343

DiIIerences and similarities between 130 volunteers who remain Ior more than eight years in the same non-proft organization and 110
volunteers who quit during the frst year were analyzed in this paper. Both groups were chosen Irom a sample oI 851 volunteers that
were working as volunteers when we assessed the independent variables (Time 1). After a 12-month follow-up (Time 2), 209 (25%) of
them had dropped out and 642 (75%) continued in the same organization. Using the previous time, we formed two groups made up of
those who dropped out and had been in the organization less than a year and those who continued and had been in the organization more
than 8 years. Results show that differences and similarities between both groups are coherent with the three-stage model of volunteer’s
duration (Chacón, Vecina, & Dávila, 2007). This model includes the functional approach of volunteers’ motivations (Clary & Snyder,
1991), and the role identity approach (Callero, 1985), and indicates that people will remain as volunteers insoIar as this satisfes the
motivations that are relevant Ior them at the frst stage, they develop organizational commitment at the second stage, and they develop
role identity as volunteers at the third stage. More specifcally, results show that it is possible to predict 85° oI the cases correctly using
seven variables. Volunteers who remain after eight years feel a higher level of emotional exhaustion, a higher level of organizational
commitment, and a strong role identity as volunteers. They are also highly satisfed with the Iriendships in the organization and have a
stronger intention to remain at the long term (2 years).
Keywords: volunteerism, emotional exhaustion, organizational commitment, volunteer role identity, satisfaction.
En este trabajo se analizan las diferencias y semejanzas entre dos grupos extremos de voluntarios, uno compuesto por 110 voluntarios
que abandonan antes del primer año y otro compuesto por 130 voluntarios que continúan después de ocho. Estos dos grupos fueron
seleccionados de una muestra total de 851 voluntarios, que, en el momento en el que se tomaron las medidas de las variables independientes
(T1), estaban en activo y que, doce meses más tarde, cuando se midió la variable dependiente tiempo de permanencia (T2), resultó que
habían abandonado 209 (25%) y que continuaban con su trabajo voluntarios en la misma organización 642 (75%). Puesto que en todos los
casos se midió en el momento inicial (T1) el tiempo previo, se aplicaron dos criterios de selección para confgurar los grupos, uno relativo al
tiempo previo (menor a un año o mayor de 8 años) y otro relativo a la permanencia (abandona o sigue). Los resultados muestran una pauta
de diferencias y semejanzas coherente con los supuestos del Modelo de las tres etapas de la permanencia del voluntariado (Chacón,
Vecina y Dávila, 2007), que integra las dos principales líneas de investigación sobre la permanencia del voluntariado, la teoría funcional
de las motivaciones (Clary y Snyder, 1991) y la basada en la identidad de rol (Callero, 1985), y que establece como variables explicativas
fundamentales en la primera etapa la satisfacción, en la segunda el compromiso con la organización y en la tercera la identidad de
rol. Más concretamente los resultados muestran que a través de siete variables es posible predecir correctamente la pertenencia a
uno de los dos grupos en un 85% de los casos. Los voluntarios permanentes presentan niveles mayores de cansancio emocional, de
compromiso organizacional y de identidad de rol como voluntarios. También parecen estar más satisfechos con las relaciones de amistad
en la organización y tienen mayor intención de permanecer a largo plazo (dos años).
Keywords: voluntariado, permanencia, motivaciones, cansancio emocional, satisfacción, identidad de rol, compromiso organizacional.
Differences and Similarities among Volunteers who
Drop out During the frst Year and Volunteers who
Continue aIter eight Years
María Luisa Vecina Jiménez, Fernando Chacón Fuertes,
and Manuel J. Sueiro Abad
Universidad Complutense (Spain)
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to María Luisa Vecina Jiménez. Facultad de Psicología. Universidad
Complutense. Campus de Somosaguas. 28223 Madrid. E-mail: mvecina@psi.ucm.es
Copyright 2010 by The Spanish Journal of Psychology
ISSN 1138-7416
The Spanish Journal of Psychology
2010, Vol. 13 No. 1, 343-352
VECINA JIMÉNEZ, CHACÓN FUERTES, AND SUEIRO ABAD 344
What characterizes people who work for other’s well-
being or for the common good, continuously and despite
the costs and diIfculties involved? How are they diIIerent
from people who, having made the decision to become
volunteers, end up dropping out after a short time? Which
variables discriminate dropouts from those who remain for
decades?
Underlying these questions is the interest in knowing
which Iactors infuence sustained volunteerism. This
is a key aspect, both at a theoretical level, because
permanence defnes the concept oI volunteerism (Omoto
& Snyder, 1995; Penner, 2002), and also in practice,
because this aspect coincides with one of the main needs
of organizations to provide continuity to their programs.
The variables that affect permanence have been the
object of much research in the last decade and, according
to Penner’s (2002) theoretical framework, they can be
grouped into various large categories: situational factors,
sociodemographic variables, beliefs and values, personality
variables, organizational variables, and variables related to
personal identity. The models that try to explain volunteer
permanence have incorporated some of these variables,
and their results seem to focus on two approaches, the
functional approach—which underlines the importance of
motivations and their satisfaction for maintaining behavior
(Clary & Snyder, 1991; Clary, Snyder, Ridge, Copeland,
& Stukas, 1998; Snyder, Clary, & Stukas, 2000)—and
the role identity approach—which sustains that the
incorporation of the volunteer role into the self-concept
best explains sustained volunteerism (Callero, 1985;
Finkelstein, Penner, & Brannick, 2005; Grube & Piliavin,
2000; Marta & Pozzi, 2007; Penner & Finkelstein, 1998).
