result represents a clockwise angle.1 in radians.35619) 4 =ATAN2(-1.-1 in radians. 13/12/05 . ATAN2(a.1 in degrees (-135) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11..y_num) X_num Y_num is the x-coordinate of the point.1 in degrees (-135) 5 =DEGREES(ATAN2(-1. 0) and a point with coordinates (x_num.and y-coordinates. or inverse tangent. 1) B Description (Result) Arctangent of the point 1..ch. -3*pi/4 (-2. ATAN2 returns the #DIV/0! error value.785398) 3 =ATAN2(-1. How? A 1 Formula 2 =ATAN2(1.ATAN2 Page 1 of 1 ATAN2 See Also Returns the arctangent. -1)) Arctangent of the point 1. The angle is given in radians between -pi and pi. To express the arctangent in degrees.b) equals ATAN(b/a). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. y_num). Remarks A positive result represents a counterclockwise angle from the x-axis. Syntax ATAN2(x_num.

The arctangent is the angle whose tangent is number.785398) Arctangent of 1 in degrees (45) 4 =DEGREES(ATAN(1)) Arctangent of 1 in degrees (45) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The returned angle is given in radians in the range -pi/2 to pi/2.ATAN Page 1 of 1 ATAN See Also Returns the arctangent. Syntax ATAN (number) Number Remark To express the arctangent in degrees. 13/12/05 . How? is the tangent of the angle you want.. of a number. A 1 Formula 2 =ATAN(1) 3 =ATAN(1)*180/PI() B Description (Result) Arctangent of 1 in radians. or inverse tangent. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. pi/4 (0.. multiply the result by 180/PI( ) or use the DEGREES function.

ATANH Page 1 of 1 ATANH See Also Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.ch. 13/12/05 .1) B Description (Result) Inverse hyperbolic tangent of -0. approximately) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. Syntax ATANH(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.76159416) Inverse hyperbolic tangent of 0. The inverse hyperbolic tangent is the value whose hyperbolic tangent is number.10034) 2 =ATANH(0.1 (-0. Number must be between -1 and 1 (excluding -1 and 1).76159416 (1. so ATANH(TANH(number)) equals number. A 1 Formula 3 =ATANH(-0. How? is any real number between 1 and -1..

because -2.1 (1.1) B Description (Result) Rounds 2.CEILING Page 1 of 1 CEILING See Also Returns number rounded up. Significance is the multiple to which you want to round.5 up to the nearest multiple of 0.234.ch. away from zero. Syntax CEILING(number.. if you want to avoid using pennies in your prices and your product is priced at $4. If number is an exact multiple of significance. use the formula =CEILING(4.42.significance) Number is the value you want to round.5. -2) 4 =CEILING(-2.0.234 up to the nearest multiple of 0.5. to the nearest multiple of significance. no rounding occurs. Regardless of the sign of number.5. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 0. CEILING returns the #VALUE! error value. How? A 1 Formula 2 =CEILING(2.5) 6 =CEILING(0.05) to round prices up to the nearest nickel.24) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero. Remarks If either argument is nonnumeric.5 and 2 have different signs (#NUM!) Rounds 1.5 up to nearest multiple of 1 (3) Rounds -2.. CEILING returns the #NUM! error value. 13/12/05 . 1) 3 =CEILING(-2. 2) 5 =CEILING(1.01) Rounds 0.5 up to nearest multiple of -2 (-4) Returns an error. 0.01 (0.5.42. For example. If number and significance have different signs.

If number < 0. or number < number_chosen.. If either argument is nonnumeric. number_chosen < 0. regardless of their internal order.COMBIN Page 1 of 1 COMBIN See Also Returns the number of combinations for a given number of items. Number chosen is the number of items in each combination. The number of combinations is as follows. A combination is any set or subset of items. Remarks Numeric arguments are truncated to integers. COMBIN returns the #VALUE! error value. 13/12/05 .2) Possible two-person teams that can be formed from 8 candidates (28) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.number_chosen) Number is the number of items. Use COMBIN to determine the total possible number of groups for a given number of items. COMBIN returns the #NUM! error value.. for which the internal order is significant. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =COMBIN(8. Syntax COMBIN(number.ch. where number = n and number_chosen = k: where: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Combinations are distinct from permutations.

.5) 4 =COS(RADIANS(60)) Cosine of 60 degrees (0. How? is the angle in radians for which you want the cosine. Syntax COS(number) Number Remark If the angle is in degrees. 13/12/05 .5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A 1 Formula 2 =COS(1. multiply it by PI()/180 or use the COS function to convert it to radians.047) 3 =COS(60*PI()/180) B Description (Result) Cosine of 1.047 radians (0.ch.500171) Cosine of 60 degrees (0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.COS Page 1 of 1 COS See Also Returns the cosine of the given angle..

ch.COSH Page 1 of 1 COSH See Also Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.610125) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.30823) 3 =COSH(EXP(1)) Hyperbolic cosine of the base of the natural logarithm (7.. Syntax COSH(number) Number Remark The formula for the hyperbolic cosine is: is any real number for which you want to find the hyperbolic cosine.. 13/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula 2 =COSH(4) B Description (Result) Hyperbolic cosine of 4 (27.

14/12/05 . Syntax DEGREES(angle) Angle is the angle in radians that you want to convert.ch... How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =DEGREES(PI()) Degrees of pi radians (180) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.DEGREES Page 1 of 1 DEGREES See Also Converts radians into degrees. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

For example. 14/12/05 . Syntax EVEN(number) Number Remarks If number is nonnumeric. The crate is full when the number of items. a packing crate accepts rows of one or two items. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. If number is an even integer. a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero.. A 1 Formula 3 =EVEN(3) B Description (Result) Rounds 3 up to the nearest even integer (4) 2 =EVEN(1.EVEN Page 1 of 1 EVEN See Also Returns number rounded up to the nearest even integer. rounded up to the nearest two. You can use this function for processing items that come in twos. How? is the value to round. Regardless of the sign of number. matches the crate's capacity.5) Rounds 1. no rounding occurs.5 up to the nearest even integer (2) 4 =EVEN(2) Rounds 2 up to the nearest even integer (2) 5 =EVEN(-1) Rounds -1 up to the nearest even integer (-2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. EVEN returns the #VALUE! error value.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.718282) 3 =EXP(2) Base of the natural logarithm e raised to the power of 2 (7. A B 1 Formula Description (Result) 2 =EXP(1) Approximate value of e (2. Syntax EXP(number) Number Remarks To calculate powers of other bases.ch.71828182845904.. the natural logarithm of number.. use the exponentiation operator (^). How? is the exponent applied to the base e.EXP Page 1 of 1 EXP See Also Returns e raised to the power of number. EXP is the inverse of LN. the base of the natural logarithm. 14/12/05 .389056) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The constant e equals 2.

it is truncated.... or 1*2*3*4*5 (120) 3 =FACT(1.FACT Page 1 of 1 FACT See Also Returns the factorial of a number. How? is the nonnegative number you want the factorial of. 14/12/05 . The factorial of a number is equal to 1*2*3*.. Syntax FACT(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch.9 (1) 4 =FACT(0) Factorial of 0 (1) 5 =FACT(-1) Negative numbers cause an error value (#NUM!) 6 =FACT(1) Factorial of 1 (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. A 1 Formula 2 =FACT(5) B Description (Result) Factorial of 5.9) Factorial of the integer of 1.* number. If number is not an integer.

01 (0. FLOOR returns the #NUM! error value. 14/12/05 . Regardless of the sign of number.5) 6 =FLOOR(0. toward zero. 0.01) Rounds 0.ch.5 down to the nearest multiple of 0.significance) Number is the numeric value you want to round.. -2) 4 =FLOOR(-2. to the nearest multiple of significance. If number is an exact multiple of significance.5.FLOOR Page 1 of 1 FLOOR See Also Rounds number down. Significance Remarks If either argument is nonnumeric.234.234 down to the nearest multiple of 0.5. How? A 1 Formula 2 =FLOOR(2. FLOOR returns the #VALUE! error value.5 down to nearest multiple of -2 (-2) Returns an error. Syntax FLOOR(number. If number and significance have different signs.5 down to nearest multiple of 1 (2) Rounds -2. no rounding occurs.5. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.5 and 2 have different signs (#NUM!) Rounds 1.5.. 2) 5 =FLOOR(1. 1) 3 =FLOOR(-2. 0. a value is rounded down when adjusted away from zero.1 (1. because -2.1) B Description (Result) Rounds 2. is the multiple to which you want to round.23) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

number2. 36) Greatest common divisor of 24 and 36 (12) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 0) B Description (Result) Greatest common divisor of 5 and 2 (1) Greatest common divisor of 7 and 1 (1) Greatest common divisor of 5 and 0 (5) 3 =GCD(24.. it is truncated. number2. A prime number has only itself and one as even divisors.) Number1. The greatest common divisor is the largest integer that divides both number1 and number2 without a remainder. How? are 1 to 29 values. GCD returns the #VALUE! error value. 1) 5 =GCD(5.. How? Syntax GCD(number1. A 1 Formula 2 =GCD(5.. If this function is not available. and returns the #NAME? error.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. GCD returns the #NUM! error value. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. . 2) 4 =GCD(7.GCD Page 1 of 1 GCD See Also Returns the greatest common divisor of two or more integers.. If any value is not an integer.. 14/12/05 . . If any argument is less than zero.. One divides any value evenly.

ch.5 Formula =INT(8.9) =INT(-8..5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.9 down (-9) =A2-INT(A2) Returns the decimal part of a positive real number in cell A2 (0.9) Description (Result) Rounds 8.. Syntax INT(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.9 down (8) Rounds -8.INT Page 1 of 1 INT See Also Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. A 1 Data 2 19. How? is the real number you want to round down to an integer. 14/12/05 .

36) Least common multiple of 24 and 36 (72) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. How? are 1 to 29 values for which you want the least common multiple. A 1 Formula 2 =LCM(5.. If this function is not available. The least common multiple is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple of all integer arguments number1.LCM Page 1 of 1 LCM See Also Returns the least common multiple of integers. it is truncated. and returns the #NAME? error.. If any argument is less than zero. LCM returns the #VALUE! error value.. . LCM returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. and so on... install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.number2. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric.) Number1. If value is not an integer.. 2) B Description (Result) Least common multiple of 5 and 2 (10) 3 =LCM(24. number2. Use LCM to add fractions with different denominators.. How? Syntax LCM(number1. 14/12/05 . number2.

.71828182845904). 14/12/05 .7182818) Natural logarithm of the value of the constant e (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.454347) Natural logarithm of e raised to the power of 3 (3) 3 =LN(2.. A 1 Formula 2 =LN(86) 4 =LN(EXP(3)) B Description (Result) Natural logarithm of 86 (4. Natural logarithms are based on the constant e (2.ch. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? is the positive real number for which you want the natural logarithm.LN Page 1 of 1 LN See Also Returns the natural logarithm of a number. Syntax LN(number) Number Remark LN is the inverse of the EXP function.

. A 1 Formula 2 =LOG10(86) 3 =LOG10(10) B Description (Result) Base-10 logarithm of 86 (1.934498451) Base-10 logarithm of 10 (1) 4 =LOG10(1E5) Base-10 logarithm of 1E5 (5) 5 =LOG10(10^5) Base-10 logarithm of 10^5 (5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. 14/12/05 .. Syntax LOG10(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.LOG10 Page 1 of 1 LOG10 See Also Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number. How? is the positive real number for which you want the base-10 logarithm.

base) Number Base is the positive real number for which you want the logarithm. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.454347) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 2) B Description (Result) Logarithm of 10 (1) Logarithm of 8 with base 2 (3) 4 =LOG(86. 14/12/05 . is the base of the logarithm.ch. Syntax LOG(number. How? A 1 Formula 2 =LOG(10) 3 =LOG(8. If base is omitted.7182818) Logarithm of 86 with base e (4..LOG Page 1 of 1 LOG See Also Returns the logarithm of a number to the base you specify. it is assumed to be 10.. 2.

3. Syntax MDETERM(array) Array is a numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns. Remarks Array can be given as a cell range. such as {1. A1:C3. as an array constant. The matrix determinant is a number derived from the values in array.6.3. For example.1.1.8.6. which may lead to a small numeric error when the calculation is not complete. A1:C3.6.. MDETERM also returns #VALUE! if array does not have an equal number of rows and columns. or as a name to either of these.6. If any cells in array are empty or contain text.. the determinant of a singular matrix may differ from zero by 1E-16. 14/12/05 . MDETERM is calculated with an accuracy of approximately 16 digits.7.5.10.8. three-column array.1.1}) Returns an error because the array does not have an equal number of rows and columns (#VALUE!) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.0. the determinant is defined as: MDETERM(A1:C3) equals A1*(B2*C3-B3*C2) + A2*(B3*C1-B1*C3) + A3*(B1*C2-B2*C1) Matrix determinants are generally used for solving systems of mathematical equations that involve several variables.4. for example. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.9}.1}) B Data 3 3 1 3 Description (Result) Determinant of the matrix above (88) Determinant of the matrix as an array constant (1) Determinant of the matrix in the array constant (-3) C 8 6 1 10 D 5 1 0 2 Data Data =MDETERM({1.1.2.3. For a three-row.3.2}) =MDETERM({3.ch. How? A 1 Data 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 7 Formula =MDETERM(A2:D5) =MDETERM ({3.5. MDETERM returns the #VALUE! error value.MDETERM Page 1 of 1 MDETERM See Also Returns the matrix determinant of an array.1.

such as A1:C3. suppose that the range A1:B2 contains the letters a. two-column matrix is calculated. The product of a matrix and its inverse is the identity matrix— the square array in which the diagonal values equal 1. MINVERSE also returns the #VALUE! error value if array does not have an equal number of rows and columns. Syntax MINVERSE(array) Array is a numeric array with an equal number of rows and columns. Some square matrices cannot be inverted and will return the #NUM! error value with MINVERSE. Press F2. c. Remarks Array can be given as a cell range. MINVERSE returns the #VALUE! error value. 14/12/05 . and all other values equal 0. or as a name for either of these.2. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.9}. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 2 Formula =MINVERSE(A2:B3) B Data -1 0 Formula Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. Inverse matrices. Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and d that represent any four numbers.8.5.MINVERSE Page 1 of 2 MINVERSE See Also Returns the inverse matrix for the matrix stored in an array. b. After copying the example to a blank worksheet.3. as an array constant. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. As an example of how a two-row. which may lead to a small numeric error when the cancellation is not complete. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.6.4. Column A Column B Row 1 d/(a*d-b*c) b/(b*c-a*d) Row 2 c/(b*c-a*d) a/(a*d-b*c) MINVERSE is calculated with an accuracy of approximately 16 digits. such as {1. If any cells in array are empty or contain text. like determinants.ch. are generally used for solving systems of mathematical equations involving several variables. the single result is 0. The determinant for a noninvertable matrix is 0. The following table shows the inverse of the matrix A1:B2.. select the range A5:B6 starting with the formula cell.7. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas.. How? A 1 Data 2 1 3 3 4 0 B Data 2 4 2 C Data 1 -1 0 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

select the range A6:C8 starting with the formula cell.25. Press F2.ch. the single result is 0. 14/12/05 . After copying the example to a blank worksheet. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.MINVERSE Page 2 of 2 Formula =MINVERSE(A2:C4) Formula Formula Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. Tip Use the INDEX function to access individual elements from the inverse matrix... and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

The result is an array with the same number of rows as array1 and the same number of columns as array2. and both arrays must contain only numbers.ch. Example 2 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. the single result is 2. The matrix product array a of two arrays b and c is: are the arrays you want to multiply. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. array2 Remarks The number of columns in array1 must be the same as the number of rows in array2. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Syntax MMULT(array1.A5:B6) B Array 1 0 0 Array 2 0 2 Formula mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. array constants. Array1 and array2 can be given as cell ranges. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Array 1 2 3 3 2 4 Array 2 5 2 6 0 Formula =MMULT(A2:B3.MMULT Page 1 of 2 MMULT See Also Returns the matrix product of two arrays.. If any cells are empty or contain text. 14/12/05 .array2) Array1. MMULT returns the #VALUE! error value.A5:B6) B Array 1 3 2 Array 2 0 2 Formula Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. and j is the column number. or if the number of columns in array1 is different from the number of rows in array2. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. where i is the row number. select the range A8:B9 starting with the formula cell. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas.. or references. Press F2. How? A 1 Array 1 2 1 3 7 4 Array 2 5 2 6 0 Formula =MMULT(A2:B3.

Press F2. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. 14/12/05 . select the range A8:B9 starting with the formula cell. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.ch.MMULT Page 2 of 2 Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. the single result is 6.. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

14/12/05 .d*INT(n/d) Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. is the number by which you want to divide number. How? A 1 Formula 2 =MOD(3. -2) Remainder of -3/-2. The sign is the same as divisor (-1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The sign is the same as divisor (1) 4 =MOD(3.ch. The result has the same sign as divisor.. -2) Remainder of 3/-2.divisor) Number Divisor is the number for which you want to find the remainder. MOD returns the #DIV/0! error value. d) = n . 2) B Description (Result) Remainder of 3/2 (1) 3 =MOD(-3. The MOD function can be expressed in terms of the INT function: MOD(n. Remarks If divisor is 0.MOD Page 1 of 1 MOD See Also Returns the remainder after number is divided by divisor. 2) Remainder of -3/2.. Syntax MOD(number. The sign is the same as divisor (-1) 5 =MOD(-3.

because -2 and 5 have different signs (#NUM!) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. 0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.2 (1. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in.. and returns the #NAME? error. A 1 Formula 2 =MROUND(10. -3) Rounds 10 to a nearest multiple of 3 (-9) 4 =MROUND(1. if the remainder of dividing number by multiple is greater than or equal to half the value of multiple. 14/12/05 .3.4) 5 =MROUND(5.2) Rounds 1.. is the multiple to which you want to round number.multiple) Number Multiple Remark MROUND rounds up. If this function is not available. How? Syntax MROUND(number..MROUND Page 1 of 1 MROUND See Also Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. How? is the value to round. 3) B Description (Result) Rounds 10 to a nearest multiple of 3 (9) 3 =MROUND(-10. away from zero.3 to a nearest multiple of 0. -2) Returns an error.

Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. If this function is not available. 14/12/05 .) Number1.. The multinomial is: are 1 to 29 values for which you want the multinomial.number2. . How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =MULTINOMIAL(2.. 3 and 4 to the product of factorials (1260) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11. MULTINOMIAL returns the #NUM! error value.MULTINOMIAL Page 1 of 1 MULTINOMIAL See Also Returns the ratio of the factorial of a sum of values to the product of factorials. 4) Ratio of the factorial of a sum of 2.. 3. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.number2. How? Syntax MULTINOMIAL(number1.. and returns the #NAME? error. MULTINOMIAL returns the #VALUE! error value... install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. .. If any argument is less than one.

ch. 15/12/05 .5 up to the nearest odd integer (3) Rounds 2 up to the nearest odd integer (3) 5 =ODD(-1) Rounds -1 up to the nearest odd integer (-1) 6 =ODD(-2) Rounds -2 up to the nearest odd integer (-3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. no rounding occurs. A 1 Formula 3 =ODD(3) 4 =ODD(2) B Description (Result) Rounds 3 up to the nearest odd integer (3) 2 =ODD(1. ODD returns the #VALUE! error value.. Regardless of the sign of number.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If number is an odd integer.ODD Page 1 of 1 ODD See Also Returns number rounded up to the nearest odd integer. Syntax ODD(number) Number Remarks If number is nonnumeric. a value is rounded up when adjusted away from zero. How? is the value to round.5) Rounds 1.

14159265358979. 15/12/05 ... How? A 1 Radius 2 3 Formula =PI() =PI()/2 Description (Result) Pi (3.ch. Syntax PI( ) Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.27433388) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. accurate to 15 digits.14159265358979) Pi/2 (1. the mathematical constant pi. with the radius above (28.PI Page 1 of 1 PI See Also Returns the number 3.570796327) =PI()*(A2^2) Area of a circle.

3. It can be any real number.2) 98.. 15/12/05 .5/4) B Description (Result) 5 squared (25) 4 raised to the power of 5/4 (5. Syntax POWER(number..656854) 3 =POWER(98. A 1 Formula 2 =POWER(5.6 raised to the power of 3.POWER Page 1 of 1 POWER See Also Returns the result of a number raised to a power.ch.2) 4 =POWER(4. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.power) Number Power Remark The "^" operator can be used instead of POWER to indicate to what power the base number is to be raised. such as in 5^2.6.2 (2401077) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. is the exponent to which the base number is raised. How? is the base number.

logical values. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. only numbers in the array or reference are counted. A 1 Data 2 5 3 15 4 30 Formula =PRODUCT(A2:A4) Description (Result) Multiplies the numbers above (2250) =PRODUCT(A2:A4.. 15/12/05 . Syntax PRODUCT(number1.. or text representations of numbers are counted. How? are 1 to 30 numbers that you want to multiply. Remarks Arguments that are numbers. .PRODUCT Page 1 of 1 PRODUCT See Also Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments and returns the product.number2. Empty cells..ch.... text. If an argument is an array or reference.) Number1. 2) Multiplies the numbers above and 2 (4500) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or error values in the array or reference are ignored. logical values. number2.. arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.

denominator) Numerator Denominator Remark If either argument is nonnumeric. A 1 Formula 2 =QUOTIENT(5.1 (1) 4 =QUOTIENT(-10.QUOTIENT Page 1 of 1 QUOTIENT See Also Returns the integer portion of a division.. QUOTIENT returns the #VALUE! error value. Use this function when you want to discard the remainder of a division. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. If this function is not available.5/3. 2) B Description (Result) Integer portion of 5/2 (2) 3 =QUOTIENT(4. is the divisor. 15/12/05 . and returns the #NAME? error.1) Integer portion of 4. How? is the dividend. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. How? Syntax QUOTIENT(numerator. 3) Integer portion of -10/3 (-3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.5. 3..

ch. Syntax RADIANS(angle) Angle is an angle in degrees that you want to convert. 15/12/05 .712389 or 3π/2 radians) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.RADIANS Page 1 of 1 RADIANS See Also Converts degrees to radians.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =RADIANS(270) 270 degrees as radians (4.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. A new random number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated. Syntax RAND( ) Remarks To generate a random real number between a and b. you can enter =RAND() in the formula bar.. How? A 1 Formula 2 =RAND() B Description (Result) A random number between 0 and 1 (varies) 3 =RAND()*100 A random number equal to 0 but less than 100 (varies) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. use: RAND()*(b-a)+a If you want to use RAND to generate a random number but don't want the numbers to change every time the cell is calculated..RAND Page 1 of 1 RAND See Also Returns an evenly distributed random number greater than or equal to 0 and less than 1.ch. 15/12/05 . and then press F9 to change the formula to a random number.

A new random number is returned every time the worksheet is calculated. 15/12/05 ..RANDBETWEEN Page 1 of 1 RANDBETWEEN See Also Returns a random number between the numbers you specify. is the largest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.100) Random number between 1 and 100 (varies) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11..1) B Description (Result) Random number between -1 and 1 (varies) 2 =RANDBETWEEN(1.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. and returns the #NAME? error. If this function is not available. How? Syntax RANDBETWEEN(bottom. How? A 1 Formula 3 =RANDBETWEEN(-1.top) Bottom Top is the smallest integer RANDBETWEEN will return.

Form is a number specifying the type of roman numeral you want. Classic. See the example following ROMAN(499. See example below.ch. the #VALUE! error value is returned. See example below.0) below.. More concise. 15/12/05 . becoming more concise as the value of form increases. Simplified. Simplified.2) More concise version for 499 5 =ROMAN(499. The roman numeral style ranges from Classic to Simplified.. How? Type More concise. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) (LDVLIV) (XDIX) (VDIV) 2 =ROMAN(499. Syntax ROMAN(number. the #VALUE! error value is returned.1) More concise version for 499 4 =ROMAN(499. If number is greater than 3999.0) Classic roman numeral style for 2013 (MMXIII) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.form) Number is the Arabic numeral you want converted. See example below. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.3) More concise version for 499 6 =ROMAN(499. 0 or omitted Classic.4) More concise version for 499 (ID) 7 =ROMAN(2013.ROMAN Page 1 of 1 ROMAN See Also Converts an arabic numeral to roman. as text. Form 1 2 3 4 TRUE FALSE Remarks If number is negative. More concise.0) Classic roman numeral style for 499 (CDXCIX) 3 =ROMAN(499.

How? A 1 Formula 2 =ROUND(2. then number is rounded to the nearest integer.2) 3 =ROUND(2. 1) Rounds 2. then number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. 1) B Description (Result) Rounds 2. 15/12/05 . If num_digits is less than 0. -1) Rounds 21.475. Num_digits Remarks If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero). If num_digits is 0.ROUND Page 1 of 1 ROUND See Also Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.5. then number is rounded to the specified number of decimal places.48) 5 =ROUND(21.ch..num_digits) Number is the number you want to round.149 to one decimal place (2. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. specifies the number of digits to which you want to round number.15.1) 4 =ROUND(-1..5 to one decimal place to the left of the decimal point (20) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.149.475 to two decimal places (-1. 2) Rounds -1. Syntax ROUND(number.15 to one decimal place (2.

then number is rounded down to the nearest integer. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero).1) 6 =ROUNDDOWN(31415.14159 down to three decimal places (3.9..14159. -2) Rounds 31415.9 down to zero decimal places (76) Rounds 3. If num_digits is 0. is the number of digits to which you want to round number. 3) 5 =ROUNDDOWN(-3. 1) B Description (Result) Rounds 3.141) Rounds -3.14159 down to one decimal place (-3.num_digits) Number is any real number that you want rounded down. How? A 1 Formula 2 =ROUNDDOWN(3. 15/12/05 .2.92654.2 down to zero decimal places (3) Rounds 76. then number is rounded down to the left of the decimal point. except that it always rounds a number down.92654 down to 2 decimal places to the left of the decimal (31400) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Num_digits Remarks ROUNDDOWN behaves like ROUND.ch.. Syntax ROUNDDOWN(number.14159.ROUNDDOWN Page 1 of 1 ROUNDDOWN See Also Rounds a number down. If num_digits is less than 0. toward zero. 0) 3 =ROUNDDOWN(76. then number is rounded down to the specified number of decimal places.0) 4 =ROUNDDOWN(3.

ROUNDUP Page 1 of 1 ROUNDUP See Also Rounds a number up. If num_digits is less than 0.92654 up to 2 decimal places to the left of the decimal (31500) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.142) Rounds -3.14159 up to one decimal place (-3. If num_digits is 0. -2) Rounds 31415.2. 15/12/05 . away from 0 (zero). except that it always rounds a number up.0) 3 =ROUNDUP(76.92654..14159. then number is rounded up to the specified number of decimal places. 1) B Description (Result) Rounds 3. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax ROUNDUP(number. is the number of digits to which you want to round number.0) 4 =ROUNDUP(3.2 up to zero decimal places (4) Rounds 76.num_digits) Number is any real number that you want rounded up. How? A 1 Formula 2 =ROUNDUP(3..9. If num_digits is greater than 0 (zero). 3) 5 =ROUNDUP(-3. Num_digits Remarks ROUNDUP behaves like ROUND.9 up to zero decimal places (77) Rounds 3.14159 up to three decimal places (3. then number is rounded up to the nearest integer. then number is rounded up to the left of the decimal point.2) 6 =ROUNDUP(31415.14159.ch.

Coefficients is a set of coefficients by which each successive power of x is multiplied.m.n.coefficients) X N M is the input value to the power series. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. if there are three values in coefficients.. is the initial power to which you want to raise x.2. If this function is not available. or 45 degrees (0. 15/12/05 .0.SERIESSUM Page 1 of 1 SERIESSUM See Also Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula: Many functions can be approximated by a power series expansion. then there will be three terms in the power series. How? Syntax SERIESSUM(x.. The number of values in coefficients determines the number of terms in the power series. and returns the #NAME? error.707103) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.. For example. is the step by which to increase n for each term in the series. How? A 1 Coefficients 2 =PI()/4 3 1 4 =-1/FACT(2) 5 =1/FACT(4) 6 =-1/FACT(6) Formula Description (Result) =SERIESSUM(A2.A3:A6) Approximation to the cosine of Pi/4 radians. SERIESSUM returns the #VALUE! error value. Remark If any argument is nonnumeric. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

A 1 Formula 2 =SIGN(10) 3 =SIGN(4-4) B Description (Result) Sign of a positive number (1) Sign of zero (0) 4 =SIGN(-0.. How? is any real number. zero (0) if the number is 0.00001) Sign of a negative number (-1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. Syntax SIGN(number) Number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Returns 1 if the number is positive.. 15/12/05 . and -1 if the number is negative.SIGN Page 1 of 1 SIGN See Also Determines the sign of a number.

How? is the angle in radians for which you want the sine. Syntax SIN(number) Number Remark If your argument is in degrees.5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. approximately) Sine of pi/2 radians (1) 4 =SIN(30*PI()/180) Sine of 30 degrees (0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.5) 5 =SIN(RADIANS(30)) Sine of 30 degrees (0.ch.SIN Page 1 of 1 SIN See Also Returns the sine of the given angle... A 1 Formula 2 =SIN(PI()) 3 =SIN(PI()/2) B Description (Result) Sine of pi radians (0. multiply it by PI()/180 or use the RADIANS function to convert it to radians. 15/12/05 .

where 0<t<10 To calculate the probability of obtaining a result of less than 1.SINH Page 1 of 1 SINH See Also Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. Syntax SINH(number) Number Remark The formula for the hyperbolic sine is: is any real number.868*SINH(0.0342 * t).03 seconds (0.. An empirical analysis of the collected history of experiments shows that the probability of obtaining a result.ch.03 for t. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =2.101049063) You can expect this result to occur about 101 times for every 1000 experiments.. Example 1 The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.03 seconds. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Suppose a laboratory test value varies between 0 and 10 seconds. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.03) Probability of obtaining a result of less than 1.175201194) 3 =SINH(-1) Hyperbolic sine of -1 (-1.175201194) Example 2 You can use the hyperbolic sine function to approximate a cumulative probability distribution.0342*1. How? A B 1 Formula Description (Result) 2 =SINH(1) Hyperbolic sine of 1 (1. of less than t seconds is approximated by the following equation: P(x<t) = 2.868 * SINH(0. 15/12/05 . substitute 1. x.

SQRT returns the #NUM! error value. How? is the number for which you want the square root. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax SQRT(number) Number Remark If number is negative.. A 1 Data 2 -16 Formula =SQRT(16) =SQRT(A2) Description (Result) Square root of 16 (4) Square root of the number above. an error is returned (#NUM!) =SQRT(ABS(A2)) Square root of the absolute value of the number above (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.SQRT Page 1 of 1 SQRT See Also Returns a positive square root. 15/12/05 .ch. Because the number is negative..

How? Syntax SQRTPI(number) Number Remark If number < 0.772454) 3 =SQRTPI(2) Square root of 2 * pi (2.. How? is the number by which pi is multiplied.SQRTPI Page 1 of 1 SQRTPI See Also Returns the square root of (number * pi). If this function is not available. 15/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. SQRTPI returns the #NUM! error value. install and load the Analysis ToolPak add-in. and returns the #NAME? error. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =SQRTPI(1) Square root of pi (1...506628) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\XLMAIN11.

no matter which function_num value you use.) Function_num is the number 1 to 11 (includes hidden values) or 101 to 111 (ignores hidden values) that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals within a list. or vertical ranges. 15/12/05 . these nested subtotals are ignored to avoid double counting. hiding a column does not affect the subtotal..SUBTOTAL Page 1 of 2 SUBTOTAL See Also Returns a subtotal in a list or database. ref2. are 1 to 29 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal. the SUBTOTAL function ignores values of rows hidden by the Hide command under the Row submenu of the Format menu). Function_num Function_num (includes hidden values) (ignores hidden values) Function 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 AVERAGE COUNT COUNTA MAX MIN PRODUCT STDEV STDEVP SUM VAR VARP Ref1. you can modify it by editing the SUBTOTAL function. hiding a row in a subtotal of a vertical range does affect the subtotal. or horizontal ranges. ref1. ref2. . How? A 1 Data 2 120 3 10 4 150 5 23 Formula Description (Result) =SUBTOTAL(9. For the function_num constants from 1 to 11.ch. It is not designed for rows of data. ref2.… (or nested subtotals).. It is generally easier to create a list with subtotals using the Subtotals command (Data menu). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. the SUBTOTAL function includes the values of rows hidden by the Hide command under the Row submenu of the Format menu). If any of the references are 3-D references. Remarks If there are other subtotals within ref1.B2:G2). For the function_Num constants from 101 to 111. when you subtotal a horizontal range using a function_num of 101 or greater. The SUBTOTAL function is designed for columns of data. SUBTOTAL returns the #VALUE! error value. such as SUBTOTAL (109.. Use these constants when you want to subtotal hidden and nonhidden numbers in a list. For example.. Once the subtotal list is created. The SUBTOTAL function ignores any rows that are not included in the result of a filter. But. Use these constants when you want to subtotal only nonhidden numbers in a list. Syntax SUBTOTAL(function_num.A2:A5) Subtotal of the column above using the SUM function (303) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

..SUBTOTAL Page 2 of 2 =SUBTOTAL(1.A2:A5) Subtotal of the column above using the AVERAGE function (75.ch. 15/12/05 .75) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.

ch. See the third example following. 15. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet... TRUE) =SUM(A2:A4) =SUM(A2:A4.. only numbers in that array or reference are counted.. 2) Adds the values in the last two rows above. Remarks Numbers. and 2. the values in the column above are ignored (2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. . How? are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the total value or sum. number2. logical values. 15 and 1. logical values. A 1 Data 2 -5 3 15 4 30 5 '5 6 TRUE Formula =SUM(3. 2) =SUM("5". text. If an argument is an array or reference.SUM Page 1 of 1 SUM See Also Adds all the numbers in a range of cells.. Syntax SUM(number1. and the logical value TRUE is translated into the number 1 (21) Adds the first three numbers in the column above (40) Adds the first three numbers in the column above. Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors. . because the text values are translated into numbers.) Number1. 15) Description (Result) Adds 3 and 2 (5) Adds 5.A6. or error values in the array or reference are ignored.. 15/12/05 . See the first and second examples following. Because nonnumeric values in references are not translated. and 15 (55) =SUM(A5. and text representations of numbers that you type directly into the list of arguments are counted. Empty cells.number2.

Syntax SUMIF(range. Microsoft Excel provides additional functions that can be used to analyze your data based on a condition. 15/12/05 .000 14. or text that defines which cells will be added. How? are the actual cells to sum.SUMIF Page 1 of 1 SUMIF See Also Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.000 21. use the IF function.000 Formula B Commission 7.. Criteria is the criteria in the form of a number. ">32".sum_range) Range is the range of cells you want evaluated. criteria can be expressed as 32.000 5 400.000) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.B2:B5) Sum of the commissions for property values over 160000 (63.criteria. to count the number of occurrences of a string of text or a number within a range of cells. Sum_range Remarks The cells in sum_range are summed only if their corresponding cells in range match the criteria. To have a formula return one of two values based on a condition. the cells in range are summed. "32".000 Description (Result) =SUMIF(A2:A5. For example. such as a sales bonus based on a specified sales amount.ch. use the COUNTIF function.">160000". A 1 Property Value 2 100. If sum_range is omitted..000 4 300.000 3 200.000 28. For example. expression. "apples".

SUMPRODUCT treats array entries that are not numeric as if they were zeros.. you can calculate the sum of the squares of the elements in A2:B4 by using the formula =SUM(A2:B4^2) and pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. array3.SUMPRODUCT Page 1 of 1 SUMPRODUCT See Also Multiplies corresponding components in the given arrays. array2.. C2:D4) Remark B Array 1 4 6 9 Description (Result) Multiplies all the components of the two arrays and then adds the products— that is.. Remarks The array arguments must have the same dimensions. . Using arrays provides a more general solution for doing operations similar to SUMPRODUCT. How? are 2 to 30 arrays whose components you want to multiply and then add.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet...ch.array2. Syntax SUMPRODUCT(array1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 .array3. A 1 2 Array 1 3 3 4 8 1 Formula =SUMPRODUCT(A2:B4. SUMPRODUCT returns the #VALUE! error value.) Array1. 3*2 + 4*7 + 8*6 + 6*7 + 1*5 + 9*3. (156) C D Array Array 2 2 2 6 5 7 7 3 The preceding example returns the same result as the formula SUM(A2:B4*C2:D4) entered as an array. and returns the sum of those products. . For example. If they do not.

.SUMSQ Page 1 of 1 SUMSQ See Also Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments.) Number1. .number2... Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. number2. 15/12/05 .... How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =SUMSQ(3. 4) Sum of the squares of 3 and 4 (25) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the sum of the squares.ch.. Syntax SUMSQ(number1. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.

1. 5. If array_x and array_y have a different number of values. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 4}) Sum of the difference of squares of the two arrays constants (-55) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax SUMX2MY2(array_x. however. If an array or reference argument contains text.B2:B8) B Second array 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) Sum of the difference of squares of the two arrays above (-55) =SUMX2MY2({2. is the second array or range of values. or empty cells. 5. 7. {6. 7. 5}. 15/12/05 . logical values. 3. cells with the value zero are included..ch. The equation for the sum of the difference of squares is: is the first array or range of values. or references that contain numbers. 4. 9.array_y) Array_x Array_y Remarks The arguments should be either numbers or names. arrays. those values are ignored. How? A 1 First array 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula =SUMX2MY2(A2:A8. 11.SUMX2MY2 Page 1 of 1 SUMX2MY2 See Also Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. 8. SUMX2MY2 returns the #N/A error value..

If an array or reference argument contains text. or empty cells. Syntax SUMX2PY2(array_x. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. SUMX2PY2 returns the #N/A error value. 7. or references that contain numbers. 1. 15/12/05 . arrays. The equation for the sum of the sum of squares is: is the first array or range of values. How? A 1 First array 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula =SUMX2PY2(A2:A8.array_y) Array_x Array_y Remarks The arguments should be either numbers or names. cells with the value zero are included. If array_x and array_y have a different number of values. 9.ch.. those values are ignored. 4. 7. 4}) Sum of the sum of squares of the two arrays constants (521) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 11. {6. 5.SUMX2PY2 Page 1 of 1 SUMX2PY2 See Also Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.. however. logical values. 3. is the second array or range of values. 5}. The sum of the sum of squares is a common term in many statistical calculations.B2:B8) B Second array 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) Sum of the sum of squares of the two arrays above (521) =SUMX2PY2({2. 8. 5.

8. 5.SUMXMY2 Page 1 of 1 SUMXMY2 See Also Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays.. 3.ch. 11. 1. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 5. cells with the value zero are included. however. or empty cells. The equation for the sum of squared differences is: is the first array or range of values. is the second array or range of values. Syntax SUMXMY2(array_x. 9..array_y) Array_x Array_y Remarks The arguments should be either numbers or names. 7. 4. arrays. logical values. 15/12/05 . If an array or reference argument contains text. 4}) Sum of squares of differences of the two arrays constants (79) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. those values are ignored. or references that contain numbers.B2:B8) B Second array 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) Sum of squares of differences of the two arrays above (79) =SUMXMY2({2. 7. SUMXMY2 returns the #N/A error value. 5}. {6. If array_x and array_y have a different number of values. How? A 1 First array 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula =SUMXMY2(A2:A8.

15/12/05 ..99920) Tangent of 45 degrees (1) 4 =TAN(RADIANS(45)) Tangent of 45 degrees (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11..785) 3 =TAN(45*PI()/180) B Description (Result) Tangent of 0. How? is the angle in radians for which you want the tangent.785 radians (0.TAN Page 1 of 1 TAN See Also Returns the tangent of the given angle. multiply it by PI()/180 or use the RADIANS function to convert it to radians. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. Syntax TAN(number) Number Remark If your argument is in degrees. A 1 Formula 2 =TAN(0.

TANH Page 1 of 1 TANH See Also Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number..ch.5 (0.5) Hyperbolic tangent of 0. 15/12/05 .96403) 3 =TANH(0) Hyperbolic tangent of 0 (0) 4 =TANH(0.462117) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =TANH(-2) Hyperbolic tangent of -2 (-0. Syntax TANH(number) Number Remark The formula for the hyperbolic tangent is: is any real number Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =TRUNC(8.ch.3) returns -5 because -5 is the lower number..9 (-8) 4 =TRUNC(PI()) Integer part of pi (3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.TRUNC Page 1 of 1 TRUNC See Also Truncates a number to an integer by removing the fractional part of the number.3) returns -4. INT rounds numbers down to the nearest integer based on the value of the fractional part of the number.num_digits) Number is the number you want to truncate.9) Integer part of 8.9 (8) 3 =TRUNC(-8. 15/12/05 .9) Integer part of -8.. but INT(-4. TRUNC removes the fractional part of the number. is a number specifying the precision of the truncation. Num_digits Remark TRUNC and INT are similar in that both return integers. INT and TRUNC are different only when using negative numbers: TRUNC(-4. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Syntax TRUNC(number. The default value for num_digits is 0 (zero).

. logical values. AVEDEV is a measure of the variability in a data set.ch.number2. however. arrays.AVEDEV Page 1 of 1 AVEDEV See Also Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean..) Number1. cells with the value zero are included. 13/12/05 . If an array or reference argument contains text.. Syntax AVEDEV(number1. Remarks The arguments must either be numbers or be names. . are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want the average of the absolute deviations. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas. number2. or empty cells... The equation for average deviation is: AVEDEV is influenced by the unit of measurement in the input data. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 5 7 4 8 3 Formula Description (Result) =AVEDEV(A2:A8) Average of the absolute deviations of the numbers above from their mean (1.. those values are ignored.020408) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or references that contain numbers..