The conceptual framework proposed by Penner (2002)
allows the theoretical integration of these two approaches,
but the three-stage model of volunteer’s duration of
service (Chacón, Vecina, & Dávila, 2007), developed with
a Spanish sample of volunteers and using a longitudinal
methodology for the variable permanence, has contributed
empirical evidence that makes the assumptions of the
functional approach of motivations compatible with
those of the volunteer role identity approach and it has
also incorporated a powerful explanatory variable: the
behavioral intention of permanence, taken from the
theories of reasoned action and planned action (Ajzen,
1985, 1991; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen,
1975).
The three-stage model of volunteer permanence
(Chacón et al., 2007) conceptualizes sustained volunteerism
as a complex and dynamic process that takes place within a
temporal dimension (Omoto & Snyder, 1995) and in which
the infuential variables change, evolve, and interact within
an organizational context. Volunteers` experience modifes
their initial motivations, their support network, and their
own self-concept.
Firstly, the model assumes that volunteers know their
life circumstances better than anyone else and they are
the ones who can best estimate the time they are going
to remain. Therefore, the variable that best explains
real permanence within a certain time interval is the
behavioral intention to remain during that same period
of time (Arias & Barrón, 2008; Chacón, Vecina & Dávila,
2007; Dávila & Chacón, 2007; Dávila, 2003; Greenslade
& White, 2005; Vecina, 2001). Three types of intention
are differentiated, because it is assumed that people have
different concerns when asked to estimate the probability
of continuing at short term (6 months), medium term
ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMITMENT
ROLE
IDENTITY
INTENTION
1 year
INTENTION
2 years
DURATION
Follow-up 12 months
SATISFACTION
INTENTION
6 months
Figure 1. The three-stage model of volunteer's duration of service.
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 345
(1 year), and long term (2 years), especially if they are
at the frst stage, in which various dispositional variables,
such as organizational commitment and volunteer role
identity, have not yet developed.
Secondly, the model assumes that the relevant
variables to explain short-, medium-, and long-term
intention of remaining in service depend on the temporal
moment of the volunteers’ service (see Figure 1). The
model distinguishes three stages: in the initial stage, the
motivations and the degree of satisfaction are part of the
set of variables that have the most impact on the intention
of remaining in service (Clary & Snyder, 1991; Clary et
al., 1998). Satisfaction at this stage is also achieved from
performing the tasks (Hackman & Oldham, 1975, 1980)
and from diverse variables related to the organization
management (Jamison, 2003). It is assumed that people
have diverse expectations and motivations when they
decide to become volunteers and that they compare
them with a reality that is partially expected and partially
unexpected. Moreover, the passing of time makes the
costs more evident in terms of time, money, obligations,
burnout, diIfcult personal interactions, etc., that will make
dropout more likely Ior the volunteers who do not fnd an
optimum degree of satisfaction (Vecina & Chacón, 2005),
either because they do not achieve what they expect and
consider essential or because they accumulate costs that
are not offset by other positive outcomes. Some kind
of organizational commitment must be generated for
volunteers to go on to the second phase. According to
Brickman (1987), commitment is “what makes a person
assume or continue a course oI action when diIfculties or
positive alternatives would lead them to give it up” (p. 2).
Following an affective and emotional approach (Mowday,
Porter, & Steers, 1982; Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian,
1974), commitment implies a strong identifcation with
a concrete organization, manifested in the belief in and
acceptance of its goals and values, with the intention to
make an effort for it and with the desire to remain as a
member. This variable is especially related to the medium-
term intention of remaining in service because it allows
one, at least temporarily, to compensate for moderate
decreases in terms of satisfaction. In the third stage, and
as a consequence of the continued practice of volunteer
actions for the organization, volunteers incorporate a new
characteristic in the self-concept—the volunteer role—
and this volunteer role identity is what best explains the
long-term intention of remaining in service (Callero, 1985;
Grube & Piliavin, 2000).
The three-stage model of volunteer permanence
(Chacón et al., 2007) does not include as a predictor
variable the so-called burnout syndrome (Maslach &
Jackson, 1986; Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001), but
theoretically, it may be related to volunteer dropout,
especially in intervention spheres involving direct
contact with users. Emotional fatigue is one of its main
dimensions, and many studies have revealed that a lot
of the tasks carried out by volunteers are susceptible to
generating burnout or at least high scores in some of its
dimensions (Capner & Caltabiano, 1993; Maslanka, 1996;
Nesbitt, Ross, Sunderland, & Shelp, 1996; Snyder, Omoto,
& Crain, 1999) and this is related to a higher likelihood of
dropout (Claxton, Catalán, & Burgess, 1998; Lafer, 1991;
Ross, Greenfeld, & Bennett, 1999). In Spanish samples
of volunteers, burnout was related to previous time of
permanence (Chacón, Vecina, Barrón, & De Paúl, 1999)
and to dropout during follow-up (Vecina, Arias, Dávila,
Barron & Chacon, 2001), in the frst case, observing that
the volunteers who had spent more time in an organization
presented a lower level of burnout and, in the second case,
that the level of burnout reached its maximum level in
volunteers who dropped out. The presence of a higher level
of emotional fatigue among those who remain for more
than eight years would allow us to directly confrm the
presence of important costs in volunteers, an assumption
in the three-stage model, and indirectly confrm the
neutralizing infuence oI variables such as organizational
commitment and volunteer role identity.
This work has two goals. On the one hand, to analyze
the differences and similarities between two extreme
groups of volunteers, one made up of those who dropped
out during their frst year oI volunteerism and the other
made up of those who continue after eight years, and, on
the other hand, to identify the variables that afford the best
prediction of belonging to one group or the other.
All the variables to be compared were measured at the
same temporal moment (T1) and when the volunteers of the
sample were practicing. Twelve months later, a telephone
follow-up was conducted to determine real permanence
during that follow-up time (T2), which, along with the
datum of previous time, allowed us to select the two target
groups. With this procedure, we aim to verify whether
the dynamism oI the process studied, which is diIfcult
and costly to reproduce methodologically, is refected in
a static photograph of two extreme groups. This would
contribute validity to some of the assumptions of the three-
stage model of sustained volunteerism (Chacón, Vecina
& Dávila, 2007) and it would allow us to determine the
most relevant variables that are susceptible to eventual
manipulation in the context of managing volunteerism
programs.
Given the characteristics of the sample selected and
according to the reference model, it can be assumed that
most of the volunteers who ended up dropping out before
one year did not get through the frst stage successIully,
whereas those who continued after eight years of previous
permanence had already gone through the frst and second
stages and were in the third stage. If so, we could expect
some group differences already at the initial moment
(T1) when the independent variables were measured and
when all the volunteers of the sample were practicing.
VECINA JIMÉNEZ, CHACÓN FUERTES, AND SUEIRO ABAD 346
Consequently, the following hypotheses are proposed:
– Hypothesis 1: The volunteers who drop out before
the frst year will present the same or a lower level
of satisfaction with the three dimensions of the
concept (motivational satisfaction, task satisfaction,
and satisfaction with the organization management)
than the volunteers who continue after 8 years.
– Hypothesis 2: Volunteers who remain in service
will present a higher of level of organizational
commitment and a stronger volunteer role identity.
Their intention of remaining in service in the
organization at short, medium, and long term will
also be higher and they will display a lower level of
differentiation among the three types of intention.
– Hypothesis 3: Volunteers who remain in service
will present higher levels of emotional fatigue than
those who drop out before one year.
– Hypothesis 4: Lastly, it is hypothesized that the
variables that predict belonging to one or the
other group will be the variables that theoretically
require the passing of time to become established
and which will therefore be fully developed in the
volunteers who remain in service, but not in those
who drop out beIore the frst year. These variables
are: organizational commitment, role identity,
long-term intention of remaining in service, and
emotional fatigue.
Method
Participants
Of a total sample of 851 volunteers, belonging to 56
different socio-assistantial organizations, 240 volunteers
were selected: 110 had dropped out of the organization
beIore completing the frst year (Group 1) and 130
continued after eight years (Group 2).
With regard to the sociodemographic characteristics
of Group 1, the mean age of this group was 26 years
(SD = 8.7), ranging between 16 and 64 years. Of the
group, 27.5% were men and 72.5% women and 56% had
university studies. With regard to work situation, 32%
were working, 15% were unemployed, 46% were studying,
and 7° defned themselves as housewives or retirees.
Regarding volunteer activity, the volunteers from this
group dedicated an average of 1.5 days and 5.5 hours per
week, and they needed an average of 36 minutes to travel
to the organization.
Regarding the characteristics of Group 2, the mean age
was 41 years (SD = 14.97), ranging between 22 and 82
years. Of this group, 54% were men (70) and 46% (60)
were women, and 56% had university studies. With regard
to work situation, 68% were actively working, whereas
8% were unemployed, 6% were studying, and 15% were
included among housewives or retirees. The volunteers of
this group dedicated an average of 2.8 days and 11 hours
per week to volunteerism and they needed an average of
24 minutes to travel to the organization.
Procedure
All the independent measures were assessed at a
single temporal moment (T1). One year later, a telephone
Iollow-up was conducted to fnd out who continued and
who had dropped out of the organization they belonged
to (T2). This procedure allowed us to select two groups
of volunteers as a function of their previous time in the
organization and their continuity or dropout at follow-up.
In order to compare the extreme groups, we eliminated the
cases that did not meet these criteria from the analysis.
Instruments
The following sociodemographic variables were
assessed: age, sex, educational level, and work situation.
Participants were also asked how many days and hours
per week they dedicated to volunteerism and how long in
minutes they needed to travel to the organization.
Volunteer Satisfaction (Vecina, Chacón, & Sueiro,
2009). This measure included three subscales: motivational,
satisfaction, task satisfaction, and management satisfaction.
The frst subscale includes 6 items that measure the degree
to which the activity carried out Iulflls the six motivations
identifed in the Volunteer Functions Inventory (Clary et al.,
1998), for example: values “My volunteerism allows me to
express the values that are important for me”, knowledge
“…allows me to learn new and interesting things,” social
relations “...allows me to establish social relations with
other people,” improving one’s curriculum “...provides me
with the necessary training and experience to be a good
professional,” defense of the self “...helps me to forget my
problems,” and improving self-esteem “...makes me feel
good and raises my self-esteem.” The scale ranges from
1 to 7 and the Cronbach D index of internal consistency
was .720.
Task satisfaction includes 4 items that examine aspects
such as clarity in the defnition oI task goals, perIormance
feedback provided by the task, the transcendental meaning
oI the tasks, and the level oI selI-eIfcacy that can be
derived. It includes items such as: “the tasks I normally
carry out have clearly defned goals,¨ 'I can tell while I
am performing my volunteer tasks whether I am doing
them well,¨ 'I am satisfed with the eIfcacy with which I
carry out my tasks.” The instrument is rated on a 10-point
scale (1 = strongly disagree, 10 = strongly agree) and the
internal consistency of this instrument was .682.