. those values are ignored.. 13/12/05 . but zero values are. arrays. keep in mind the difference between empty cells and those containing the value zero. If an array or reference argument contains text..) Number1. Remarks The arguments must either be numbers or be names. cells with the value zero are included. or empty cells. logical values. Tip When averaging cells.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? are 1 to 30 numeric arguments for which you want the average.number2. 5) Average of the numbers above and 5 (10) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Empty cells are not counted.. Syntax AVERAGE(number1. however.. A 1 Data 2 10 3 7 4 9 5 27 6 2 Formula =AVERAGE(A2:A6) Description (Result) Average of the numbers above (11) =AVERAGE(A2:A6.AVERAGE Page 1 of 1 AVERAGE See Also Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of the arguments. number2. or references that contain numbers. . especially if you have cleared the Zero values check box on the View tab (Options command..ch. Tools menu).

(7) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. names. Empty cells are not counted.. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1.. Empty text ("") evaluates as 0 (zero). Tip When averaging cells..6) =AVERAGEA (A2:A5..) Value1. In addition to numbers. keep in mind the difference between empty cells and those containing the value zero. Syntax AVERAGEA(value1. . value2. Remarks The arguments must be numbers. text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. Array or reference arguments that contain text evaluate as 0 (zero).ch.AVERAGEA Page 1 of 1 AVERAGEA See Also Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of the values in the list of arguments.. or values for which you want the average. or references.. arguments that contain FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero). The cell with the text "Not available" is used in the calculation. ranges of cells. and the empty cell. especially if you have cleared the Zero values check box on the View tab (Options command. 13/12/05 . (5. arrays. and the text "Not Available". use the AVERAGE function.value2. Tools menu).. If the calculation must not include text values in the average. but zero values are. A 1 Data 2 10 3 7 4 9 5 2 6 Not available 7 Formula Description (Result) =AVERAGEA(A2:A6) Average of the numbers above.A7) Average of the numbers above. How? are 1 to 30 cells.

How? A 1 Data 2 2 3 8 4 10 5 1 6 3 Formula B Description Value at which to evaluate the function Parameter of the distribution Parameter of the distribution Lower bound Upper bound Description (Result) =BETADIST(A2. BETADIST returns the #VALUE! error value. or A = B. is a parameter of the distribution.BETADIST Page 1 of 1 BETADIST See Also Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. The beta distribution is commonly used to study variation in the percentage of something across samples. Syntax BETADIST(x.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. x > B. is an optional upper bound to the interval of x.alpha. 13/12/05 .685470581) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. so that A = 0 and B = 1. BETADIST returns the #NUM! error value.beta.A3.A6) Cumulative beta probability density function. BETADIST returns the #NUM! error value. BETADIST uses the standard cumulative beta distribution.A5.B) X is the value between A and B at which to evaluate the function. If you omit values for A and B.ch. such as the fraction of the day people spend watching television.. If x < A. for the above parameters (0.A4.A. If alpha ≤ 0 or beta ≤ 0. is a parameter of the distribution. Alpha Beta A B is an optional lower bound to the interval of x.

is a parameter of the distribution. Thus. is a parameter the distribution. if probability = BETADIST (x.alpha. BETAINV uses the standard cumulative beta distribution. alpha. the function returns the #N/A error value.B) Probability Alpha Beta A B is a probability associated with the beta distribution.. is an optional upper bound to the interval of x. BETAINV returns the #NUM! error value. 13/12/05 .A4.) = x. If probability ≤ 0 or probability > 1..A. That is. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..A5. is an optional lower bound to the interval of x. BETAINV returns the #NUM! error value. so that A = 0 and B = 1. BETAINV returns the #VALUE! error value. then BETAINV(probability. How? A 1 Data 2 0. If alpha ≤ 0 or beta ≤ 0..A3.BETAINV Page 1 of 1 BETAINV See Also Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. A. If you omit values for A and B...A6) Inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function for the parameters above (2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The beta distribution can be used in project planning to model probable completion times given an expected completion time and variability. precision of BETAINV depends on precision of BETADIST.beta.685470581 3 8 4 10 5 1 6 3 Formula B Description Probability associated with the beta distribution Parameter of the distribution Parameter of the distribution Lower bound Upper bound Description (Result) =BETAINV(A2. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. Syntax BETAINV(probability. beta. BETAINV seeks that value x such that BETADIST(x.ch. B) = probability.. If the search has not converged after 100 iterations. Given a value for probability. BETAINV uses an iterative search technique.)..

A4.5 Formula B Description Number of successes in trials Number of independent trials Probability of success on each trial Description (Result) =BINOMDIST(A2. which is the probability that there are at most number_s successes. Syntax BINOMDIST(number_s. If probability_s < 0 or probability_s > 1.FALSE) Probability of exactly 6 of 10 trials being successful (0. is the probability of success on each trial.x). if FALSE. How? A 1 Data 2 6 3 10 4 0. The binomial probability mass function is: where: is COMBIN(n. is the number of independent trials.cumulative) Number_s Trials is the number of successes in trials.. 13/12/05 .probability_s. when the outcomes of any trial are only success or failure. BINOMDIST returns the #VALUE! error value. BINOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value..A3.ch. and when the probability of success is constant throughout the experiment. Remarks Number_s and trials are truncated to integers. BINOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. it returns the probability mass function. when trials are independent. If number_s < 0 or number_s > trials. If number_s.205078) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Probability_s Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function. For example. then BINOMDIST returns the cumulative distribution function. trials. Use BINOMDIST in problems with a fixed number of tests or trials. which is the probability that there are number_s successes. The cumulative binomial distribution is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or probability_s is nonnumeric. If cumulative is TRUE. BINOMDIST can calculate the probability that two of the next three babies born are male.trials.BINOMDIST Page 1 of 1 BINOMDIST See Also Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.

13/12/05 . The c2 distribution is associated with a c2 test.307 3 10 Formula B Description Value at which you want to evaluate the distribution Degrees of freedom Description (Result) =CHIDIST(A2.ch.degrees_freedom) X is the value at which you want to evaluate the distribution.CHIDIST Page 1 of 1 CHIDIST See Also Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. is the number of degrees of freedom..A3) One-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. it is truncated. How? A 1 Data 2 18. By comparing the observed results with the expected ones. where X is a c2 random variable. a genetic experiment might hypothesize that the next generation of plants will exhibit a certain set of colors. CHIDIST returns the #NUM! error value. Degrees_freedom Remarks If either argument is nonnumeric. Use the c2 test to compare observed and expected values. CHIDIST returns the #NUM! error value. CHIDIST is calculated as CHIDIST = P(X>x). If x is negative. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If degrees_freedom is not an integer.. For example. If degrees_freedom < 1 or degrees_freedom ≥ 10^10. for the above terms (0. Syntax CHIDIST(x.050001) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. CHIDIST returns the #VALUE! error value. you can decide whether your original hypothesis is valid.

Degrees_freedom Remarks If either argument is nonnumeric. If degrees_freedom < 1 or degrees_freedom ≥ 10^10. CHIINV returns the #NUM! error value.. precision of CHIINV depends on precision of CHIDIST....) = x.degrees_freedom) Probability is a probability associated with the chi-squared distribution. the function returns the #N/A error value. If probability < 0 or probability > 1.. CHIINV seeks that value x such that CHIDIST(x..05 3 10 Formula B Description Probability associated with the chi-squared distribution Degrees of freedom Description (Result) =CHIINV(A2. Syntax CHIINV(probability. CHIINV returns the #NUM! error value. CHIINV returns the #VALUE! error value. then CHIINV (probability. If the search has not converged after 100 iterations.30703) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Given a value for probability. it is truncated. is the number of degrees of freedom. degrees_freedom) = probability. CHIINV uses an iterative search technique.).CHIINV Page 1 of 1 CHIINV See Also Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. If probability = CHIDIST(x. Thus.ch.. 13/12/05 . Use this function to compare observed results with expected ones in order to decide whether your original hypothesis is valid. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If degrees_freedom is not an integer. How? A 1 Data 2 0.A3) Inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution (18..

expected_range) Actual_range is the range of data that contains observations to test against expected values.000308) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.1). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. In computing this probability. Some statisticians suggest that each Eij should be greater than or equal to 5. You can use c2 tests to determine whether hypothesized results are verified by an experiment. CHITEST returns the probability that a value of the c2 statistic at least as high as the value calculated by the above formula could have happened by chance under the assumption of independence. As can be seen from the formula. and is 0 only if Aij = Eij for every i. If r > 1 and c > 1. j-th column Eij = expected frequency in the i-th row. then df = (r . How? A 1 Men (Actual) 2 58 3 11 4 10 5 Men (Expected) 6 45. then df = c 1 or if r > 1 and c = 1. The c 2 test first calculates a c 2 statistic using the formula: where: Aij = actual frequency in the i-th row. c2is always positive or 0. is the range of data that contains the ratio of the product of row totals and column totals to the grand total.j.35 7 17. j-th column r = number or rows c = number of columns A low value of c 2is an indicator of independence.16957 with 2 degrees of freedom (0.ch.44 16.. CHITEST uses thec2 distribution with an appropriate number of degrees of freedom.1.65 18. r = c= 1 is not allowed and #N/A is returned. Use of CHITEST is most appropriate when Eij’s are not too small.. 13/12/05 .09 Formula B Women (Actual) 35 25 23 Women (Expected) 47.A6:B8) The c2 statistic for the data above is 16. CHITEST returns the value from the chi-squared (c 2) distribution for the statistic and the appropriate degrees of freedom.CHITEST Page 1 of 1 CHITEST See Also Returns the test for independence. df.1)(c . If r = 1 and c > 1. Expected_range Remarks If actual_range and expected_range have a different number of data points. CHITEST returns the #N/A error value.56 8 16.91 Description (Result) C Description Agree Neutral Disagree Description Agree Neutral Disagree =CHITEST(A2:B4. then df = r . Syntax CHITEST(actual_range.

30. The confidence interval does not allow us to infer that there is probability 1 – alpha that our next package will take a delivery time that is in the confidence interval. the probability of obtaining a sample mean further from µ0 than x is greater than alpha. not in this range. and size to construct a two-tailed test at significance level alpha of the hypothesis that the population mean is µ0.05.7].69291.692951 minutes. µ0..05 indicates a 95 percent confidence level. is at the center of this range and the range is x ± CONFIDENCE. the probability of obtaining a sample mean further from µ0 than 30 is less than 0. CONFIDENCE returns the #VALUE! error value. 13/12/05 . The confidence interval is a range of values. In other words. If standard_dev ≤ 0. x.size) Alpha is the significance level used to compute the confidence level.692951) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If size is not an integer. CONFIDENCE returns the #NUM! error value. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. is the sample size. we need to calculate the area under the standard normal curve that equals (1 .standard_dev.05. µ0. for any population mean.3 to 30. outside this interval. In other words. 2. an alpha of 0. 50) returns 0. With alpha = . the probability of obtaining a sample mean further from µ0 than 30 is more than 0. the average length of travel to work is 30 minutes with a population standard deviation of 2.05. If we assume alpha equals 0. the confidence interval for the underlying population mean for travel to work equals 30 ± 0. for any population mean. Then we will not reject that hypothesis if µ0 is in the confidence interval and will reject that hypothesis if µ0 is not in the confidence interval. If alpha ≤ 0 or alpha ≥ 1.05.A3. if x is the sample mean of delivery times for products ordered through the mail. The corresponding confidence interval is then 30 ± 0.alpha)%. µ0.5 4 50 Formula =CONFIDENCE (A2. Standard_dev Size is the population standard deviation for the data range and is assumed to be known. assume that we use x.A4) B Description Significance level Standard deviation of the population Sample size Description (Result) Confidence interval for a population mean. The confidence level equals 100*(1 . If size < 1. (0. For any population mean.ch. The confidence interval is therefore: Example Suppose we observe that. or in other words. CONFIDENCE returns the #NUM! error value. in this interval. in this range. For example. CONFIDENCE returns the #NUM! error value.5.05 3 2.05. or 95 percent. it is truncated.5. x ± CONFIDENCE is a range of population means. Your sample mean.CONFIDENCE Page 1 of 1 CONFIDENCE See Also Returns a value that you can use to construct a confidence interval for a population mean. standard_dev.96. How? A 1 Data 2 0.3. CONFIDENCE(. Likewise. in our sample of 50 commuters.69291 = approximately [29.7 minutes. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. or 29. For any population mean. Syntax CONFIDENCE(alpha.. the probability of obtaining a sample mean further from µ0 than x is less than alpha.alpha). This value is ± 1. µ0.

is a second cell range of values. cells with the value zero are included.. or if s (the standard deviation) of their values equals zero. How? A 1 Data1 2 3 3 2 4 4 5 5 6 6 Formula B Data2 9 7 12 15 17 Description (Result) =CORREL(A2:A6. The equation for the correlation coefficient is: where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(array1) and AVERAGE(array2). 13/12/05 .array2) Array1 Array2 is a cell range of values. or empty cells.997054) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.CORREL Page 1 of 1 CORREL See Also Returns the correlation coefficient of the array1 and array2 cell ranges. logical values. you can examine the relationship between a location's average temperature and the use of air conditioners. If array1 and array2 have a different number of data points.B2:B6) Correlation coefficient of the two data sets above (0..ch. Syntax CORREL(array1. those values are ignored. CORREL returns the #DIV/0! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks If an array or reference argument contains text. Use the correlation coefficient to determine the relationship between two properties. CORREL returns the #N/A error value. however. If either array1 or array2 is empty. For example.

2) Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in the list. . text. If you need to count logical values.ch.. If an argument is an array or reference.) Value1. Remarks Arguments that are numbers. dates. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. counted. use the COUNTA function. and the value 2 (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or error values. Use COUNT to get the number of entries in a number field that's in a range or array of numbers.. or error values in the array or reference are ignored.COUNT Page 1 of 1 COUNT See Also Counts the number of cells that contain numbers and also numbers within the list of arguments. Syntax COUNT(value1. only numbers in that array or reference are counted. 13/12/05 .value2. but only numbers are A 1 Data 2 Sales 3 12/8/2008 4 5 19 6 22. or text representations of numbers are counted..24 7 TRUE 8 #DIV/0! Formula =COUNT(A2:A8) =COUNT(A5:A8) Description (Result) Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in the list above (3) Counts the number of cells that contain numbers in the last 4 rows of the list (2) =COUNT(A2:A8.. text... How? are 1 to 30 arguments that can contain or refer to a variety of different types of data.. Empty cells. logical values. value2. arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers are ignored.

. 13/12/05 . Use COUNTA to count the number of cells that contain data in a range or array. value2.24 7 TRUE 8 #DIV/0! Formula =COUNTA(A2:A8) =COUNTA(A5:A8) =COUNTA(A1:A7.ch. are 1 to 30 arguments representing the values you want to count. .. including empty text ("") but not including empty cells. In this case. text.) Value1. If you do not need to count logical values.."Two") Counts the number of nonblank cells in the list above and the value "Two" (7) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If an argument is an array or reference. a value is any type of information.. How? A 1 Data 2 Sales 3 12/8/2008 4 5 19 6 22. empty cells within the array or reference are ignored. or error values.2) Description (Result) Counts the number of nonblank cells in the list above (6) Counts the number of nonblank cells in the last 4 rows of the list (4) Counts the number of nonblank cells in the list above and the value 2 (7) =COUNTA(A1:A7..COUNTA Page 1 of 1 COUNTA See Also Counts the number of cells that are not empty and the values within the list of arguments. use the COUNT function... Syntax COUNTA(value1.value2. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

Syntax COUNTBLANK(range) Range Remark Cells with formulas that return "" (empty text) are also counted. Cells with zero values are not counted."".B4) 27 34 Description (Result) =COUNTBLANK(A2:B5) Counts empty cells in the range above..ch. A 1 Data 2 3 6 4 5 4 Formula B Data =IF(B4<30. 13/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.COUNTBLANK Page 1 of 1 COUNTBLANK See Also Counts empty cells in a specified range of cells. How? is the range from which you want to count the blank cells.. The formula returns empty text.

Remark Microsoft Excel provides additional functions that can be used to analyze your data based on a condition. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. such as a sales bonus based on a specified sales amount. Syntax COUNTIF(range. to calculate a sum based on a string of text or a number within a range. For example. use the SUMIF worksheet function."apples") Number of cells with apples in the first column above (2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 13/12/05 .criteria) Range is the range of cells from which you want to count cells.. "32". Criteria is the criteria in the form of a number. use the IF worksheet function.COUNTIF Page 1 of 1 COUNTIF See Also Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria. expression. criteria can be expressed as 32. ">32". For example.">55") B Data 32 54 75 86 Description (Result) Number of cells with a value greater than 55 in the second column above (2) =COUNTIF(A2:A5.ch. To have a formula return one of two values based on a condition. or text that defines which cells will be counted. How? A 1 Data 2 apples 3 oranges 4 peaches 5 apples Formula =COUNTIF(B2:B5. "apples"..

logical values. cells with the value zero are included. Use covariance to determine the relationship between two data sets. If either array1 or array2 is empty. COVAR returns the #DIV/0! error value.array2) Array1 Array2 is the first cell range of integers.. If an array or reference argument contains text. you can examine whether greater income accompanies greater levels of education. Remarks The arguments must either be numbers or be names. For example. those values are ignored. is the second cell range of integers.2) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax COVAR(array1. and n is the sample size. 14/12/05 .. the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair.ch. the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair above (5. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. B2:B6) Covariance. If array1 and array2 have different numbers of data points. The covariance is: where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(array1) and AVERAGE(array2). or empty cells. How? A 1 Data1 2 3 3 2 4 4 5 5 6 6 Formula B Data2 9 7 12 15 17 Description (Result) =COVAR(A2:A6. COVAR returns the #N/A error value. or references that contain numbers.COVAR Page 1 of 1 COVAR See Also Returns covariance. however. arrays.

use CRITBINOM to determine the greatest number of defective parts that are allowed to come off an assembly line run without rejecting the entire lot.CRITBINOM Page 1 of 1 CRITBINOM See Also Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value.alpha) Trials is the number of Bernoulli trials. 14/12/05 . CRITBINOM returns the #NUM! error value.75 Formula =CRITBINOM (A2. If trials < 0.ch. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. How? A 1 Data 2 6 3 0. If probability_s is < 0 or probability_s > 1. If trials is not an integer.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If alpha < 0 or alpha > 1. CRITBINOM returns the #NUM! error value. For example.A3. Use this function for quality assurance applications.. is the probability of a success on each trial. Syntax CRITBINOM(trials. CRITBINOM returns the #VALUE! error value.5 4 0.A4) B Description Number of Bernoulli trials Probability of a success on each trial Criterion value Description (Result) Smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is greater than or equal to a criterion value (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. CRITBINOM returns the #NUM! error value. Probability_s Alpha is the criterion value. it is truncated.probability_s.

or empty cells. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas. or references that contain numbers.. If an array or reference argument contains text. cells with the value zero are included. number2.number2. or names. 14/12/05 .. Syntax DEVSQ(number1. logical values... The equation for the sum of squared deviations is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. arrays.. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 5 4 8 5 7 6 11 7 4 8 3 Formula Description (Result) =DEVSQ(A2:A8) Sum of squares of deviations of data above from their sample mean (48) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Remarks The arguments must be numbers. however.DEVSQ Page 1 of 1 DEVSQ See Also Returns the sum of squares of deviations of data points from their sample mean. .) Number1. those values are ignored.. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate the sum of squared deviations..

EXPONDIST returns the #NUM! error value. if FALSE.2.10.A3. 14/12/05 .864665) =EXPONDIST(0. EXPONDIST returns the cumulative distribution function.. EXPONDIST returns the #VALUE! error value. EXPONDIST returns the #NUM! error value. If x < 0.2 3 10 Formula B Description Value of the function Parameter value Description (Result) =EXPONDIST(A2. Syntax EXPONDIST(x.353353) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.TRUE) Cumulative exponential distribution function (0. If lambda ≤ 0. The equation for the probability density function is: The equation for the cumulative distribution function is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks If x or lambda is nonnumeric. is the parameter value.FALSE) Probability exponential distribution function (1. it returns the probability density function. you can use EXPONDIST to determine the probability that the process takes at most 1 minute.cumulative) X is the value of the function.. Use EXPONDIST to model the time between events. How? A 1 Data 2 0. Lambda Cumulative is a logical value that indicates which form of the exponential function to provide.lambda. For example.EXPONDIST Page 1 of 1 EXPONDIST See Also Returns the exponential distribution.ch. If cumulative is TRUE. such as how long an automated bank teller takes to deliver cash.