Management satisfaction includes 7 items referring to
various aspects of the management of the organization. This
is a 7-point scale (1 = FRPSOHWHO\GLVVDWLV¿HG, 7 = totally
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 347
VDWLV¿HG) and includes items such as: 'I am satisfed with
the way the organization manages volunteerism,” “…with
the training provided to improve volunteer work,” “...with
the current mechanisms to solve problems the volunteers
might encounter when carrying out their tasks,” “…with
the friendly relations I have within the organization.” The
internal consistency of the instrument, measured with
Cronbach’s alpha, was .842.
Organizational Commitment. We used the instrument
originally designed by Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979)
and adapted to Spanish population (Dávila & Chacón,
2003). It has 9 items referring to the emotional link between
volunteers and their organization. It includes items such as:
“I am concerned about the future of this organization,” “I
fnd that my values and the values oI the organization are
very similar,” “I am proud to be able to say that I am a
part of this organization.” The instrument was rated on a
7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree).
The reliability of the instrument was .851.
Volunteer Role Identity. We used the instrument
designed by Grube and Piliavin (2000), adapted to Spanish
population (Dávila, Chacón, & Vecina, 2005). It includes
5 items such as: “I often think about volunteerism,” “For
me, being a volunteer is more important than the specifc
tasks I carry out,” “volunteerism is an important part of
my identity.” It was rated on a 10-point scale (1 = strongly
disagree, 10 = strongly agree). The reliability of the
instrument was .674.
Emotional Fatigue. We used the 9-item scale of
Emotional Fatigue of the Burnout Inventory of Maslach
and Jackson (1986), adapted to Spanish population
(Chacón et al., 1999). It includes items such as: “I feel
emotionally let down by my volunteer activity,” “I feel the
work I carry out tires me,” “I feel that I spend too much
time performing my volunteer activities,” “I feel that my
volunteer activity is wearing me down.” The instrument
was rated on a 5-point scale (1 = never, 5 = daily). The
reliability of the instrument was .817.
Intention of remaining in service. This was measured
by 3 items that asked participants about the likelihood of
their remaining in the organization at 6 months, one year,
and two years. The instrument was rated on a 7-point scale
(1 = not at all probable, 7 = extremely likely).
Data Analysis
First, we analyzed the differences and similarities of
the two groups of volunteers in the variables of interest
by means of multivariate analysis of variance (one-factor
MANOVA, independent measures, and fxed eIIects).
Then, we carried out a logistic regression analysis (with
the method of forward stepwise inclusion of variables,
based on the similarity rate, criterion p < .05) to identify
the set of variables that best predicted the inclusion of each
case in one of the two groups.
Results
Regarding motivational satisIaction, no signifcant
group diIIerences were observed at the confdence level
of .95 (Table 1). However, when the motivations were
analyzed separately, we observed signifcant diIIerences
in the motivational satisfaction of values, improving one’s
curriculum, and knowledge (F = 20.04, df = 1, p < .05;
F = 6.61, df = 1, p < .05; F = 5.53, df = 1, p < .05). The
direction of these differences indicates that the volunteers
who dropped out beIore 1 year achieved a signifcantly
lower degree of satisfaction for their motivation of values,
although, at the same time, they seem to fnd a higher
degree of satisfaction for their motivation of knowledge
and improving their relevant skills in professional
environments (improving one’s curriculum).
Signifcant group diIIerences were observed in task
satisfaction (F = 16.44, df = 1, p < .001) (Table 1). The
direction of the differences indicates that the volunteers
who remain for more than 8 years feel that their tasks have
better defned goals and a signifcant purpose, they carry
them out with eIfcacy, and, Iurthermore, the tasks provide
immediate feedback about their level of performance.
Lastly, regarding satisfaction with the organizational
management, no signifcant group diIIerences were
obtained (p < .001). Both groups seemed to be equally
satisfed with the way the organization was managed,
the specifc management oI volunteers, the Irequency
and fuidity oI communications, the problem-solving
mechanisms, training, and acknowledgement of the role of
volunteerism (Table 1).
From the above pattern of differences and similarities,
we can conclude that, as proposed in Hypothesis 1, the
volunteers who drop out before 1 year are either as
satisfed as or less satisfed than those who continue aIter
8 years. Specifcally, they seem to be as satisfed with the
management and the degree of motivational satisfaction,
but more dissatisfed with the tasks they carry out.
Signifcant group diIIerences were observed in the
remaining variables of the three-stage model, which
confrms Hypothesis 2 (Table 1). The direction oI these
differences indicates that, as we had assumed, the
volunteers who dropped out of volunteerism during the
follow-up year presented a lower level of commitment to
the organization (F = 44.27, df = 1, p < .001), a weaker
volunteer role identity (F = 32.45, df = 1, p < .001), and
as a consequence, less intention of remaining at short,
medium, and long term (F = 17.76, df = 1, p < .001;
F = 54.76, df = 1, p < .001; F = 66.53, df = 1, p < .001).
These volunteers also discriminated much more among the
three types of intention than the volunteers who remained;
in effect, the volunteers from Group 1 gave a much lower
estimation of their future intention to remain in service and
they discriminated much more among short-, medium- and
long-term intention (a difference of 1.8 points on a 1-to-7
VECINA JIMÉNEZ, CHACÓN FUERTES, AND SUEIRO ABAD 348
point scale for Group 1; whereas there was a difference of
.77 for Group 2).