How? A 1 Data 2 15.A4) F probability distribution for the terms above (0.. FDIST returns the #NUM! error value.FDIST Page 1 of 1 FDIST See Also Returns the F probability distribution. FDIST is calculated as FDIST=P( F>x ). where F is a random variable that has an F distribution with degrees_freedom1 and degrees_freedom2 degrees of freedom. you can examine the test scores of men and women entering high school and determine if the variability in the females is different from that found in the males. is the numerator degrees of freedom. Degrees_freedom1 Degrees_freedom2 Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric.01) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If degrees_freedom2 < 1 or degrees_freedom2 ≥ 10^10. If degrees_freedom1 < 1 or degrees_freedom1 ≥ 10^10. If x is negative. For example. it is truncated.. 14/12/05 . FDIST returns the #NUM! error value. You can use this function to determine whether two data sets have different degrees of diversity. FDIST returns the #NUM! error value.ch.degrees_freedom1.A3. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.degrees_freedom2) X is the value at which to evaluate the function. Syntax FDIST(x. is the denominator degrees of freedom. If degrees_freedom1 or degrees_freedom2 is not an integer. FDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.20675 3 6 4 4 Formula B Description Value at which to evaluate the function Numerator degrees of freedom Denominator degrees of freedom Description (Result) =FDIST(A2.

..) = x.A3. If degrees_freedom1 < 1 or degrees_freedom1 ≥ 10^10. To return the critical value of F. precision of FINV depends on precision of FDIST. If probability < 0 or probability > 1.01 3 6 4 4 Formula B Description Probability associated with the F cumulative distribution Numerator degrees of freedom Denominator degrees of freedom Description (Result) =FINV(A2. you can analyze income distributions in the United States and Canada to determine whether the two countries have a similar degree of income diversity. FINV returns the #VALUE! error value.degrees_freedom2) Probability is a probability associated with the F cumulative distribution. is the denominator degrees of freedom..20675) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. the output of an ANOVA calculation often includes data for the F statistic. FINV returns the #NUM! error value. then FINV(p. FINV can be used to return critical values from the F distribution. it is truncated. is the numerator degrees of freedom. If degrees_freedom2 < 1 or degrees_freedom2 ≥ 10^10.A4) Inverse of the F probability distribution for the terms above (15.. FINV seeks that value x such that FDIST(x. 14/12/05 . The F distribution can be used in an F-test that compares the degree of variability in two data sets. FINV returns the #NUM! error value. degrees_freedom1. For example. How? A 1 Data 2 0. Thus. Degrees_freedom1 Degrees_freedom2 Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric..... If degrees_freedom1 or degrees_freedom2 is not an integer.FINV Page 1 of 1 FINV See Also Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. degrees_freedom2) = probability. If p = FDIST(x.). If the search has not converged after 100 iterations. Syntax FINV(probability.05 significance level. FINV uses an iterative search technique.ch. use the significance level as the probability argument to FINV.degrees_freedom1. and F critical value at the 0. Given a value for probability. the function returns the #N/A error value. F probability. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. FINV returns the #NUM! error value. For example.

Use this function to perform hypothesis testing on the correlation coefficient.ch.972955) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. FISHER returns the #VALUE! error value. The equation for the Fisher transformation is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..75 (0. 14/12/05 . Remarks If x is nonnumeric.. If x ≤ -1 or if x ≥ 1. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =FISHER(0.75) Fisher transformation at 0. Syntax FISHER(x) X is a numeric value for which you want the transformation.FISHER Page 1 of 1 FISHER See Also Returns the Fisher transformation at x. FISHER returns the #NUM! error value. This transformation produces a function that is normally distributed rather than skewed.

Remarks If y is nonnumeric. If y = FISHER(x). 14/12/05 . FISHERINV returns the #VALUE! error value.972955) Inverse of the Fisher transformation at 0. The equation for the inverse of the Fisher transformation is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.FISHERINV Page 1 of 1 FISHERINV See Also Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.ch. then FISHERINV(y) = x.. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =FISHERINV(0.972955 (0. Use this transformation when analyzing correlations between ranges or arrays of data..75) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax FISHERINV(y) Y is the value for which you want to perform the inverse of the transformation.

60725) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. a future value by using existing values. and the new value is predicted by using linear regression. The known values are existing x-values and y-values. or consumer trends. The predicted value is a y-value for a given x-value. Known_y's Known_x's Remarks If x is nonnumeric. You can use this function to predict future sales. where: and: and where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(known_x's) and AVERAGE(known y's). If known_y's and known_x's are empty or contain a different number of data points. If the variance of known_x's equals zero.FORECAST Page 1 of 1 FORECAST See Also Calculates.known_x's) X is the data point for which you want to predict a value. FORECAST returns the #VALUE! error value.known_y's..ch.A2:A6. is the independent array or range of data. or predicts. 14/12/05 . is the dependent array or range of data. inventory requirements. FORECAST returns the #N/A error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. Syntax FORECAST(x. The equation for FORECAST is a+bx. How? A 1 Known Y 2 6 3 7 4 9 5 15 6 21 Formula B Known X 20 28 31 38 40 Description (Result) =FORECAST(30.B2:B6) Predicts a value for y given an x value of 30 (10. then FORECAST returns the #DIV/0! error value.

ch. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. use FREQUENCY to count the number of test scores that fall within ranges of scores..B2:B5) Number of scores less than or equal to 70 (1) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. The extra cell returns the number of values in data_array that are greater than the third interval value.bins_array) Data_array is an array of or reference to a set of values for which you want to count frequencies. Syntax FREQUENCY(data_array. FREQUENCY ignores blank cells and text. For example. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Scores 79 85 78 85 50 81 95 88 97 Formula B Bins 70 79 89 Description (Result) Number of scores in the bin 71-79 (2) Number of scores in the bin 80-89 (4) Number of scores greater than or equal to 90 (2) =FREQUENCY(A2:A10. select the range A13:A16 starting with the formula cell. and then returns a vertical array of numbers. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.FREQUENCY Page 1 of 1 FREQUENCY See Also Calculates how often values occur within a range of values. the single result is 1. The extra element in the returned array returns the count of any values above the highest interval. Because FREQUENCY returns an array. Example This example assumes all test scores are integers. when counting three ranges of values (intervals) that are entered into three cells. If data_array contains no values. Bins_array is an array of or reference to intervals into which you want to group the values in data_array. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. FREQUENCY returns an array of zeros. FREQUENCY returns the number of elements in data_array. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. If bins_array contains no values. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. be sure to enter FREQUENCY into four cells for the results. Remarks FREQUENCY is entered as an array formula after you select a range of adjacent cells into which you want the returned distribution to appear. 14/12/05 . The number of elements in the returned array is one more than the number of elements in bins_array. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas. For example. it must be entered as an array formula. Press F2.

B2:B6) F-test for the data sets above (0. arrays.FTEST Page 1 of 1 FTEST See Also Returns the result of an F-test. you can test whether these schools have different levels of test score diversity.. or if the variance of array1 or array2 is zero. Syntax FTEST(array1. is the second array or range of data.array2) Array1 Array2 is the first array or range of data. 14/12/05 . however. cells with the value zero are included. If an array or reference argument contains text. Use this function to determine whether two samples have different variances. or empty cells.. If the number of data points in array1 or array2 is less than 2. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. For example. those values are ignored.ch. logical values. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names. or references that contain numbers. FTEST returns the #DIV/0! error value. How? A 1 Data1 2 6 3 7 4 9 5 15 6 21 Formula B Data2 20 28 31 38 40 Description (Result) =FTEST(A2:A6.648318) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. An F-test returns the one-tailed probability that the variances in array1 and array2 are not significantly different. given test scores from public and private schools.

If alpha ≤ 0 or if beta ≤ 0.A3. GAMMADIST returns the #NUM! error value.A3. alpha. beta = 2. If x < 0. GAMMADIST returns the exponential distribution with: For a positive integer n. GAMMADIST returns (1 . When alpha is a positive integer. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. GAMMADIST returns the #VALUE! error value.068094) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.TRUE) Cumulative gamma distribution with the terms above (0. GAMMADIST returns the cumulative distribution function.CHIDIST(x)) with n degrees of freedom.A4. Alpha Beta Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function. is a parameter to the distribution. GAMMADIST returns the #NUM! error value.alpha. and cumulative = TRUE. it returns the probability density function. GAMMADIST returns the standard gamma distribution. 14/12/05 . when alpha = n/2.cumulative) X is the value at which you want to evaluate the distribution. if FALSE. The gamma distribution is commonly used in queuing analysis.GAMMADIST Page 1 of 1 GAMMADIST See Also Returns the gamma distribution.ch. If beta = 1.032639) =GAMMADIST(A2. Syntax GAMMADIST(x. The equation for the gamma probability density function is: The standard gamma probability density function is: When alpha = 1. You can use this function to study variables that may have a skewed distribution. or beta is nonnumeric.beta. If cumulative is TRUE. Remarks If x. is a parameter to the distribution.A4.FALSE) Probability gamma distribution with the terms above (0.. How? A 1 Data 2 10 3 9 4 2 Formula B Description Value at which you want to evaluate the distribution Alpha parameter to the distribution Beta parameter to the distribution Description (Result) =GAMMADIST(A2.. GAMMADIST is also known as the Erlang distribution.

GAMMAINV returns the standard gamma distribution. Given a value for probability. precision of GAMMAINV depends on precision of GAMMADIST. the function returns the #N/A error value. is a parameter to the distribution. GAMMAINV uses an iterative search technique.) = x.alpha. GAMMAINV returns the #VALUE! error value..beta) Probability Alpha Beta is the probability associated with the gamma distribution.. GAMMAINV returns the #NUM! error value... Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. You can use this function to study a variable whose distribution may be skewed. alpha.). If the search has not converged after 100 iterations.. GAMMAINV seeks that value x such that GAMMADIST(x.ch. How? A 1 Data 2 0.. Thus. If probability < 0 or probability > 1. TRUE) = probability. is a parameter to the distribution.A3. Syntax GAMMAINV(probability.068094 3 9 4 2 Formula B Description Probability associated with the gamma distribution Alpha parameter to the distribution Beta parameter to the distribution Description (Result) =GAMMAINV(A2.A4) Inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution for the above terms (10) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If alpha ≤ 0 or if beta ≤ 0.. then GAMMAINV(p. beta. 14/12/05 ..GAMMAINV Page 1 of 1 GAMMAINV See Also Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. If beta = 1. GAMMAINV returns the #NUM! error value. If p = GAMMADIST(x. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

. GAMMALN is calculated as follows: where: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch.GAMMALN Page 1 of 1 GAMMALN See Also Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function. Remarks If x is nonnumeric. returns the same result as (i . GAMMALN returns the #NUM! error value. where i is an integer. How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =GAMMALN(4) Natural logarithm of the gamma function at 4 (1. Syntax GAMMALN(x) X is the value for which you want to calculate GAMMALN. If x ≤ 0. 14/12/05 . Γ(x)..1)!.791759) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. The number e raised to the GAMMALN(i) power. GAMMALN returns the #VALUE! error value.

. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 5 4 8 5 7 6 11 7 4 8 3 Formula Description (Result) =GEOMEAN(A2:A8) Geometric mean of the data set above (5. cells with the value zero are included. arrays.number2. If an array or reference argument contains text. Syntax GEOMEAN(number1. If any data point ≤ 0. however. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas. GEOMEAN returns the #NUM! error value.ch. those values are ignored. The equation for the geometric mean is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. you can use GEOMEAN to calculate average growth rate given compound interest with variable rates. number2. 14/12/05 .476987) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or empty cells. or references that contain numbers.. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names.... are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate the mean. logical values. For example. .) Number1...GEOMEAN Page 1 of 1 GEOMEAN See Also Returns the geometric mean of an array or range of positive data.

A2:A7. then each row of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. How? This example uses the same data as the LOGEST example. So. known_x's and new_x's must have the same number of rows.} that is the same size as known_y's.known_x's.000 220. a range with a height of one row or a width of one column). If known_x's is omitted.. New_x's are new x-values for which you want GROWTH to return corresponding y-values. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. If known_y's is in a single row.GROWTH Page 1 of 2 GROWTH See Also Calculates predicted exponential growth by using existing data. just as known_x's does. as long as they have equal dimensions. Syntax GROWTH(known_y's. b is set equal to 1 and the m-values are adjusted so that y = m^x.100 47. New_x's must include a column (or row) for each independent variable.300 69.ch... Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.A2:A7) 1 Month Units Month Formula (Predicted Units) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula.. A9:A10) C Formula (Corresponding Units) =GROWTH(B2:B7. The first formula shows corresponding values to the known values. You can also use the GROWTH worksheet function to fit an exponential curve to existing x-values and y-values.. use commas to separate values in the same row and semicolons to separate rows.. If const is FALSE.000 150. The array known_x's can include one or more sets of variables. If the array known_y's is in a single row. it is assumed to be the same as known_x's. then each column of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. If more than one variable is used. GROWTH returns the y-values for a series of new x-values that you specify by using existing x-values and y-values.2. If only one variable is used. A 2 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 17 18 B 33. Known_x's is an optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x.000 =GROWTH(B2:B7. it is assumed to be the array {1. if the exponential trend continues. GROWTH returns the #NUM! error value. If any of the numbers in known_y's is 0 or negative.new_x's.000 102. If both known_x's and new_x's are omitted. select the mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. if known_y's is in a single column. Const is a logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1. known_x's and new_x's must have the same number of columns.. Remarks Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas after selecting the correct number of cells.3. known_y's must be a vector (that is. 14/12/05 .3.2. If const is TRUE or omitted. known_y's and known_x's can be ranges of any shape. they are assumed to be the array {1.} that is the same size as known_y's.const) Known_y's is the set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x. If new_x's is omitted. If the array known_y's is in a single column. b is calculated normally. The second formula predicts the next months values. When entering an array constant for an argument such as known_x's.

14/12/05 .. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.GROWTH Page 2 of 2 range C2:C7 or B9:B10 starting with the formula cell.ch.. Press F2. the single results are 32618.7184. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.20377 and 320196.

arrays.number2.HARMEAN Page 1 of 1 HARMEAN See Also Returns the harmonic mean of a data set. The equation for the harmonic mean is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. or empty cells. number2.. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate the mean.) Number1... 14/12/05 .. The harmonic mean is always less than the geometric mean. which is always less than the arithmetic mean. cells with the value zero are included. If any data point ≤ 0. The harmonic mean is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of reciprocals.. HARMEAN returns the #NUM! error value. or references that contain numbers.. logical values. however. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names. If an array or reference argument contains text. .028376) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. those values are ignored. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 5 4 8 5 7 6 11 7 4 8 3 Formula Description (Result) =HARMEAN(A2:A8) Harmonic mean of the data set above (5. Syntax HARMEAN(number1. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.

number_sample. Use HYPGEOMDIST for problems with a finite population. population successes. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value.number_population + population_s). and population size. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 14/12/05 .. How? A 1 Data 2 1 3 4 4 8 5 20 Formula B Description Number of successes in the sample Sample size Number of successes in the population Population size Description (Result) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Number_population Remarks All arguments are truncated to integers. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value.ch. HYPGEOMDIST returns the probability of a given number of sample successes. If sample_s < 0 or sample_s is greater than the lesser of number_sample or population_s. and where each subset of a given size is chosen with equal likelihood. given the sample size. where each observation is either a success or a failure. If sample_s is less than the larger of 0 or (number_sample . The equation for the hypergeometric distribution is: where: x = sample_s n = number_sample M = population_s N = number_population HYPGEOMDIST is used in sampling without replacement from a finite population. Example A sampler of chocolates contains 20 pieces. is the size of the sample. is the population size..HYPGEOMDIST Page 1 of 2 HYPGEOMDIST See Also Returns the hypergeometric distribution. Number_sample Population_s is the number of successes in the population. If any argument is nonnumeric. Syntax HYPGEOMDIST(sample_s. If a person selects 4 pieces at random. If population_s < 0 or population_s > number_population. and the remaining 12 are nuts. the following function returns the probability that exactly 1 piece is a caramel. Eight pieces are caramels.number_population) Sample_s is the number of successes in the sample. If number_population < 0. If number_sample < 0 or number_sample > number_population. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.population_s. HYPGEOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value.

363261) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch.. 14/12/05 .A5) Hypergeometric distribution for sample and population above (0.HYPGEOMDIST Page 2 of 2 =HYPGEOMDIST(A2..A3.A4.

or empty cells. however. or references that contain numbers. a. If known_y's and known_x's contain a different number of data points or contain no data points. INTERCEPT returns the #N/A error value. The equation for the intercept of the regression line. where the slope. For example. logical values. If an array or reference argument contains text. is calculated as: and where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(known_x's) and AVERAGE(known_y's). arrays. Use the INTERCEPT function when you want to determine the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is 0 (zero).ch. cells with the value zero are included. those values are ignored. The intercept point is based on a best-fit regression line plotted through the known x-values and known y-values. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.INTERCEPT Page 1 of 1 INTERCEPT See Also Calculates the point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using existing x-values and y-values.known_x's) Known_y's Known_x's Remarks The arguments should be either numbers or names. is: is the dependent set of observations or data.0483871) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. B2:B6) Point at which a line will intersect the y-axis by using the x-values and y-values above (0... is the independent set of observations or data. How? A 1 Known y 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 Formula B Known x 6 5 11 7 5 Description (Result) =INTERCEPT(A2:A6. you can use the INTERCEPT function to predict a metal's electrical resistance at 0°C when your data points were taken at room temperature and higher. b. Syntax INTERCEPT(known_y's. 14/12/05 .

. If an array or reference argument contains text. 14/12/05 . Positive kurtosis indicates a relatively peaked distribution.. or references that contain numbers.. If there are fewer than four data points. logical values. however. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Data 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 4 7 Formula Description (Result) =KURT(A2:A11) Kurtosis of the data set above (-0. number2.. those values are ignored. Syntax KURT(number1.ch. or empty cells. Kurtosis characterizes the relative peakedness or flatness of a distribution compared with the normal distribution. arrays. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate kurtosis..KURT Page 1 of 1 KURT See Also Returns the kurtosis of a data set. KURT returns the #DIV/0! error value. Negative kurtosis indicates a relatively flat distribution. . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet...) Number1. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names.number2. or if the standard deviation of the sample equals zero. cells with the value zero are included.1518) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Kurtosis is defined as: where: s is the sample standard deviation.

7) 7th largest number in the numbers above (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If k ≤ 0 or if k is greater than the number of data points. runner-up. is the position (from the largest) in the array or cell range of data to return.3) 3rd largest number in the numbers above (5) =LARGE(A2:B6. or third-place score. 14/12/05 . Syntax LARGE(array. then LARGE(array. LARGE returns the #NUM! error value. and LARGE(array. Remarks If array is empty.. you can use LARGE to return the highest.LARGE Page 1 of 1 LARGE See Also Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. For example. You can use this function to select a value based on its relative standing..n) returns the smallest value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1) returns the largest value.ch. LARGE returns the #NUM! error value. If n is the number of data points in a range.k) Array K is the array or range of data for which you want to determine the k-th largest value. How? A 1 Data 2 3 3 5 4 3 5 5 6 4 Formula B Data 4 2 4 6 7 Description (Result) =LARGE(A2:B6.

Known_x's is an optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b. If const is TRUE or omitted.. The m-values are coefficients corresponding to each x-value.. it must be entered as an array formula.. Note that y.LINEST Page 1 of 6 LINEST See Also Calculates the statistics for a line by using the "least squares" method to calculate a straight line that best fits your data.2. The array that LINEST returns is {mn. If known_x's is omitted.sen The standard error values for the coefficients m1.F. so the returned array is {mn.. and ranges in value from 0 to 1. If const is FALSE. LINEST returns the additional regression statistics.r2.. If only one variable is used. known_y's must be a vector (that is. Use the degrees of freedom to help you find F-critical values in a statistical table.m1. see "Remarks" later in this topic... For information about how r2 is calculated. If the array known_y's is in a single row. as long as they have equal dimensions. The equation for the line is: y = mx + b or y = m1x1 + m2x2 + . if the coefficient of determination is 0.... LINEST returns only the m-coefficients and the constant b. b is set equal to 0 and the m-values are adjusted to fit y = mx. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Because this function returns an array of values.. it is assumed to be the array {1. If more than one variable is used. there is a perfect correlation in the sample— there is no difference between the estimated y-value and the actual yvalue. For information about how df is calculated. se1. Const is a logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0. The regression sum of squares.se1.sen. The additional regression statistics are as follows..} that is the same size as known_y's. known_y's and known_x's can be ranges of any shape. The degrees of freedom. The residual sum of squares.sen1.. If stats is TRUE. see "Remarks" later in this topic... If stats is FALSE or omitted. the regression equation is not helpful in predicting a y-value. 14/12/05 . Syntax LINEST(known_y's. Statistic seb r2 Description The standard error value for the constant b (seb = #N/A when const is FALSE).ch..b}.mn-1.sey. If the array known_y's is in a single column..seb. Example 4 below shows use of F and df..ssreg. For information about how ssreg and ssresid are calculated. The array known_x's can include one or more sets of variables. and m can be vectors... sey F df ssreg ssresid The following illustration shows the order in which the additional regression statistics are returned. a range with a height of one row or a width of one column). and b is a constant value. The F statistic.b.m1..stats) Known_y's is the set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = mx + b.. x.ssresid}.known_x's... then each column of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. Stats is a logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics..df. Compares estimated and actual y-values.mn-1.m2. At the other extreme. and returns an array that describes the line. then each row of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. Use the F statistic to determine whether the observed relationship between the dependent and independent variables occurs by chance.. The standard error for the y estimate. Compare the values you find in the table to the F statistic returned by LINEST to determine a confidence level for the model.se2. The coefficient of determination. If it is 1. b is calculated normally. see "Remarks" later in this topic. or the F-observed value.. + b (if there are multiple ranges of x-values) where the dependent y-value is a function of the independent x-values. LINEST can also return additional regression statistics.mn.const.3.