As proposed in Hypothesis 3, the degree of emotional
Iatigue was signifcantly higher in the volunteers Irom
Group 2 (who remained after 8 years of previous service)
(F = 19.86, df = 1, p < .001), which may indicate that
sustained volunteer activity involves diverse costs to
sensitive volunteers, which is refected in what has been
called emotional fatigue and which accumulates to a lesser
degree among volunteers who drop out after a short time.
Table 1 presents a summary of all the contrasts carried
out, with the means and standard deviations of both groups,
the contrast statistic, its signifcance, and the statistical
power oI the test (Ior a level oI signifcance oI .05). It can
be seen that the powers are high for the contrasts with no
null hypothesis. Given that power is interpreted as the
probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false,
these results support the existence of group differences in
these variables.
All the variables assessed were introduced in the
logistic regression analysis, even the ones that did not
yield signifcant group diIIerences in the analysis oI
variance. The reason is that the analysis of variance
focused on intergroup variability, considering the within-
group differences as error, whereas the regression analysis
focused on the predictive power of the variables to classify
each subject in one of the groups, maximizing the number
of correct prognoses.
After seven iterations, we found a solution that included
seven predictor variables. The seven variables that
allowed us to correctly classify 84.9% of the volunteers
were: emotional fatigue, organizational commitment,
volunteer role identity, intention of remaining in service
at 2 years, motivational satisfaction of knowledge (-),
satisfaction with friendly relations, and satisfaction with
the acknowledgement of the role of volunteerism in the
organization (-). In the group of volunteers who dropped
out beIore the frst year, 81.7° oI the subjects were
correctly classifed, and 87.8° were correctly classifed in
the group of volunteers who remained after 8 years.
According to Nagelkerke’s R
2
statistic, this model
explains 64.9% of the variance of the variable Group
(dropped out before one year vs. remained after 8 years).
Where:
Pr is the probability of belonging to the group that
continues volunteerism.
IR is the score in Role Identity
C is the score in Commitment
CE is the score in Emotional Fatigue
Table 1
Differences between Volunteers who Dropped out and Volunteers who Remain and Power of Contrasts
Dropped out before
1 year
Remain after 8 years F p Power
M SD M SD
Motivational satisfaction (scale 1-7) 5.14 .89 5.11 .97 .07 .782 .059
1. Values 5.43 1.18 6.07 1.03 2.04 .000 1.000
2. Knowledge 6.33 .95 6.00 1.15 5.53 .020 .649
3. Improve curriculum 5.21 1.94 4.56 1.86 6.61 .011 .726
4. Social relations 5.93 1.33 5.91 1.22 .10 .919 .051
5. Improve self-esteem 4.42 1.59 4.63 1.69 .90 .343 .157
6. Defense of the self 3.51 1.81 3.67 1.86 .40 .523 .098
Task satisfaction (scale 1-10) 7.00 1.25 7.60 1.02 16.44 .000 .981
Management satisfaction (scale 1-7) 5.36 1.05 5.58 .88 3.23 .073 .433
Organizational commitment (scale 1-7) 4.96 .96 5.72 .77 44.27 .000 1.000
Role identity (scale 1-10) 6.23 1.53 7.38 1.53 32.45 .000 1.000
Emotional fatigue (scale 1-5) 1.43 .395 1.71 .55 19.86 .000 .993
Intention of remaining in service at 6
months (scale 1-7)
5.53 1.76 6.41 1.43 17.76 .000 .987
Intention of remaining in service at 1 year
(scale 1-7)
4.50 1.85 6.12 1.48 54.76 .000 1.000
Intention of remaining in service at 2 years
(scale 1-7)
3.73 1.87 5.64 1.68 66.53 .000 1.000
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 349
IP is the Intention of remaining in service at long-
term (2 years)
SM7 is Satisfaction of the motivation of knowledge
SG11 is Satisfaction with friendly relations
SG12 is Satisfaction with the acknowledgement of
volunteerism in the organization
Discussion
This work has shown that volunteers who remain in
service and accumulate a previous permanence of 8 years
seem to be achieving higher levels of satisfaction from
the tasks they carry out than the volunteers who drop out.
Moreover, their motivation of values— which turns out to
be the most important for volunteers in most of the studies
(Clary et al., 1998; Clary & Orenstein, 1991; Davis, Hall, &
Meyer, 2003; Okun & Eisenberg, 1992; Omoto & Snyder,
1995; Penner & Finkelstein, 1998; Vecina & Chacón,
1999; Winniford, Carpenter, Stanley & Grider, 1995)—is
more highly satisfed, they Ieel more committed to the
organization to which they belong, they have developed
a more solid volunteer role identity (Chacón et al., 2007;
Marta & Pozzi, 2007), and they have a stronger intention
of remaining at the short, medium and long term, even
though, at the same time, they are suffering from a higher
level of emotional fatigue (Chacón et al., 1999). The latter
aspect directly confrms the presence oI important costs in
volunteers` actions and indirectly confrms the infuence
of other variables such as commitment and role identity
which neutralize this negative infuence in Stages 2 and 3.
In contrast, volunteers who drop out before the
frst year seem to be fnding more satisIaction Ior their
motivations of knowledge and curriculum improvement,
whereas they express less satisfaction from the tasks
performed and as much satisfaction from the management
of the organization as the volunteers who continue (Group
2). These results are compatible with the assumption
that satisIaction is necessary but insuIfcient to explain
sustained volunteerism.
With the interpretational reservations due to this kind
of comparative analysis, it can be concluded that the
pattern of differences and similarities found is mostly
consistent with the assumptions of the three-stage model
of volunteers’ duration of service (Chacón et al., 2007).
On the one hand, we expected and could, in fact, observe
important group differences in the variables that develop
over time and that explain the dynamism of the process:
higher organizational commitment, stronger role identity,
stronger intention of remaining in service at the long term,
and more emotional fatigue in volunteers who remain after
8 years (Stage 3). In contrast, we expected the volunteers
who dropped out before 1 year (they did not complete
Stage 1) to be either as satisfed or less satisfed with the
diverse aspects of their volunteerism and, in effect, we
observed less task satisfaction and equal satisfaction in
the other two dimensions (management and motivations).
The three-stage model assumes that, in this frst stage,
volunteers compare their expectations and motivations
with reality and, for some time, there are adjustments, the
balance of which must be positive and contribute to the
development of an emotional link with the organization
(commitment) in order to explain permanence in Stage 2.
This is the only way to offset the costs that are undoubtedly
involved in maintaining volunteerism in organizational
contexts and that can be inferred from the higher level
of emotional fatigue among volunteers who remain for
long periods of time. In other words, the model predicts
that people who are dissatisfed will not go on to Stage 2,
and neither will those who are satisfed, but who do not
develop organizational commitment. The results obtained
seem compatible with these constraints proposed by the
model; Iunction satisIaction is a necessary but insuIfcient
condition to explain permanence, that is, manifest
dissatisIaction is related to dropout at this frst stage
(necessary condition), but satisfaction in itself would not
explain going on to the next stage (insuIfcient condition).
The results of the logistic regression analysis allow us
to conclude that the variables that predict belonging to one
or the other group are developed over time: organizational
commitment, volunteer role identity, emotional fatigue,
and intention of remaining in service at long term. Some
isolated items of the satisfaction dimensions were also
good predictors: satisfaction with friendly relationships
within the organization, satisfaction of the motivation of
knowledge (higher in the dropout group), and satisfaction
with the acknowledgement of the role of volunteerism in
the organization (also higher in the dropout group). These
results can be interpreted in the light of the logic of the
model, according to which, in order to remain in service
at long-term, it is necessary to develop an emotional link
with the organization and subsequently a self-concept
that incorporates the volunteer role. When this occurs,
permanence is associated with factors that are more
dispositional than situational, making the organization’s
acknowledgement of the volunteers or the satisfaction of
learning needs less relevant. This last assumption of the
model also receives indirect empirical support in this work,
as we observed that the volunteers who had developed
commitment and volunteer identity (dispositional
variables) made less differentiated estimations of their
intention of remaining in service at short, medium, and
long term.
Regarding the sociodemographic variables, at a merely
descriptive level, as shown by most of the studies (Cortes,
Hernán, & López, 1998; Dávila, 2003; FEAPS, 2004;
Florin, Jones, & Wandersman, 1986; Lemon, Paisleys, &
Jacobson, 1972; Medina, 2000; Pérez & López, 2003; Smith,
1983; Vecina, 2001; Wandersman, Florin, Friedmann, &
VECINA JIMÉNEZ, CHACÓN FUERTES, AND SUEIRO ABAD 350
Meier, 1987), the educational level of the volunteers is
considerably high: in both groups, more than 50% of the
subjects had university students. With regard to sex, the
results obtained in this work Iorce us to qualiIy some frmly
established ideas, such as the notion that socio-assistantial
volunteerism is phenomenon carried out mostly by women
(Cortes et al., 1998; Dávila, 2003; Medina, 2000; Pérez
& López, 2003; Vecina, 2001). In this work, we observed
that the proportion of women is much higher in the group
oI volunteers who dropped out during the frst year, but
it is practically the same as that of men in the group of
volunteers who remained in service after 7 years. In view
of these results, we see that, although volunteerism may
be initially carried out by women, over time and due to
the dropouts, these differences become blurred, and the
proportion of men and women is equivalent when we refer
to sustained volunteerism.
Diverse management strategies can be derived from
this work, which could be aimed at promoting the aspects
that characterize the group of permanent volunteers. In
a context that involves important costs, efforts should
be made to promote maximum task satisfaction for
volunteers (Vecina & Chacón, 2005) or, in the terminology
of Hackman and Oldham (1975, 1980), to increase the
motivating potential of the post. In accordance with the
functional theory of motivations (Clary et al., 1998),
organizations should attempt to Iulfll the volunteers`
most important motivations, and the organizations and
their programs should be managed so that at least the
unforeseen negative aspects that emerge over time are
neutralized. All this would be necessary but insuIfcient
if it does not lead to the development of an emotional
identifcation link with the organization, the people who
make it up, etc., and which would manifest, according to
Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979), in a strong desire to
continue to be a member of the organization, high levels
oI eIIort in beneft oI the organization, and acceptance oI
its values and goals. In other words, it would manifest by
providing continuity to action, despite its costs or positive
alternatives. Lastly, sustained work in these conditions
would make it more likely for people to incorporate the
role they had been performing into their self-concept,
which would ultimately lead them to continue performing
behaviors that are coherent with this self-concept (Piliavin
& Callero, 1991; Piliavin, Grube, & Callero, 2002).