Once you know the values of m and b. You can then compare the predicted values with the actual values. or 0 if not. Y-intercept (b): The y-intercept of a line. LINEST effectively inserts an additional X column of all 1’s to model the intercept. You can also use the TREND function. If const = TRUE or omitted. the total sum of squares is the sum of the squared differences between the actual y-values and the average of the y-values. Microsoft Excel then calculates the total sum of squares. known_x's) for an exponential curve. compared with the total sum of squares.known_x's). and you also have a column with a 1 for each subject if female. the more accurate the LINEST model. x = AVERAGE(known x's) and y = AVERAGE(known_y's).LINEST Page 2 of 6 Remarks You can describe any straight line with the slope and the y-intercept: Slope (m): To find the slope of a line. However. The more linear the data. take two points on the line. ssresid. values of sey and F are also affected. i. often written as b. the larger the value of the coefficient of determination. eliminating one or more X columns might lead to predicted Y values that are equally accurate. you have to decide which of the two results best fits your data. In some cases. In that case these redundant X columns should be omitted from the regression model. When const = FALSE. see Example 4 below. LINEST uses the method of least squares for determining the best fit for the data. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. r2. However. often written as m. one case where it is more likely to arise is when some X columns contain only 0’s and 1’s as indicators of whether a subject in an experiment is or is not a member of a particular group.y1) and (x2. the slope is equal to (y2 .ssresid. When you have only one independent x-variable. r2 equals ssreg/sstotal. In regression analysis. which is an indicator of how well the equation resulting from the regression analysis explains the relationship among the variables. The equation of a straight line is y = mx + b. sstotal. Removed X columns can be recognized in LINEST output as having 0 coefficients as well as 0 se’s. If df is changed because redundant X columns are removed. If you have a column with a 1 for each subject if male. The line.y2).e. (x1. can be found from: ssreg = sstotal .. You may want to chart them both for a visual comparison. this latter column is redundant because entries in it can be obtained from subtracting the entry in the “male indicator” column from the entry in the additional column of all 1’s added by LINEST. In other words.or x-value into that equation. The smaller the residual sum of squares is. Then regression sum of squares..ch.1) Y-intercept: =INDEX(LINEST(known_y's. or omitted. or GROWTH(known_y's. For details on the computation of df.2) The accuracy of the line calculated by LINEST depends on the degree of scatter in your data. This phenomenon is called “collinearity” because any redundant X column can be expressed as a sum of multiples of the non-redundant X columns. Microsoft Excel calculates for each point the squared difference between the y-value estimated for that point and its actual y-value. then df is affected because df depends on the number of X columns actually used for predictive purposes. When you have only one independent x-variable.y1)/(x2 x1). one or more of the X columns (assume that Y’s and X’s are in columns) may have no additional predictive value in the presence of the other X columns.and curve-fitting functions LINEST and LOGEST can calculate the best straight line or exponential curve that fits your data. or 0 if not. These functions.. If one or more columns are removed as redundant. The sum of these squared differences is called the residual sum of squares. the calculations for m and b are based on the following formulas: where x and y are sample means. When const = TRUE. ssreg. without the new_x's argument. Collinearity should be relatively rare in practice. is the value of y at the point where the line crosses the y-axis.known_x's). you can obtain the slope and y-intercept values directly by using the following formulas: Slope: =INDEX(LINEST(known_y's. return an array of y-values predicted along that line or curve at your actual data points. the total sum of squares is the sum of the squares of the actual y-values (without subtracting the average y-value from each individual y-value).known_x's) for a straight line. you can calculate any point on the line by plugging the y. 14/12/05 . You can calculate TREND(known_y's. LINEST checks for collinearity and removes any redundant X columns from the regression model when it identifies them.

select the range A7:B7 starting with the formula cell. or on the Tools menu. and press CTRL+V. Separator characters may be different depending on your locale setting in Regional Settings or Regional Options in Control Panel. Press CTRL+C. then df = n – k – 1. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. How? 1. 5. If const = FALSE. then df = n . Example 1 Slope and Y-Intercept The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Do not select the row or column headers. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. each X column removed due to collinearity increases df by 1. 4.. When entered as an array. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. A 1 Known y 2 1 3 9 4 5 5 7 Formula =LINEST(A2:A5. Note that the y-values predicted by the regression equation may not be valid if they are outside the range of the y-values you used to determine the equation.B2:B5. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. 14/12/05 . How? 1. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Select the example in the Help topic. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. When entering an array constant such as known_x's as an argument. In the worksheet. 2. the single result is 2. point to Formula Auditing..k. 2. Do not select the row or column headers. press CTRL+` (grave accent).FALSE) B Known x 0 4 2 3 Formula Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. Press F2.LINEST Page 3 of 6 df is calculated as follows when no X columns are removed from the model due to collinearity: if there are k columns of known_x’s and const = TRUE or omitted. the slope (2) and the y-intercept (1) are returned.ch. In both cases. select cell A1. Selecting an example from Help 3. use commas to separate values in the same row and semicolons to separate rows. Select the example in the Help topic. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results.. Example 2 Simple Linear Regression The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

In the worksheet. 4. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. x2. point to Formula Auditing. select cell A1. 5. SUM({m. or on the Tools menu. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2. Press CTRL+C.. Selecting an example from Help 3.1}) equals mx + b. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. A 1 Month 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 Formula B Sales 3100 4500 4400 5400 7500 8100 Description (Result) =SUM(LINEST(B2:B7. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. the estimated y-value for a given x-value. or on the Tools menu. 5. The developer randomly chooses a sample of 11 office buildings from a possible 1. 14/12/05 . The developer can use multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the value of an office building in a given area based on the following variables. press CTRL+` (grave accent). and then click Formula Auditing Mode.1}) Estimate sales for the ninth month (11000) In general. point to Formula Auditing. and press CTRL+V. Select the example in the Help topic.500 office buildings and obtains the following data. 4. "Half an entrance" means an entrance for deliveries only. In the worksheet. Variable Refers to the y x1 x2 x3 x4 Assessed value of the office building Floor space in square feet Number of offices Number of entrances Age of the office building in years This example assumes that a straight-line relationship exists between each independent variable (x1. Example 3 Multiple Linear Regression Suppose a commercial developer is considering purchasing a group of small office buildings in an established business district. How? 1. x3. and press CTRL+V. Press CTRL+C. the value of office buildings in the area.b}*{x.. A2:A7)*{9. Do not select the row or column headers. select cell A1. You can also use the TREND function. press CTRL+` (grave accent). and x4) and the dependent variable (y).LINEST Page 4 of 6 Selecting an example from Help 3.

y = m1*x1 + m2*x2 + m3*x3 + m4*x4 + b. then v1 = n – df – 1 and v2 = df.234. df = 6 (cell B18) and F = 459. In Example 4.000 Offices (x2) Entrances (x3) Age (x4) Assessed value (y) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula.24*25 + 52318 = $158. F can be compared with critical values in published F-distribution tables or Excel’s FDIST can be used to calculate the probability of a larger F value occurring by chance. 6) = 1. 14/12/05 . The appropriate F distribution has v1 and v2 degrees of freedom.000 144.24*x4 + 52.000 151.. the single result is -234. Floor space (x1) Offices (x2) Entrances (x3) Age (x4) Assessed value (y) 2500 3 2 25 =D14*A22 + C14*B22 + B14*C22 + A14*D22 + E14 You can also use the TREND function to calculate this value.05.v1. select the range A14:E18 starting with the formula cell. occurred by chance. then v1 = n – df and v2 = df. an extremely small probability. When entered as an array.553*x3 . 4.000 139.05.A2:D12.261 Or you can copy the following table to cell A21 of the example workbook.000 142. the hypothesis that there is no relationship between known_y’s and known_x’s is to be rejected when F exceeds the critical level. The term "Alpha" is used for the probability of erroneously concluding that there is a relationship.LINEST Page 5 of 6 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Floor space (x1) 2310 2333 2356 2379 2402 2425 2448 2471 2494 2517 2540 Formula =LINEST(E2:E12. the coefficient of determination. or r2.v2) will return the probability of a higher F value occurring by chance. it is extremely unlikely that an F value this high occurred by chance.53. the following regression statistics are returned.) Excel’s FDIST(F.000 149.64*x1 + 12. v1 = 11 – 6 – 1 = 4 and v2 = 6. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.99675 (see cell A17 in the output for LINEST). If n is the number of data points and const = TRUE or omitted.000 169. three offices. (With Alpha = 0. but that you have drawn a rare sample of 11 office buildings that causes the statistical analysis to demonstrate a strong relationship. Use this key to identify the statistic you want. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.753674 (cell A18). The multiple regression equation. and two entrances and is 25 years old. by using the following equation: y = 27. FDIST(459.500 square feet.. Assuming an Alpha value of 0.900 163.53.5 2 3 4 3 D 20 12 33 43 53 23 99 34 23 55 22 E 142. is 0. Assume for the moment that in fact there is no relationship among the variables.000 150. can now be obtained using the values from row 14: y = 27.000 126.753674.64*2500 + 12530*3 + 2553*2 .2371645.318 The developer can now estimate the assessed value of an office building in the same area that has 2.) Using Excel’s FDIST you can obtain the probability that an F value this high occurred by chance. the critical level of F is 4. 4. Press F2.ch. You can use the F statistic to determine whether these results.753674 is much higher than 4. After copying the example to a blank worksheet.5 2 3 2 1. Example 4 Using the F and r2 Statistics In the previous example.TRUE. with such a high r2 value. (If const = FALSE.37E-7.53.TRUE) B 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 4 2 C 2 2 1. F and df in LINEST output can be used to assess the likelihood of a higher F value occurring by chance.000 169.234. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. which would indicate a strong relationship between the independent variables and the sale price. Since F = 459.530*x2 + 2.

therefore.447. Variable Floor space Number of offices Age t-observed value 5.<SPAN FPRev mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. This critical value can also be found using Excel’s TINV function. If you consult a table in a statistics manual.447. The table below shows the absolute values of the 4 t-observed values. Because the absolute value of t. age is an important variable when estimating the assessed value of an office building. it can be concluded that the slope coefficient is useful in estimating the assessed value of an office building in Example 3.447.8 These values all have an absolute value greater than 2.3 17.05 is 2.1 31.05. divide -234. 17.6) = 2. that the regression equation is useful in predicting the assessed value of office buildings in this area.24 ÷ 13.LINEST Page 6 of 6 You can conclude. Each of the other independent variables can be tested for statistical significance in a similar manner. TINV(0. Remember that it is critical to use correct values of v1 and v2 computed in the previous paragraph.7 If the absolute value of t is sufficiently high.. either by finding the critical level of F in a table or by using Excel’s FDIST. to test the age coefficient for statistical significance. For example. you will find that t-critical.7 Number of entrances 4. The following is the t-observed value: t = m4 ÷ se4 = -234. is greater than 2. Example 5 Calculating the t-Statistics Another hypothesis test will determine whether each slope coefficient is useful in estimating the assessed value of an office building in example 3. two tailed. 14/12/05 . The following are the t-observed values for each of the independent variables.24 (age slope coefficient) by 13..268 (the estimated standard error of age coefficients in cell A15).447. with 6 degrees of freedom and Alpha = 0.7.ch. all the variables used in the regression equation are useful in predicting the assessed value of office buildings in this area.268 = -17.

Syntax LOGEST(known_y's. b is calculated normally. LOGEST returns only the m-coefficients and the constant b.b.sey.. so the returned array is {mn... If more than one variable is used.. You should note that the y-values predicted by the regression equation may not be valid if they are outside the range of y-values you used to determine the equation. Example 1 m-coefficients and the constant b The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.b}. Remarks The more a plot of your data resembles an exponential curve. When you have only one independent x-variable.ssresid}.ssreg. it is assumed to be the array {1. see LINEST. If known_x's is omitted. If const is TRUE or omitted. If const is FALSE. then each row of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. If the array known_y's is in a single column. If stats is TRUE.mn-1. 14/12/05 .m1. Because this function returns an array of values.. Like LINEST..known_x's).se1. Known_x's is an optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = b*m^x. but Microsoft Excel provides the GROWTH function to do this for you. LOGEST returns the additional regression statistics.3. and the m-values are fitted to y = m^x. When entering an array constant such as known_x's as an argument.. The array known_x's can include one or more sets of variables.sen1. as long as they have equal dimensions..r 2. and b is a constant value. known_y's must be a range of cells with a height of one row or a width of one column (which is also known as a vector). x. For more information.1) Y-intercept (b): INDEX(LOGEST(known_y's.. If the array known_y's is in a single row.mn-1.. you can obtain the slope (m) and y-intercept (b) values directly by using the following formulas: Slope (m): INDEX(LOGEST(known_y's. and m can be vectors.const.LOGEST Page 1 of 3 LOGEST See Also In regression analysis. Separator characters may be different depending on your locale setting in Regional Settings or Regional Options in Control Panel.2. The equation for the curve is: y = b*m^x or y = (b*(m1^x1)*(m2^x2)*_) (if there are multiple x-values) where the dependent y-value is a function of the independent x-values. it must be entered as an array formula. calculates an exponential curve that fits your data and returns an array of values that describes the curve.. b is set equal to 1. For more information. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas. For more information about additional regression statistics. If only one variable is used.stats) Known_y's is the set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = b*m^x. Const is a logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 1.known_x's). known_y's and known_x's can be ranges of any shape. see GROWTH. but LINEST fits a straight line to your data. see LINEST.m1. use commas to separate values in the same row and semicolons to separate rows.2) You can use the y = b*m^x equation to predict future values of y. F.} that is the same size as known_y's. The array that LOGEST returns is {mn.known_x's... Note that y..ch. How? mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. then each column of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. LOGEST returns an array of values that describes a relationship among the values. The m-values are bases corresponding to each exponent xvalue..sen. the better the calculated line will fit your data.seb.df... Stats is a logical value specifying whether to return additional regression statistics. If stats is FALSE or omitted. LOGEST fits an exponential curve.

5.300 69. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. point to Formula Auditing. the m-coefficients and the constant b are returned. Press CTRL+C. In the worksheet.000 150. Selecting an example from Help 3.3 * 1.463275628. and press CTRL+V.ch. 4. Example 2 Full statistics The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.LOGEST Page 2 of 3 1. When entered as an array. point to Formula Auditing. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Select the example in the Help topic.000 Formula Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. Press F2.000 102.A2:A7. How? 1. 2. or on the Tools menu. In the worksheet. or you can use the GROWTH function. Select the example in the Help topic. TRUE.000 220.4633x You can estimate sales for future months by substituting the month number for x in this equation. the single result is 1. 14/12/05 . press CTRL+` (grave accent). Selecting an example from Help 3. or on the Tools menu.100 47. select cell A1. 5. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. 2.. A 1 Month 2 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 Formula =LOGEST(B2:B7. After copying the example to a blank worksheet. 4. y = b*m1^x1 or using the values from the array: y = 495. select the range A9:B9 starting with the formula cell.. Do not select the row or column headers. select cell A1. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. Do not select the row or column headers. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. FALSE) B Units 33. Press CTRL+C. and press CTRL+V. press CTRL+` (grave accent).

000 102.000 150.463275628. not to mi and b. Use this key to identify the statistic you want.000 Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula. TRUE. the additional statistics LOGEST returns are based on the following linear model: ln y = x1 ln m1 + .000 220. Press F2.A2:A7. If the formula is not entered as an array formula. However. For more information. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.ch.300 69. You can use the additional regression statistics (cells A10:B13 in the above output array) to determine how useful the equation is for predicting future values. Important The methods you use to test an equation using LOGEST are similar to the methods for LINEST. the following regression statistics are returned..100 47. After copying the example to a blank worksheet... TRUE) B Units 33. 14/12/05 . select the range A9:B13 starting with the formula cell.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. which should be compared to ln mi and ln b. consult an advanced statistics manual.LOGEST Page 3 of 3 A 1 Month 2 11 3 12 4 13 5 14 6 15 7 16 Formula =LOGEST(B2:B7. especially the sei and seb values. the single result is 1. + xn ln mn + ln b You should keep this in mind when you evaluate the additional statistics. When entered as an array.

Standard_dev Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric.000014) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. LOGINV returns the #NUM! error value..2 Formula B Description Probability associated with the lognormal distribution Mean of ln(x) Standard deviation of ln(x) Description (Result) =LOGINV(A2... 14/12/05 .. Syntax LOGINV(probability. If probability < 0 or probability > 1. LOGINV returns the #VALUE! error value..) = x. is the standard deviation of ln(x). Use the lognormal distribution to analyze logarithmically transformed data. The inverse of the lognormal distribution function is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.039084 3 3.) then LOGINV(p. where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev.ch. LOGINV returns the #NUM! error value.5 4 1. A3. If p = LOGNORMDIST(x.. is the mean of ln(x).mean.LOGINV Page 1 of 1 LOGINV See Also Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function of x..standard_dev) Probability Mean is a probability associated with the lognormal distribution. If standard_dev <= 0. A4) Inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution function for the terms above (4.. How? A 1 Data 2 0.

2 Formula B Description Value at which to evaluate the function (x) Mean of ln(x) Standard deviation of ln(x) Description (Result) =LOGNORMDIST(A2.ch..standard_dev) X is the value at which to evaluate the function. LOGNORMDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.mean. LOGNORMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. is the standard deviation of ln(x). If x ≤ 0 or if standard_dev ≤ 0. Syntax LOGNORMDIST(x.039084) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 14/12/05 . Mean Standard_dev Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. is the mean of ln(x).LOGNORMDIST Page 1 of 1 LOGNORMDIST See Also Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution of x.5 4 1. How? A 1 Data 2 4 3 3.A4) Cumulative lognormal distribution at 4 with the terms above (0. Use this function to analyze data that has been logarithmically transformed. where ln(x) is normally distributed with parameters mean and standard_dev.. The equation for the lognormal cumulative distribution function is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.A3.

number2. logical values. logical values. How? are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the maximum value. MAX returns 0 (zero).number2. only numbers in that array or reference are used..) Number1.. Remarks You can specify arguments that are numbers. 14/12/05 . If the arguments contain no numbers... Syntax MAX(number1. . 30) Largest of the numbers above and 30 (30) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If logical values and text must not be ignored.MAX Page 1 of 1 MAX See Also Returns the largest value in a set of values.. or text in the array or reference are ignored. Empty cells.ch.. or text representations of numbers. A 1 Data 2 10 3 7 4 9 5 27 6 2 Formula =MAX(A2:A6) Description (Result) Largest of the numbers above (27) =MAX(A2:A6. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If an argument is an array or reference. Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors. use MAXA instead.. empty cells.

5 5 0. MAXA returns 0 (zero). How? are 1 to 30 values for which you want to find the largest value. arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero). Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are compared as well as numbers.. only values in that array or reference are used. TRUE evaluates to 1 (1) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. use the MAX worksheet function instead. Remarks You can specify arguments that are numbers. Empty cells and text values in the array or reference are ignored.. 14/12/05 . or text representations of numbers. logical values. If an argument is an array or reference. Syntax MAXA(value1...value2.. empty cells. value2. If the calculation must not include text or logical values. For more information.) Value1. MAXA is similar to MINA. see the examples for MINA.ch.4 6 TRUE Formula Description (Result) =MAXA(A2:A6) Largest of the numbers above. If the arguments contain no values.MAXA Page 1 of 1 MAXA See Also Returns the largest value in a list of arguments. Arguments that are error values cause errors. .. A 1 Data 2 0 3 0.2 4 0.