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The variables that affect permanence have been the object of much research in the last decade and. 1995) and in which their initial motivations. the functional approach—which underlines the importance of motivations and their satisfaction for maintaining behavior (Clary & Snyder. Penner. the variable that best explains real permanence within a certain time interval is the behavioral intention to remain during that same period of time (Arias & Barrón. 2007). 2005. having made the decision to become volunteers. 1975). because this aspect coincides with one of the main needs of organizations to provide continuity to their programs. the model assumes that volunteers know their life circumstances better than anyone else and they are the ones who can best estimate the time they are going to remain. Firstly. 1980. Ridge. Copeland. developed with a Spanish sample of volunteers and using a longitudinal methodology for the variable permanence. 2001). because it is assumed that people have different concerns when asked to estimate the probability of continuing at short term (6 months). Penner & Finkelstein. Chacón. Marta & Pozzi. The conceptual framework proposed by Penner (2002) allows the theoretical integration of these two approaches. Fishbein & Ajzen. 2003. and their own self-concept. The three-stage model of volunteer's duration of service. and also in practice. & Brannick.344 VECINA JIMÉNEZ. AND SUEIRO ABAD What characterizes people who work for other’s wellbeing or for the common good. 1991. Penner. 1995. 2000)—and the role identity approach—which sustains that the incorporation of the volunteer role into the self-concept best explains sustained volunteerism (Callero. continuously and despite from people who. according to Penner’s (2002) theoretical framework. Greenslade & White. personality variables. 2008. Vecina. 2007. Snyder. 1985. sociodemographic variables. CHACÓN FUERTES. Vecina & Dávila. & Stukas. 1991. 1998). . Ajzen & Fishbein. has contributed empirical evidence that makes the assumptions of the functional approach of motivations compatible with those of the volunteer role identity approach and it has also incorporated a powerful explanatory variable: the behavioral intention of permanence. because & Snyder.. & Stukas. Vecina. and variables related to personal identity. Dávila. their support network. both at a theoretical level. taken from the theories of reasoned action and planned action (Ajzen. Finkelstein. medium term SATISFACTION INTENTION 6 months ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT INTENTION 1 year DURATION Follow-up 12 months ROLE INTENTION 2 years Figure 1. 2000. 2007. organizational variables. but the three-stage model of volunteer’s duration of service (Chacón. 2005. Snyder. & Dávila. Clary. 2002). Grube & Piliavin. 1985. Therefore. 2007. they can be grouped into various large categories: situational factors. Clary. The models that try to explain volunteer permanence have incorporated some of these variables. 1998. The three-stage model of volunteer permanence (Chacón et al. end up dropping out after a short time? Which variables discriminate dropouts from those who remain for decades? Underlying these questions is the interest in knowing is a key aspect. 2007) conceptualizes sustained volunteerism as a complex and dynamic process that takes place within a temporal dimension (Omoto & Snyder. beliefs and values. Dávila & Chacón. and their results seem to focus on two approaches. Three types of intention are differentiated.

This would contribute validity to some of the assumptions of the threestage model of sustained volunteerism (Chacón. 1998. 1982. Some kind of organizational commitment must be generated for volunteers to go on to the second phase. and many studies have revealed that a lot of the tasks carried out by volunteers are susceptible to generating burnout or at least high scores in some of its dimensions (Capner & Caltabiano. . money. and. Ross. In the third stage. According to Brickman (1987). Secondly. to compensate for moderate decreases in terms of satisfaction. All the variables to be compared were measured at the same temporal moment (T1) and when the volunteers of the sample were practicing. an assumption optimum degree of satisfaction (Vecina & Chacón. volunteers incorporate a new characteristic in the self-concept—the volunteer role— and this volunteer role identity is what best explains the long-term intention of remaining in service (Callero. one made up of those who dropped made up of those who continue after eight years. 1996. & Shelp. 1999) and to dropout during follow-up (Vecina. Satisfaction at this stage is also achieved from performing the tasks (Hackman & Oldham. & Steers. & De Paúl. The model distinguishes three stages: in the initial stage. to identify the variables that afford the best prediction of belonging to one group or the other. obligations. 1985. 2). Snyder. Mowday. & Crain. 2003). with the intention to make an effort for it and with the desire to remain as a member. we aim to verify whether a static photograph of two extreme groups. Catalán. Maslach. to analyze the differences and similarities between two extreme groups of volunteers. Sunderland. but theoretically. which. Emotional fatigue is one of its main commitment and volunteer role identity. This work has two goals. & Burgess. in the second case. it may be related to volunteer dropout. This variable is especially related to the mediumterm intention of remaining in service because it allows one.DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 345 (1 year). a telephone follow-up was conducted to determine real permanence during that follow-up time (T2). along with the datum of previous time. of volunteers. With this procedure. 1996. especially in intervention spheres involving direct contact with users. dimensions. 1991. manifested in the belief in and acceptance of its goals and values. Nesbitt. 2007) does not include as a predictor variable the so-called burnout syndrome (Maslach & Jackson. 1999) and this is related to a higher likelihood of dropout (Claxton. we could expect some group differences already at the initial moment (T1) when the independent variables were measured and when all the volunteers of the sample were practicing. and long-term intention of remaining in service depend on the temporal moment of the volunteers’ service (see Figure 1). 2001).. allowed us to select the two target groups. especially if they are such as organizational commitment and volunteer role identity. 2007) and it would allow us to determine the most relevant variables that are susceptible to eventual manipulation in the context of managing volunteerism programs. a concrete organization.. Moreover. 1980) and from diverse variables related to the organization management (Jamison. It is assumed that people have diverse expectations and motivations when they decide to become volunteers and that they compare them with a reality that is partially expected and partially unexpected. Given the characteristics of the sample selected and according to the reference model. If so. on the other hand. Dávila. 1975. either because they do not achieve what they expect and consider essential or because they accumulate costs that are not offset by other positive outcomes. 1991. 2005). & Boulian. and as a consequence of the continued practice of volunteer actions for the organization. it can be assumed that most of the volunteers who ended up dropping out before whereas those who continued after eight years of previous stages and were in the third stage. that the level of burnout reached its maximum level in volunteers who dropped out. commitment is “what makes a person positive alternatives would lead them to give it up” (p. Vecina & Dávila. Maslanka. On the one hand. Clary et al. Schaufeli. the volunteers who had spent more time in an organization presented a lower level of burnout and. 1993. & Leiter. the motivations and the degree of satisfaction are part of the set of variables that have the most impact on the intention of remaining in service (Clary & Snyder. at least temporarily. Porter. Barrón. Twelve months later. Omoto. The presence of a higher level of emotional fatigue among those who remain for more presence of important costs in volunteers. Arias. Grube & Piliavin. medium-. the passing of time makes the costs more evident in terms of time. 2000). 1998). and long term (2 years). Vecina. have not yet developed. Following an affective and emotional approach (Mowday. burnout was related to previous time of permanence (Chacón. Lafer. The three-stage model of volunteer permanence (Chacón et al. 1986. Steers. Porter. the model assumes that the relevant variables to explain short-.