. How? are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want the median. and half have values that are less. Remarks The arguments should be either numbers or names. or references that contain numbers. half the numbers have values that are greater than the median. A 1 Data 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 Formula Description (Result) =MEDIAN(A2:A6) Median of the first 5 numbers in the list above (3) =MEDIAN(A2:A7) Median of all the numbers above.. or empty cells.. Syntax MEDIAN(number1.. or the average of 3 and 4 (3.. If there is an even number of numbers in the set.5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch. that is.MEDIAN Page 1 of 1 MEDIAN See Also Returns the median of the given numbers. cells with the value zero are included. See the second formula in the example. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The median is the number in the middle of a set of numbers.) Number1. 14/12/05 ... number2. then MEDIAN calculates the average of the two numbers in the middle. If an array or reference argument contains text. arrays. Microsoft Excel examines all the numbers in each reference or array argument. those values are ignored..number2. logical values. however.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. number2. Remarks You can specify arguments that are numbers.. Arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers cause errors.MIN Page 1 of 1 MIN See Also Returns the smallest number in a set of values. only numbers in that array or reference are used.ch.) Number1. logical values.. use MINA instead. logical values.. If an argument is an array or reference.0) Smallest of the numbers above and 0 (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. MIN returns 0.. A 1 Data 2 10 3 7 4 9 5 27 6 2 Formula =MIN(A2:A6) Description (Result) Smallest of the numbers above (2) =MIN(A2:A6... empty cells. 14/12/05 . or text representations of numbers.. or text in the array or reference are ignored. . If logical values and text should not be ignored. How? are 1 to 30 numbers for which you want to find the minimum value.number2. Syntax MIN(number1. If the arguments contain no numbers. Empty cells.

If the arguments contain no values. If the calculation must not include text or logical values.. Remarks You can specify arguments that are numbers. Empty cells and text values in the array or reference are ignored. empty cells. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. MINA returns 0. logical values. How? are 1 to 30 values for which you want to find the smallest value.8 Formula Description (Result) =MINA(A2:A6) Smallest of the numbers above.ch. A 1 Data 2 FALSE 3 0..MINA Page 1 of 1 MINA See Also Returns the smallest value in the list of arguments.5 5 0. value2..4 6 0. If an argument is an array or reference.. .2 4 0. FALSE evaluates to 0 (0) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 14/12/05 . use the MIN worksheet function instead. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1...value2. arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero). Syntax MINA(value1. only values in that array or reference are used. Arguments that are error values cause errors. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are compared as well as numbers. or text representations of numbers.) Value1.

ch. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate the mode. MODE is a location measure. 14/12/05 . If the data set contains no duplicate data points. or empty cells.6 3 4 4 4 5 3 6 2 7 4 Formula Description (Result) =MODE(A2:A7) Mode. Both AVERAGE and MEDIAN may return a value in the relatively empty middle. or references that contain numbers. the mode is the most frequently occurring value. however. and MODE may return the dominant low value. number2. If an array or reference argument contains text.number2.. names. Suppose data is clustered in three areas. No single measure of central tendency provides a complete picture of the data. or most frequently occurring number above (4) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. and the mean is the average value. Like MEDIAN. MODE returns the #N/A error value. or repetitive. half around a single low value.. How? A 1 Data 2 5. .MODE Page 1 of 1 MODE See Also Returns the most frequently occurring. cells with the value zero are included. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. value in an array or range of data.. Syntax MODE(number1... those values are ignored. the median is the middle value.. arrays. Remarks The arguments should be numbers. In a set of values. and half around two large values. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.) Number1. logical values.

number_s.A4) Negative binomial distribution for the terms above (0. trials are assumed to be independent. NEGBINOMDIST returns the #VALUE! error value. Syntax NEGBINOMDIST(number_f. except that the number of successes is fixed. If any argument is nonnumeric. If number_f < 0 or number_s < 1.probability_s) Number_f Number_s Probability_s Remarks Number_f and number_s are truncated to integers.3. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.NEGBINOMDIST Page 1 of 1 NEGBINOMDIST See Also Returns the negative binomial distribution. is the threshold number of successes. NEGBINOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. 15/12/05 .. is the probability of a success. How? A 1 Data 2 10 3 5 4 0. NEGBINOMDIST calculates the probability that you will interview a certain number of unqualified candidates before finding all 10 qualified candidates. The equation for the negative binomial distribution is: is the number of failures. NEGBINOMDIST returns the #NUM! error value. you need to find 10 people with excellent reflexes.. r is number_s.A3. Like the binomial. If probability_s < 0 or if probability > 1. and p is probability_s. and you know the probability that a candidate has these qualifications is 0.ch. and the number of trials is variable. This function is similar to the binomial distribution. For example.055049) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. when the constant probability of a success is probability_s. where: x is number_f.25 Formula B Description Number of failures Threshold number of successes Probability of a success Description (Result) =NEGBINOMDIST(A2. NEGBINOMDIST returns the probability that there will be number_f failures before the number_s-th success.

Mean Standard_dev Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the function.NORMDIST Page 1 of 1 NORMDIST See Also Returns the normal distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. Remarks If mean or standard_dev is nonnumeric. including hypothesis testing. If standard_dev ≤ 0.908789) =NORMDIST(A2. NORMDIST returns the #NUM! error value.mean. NORMDIST returns the standard normal distribution.A4.cumulative) X is the value for which you want the distribution.. standard_dev = 1.standard_dev. is the standard deviation of the distribution. How? A 1 Data 2 42 3 40 4 1.A3.TRUE) Cumulative distribution function for the terms above (0. NORMSDIST. is the arithmetic mean of the distribution.A3.ch. the formula is the integral from negative infinity to x of the given formula.FALSE) Probability mass function for the terms above (0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. NORMDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.A4.5 Formula B Description Value for which you want the distribution Arithmetic mean of the distribution Standard deviation of the distribution Description (Result) =NORMDIST(A2. Syntax NORMDIST(x. and cumulative = TRUE. 15/12/05 .10934005) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If cumulative is TRUE. If mean = 0. NORMDIST returns the cumulative distribution function. The equation for the normal density function (cumulative = FALSE) is: When cumulative = TRUE. it returns the probability mass function. This function has a very wide range of applications in statistics. if FALSE.

. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.908789 3 40 4 1. Standard_dev Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric.ch.NORMINV Page 1 of 1 NORMINV See Also Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the specified mean and standard deviation. TRUE) = probability.mean. If probability < 0 or if probability > 1. If the search has not converged after 100 iterations. NORMINV uses an iterative search technique. How? A 1 Data 2 0.A4) Inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for the terms above (42) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. NORMINV uses the standard normal distribution (see NORMSINV). Given a value for probability. the function returns the #N/A error value.A3.standard_dev) Probability Mean is a probability corresponding to the normal distribution. If mean = 0 and standard_dev = 1. Syntax NORMINV(probability. Thus..5 Formula B Description Probability corresponding to the normal distribution Arithmetic mean of the distribution Standard deviation of the distribution Description (Result) =NORMINV(A2. If standard_dev ≤ 0. NORMINV seeks that value x such that NORMDIST(x. 15/12/05 . NORMINV returns the #NUM! error value. NORMINV returns the #NUM! error value. is the arithmetic mean of the distribution. mean. standard_dev. precision of NORMINV depends on precision of NORMDIST. is the standard deviation of the distribution. NORMINV returns the #VALUE! error value.

How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =NORMSDIST(1. Remarks If z is nonnumeric.333333) Normal cumulative distribution function at 1. NORMSDIST returns the #VALUE! error value..333333 (0. Syntax NORMSDIST(z) Z is the value for which you want the distribution. The distribution has a mean of 0 (zero) and a standard deviation of one.NORMSDIST Page 1 of 1 NORMSDIST See Also Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution function.908789) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.ch.. 15/12/05 . The equation for the standard normal density function is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Use this function in place of a table of standard normal curve areas.

ch. Given a value for probability. the function returns the #N/A error value.3333) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax NORMSINV(probability) Probability Remarks If probability is nonnumeric.NORMSINV Page 1 of 1 NORMSINV See Also Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. If the search has not converged after 100 iterations. NORMSINV returns the #VALUE! error value.. The distribution has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. NORMSINV uses an iterative search technique. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =NORMSINV(0. NORMSINV returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Thus.908789 (1. precision of NORMSINV depends on precision of NORMSDIST.908789) Inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. If probability < 0 or if probability > 1. NORMSINV seeks that value z such that NORMSDIST(z) = probability.. How? is a probability corresponding to the normal distribution. 15/12/05 . with a probability of 0.

0 inclusive and reflects the extent of a linear relationship between two data sets. How? A 1 Independent values 2 9 3 7 4 5 5 3 6 1 Formula B Dependent values 10 6 1 5 3 Description (Result) =PEARSON(A2:A6. array constants. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or empty cells. If an array or reference argument contains text. PEARSON returns the #N/A error value. is: where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(array1) and AVERAGE(array2). The formula for the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. however.0 to 1. is a set of dependent values. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names.array2) Array1 Array2 is a set of independent values.699379) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or references that contain numbers.. those values are ignored. a dimensionless index that ranges from -1. cells with the value zero are included.PEARSON Page 1 of 1 PEARSON See Also Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.ch. r. logical values.B2:B6) Pearson product moment correlation coefficient for the data sets above (0. Syntax PEARSON(array1. r.. If array1 and array2 are empty or have a different number of data points. 15/12/05 .

191 data points. PERCENTILE returns the #NUM! error value. you can decide to examine candidates who score above the 90th percentile.1).k) Array K is the array or range of data that defines relative standing. For example.3) 30th percentile of the list above (1. If k is nonnumeric. If k is < 0 or if k > 1. PERCENTILE returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. PERCENTILE interpolates to determine the value at the k-th percentile.PERCENTILE Page 1 of 1 PERCENTILE See Also Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. You can use this function to establish a threshold of acceptance.9) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.0. is the percentile value in the range 0.1. If k is not a multiple of 1/(n ..ch. PERCENTILE returns the #VALUE! error value. Remarks If array is empty or contains more than 8. How? A 1 Data 2 1 3 3 4 2 5 4 Formula Description (Result) =PERCENTILE(A2:A5.. 15/12/05 . inclusive. Syntax PERCENTILE(array.

If significance < 1. Click the Number tab. How? A Data 13 12 11 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 Formula =PERCENTRANK (A2:A11.8) =PERCENTRANK (A2:A11. PERCENTRANK returns the #NUM! error value. 3/(3+6)=0.5) Description (Result) Percent rank of 2 in the list above (0. PERCENTRANK interpolates to return the correct percentage rank.4) =PERCENTRANK (A2:A11. you can use PERCENTRANK to evaluate the standing of an aptitude test score among all scores for the test. because 3 values in the set are smaller than 2. If omitted.xxx).2) =PERCENTRANK (A2:A11. Remarks If array is empty.583. Significance is an optional value that identifies the number of significant digits for the returned percentage value. Syntax PERCENTRANK(array. For example. one-quarter of the way between the PERCENTRANK of 4 and the PERCENTRANK of 8) Note To view the number as a percentage. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.555) Percent rank of 8 in the list above (0.666) Percent rank of 5 in the list above (0.PERCENTRANK Page 1 of 1 PERCENTRANK See Also Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage of the data set. and then click Percentage in the Category box. and 6 are larger than 2... select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If x does not match one of the values in array.333) Percent rank of 4 in the list above (0. This function can be used to evaluate the relative standing of a value within a data set. is the value for which you want to know the rank.significance) Array X is the array or range of data with numeric values that defines relative standing.x.333.ch. PERCENTRANK uses three digits (0. 15/12/05 . PERCENTRANK returns the #NUM! error value.

. If number or number_chosen is nonnumeric. Use this function for lottery-style probability calculations. Permutations are different from combinations. The equation for the number of permutations is: Example Suppose you want to calculate the odds of selecting a winning lottery number. is an integer that describes the number of objects in each permutation. PERMUT returns the #VALUE! error value. If number ≤ 0 or if number_chosen < 0. How? A 1 Data 2 100 3 3 Formula B Description Number of objects Number of objects in each permutation Description (Result) =PERMUT(A2. If number < number_chosen. each of which can be between 0 (zero) and 99.A3) Permutations possible for the terms above (970200) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. inclusive. Number_chosen Remarks Both arguments are truncated to integers.. Each lottery number contains three numbers. PERMUT returns the #NUM! error value. A permutation is any set or subset of objects or events where internal order is significant.ch. Syntax PERMUT(number.PERMUT Page 1 of 1 PERMUT See Also Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects that can be selected from number objects. The following function calculates the number of possible permutations: The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 15/12/05 .number_chosen) Number is an integer that describes the number of objects. PERMUT returns the #NUM! error value. for which the internal order is not significant.

it is truncated.124652) =POISSON(A2. POISSON returns the #NUM! error value. POISSON returns the #VALUE! error value. is the expected numeric value. Mean Cumulative is a logical value that determines the form of the probability distribution returned. if FALSE. Syntax POISSON(x.TRUE) Cumulative Poisson probability with the terms above (0.A3.mean. such as the number of cars arriving at a toll plaza in 1 minute. POISSON returns the #NUM! error value. For cumulative = FALSE: For cumulative = TRUE: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 15/12/05 . How? A 1 Data 2 2 3 5 Formula B Description Number of events Expected mean Description (Result) =POISSON(A2. POISSON is calculated as follows. it returns the Poisson probability mass function that the number of events occurring will be exactly x. Remarks If x is not an integer. If x or mean is nonnumeric. If cumulative is TRUE..A3. If x < 0. If mean ≤ 0.cumulative) X is the number of events.ch.POISSON Page 1 of 1 POISSON See Also Returns the Poisson distribution. POISSON returns the cumulative Poisson probability that the number of random events occurring will be between zero and x inclusive.084224) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. A common application of the Poisson distribution is predicting the number of events over a specific time.FALSE) Poisson probability mass function with the terms above (0.

2) B Probability 0.3) Probability that x is between 1 and 3 (0.upper_limit) X_range is the range of numeric values of x with which there are associated probabilities. PROB returns the #N/A error value.4 Description (Result) Probability that x is 2 (0.B2:B5. is a set of probabilities associated with values in x_range.3 0. If upper_limit is not supplied. Prob_range Lower_limit Upper_limit Remarks If any value in prob_range ≤ 0 or if any value in prob_range > 1. returns the probability that values in x_range are equal to lower_limit.prob_range.ch. Syntax PROB(x_range. PROB returns the #NUM! error value. If upper_limit is omitted. If the sum of the values in prob_range ¹ 1..lower_limit.8) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 . is the lower bound on the value for which you want a probability. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1 0.1. If x_range and prob_range contain a different number of data points..PROB Page 1 of 1 PROB See Also Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. How? A 1 x 2 0 3 1 4 2 5 3 Formula =PROB(A2:A5. is the optional upper bound on the value for which you want a probability. PROB returns the probability of being equal to lower_limit.B2:B5.1) =PROB(A2:A5.2 0. PROB returns the #NUM! error value.

quart) Array Quart is the array or cell range of numeric values for which you want the quartile value.ch.5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. respectively. MEDIAN. MIN.. QUARTILE returns the #NUM! error value. 15/12/05 . If quart is not an integer. and MAX return the same value as QUARTILE when quart is equal to 0 (zero). How? Minimum value First quartile (25th percentile) Median value (50th percentile) Third quartile (75th percentile) Maximum value A 1 Data 2 1 3 2 4 4 5 7 6 8 7 9 8 9 10 12 Formula Description (Result) =QUARTILE(A2:A9. If quart equals QUARTILE returns 0 1 2 3 4 Remarks If array is empty. and 4. If quart < 0 or if quart > 4. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. it is truncated. 2. For example. you can use QUARTILE to find the top 25 percent of incomes in a population. indicates which value to return.QUARTILE Page 1 of 1 QUARTILE See Also Returns the quartile of a data set. Syntax QUARTILE(array. QUARTILE returns the #NUM! error value. Quartiles often are used in sales and survey data to divide populations into groups.1) First quartile (25th percentile) of the data above (3.

Microsoft Excel ranks number as if ref were a list sorted in descending order. 15/12/05 .A2:A6. since RANK would not have to be adjusted for a tie.5 for the number 10. Remarks RANK gives duplicate numbers the same rank. This correction factor is appropriate both for the case where rank is computed in descending order (order = 0 or omitted) or ascending order (order = nonzero value). the rank of the number would be its position.5.5 4 3. 1)]/2..5 5 1 6 2 Formula Description (Result) =RANK(A3. or a reference to.) Syntax RANK(number. ref.1) Rank of 7 in the list above (5) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. is an array of. For some purposes one might want to use a definition of rank that takes ties into account. If order is any nonzero value.1) Rank of 3.A1:A5. the correction factor will be 0.5 in the list above (3) =RANK(A2. ref. Microsoft Excel ranks number as if ref were a list sorted in ascending order. in a list of integers sorted in ascending order. This can be done by adding the following correction factor to the value returned by RANK. The rank of a number is its size relative to other values in a list. is a number specifying how to rank number. For example. (If you were to sort the list. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.1) equals 3. 0) – RANK(number. then 11 would have a rank of 7 (no number would have a rank of 6). However. if the number 10 appears twice and has a rank of 5.order) Number Ref Order is the number whose rank you want to find.5 and the revised rank that takes ties into account is 3 + 0. a list of numbers. If number occurs only once in ref. If order is 0 (zero) or omitted. the presence of duplicate numbers affects the ranks of subsequent numbers. Correction factor for tied ranks=[COUNT(ref) + 1 – RANK(number. Nonnumeric values in ref are ignored. The correction factor is (5 + 1 – 2 – 3)/2 = 0. In the following example. In the previous example.A2:A6.5 = 3.ch. How? A 1 Data 2 7 3 3..RANK Page 1 of 1 RANK See Also Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.ref. RANK(A2. one would want a revised rank of 5.

RSQ Page 1 of 1 RSQ See Also Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points in known_y's and known_x's. The r-squared value can be interpreted as the proportion of the variance in y attributable to the variance in x. RSQ returns the #N/A error value. Syntax RSQ(known_y's. is: is an array or range of data points.B2:B8) Square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient through data points above (0. cells with the value zero are included. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. or empty cells. or references that contain numbers. those values are ignored. however.05795) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. For more information.. arrays. 15/12/05 . r. logical values. The equation for the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. see PEARSON.known_x's) Known_y's Known_x's Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names. where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(known_x’s) and AVERAGE(known_y’s). How? A 1 Known y 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula B Known x 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) =RSQ(A2:A8. RSQ returns r 2. which is the square of this correlation coefficient.. If known_y's and known_x's are empty or have a different number of data points. If an array or reference argument contains text. is an array or range of data points.

ch. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Data 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 4 7 Formula Description (Result) =SKEW(A2:A11) Skewness of a distribution of the data set above (0. If an array or reference argument contains text... number2 . The equation for skewness is defined as: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. If there are fewer than three data points.. are 1 to 30 arguments for which you want to calculate skewness.. Positive skewness indicates a distribution with an asymmetric tail extending toward more positive values.SKEW Page 1 of 1 SKEW See Also Returns the skewness of a distribution. or the sample standard deviation is zero.359543) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.number2. 15/12/05 .. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas. logical values. Negative skewness indicates a distribution with an asymmetric tail extending toward more negative values. Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names. or empty cells. or references that contain numbers. those values are ignored. however. cells with the value zero are included.) Number1. arrays.. SKEW returns the #DIV/0! error value. Skewness characterizes the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. Syntax SKEW(number1.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.SLOPE Page 1 of 1 SLOPE See Also Returns the slope of the linear regression line through data points in known_y's and known_x's.known_x's) Known_y's Known_x's Remarks The arguments must be either numbers or names. which is the rate of change along the regression line. logical values. If known_y's and known_x's are empty or have a different number of data points. The equation for the slope of the regression line is: is an array or cell range of numeric dependent data points. however. SLOPE returns the #N/A error value.305556) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. arrays.B2:B8) Slope of the linear regression line through the data points above (0. or empty cells. is the set of independent data points. Syntax SLOPE(known_y's. or references that contain numbers. The slope is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance between any two points on the line.. How? A 1 Known y 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula B Known x 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) =SLOPE(A2:A8. 15/12/05 .ch. If an array or reference argument contains text. cells with the value zero are included.. those values are ignored. where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(known_x’s) and AVERAGE(known_y’s).

Remarks If array is empty.1) equals the smallest value.ch. SMALL(array. SMALL returns the #NUM! error value.4) 4th smallest number in first column (4) =SMALL(B2:B10. 15/12/05 . If k ≤ 0 or if k exceeds the number of data points. and SMALL(array. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Data 3 4 5 2 3 4 6 4 7 Formula B Data 1 4 8 3 7 12 54 8 23 Description (Result) =SMALL(A2:A10. Use this function to return values with a particular relative standing in a data set.2) 2nd smallest number in the second column (3) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.n) equals the largest value. If n is the number of data points in array. SMALL returns the #NUM! error value. Syntax SMALL(array.SMALL Page 1 of 1 SMALL See Also Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.k) Array K is an array or range of numerical data for which you want to determine the k-th smallest value.. is the position (from the smallest) in the array or range of data to return..

Syntax STANDARDIZE(x.standard_dev) X is the value you want to normalize.ch. STANDARDIZE returns the #NUM! error value.. is the standard deviation of the distribution.mean.333333) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. How? A 1 Data 2 42 3 40 4 1.5 Formula B Description Value to normalize Arithmetic mean of the distribution Standard deviation of the distribution Description (Result) =STANDARDIZE(A2.A4) Normalized value of 42 for the terms above (1.STANDARDIZE Page 1 of 1 STANDARDIZE See Also Returns a normalized value from a distribution characterized by mean and standard_dev.A3.. 15/12/05 . is the arithmetic mean of the distribution. Mean Standard_dev Remarks If standard_dev ≤ 0. The equation for the normalized value is: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

then compute the standard deviation using STDEVP.STDEV Page 1 of 1 STDEV See Also Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. number2.number2.46391572) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding to a sample of a population. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =STDEV(A2:A11) Standard deviation of breaking strength (27..) Number1.. The standard deviation is calculated using the "unbiased" or "n-1" method. Syntax STDEV(number1. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.ch. 15/12/05 . If your data represents the entire population... Example Suppose 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected as a random sample and measured for breaking strength. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). If logical values and text must not be ignored.. use the STDEVA worksheet function.…) and n is the sample size.. Logical values such as TRUE and FALSE and text are ignored. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. STDEV uses the following formula: where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(number1.number2.. Remarks STDEV assumes that its arguments are a sample of the population. .

arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero).value2.. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. Remarks STDEVA assumes that its arguments are a sample of the population. .46391572) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. The standard deviation is calculated using the "unbiased" or "n-1" method. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean)...…) and n is the sample size. are 1 to 30 values corresponding to a sample of a population.STDEVA Page 1 of 1 STDEVA See Also Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.value2. STDEVA uses the following formula: where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(value1. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.. use the STDEV worksheet function instead. you must compute the standard deviation using STDEVPA. If your data represents the entire population.. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1.) Value1. 15/12/05 . Syntax STDEVA(value1.ch. Example Suppose 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected as a random sample and measured for breaking strength. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =STDEVA(A2:A11) Standard deviation of breaking strength for all the tools (27. value2. If the calculation must not include text or logical values.

05455814) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks STDEVP assumes that its arguments are the entire population.. 15/12/05 . STDEV and STDEVP return approximately equal values.) Number1. Text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are ignored.. are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding to a population. then compute the standard deviation using STDEV.…) and n is the sample size. number2. . For large sample sizes.. The standard deviation is calculated using the "biased" or "n" method. Syntax STDEVP(number1.... How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =STDEVP(A2:A11) Standard deviation of breaking strength.number2. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas.. assuming only 10 tools are produced (26. use the STDEVPA worksheet function.STDEVP Page 1 of 1 STDEVP See Also Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). If logical values and text must not be ignored. STDEVP uses the following formula: where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(number1.ch. If your data represents a sample of the population.number2.

.... Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). use the STDEVP worksheet function instead. You can also use a single array or a reference to an array instead of arguments separated by commas... you must compute the standard deviation using STDEVA. 15/12/05 . Syntax STDEVPA(value1. Remarks STDEVPA assumes that its arguments are the entire population. are 1 to 30 values corresponding to a population. For large sample sizes.05455814) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1.. The standard deviation is calculated using the "biased" or "n" method.) Value1. including text and logical values. STDEVA and STDEVPA return approximately equal values. STDEVPA uses the following formula: where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(value1. If the calculation must not include text or logical values.value2.value2.STDEVPA Page 1 of 1 STDEVPA See Also Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. assuming only 10 tools are produced (26. arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero). value2. If your data represents a sample of the population.…) and n is the sample size. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =STDEVPA(A2:A11) Standard deviation of breaking strength. .ch.

How? A 1 Known y 2 2 3 3 4 9 5 1 6 8 7 7 8 5 Formula B Known x 6 5 11 7 5 4 4 Description (Result) =STEYX(A2:A8.known_x's) Known_y's Known_x's Remarks The arguments must either be numbers or be names.B2:B8) Standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression (3.. The standard error is a measure of the amount of error in the prediction of y for an individual x. If known_y's and known_x's are empty or have a different number of data points. or references that contain numbers.STEYX Page 1 of 1 STEYX See Also Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression.. STEYX returns the #N/A error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. where x and y are the sample means AVERAGE(known_x’s) and AVERAGE(known_y’s). The equation for the standard error of the predicted y is: is an array or range of dependent data points.ch. is an array or range of independent data points. arrays. or empty cells. those values are ignored. logical values. and n is the sample size. however. cells with the value zero are included. If an array or reference argument contains text. Syntax STEYX(known_y's.305719) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 .

TDIST is calculated as TDIST = P(|X| > x) = P(X > x or X < -x).054644927. 15/12/05 . TDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.ch. TDIST returns the #NUM! error value. If tails = 2.96 3 60 Formula B Description Value at which to evaluate the distribution Degrees of freedom Description (Result) =TDIST(A2.df.2) = TDIST(x df. click Cells.027322463 or 2.df. If tails = 1.73 percent) Note To view the number as a percent. How? A 1 Data 2 1. where X is a random variable that follows the t-distribution. If tails = 2. note that TDIST(-x. If tails is any value other than 1 or 2. If tails = 1.TDIST Page 1 of 1 TDIST See Also Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed. TDIST is calculated as TDIST = P( X>x ). to use TDIST when x < 0. Use this function in place of a table of critical values for the t-distribution.1) = 1 – TDIST(x.tails) X is the numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution.A3. Since x < 0 is not allowed. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..1) = P(X > -x) and TDIST(-x. or 5. TDIST returns the one-tailed distribution.degrees_freedom. Remarks If any argument is nonnumeric. TDIST returns the two-tailed distribution.1) One-tailed distribution (0. The degrees_freedom and tails arguments are truncated to integers.2) = P(|X| > x). TDIST returns the #NUM! error value. select the cell and. then TDIST returns the #NUM! error value. and then click Percentage in the Category box. If degrees_freedom < 1. The t-distribution is used in the hypothesis testing of small sample data sets.. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Degrees_freedom Tails specifies the number of distribution tails to return.46 percent) =TDIST(A2. Syntax TDIST(x.2) Two-tailed distribution (0.A3. Click the Number tab. on the Format menu. is an integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom. If x < 0.df.

TINV returns the #NUM! error value. which returns 1. TINV returns the #VALUE! error value..ch. degrees_freedom. is the number of degrees of freedom with which to characterize the distribution. it is truncated.05.A3) t-value of the Student's t-distribution for the terms above (1. If the search has not converged after 100 iterations.05. Thus.28139. Syntax TINV(probability. For a probability of 0. If degrees_freedom < 1. probability is described as (1-p). How? A 1 Data 2 0..10). TINV seeks that value x such that TDIST(x.959997462) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Given a value for probability. TINV uses an iterative search technique. the two-tailed value is calculated with TINV(0. If probability < 0 or if probability > 1. The one-tailed value for the same probability and degrees of freedom can be calculated with TINV(2*0. A one-tailed t-value can be returned by replacing probability with 2*probability. TINV returns that value t.degrees_freedom) Probability is the probability associated with the two-tailed Student's t-distribution.054645 3 60 Formula B Description Probability associated with the two-tailed Student's t-distribution Degrees of freedom Description (Result) =TINV(A2. 2) = probability.812462. which returns 2.TINV Page 1 of 1 TINV See Also Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. TINV returns the #NUM! error value. such that P(|X| > t) = probability where X is a random variable that follows the t-distribution and P(|X| > t) = P(X < -t or X > t). Degrees_freedom Remarks If either argument is nonnumeric. 15/12/05 . the function returns the #N/A error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. If degrees_freedom is not an integer. Note In some tables. precision of TINV depends on precision of TDIST.10).05 and degrees of freedom of 10.

For example.} that is the same size as known_y's. Const is a logical value specifying whether to force the constant b to equal 0.const) Known_y's is the set of y-values you already know in the relationship y = mx + b.3. If known_y's is in a single row. If the array known_y's is in a single row. then each column of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable. New_x's must include a column (or row) for each independent variable.A2:A13) Month Cost mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. a range with a height of one row or a width of one column).} that is the same size as known_y's. If known_x's is omitted. known_y's must be a vector (that is. Remarks For information about how Microsoft Excel fits a line to data.2.900 $141.new_x's. if known_y's is in a single column.890 $135. If you omit both known_x's and new_x's. Returns the y-values along that line for the array of new_x's that you specify. known_y's and known_x's can be ranges of any shape. known_x's and new_x's must have the same number of columns. If only one variable is used. then each row of known_x's is interpreted as a separate variable.. If the array known_y's is in a single column..2. You can use TREND for polynomial curve fitting by regressing against the same variable raised to different powers.. see LINEST. b is calculated normally. x^3 in column D. it is assumed to be the array {1. Fits a straight line (using the method of least squares) to the arrays known_y's and known_x's. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. if the linear trend continues. If const is TRUE or omitted. The array known_x's can include one or more sets of variables..130 $139. and then regress columns B through D against column A. The second formula predicts the next months values.3. 15/12/05 .ch. it is assumed to be the same as known_x's. use commas to separate values in the same row and semicolons to separate rows.known_x's. If you omit new_x's. and so on. as long as they have equal dimensions. New_x's are new x-values for which you want TREND to return corresponding y-values. just as known_x's does.. suppose column A contains y-values and column B contains x-values. they are assumed to be the array {1. b is set equal to 0 (zero). How? The first formula shows corresponding values to the known values.100 $139.TREND Page 1 of 2 TREND See Also Returns values along a linear trend.120 C Formula (Corresponding Cost) =TREND(B2:B13.. If const is FALSE. Syntax TREND(known_y's. A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B $133.. If more than one variable is used. You can enter x^2 in column C. known_x's and new_x's must have the same number of rows. So.790 $137. Formulas that return arrays must be entered as array formulas. Known_x's is an optional set of x-values that you may already know in the relationship y = mx + b..000 $135.300 $138. and the m-values are adjusted so that y = mx. When entering an array constant for an argument such as known_x's.

select the range C2:C13 or B15:B19 starting with the formula cell. and then press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER..3333 and 146171..A2:A13. the single results are 133953. 15/12/05 .5152.A15:A19) Month Formula (Predicted Cost) Note The formula in the example must be entered as an array formula.ch. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.890 $143. Press F2.290 =TREND(B2:B13.230 $144.TREND Page 2 of 2 10 9 11 10 12 11 13 12 13 14 15 16 17 $141. If the formula is not entered as an array formula.000 $145. After copying the example to a blank worksheet.

10 percent of 30 data points equals 3 points. 15/12/05 . if percent = 0. For symmetry. If percent = 0.2. Syntax TRIMMEAN(array. Remarks If percent < 0 or percent > 1. with 20 percent excluded from calculation (3. You can use this function when you wish to exclude outlying data from your analysis.1.777778) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. TRIMMEAN rounds the number of excluded data points down to the nearest multiple of 2.ch.percent) Array is the array or range of values to trim and average. TRIMMEAN calculates the mean taken by excluding a percentage of data points from the top and bottom tails of a data set. TRIMMEAN returns the #NUM! error value. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. For example..TRIMMEAN Page 1 of 1 TRIMMEAN See Also Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. 4 points are trimmed from a data set of 20 points (20 x 0.2) Mean of the interior of a data set above. Percent is the fractional number of data points to exclude from the calculation.0. TRIMMEAN excludes a single value from the top and bottom of the data set.2): 2 from the top and 2 from the bottom of the set. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Data 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 Formula Description (Result) =TRIMMEAN(A2:A12.

tails.. TTEST uses the twotailed distribution. TTEST uses the data in array1 and array2 to compute a non-negative t-statistic. TTEST uses the one-tailed distribution. If tails = 2.TTEST Page 1 of 1 TTEST See Also Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-Test. Syntax TTEST(array1. The tails and type arguments are truncated to integers.. TTEST returns the probability of a higher value of the t-statistic under the assumption that array1 and array2 are samples from populations with the same mean. Type is the kind of t-Test to perform. TTEST returns the #VALUE! error value.196016) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. If tails is any value other than 1 or 2. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.array2. with a two-tailed distribution (0. How? Paired Two-sample equal variance (homoscedastic) Two-sample unequal variance (heteroscedastic) A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Data 1 3 4 5 8 9 1 2 4 5 Formula B Data 2 6 19 3 2 14 4 5 17 1 Description (Result) =TTEST(A2:A10.2. TTEST returns the #NUM! error value.1) Probability associated with a Student's paired t-Test. If tails or type is nonnumeric. 15/12/05 . If type equals This test is performed 1 2 3 Remarks If array1 and array2 have a different number of data points. The value returned by TTEST when tails=2 is double that returned when tails=1 and corresponds to the probability of a higher absolute value of the t-statistic under the “same population means” assumption. TTEST returns the #N/A error value. If tails = 1.B2:B10. is the second data set.type) Array1 Array2 is the first data set. Tails specifies the number of distribution tails. Use TTEST to determine whether two samples are likely to have come from the same two underlying populations that have the same mean. If tails=1. and type = 1 (paired).ch.

. number2..2666667) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11..) Number1. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =VAR(A2:A11) Variance for the breaking strength of the tools (754. If logical values and text must not be ignored.. FALSE. use the VARA worksheet function. Syntax VAR(number1. If your data represents the entire population.number2. Remarks VAR assumes that its arguments are a sample of the population...VAR Page 1 of 1 VAR See Also Estimates variance based on a sample.…) and n is the sample size. and text are ignored.ch. where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(number1.. Logical values such as TRUE.. then compute the variance using VARP. VAR uses the following formula: are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding to a sample of a population. Example Suppose 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected as a random sample and measured for breaking strength. 15/12/05 . The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.number2.

ch.…) and n is the sample size. In addition to numbers. text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =VARA(A2:A11) Estimates the variance for the breaking strength (754. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. Remarks VARA assumes that its arguments are a sample of the population.. arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero).VARA Page 1 of 1 VARA See Also Estimates variance based on a sample.value2. If your data represents the entire population. use the VAR worksheet function instead.2666667) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(value1.) Value1.value2. 15/12/05 .. Syntax VARA(value1. If the calculation must not include text or logical values. VARA uses the following formula: are 1 to 30 value arguments corresponding to a sample of a population. value2.. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1. you must compute the variance using VARPA. . Example Suppose 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected as a random sample and measured for breaking strength.....

84) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. Example Suppose all 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected and measured for breaking strength. Logical values such as TRUE and FALSE and text are ignored.number2. where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(number1. The equation for VARP is: are 1 to 30 number arguments corresponding to a population. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =VARP(A2:A11) Variance of breaking strengths for all the tools. assuming that only 10 tools are produced (678. then compute the variance using VAR.. If logical values and text must not be ignored.. number2. . 15/12/05 ..number2. Syntax VARP(number1. Remarks VARP assumes that its arguments are the entire population.…) and n is the sample size. use the VARPA worksheet function. If your data represents a sample of the population...ch.) Number1.VARP Page 1 of 1 VARP See Also Calculates variance based on the entire population. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet..

If your data represents a sample of the population.. In addition to numbers.) Value1. If the calculation must not include text or logical values..value2.84) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11...VARPA Page 1 of 1 VARPA See Also Calculates variance based on the entire population. where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(value1.. The equation for VARPA is : are 1 to 30 value arguments corresponding to a population. use the VARP worksheet function instead. 15/12/05 . you must compute the variance using VARA. value2..ch. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Strength 1345 1301 1368 1322 1310 1370 1318 1350 1303 1299 Formula Description (Result) =VARPA(A2:A11) Variance of breaking strengths for all the tools. text and logical values such as TRUE and FALSE are included in the calculation. Arguments that contain TRUE evaluate as 1. assuming that only 10 tools are produced (678. Remarks VARPA assumes that its arguments are the entire population. The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. arguments that contain text or FALSE evaluate as 0 (zero).value2. Syntax VARPA(value1. Example Suppose all 10 tools stamped from the same machine during a production run are collected and measured for breaking strength.…) and n is the sample size.. .

WEIBULL returns the exponential distribution with: Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How? A 1 Data 2 105 3 20 4 100 Formula B Description Value at which to evaluate the function Alpha parameter to the distribution Beta parameter to the distribution Description (Result) =WEIBULL(A2.beta. determines the form of the function.929581) =WEIBULL(A2.FALSE) Weibull probability density function for the terms above (0.A4. or beta is nonnumeric.alpha. such as calculating a device's mean time to failure. The equation for the Weibull cumulative distribution function is: The equation for the Weibull probability density function is: When alpha = 1. WEIBULL returns the #NUM! error value.TRUE) Weibull cumulative distribution function for the terms above (0. is a parameter to the distribution. is a parameter to the distribution..035589) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.A4. Alpha Beta Cumulative Remarks If x.WEIBULL Page 1 of 1 WEIBULL See Also Returns the Weibull distribution. WEIBULL returns the #VALUE! error value.. Syntax WEIBULL(x. 15/12/05 .A3. WEIBULL returns the #NUM! error value. If x < 0. If alpha ≤ 0 or if beta ≤ 0. alpha.ch.A3.cumulative) X is the value at which to evaluate the function. Use this distribution in reliability analysis.

sigma) Array µ0 is the array or range of data against which to test µ0 is the value to test. How? A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Data 3 6 7 8 6 5 4 2 1 9 Formula =ZTEST(A2:A11.µ0. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. ZTEST returns the probability that the sample mean would be greater than the average of observations in the data set (array)— that is. the sample standard deviation is used. is the population (known) standard deviation.sigma)). and n is the number of observations in the sample COUNT(array). ZTEST is calculated as follows when sigma is not omitted: or when sigma is omitted: where x is the sample mean AVERAGE(array).ZTEST(array. s is the sample standard deviation STDEV(array).090574) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax ZTEST(array. µ0. when the underlying population mean is µ0. 15/12/05 .4) Description (Result) One-tailed probability-value of a z-test for the data set above. 1 .. the observed sample mean. if AVERAGE(array) < µ0. ZTEST returns the #N/A error value. The following Excel formula can be used to calculate the two-tailed probability that the sample mean would be further from µ0 (in either direction) than AVERAGE(array). ZTEST represents the probability that the sample mean would be greater than the observed value AVERAGE(array). From the symmetry of the Normal distribution.sigma). To see how ZTEST can be used in a formula to compute a two-tailed probability value.µ0. see "Remarks" below. ZTEST will return a value greater than 0. when the underlying population mean is µ0: =2 * MIN(ZTEST(array.µ0. If omitted. at the hypothesized population mean of 4 (0. For a given hypothesized population mean. Sigma Remarks If array is empty.5..ch.ZTEST Page 1 of 2 ZTEST See Also Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.

6)) population mean of 6 (0. 1 . 15/12/05 . at the hypothesized (A2:A11.863043) =2 * MIN(ZTEST(A2:A11.273913) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.6). 1 .4)) population mean of 4 (0.ch.ZTEST Page 2 of 2 =2 * MIN(ZTEST(A2:A11.181149) =ZTEST(A2:A11.4)...6) One-tailed probability-value of a z-test for the data set above. at the hypothesized (A2:A11.ZTEST Two-tailed probability-value of a z-test for the data set above. at the hypothesized population mean of 6 (0.ZTEST Two-tailed probability-value of a z-test for the data set above.

BAHTTEXT Page 1 of 1 BAHTTEXT See Also Converts a number to Thai text and adds a suffix of "Baht. Syntax BAHTTEXT(number) Number number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. or a reference to a cell containing a number. you can change the Baht format to a different style by using Regional Settings or Regional Options in Control Panel." In Microsoft Excel for Windows. 13/12/05 . (One thousand two hundred thirty four Baht in Thai text) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or a formula that evaluates to a A 1 Data 2 1234 Formula Description (Result) =BAHTTEXT(A2) Displays the number in text.. In Excel for the Macintosh.ch.. you can change the Baht number format to a different style by using Control Panel for Numbers. How? is a number you want to convert to text.

CHAR Page 1 of 1 CHAR See Also Returns the character specified by a number. Operating environment Character set Macintosh Windows Syntax CHAR(number) Number is a number between 1 and 255 specifying which character you want. The character is from the character set used by your computer..ch. How? Macintosh character set ANSI A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =CHAR(65) Displays the 65 character in the set (A) 3 =CHAR(33) Displays the 33 character in the set (!) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. Use CHAR to translate code page numbers you might get from files on other types of computers into characters. 13/12/05 .

CHAR(7). from the string above (text) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. you can use CLEAN to remove some low-level computer code that is frequently at the beginning and end of data files and cannot be printed. Syntax CLEAN(text) Text is any worksheet information from which you want to remove nonprintable characters. How? A 1 Data 2 =CHAR(7)&"text"&CHAR(7) Formula =CLEAN(A2) Description (Result) Removes the nonprintable character. For example..ch.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 13/12/05 . Use CLEAN on text imported from other applications that contains characters that may not print with your operating system.CLEAN Page 1 of 1 CLEAN See Also Removes all nonprintable characters from text.

Selecting an example from Help 3. and press CTRL+V. or on the Tools menu. press CTRL+` (grave accent). To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results.. point to Formula Auditing. How? 1.CODE Page 1 of 1 CODE See Also Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =CODE("A") Displays the numeric code for A (65) 3 =CODE("!") Displays the numeric code for ! (33) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.. 13/12/05 . Press CTRL+C. Operating environment Character set Macintosh Windows Syntax CODE(text) Text is the text for which you want the code of the first character.ch. In the worksheet. 4. 5. Do not select the row or column headers. The returned code corresponds to the character set used by your computer. Select the example in the Help topic. Macintosh character set ANSI Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2. select cell A1.

A4. references.A2.CONCATENATE Page 1 of 1 CONCATENATE See Also Joins several text strings into one text string.."/mile") brook trout species is 32/mile) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11..." ".. .) Text1. How? are 1 to 30 text items to be joined into a single text item. Syntax CONCATENATE (text1.A3. numbers. text2.text2... 13/12/05 . Remarks The "&" operator can be used instead of CONCATENATE to join text items. The text items can be text strings.. or single-cell A 1 Data 2 brook trout 3 species 4 32 Formula Description =CONCATENATE("Stream population for "." Concatenates a sentence from the data above (Stream population for is ".ch. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

a reference to a cell containing a number.00). 4 digits to the right of the decimal point(($0. The name of the function (and the symbol that it applies) depends upon your language settings. How? A 1 Data 2 1234.decimals) Number is a number. The format used is $#.888 Formula Description (Result) =DOLLAR(A2.($#. If you omit decimals. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. 2 digits to the left of the decimal point ($1.567 3 -1234.89) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.200) =DOLLAR(A3. 2 digits to the right of the decimal point ($1.##0. Decimals is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point.234.567 4 -0. A number formatted with the Cells command is still a number. 4) Displays the third number in a currency format. Remark The major difference between formatting a cell that contains a number with the Cells command (Format menu) and formatting a number directly with the DOLLAR function is that DOLLAR converts its result to text. 2) Displays the first number in a currency format.123 5 99. If decimals is negative. Syntax DOLLAR(number. 2 digits to the left of the decimal point (($1. number is rounded to the left of the decimal point.57) =DOLLAR(A2. This function converts a number to text using currency format.DOLLAR Page 1 of 1 DOLLAR See Also The function described in this Help topic converts a number to text format and applies a currency symbol.##0. or a formula that evaluates to a number. -2) Displays the first number in a currency format.1230)) =DOLLAR(A5) Displays the fourth number in a currency format. because Microsoft Excel converts numbers entered as text values to numbers when it calculates.00_).200)) =DOLLAR(A4. -2) Displays the second number in a currency format. You can continue to use numbers formatted with DOLLAR in formulas... 2 digit to the left of the decimal point ($99.ch. it is assumed to be 2. 14/12/05 . with the decimals rounded to the specified place.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.B4) Checks whether the strings in the third row match (FALSE) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. EXACT is case-sensitive but ignores formatting differences.ch.EXACT Page 1 of 1 EXACT See Also Compares two text strings and returns TRUE if they are exactly the same. is the second text string. How? A 1 First string 2 word 3 Word 4 w ord Formula B Second string word word word Description (Result) =EXACT(A2..B3) Checks whether the strings in the second row match (FALSE) =EXACT(A4.. Syntax EXACT(text1.B2) Checks whether the strings in the first row match (TRUE) =EXACT(A3. 14/12/05 . FALSE otherwise.text2) Text1 Text2 is the first text string. Use EXACT to test text being entered into a document.

You can also use SEARCH to find one text string within another. but unlike SEARCH. starting with the third character (8) Example 2 (FIND) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. and returns the number of the starting position of find_text. This function is for use with double-byte characters. FIND begins with character 8. Syntax FIND(find_text. Remarks If find_text is "" (empty text).ch. FIND and FINDB return the #VALUE! error value. If start_num is greater than the length of within_text. For example. FINDB finds one text string (find_text) within another text string (within_text).start_num) Find_text Within_text is the text you want to find. it is assumed to be 1. 14/12/05 . and returns the number 9. If find_text does not appear in within_text.FIND Page 1 of 2 FIND See Also Also applies to: FINDB FIND finds one text string (find_text) within another text string (within_text).3) Position of the first "M" in the string above. How? A 1 Data mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Example 1 (FIND) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. The first character in within_text is character number 1. FIND is case sensitive and doesn't allow wildcard characters. FIND matches the first character in the search string (that is.A2) Description (Result) Position of the first "M" in the string above (1) Position of the first "m" in the string above (6) =FIND("M". Start_num specifies the character at which to start the search. FIND and FINDB return the #VALUE! error value. If you omit start_num. To find the number of the first "Y" in the descriptive part of the text string.. finds find_text at the next character. Tip Use start_num to skip a specified number of characters. based on the number of bytes each character uses. FIND and FINDB return the #VALUE! error value.A2) =FIND("m".YoungMensApparel". set start_num equal to 8 so that the serial-number portion of the text is not searched.within_text. and returns the number of the starting position of find_text. FIND always returns the number of characters from the start of within_text. suppose you are working with the text string "AYF0093. from the first character of within_text. Find_text cannot contain any wildcard characters.A2. You can also use SEARCHB to find one text string within another. is the text containing the text you want to find.. How? A 1 Data 2 Miriam McGovern Formula =FIND("M".within_text. from the first character of within_text. counting the characters you skip if start_num is greater than 1. the character numbered start_num or 1).start_num) FINDB(find_text. If start_num is not greater than zero.

FIND(" #". and FINDB returns 3 because each character is counted by its bytes. the first character has 2 bytes.FIND Page 2 of 2 2 Ceramic Insulators #124-TD453 87 4 Copper Coils #12-671-6772 Variable Resistors #116010 Formula =MID(A2. 14/12/05 .1)-1) =MID(A4.1)-1) =MID(A3." ".FIND(" #".. FIND returns 2 because "" is in the second position within the string.1)-1) Example (FINDB) In the following examples.A2.FIND(" #". so the second character begins at byte 3.ch.A4." ") equals 2 ") equals 3 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.1..1.A3. Description (Result) Extracts text from position 1 to the position of "#" in the first string above (Ceramic Insulators) Extracts text from position 1 to the position of "#" in the second string above (Copper Coils) Extracts text from position 1 to the position of "#" in the third string above (Variable Resistors) =FIND(" =FINDB(" ".1.

-1) =FIXED(44. is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. The major difference between formatting a cell containing a number with the Cells command (Format menu) and formatting a number directly with the FIXED function is that FIXED converts its result to text. If no_commas is FALSE or omitted. is a logical value that. How? A 1 Data 2 1234..no_commas) Number Decimals is the number you want to round and convert to text.ch. number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. If you omit decimals.234. -1. 14/12/05 .33) =FIXED(-1234. then the returned text includes commas as usual.567.. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.6) Rounds the first number 1 digit to the left of the decimal point (1.567 4 44. but decimals can be as large as 127. formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas. TRUE) Rounds the second number 1 digit to the left of the decimal point.FIXED Page 1 of 1 FIXED See Also Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals. without commas (-1230) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 1) =FIXED(A2.332 Formula =FIXED(A2. prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text.decimals.567 3 -1234. No_commas Remarks Numbers in Microsoft Excel can never have more than 15 significant digits. and returns the result as text. A number formatted with the Cells command is still a number. If decimals is negative. Syntax FIXED(number. if TRUE.332) Description (Result) Rounds the first number 1 digit to the right of the decimal point (1. it is assumed to be 2.230) Rounds the third number 2 digits to the left of the decimal point (44.

FIXED

Page 1 of 1

FIXED
See Also Rounds a number to the specified number of decimals, formats the number in decimal format using a period and commas, and returns the result as text. Syntax FIXED(number,decimals,no_commas) Number Decimals is the number you want to round and convert to text. is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. is a logical value that, if TRUE, prevents FIXED from including commas in the returned text.

No_commas Remarks

Numbers in Microsoft Excel can never have more than 15 significant digits, but decimals can be as large as 127. If decimals is negative, number is rounded to the left of the decimal point. If you omit decimals, it is assumed to be 2. If no_commas is FALSE or omitted, then the returned text includes commas as usual. The major difference between formatting a cell containing a number with the Cells command (Format menu) and formatting a number directly with the FIXED function is that FIXED converts its result to text. A number formatted with the Cells command is still a number. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 1234.567 3 -1234.567 4 44.332 Formula =FIXED(A2, 1) =FIXED(A2, -1) =FIXED(44.332) Description (Result) Rounds the first number 1 digit to the right of the decimal point (1,234.6) Rounds the first number 1 digit to the left of the decimal point (1,230) Rounds the third number 2 digits to the left of the decimal point (44.33)

=FIXED(-1234.567, -1, TRUE) Rounds the second number 1 digit to the left of the decimal point, without commas (-1230)

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LEFT

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LEFT
See Also Also applies to: LEFTB LEFT returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of characters you specify. LEFTB returns the first character or characters in a text string, based on the number of bytes you specify. This function is for use with double-byte characters. Syntax LEFT(text,num_chars) LEFTB(text,num_bytes) Text is the text string that contains the characters you want to extract.

Num_chars specifies the number of characters you want LEFT to extract. Num_chars must be greater than or equal to zero. If num_chars is greater than the length of text, LEFT returns all of text. If num_chars is omitted, it is assumed to be 1. Num_bytes specifies the number of characters you want LEFTB to extract, based on bytes. Example (LEFT) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 Sale Price 3 Sweden Formula =LEFT(A3) Description (Result) First character in the second string (S) =LEFT(A2,4) First four characters in the first string (Sale)

Example (LEFTB)

LEFTB("

",4) equals "

"

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LEN

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LEN
See Also Also applies to: LENB LEN returns the number of characters in a text string. LENB returns the number of bytes used to represent the characters in a text string. This function is for use with double-byte characters. Syntax LEN(text) LENB(text) Text is the text whose length you want to find. Spaces count as characters.

Example (LEN) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 Phoenix, AZ 3 4 One Formula =LEN(A2) =LEN(A3) =LEN(A4) Description (Result) Length of the first string (11) Length of the second string (0) Length of the third string, which includes 5 spaces (8)

Example (LENB)

=LENB("

") equals 6

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LOWER

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LOWER
See Also Converts all uppercase letters in a text string to lowercase. Syntax LOWER(text) Text is the text you want to convert to lowercase. LOWER does not change characters in text that are not letters.

Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 E. E. Cummings 3 Apt. 2B Formula =LOWER(A2) =LOWER(A3) Description (Result) Lower case of first string (e. e. cummings) Lower case of last string (apt. 2b)

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MID

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MID
See Also Also applies to: MIDB MID returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of characters you specify. MIDB returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify, based on the number of bytes you specify. This function is for use with double-byte characters. Syntax MID(text,start_num,num_chars) MIDB(text,start_num,num_bytes) Text is the text string containing the characters you want to extract. is the position of the first character you want to extract in text. The first character in text has start_num 1, and so on. specifies the number of characters you want MID to return from text. specifies the number of characters you want MIDB to return from text, in bytes.

Start_num Num_chars Num_bytes Remarks

If start_num is greater than the length of text, MID returns "" (empty text). If start_num is less than the length of text, but start_num plus num_chars exceeds the length of text, MID returns the characters up to the end of text. If start_num is less than 1, MID returns the #VALUE! error value. If num_chars is negative, MID returns the #VALUE! error value. If num_bytes is negative, MIDB returns the #VALUE! error value. Example (MID) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 Fluid Flow Formula Description (Result) =MID(A2,1,5) Five characters from the string above, starting at the first character (Fluid) =MID(A2,7,20) Twenty characters from the string above, starting at the seventh (Flow) =MID(A2,20,5) Because the starting point is greater than the length of the string, empty text is returned () Example (MIDB)

=MIDB("

",1,6) equals "

"

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PROPER

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PROPER
See Also Capitalizes the first letter in a text string and any other letters in text that follow any character other than a letter. Converts all other letters to lowercase letters. Syntax PROPER(text) Text is text enclosed in quotation marks, a formula that returns text, or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to partially capitalize. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 this is a TITLE 3 2-cent's worth 4 76BudGet Formula Description (Result) =PROPER(A2) Proper case of first string (This Is A Title) =PROPER(A3) Proper case of second string (2-Cent'S Worth) =PROPER(A4) Proper case of third string (76Budget)

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REPLACE

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REPLACE
See Also Also applies to: REPLACEB REPLACE replaces part of a text string, based on the number of characters you specify, with a different text string. REPLACEB replaces part of a text string, based on the number of bytes you specify, with a different text string. This function is for use with double-byte characters. Syntax REPLACE(old_text,start_num,num_chars,new_text) REPLACEB(old_text,start_num,num_bytes,new_text) Old_text Start_num Num_chars Num_bytes New_text is text in which you want to replace some characters. is the position of the character in old_text that you want to replace with new_text. is the number of characters in old_text that you want REPLACE to replace with new_text. is the number of bytes in old_text that you want REPLACEB to replace with new_text. is the text that will replace characters in old_text.

Example (REPLACE) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. How?

A 1 Data 2 abcdefghijk 3 2009 4 123456 Formula Description (Result) =REPLACE(A2,6,5,"*") Replaces five characters, starting with the sixth character (abcde*k) =REPLACE(A3,3,2,"10") Replaces the last two digits of 2009 with 10 (2010) =REPLACE(A4,1,3,"@") Replaces the first three characters with @ (@456) Example (REPLACEB) In the following example, the first three double-byte characters in cell C4 are replaced with " ":

=REPLACEB(C4,1,6,"

")

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Use REPT to fill a cell with a number of instances of a text string. The result of the REPT function cannot be longer than 32. REPT returns "" (empty text).. is a positive number specifying the number of times to repeat text. or REPT returns #VALUE!. 15/12/05 . How? A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =REPT("*-".10) Displays a dash 10 times (----------) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.767 characters. it is truncated. Number_times Remarks If number_times is 0 (zero).number_times) Text is the text you want to repeat.REPT Page 1 of 1 REPT See Also Repeats text a given number of times. 3) Displays the string 3 times (*-*-*-) 3 =REPT("-". Syntax REPT(text.. If number_times is not an integer. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch.

Remarks Num_chars must be greater than or equal to zero. Syntax RIGHT(text.2) equals " " mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 .RIGHT Page 1 of 1 RIGHT See Also Also applies to: RIGHTB RIGHT returns the last character or characters in a text string. RIGHTB returns the last character or characters in a text string. RIGHT returns all of text. based on the number of bytes you specify.. Num_chars Num_bytes specifies the number of characters you want RIGHTB to extract.num_bytes) Text is the text string containing the characters you want to extract. specifies the number of characters you want RIGHT to extract. Example (RIGHT) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. it is assumed to be 1.5) Last 5 characters of the first string (Price) Example (RIGHTB) =RIGHTB( " ". If num_chars is greater than the length of text. How? A 1 Data 2 Sale Price 3 Stock Number Formula =RIGHT(A3) Description (Result) Last character of the second string (r) =RIGHT(A2. based on the number of characters you specify.ch. based on bytes. If num_chars is omitted.. This function is for use with double-byte characters.num_chars) RIGHTB(text.

How? is the text in which you want to search for find_text. and SEARCHB returns 3 because each character is counted by its bytes. 15/12/05 ." ") equals 2 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. finds find_text at the next character. suppose you are working with the text string "AYF0093. set start_num equal to 8 so that the serial-number portion of the text is not searched. SEARCH always returns the number of characters from the start of within_text.within_text. and returns the number of the starting position of find_text.A2. so the second character begins at byte 3.A3) Description (Result) Position of the first "e" in the first string above. SEARCH begins with character 8. type a tilde (~) before the character.YoungMensApparel". The result is based on the number of bytes each character uses. Within_text Start_num Tip Use start_num to skip a specified number of characters.SEARCH(A4.start_num) SEARCHB(find_text. except that FIND and FINDB are case sensitive. it is assumed to be 1..within_text. SEARCH returns 2 because "" is in the second position within the string. the #VALUE! error value is returned. beginning with start_num.A3). the first character has 2 bytes. For example.start_num) Find_text is the text you want to find. If start_num is omitted. This function is for use with double-byte characters You can also use FINDB to find one text string within another. If start_num is not greater than 0 (zero) or is greater than the length of within_text. an asterisk matches any sequence of characters.6) =SEARCH(A4.SEARCH Page 1 of 2 SEARCH See Also Also applies to: SEARCHB SEARCH returns the number of the character at which a specific character or text string is first found. =SEARCH(" ". starting at the sixth position (7) Position of "margin" in "Profit Margin" (8) =REPLACE(A3."Amount") Replaces "Margin" with "Amount" (Profit Amount) Example (SEARCHB) In the following examples.. and returns the number 9. SEARCH and SEARCHB are similar to FIND and FINDB. question mark (?) and asterisk (*). is the character number in within_text at which you want to start searching. counting the characters you skip if start_num is greater than 1. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk. Example (SEARCH) The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. A question mark matches any single character. To find the number of the first "Y" in the descriptive part of the text string.6. Use SEARCH to determine the location of a character or text string within another text string so that you can use the MID or REPLACE functions to change the text. If find_text is not found. SEARCHB also finds one text string (find_text) within another text string (within_text). the #VALUE! error value is returned.ch. beginning with start_num. in find_text. A 1 Data 2 Statements 3 Profit Margin 4 margin Formula =SEARCH("e". Syntax SEARCH(find_text. Remarks SEARCH and SEARCHB do not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters when searching text. You can use the wildcard characters.

.." ") equals 3 mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. 15/12/05 .ch.SEARCH Page 2 of 2 =SEARCHB (" ".

empty text is returned () mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. the text is returned (Rainfall) Because the second value is a number.. T returns value. T returns "" (empty text). empty text is returned () Because the third value is a logical value. How? A 1 Data 2 Rainfall 3 19 4 TRUE Formula Description (Result) =T(A2) =T(A3) =T(A4) Because the first value is text.. 15/12/05 . Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.ch. Remarks If value is or refers to text. You do not generally need to use the T function in a formula because Microsoft Excel automatically converts values as necessary.T Page 1 of 1 T See Also Returns the text referred to by value. If value does not refer to text. Syntax T(value) Value is the value you want to test. This function is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.

"$0. is a number format in text form from in the Category box on the Number tab in the Format Cells dialog box. not the value. or a reference to a cell containing a numeric value.00 worth of units.) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11.TEXT Page 1 of 1 TEXT See Also Converts a value to text in a specific number format. Format_text Remarks Format_text cannot contain an asterisk (*).ch.. Using the TEXT function converts a value to formatted text.format_text) Value is a numeric value." =A3&" sold "&TEXT(B3. Format menu) changes only the format.) Combines contents above into a phrase (Dodsworth sold 40% of the total sales."0%")&" of the total sales." B Sales 2800 40% Description (Result) Combines contents above into a phrase (Buchanan sold $2800. Formatting a cell with an option on the Number tab (Cells command. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. and the result is no longer calculated as a number. a formula that evaluates to a numeric value. 15/12/05 . Syntax TEXT(value. How? A 1 Salesperson 2 Buchanan 3 Dodsworth Formula =A2&" sold "&TEXT(B2.00")&" worth of units.

Do not select the row or column headers.TRIM Page 1 of 1 TRIM See Also Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words. and then click Formula Auditing Mode. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results. 2. Use TRIM on text that you have received from another application that may have irregular spacing. Create a blank workbook or worksheet. Selecting an example from Help 3.. 5. press CTRL+` (grave accent). How? 1. In the worksheet. 15/12/05 . Press CTRL+C. 4.ch. or on the Tools menu.. and press CTRL+V. A 1 Formula B Description (Result) 2 =TRIM(" First Quarter Earnings ") Removes leading and trailing spaces from the text in the formula (First Quarter Earnings) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Syntax TRIM(text) Text is the text from which you want spaces removed. Select the example in the Help topic. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet. point to Formula Auditing. select cell A1.

How? A 1 Data 2 total 3 Yield Formula Description (Result) =UPPER(A2) Upper case of first string (TOTAL) =UPPER(A3) Upper case of second string (YIELD) mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. Text can be a reference or text string..ch.UPPER Page 1 of 1 UPPER See Also Converts text to uppercase. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. 15/12/05 . Syntax UPPER(text) Text is the text you want converted to uppercase.

000") 3 =VALUE("16:48:00")-VALUE ("12:00:00") B Description (Result) Number equivalent of the string (1000) The serial number equivalent to 4 hours and 48 minutes.ch. This function is provided for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Microsoft%20Office\OFFICE11033\xlmain11. or time formats recognized by Microsoft Excel. If text is not in one of these formats.. which is "16:48:00""12:00:00" (0. select the cell and click Cells on the Format menu. Remarks Text can be in any of the constant number. How? A 1 Formula 2 =VALUE("$1. date.VALUE Page 1 of 1 VALUE See Also Converts a text string that represents a number to a number. Syntax VALUE(text) Text is the text enclosed in quotation marks or a reference to a cell containing the text you want to convert. 15/12/05 . Click the Number tab.2 or 4:48) Note To view the number as a time. VALUE returns the #VALUE! error value. You do not generally need to use the VALUE function in a formula because Excel automatically converts text to numbers as necessary. Example The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.. and then click Time in the Category box.