and emotional fatigue. 7 = totally . Instruments The following sociodemographic variables were assessed: age..” and improving self-esteem “. 10 = strongly agree) and the internal consistency of this instrument was . for example: values “My volunteerism allows me to express the values that are important for me”. 32% were working. knowledge “…allows me to learn new and interesting things. it is hypothesized that the variables that predict belonging to one or the other group will be the variables that theoretically require the passing of time to become established and which will therefore be fully developed in the volunteers who remain in service.provides me with the necessary training and experience to be a good professional. CHACÓN FUERTES. Volunteer Satisfaction (Vecina. and they needed an average of 36 minutes to travel to the organization. the mean age was 41 years (SD = 14. With regard to the sociodemographic characteristics of Group 1. 68% were actively working..helps me to forget my problems. we eliminated the cases that did not meet these criteria from the analysis.allows me to establish social relations with other people. whereas 8% were unemployed. – Hypothesis 3: Volunteers who remain in service will present higher levels of emotional fatigue than those who drop out before one year. Procedure All the independent measures were assessed at a single temporal moment (T1). sex.97). This is a 7-point scale (1 = . the following hypotheses are proposed: – Hypothesis 1: The volunteers who drop out before of satisfaction with the three dimensions of the concept (motivational satisfaction. and management satisfaction. satisfaction. – Hypothesis 2: Volunteers who remain in service will present a higher of level of organizational commitment and a stronger volunteer role identity. Participants were also asked how many days and hours per week they dedicated to volunteerism and how long in minutes they needed to travel to the organization.” The scale ranges from 1 to 7 and the Cronbach index of internal consistency was . and 15% were included among housewives or retirees.. Task satisfaction includes 4 items that examine aspects feedback provided by the task. Regarding volunteer activity. 54% were men (70) and 46% (60) were women.. the volunteers from this group dedicated an average of 1. It includes items such as: “the tasks I normally am performing my volunteer tasks whether I am doing carry out my tasks. 15% were unemployed. 46% were studying.” defense of the self “. belonging to 56 different socio-assistantial organizations. and satisfaction with the organization management) than the volunteers who continue after 8 years. task satisfaction. this group dedicated an average of 2. Regarding the characteristics of Group 2. Management satisfaction includes 7 items referring to various aspects of the management of the organization.682. 6% were studying. long-term intention of remaining in service. educational level. One year later. 2009). ranging between 16 and 64 years.” The instrument is rated on a 10-point scale (1 = strongly disagree. This procedure allowed us to select two groups of volunteers as a function of their previous time in the organization and their continuity or dropout at follow-up. In order to compare the extreme groups. With regard to work situation. Method Participants Of a total sample of 851 volunteers. Chacón.5% women and 56% had university studies. Of the group. and 56% had university studies. Of this group.. the transcendental meaning derived. task satisfaction.7).makes me feel good and raises my self-esteem. 27.” improving one’s curriculum “. and work situation. a telephone who had dropped out of the organization they belonged to (T2). & Sueiro. With regard to work situation. AND SUEIRO ABAD Consequently.5 days and 5.. 240 volunteers were selected: 110 had dropped out of the organization continued after eight years (Group 2). medium.5 hours per week.8 days and 11 hours per week to volunteerism and they needed an average of 24 minutes to travel to the organization.346 VECINA JIMÉNEZ. This measure included three subscales: motivational. but not in those are: organizational commitment. ranging between 22 and 82 years.5% were men and 72.” social relations “..720. – Hypothesis 4: Lastly. role identity. and long term will also be higher and they will display a lower level of differentiation among the three types of intention.. the mean age of this group was 26 years (SD = 8. Their intention of remaining in service in the organization at short. The volunteers of 1998).

The instrument was rated on a 7-point scale (1 = not at all probable. the volunteers who dropped out of volunteerism during the follow-up year presented a lower level of commitment to the organization (F = 44.” The instrument was rated on a 7-point scale (1 = strongly disagree. . adapted to Spanish population (Chacón et al. The reliability of the instrument was .” “I feel that I spend too much time performing my volunteer activities. and acknowledgement of the role of volunteerism (Table 1). p < . p < . Volunteer Role Identity. This was measured by 3 items that asked participants about the likelihood of their remaining in the organization at 6 months. Both groups seemed to be equally mechanisms.53. training. p < . p < .” “…with the training provided to improve volunteer work. improving one’s curriculum.05). 2003).53.” “I feel the work I carry out tires me. The reliability of the instrument was . df = 1. and Porter (1979) and adapted to Spanish population (Dávila & Chacón. df = 1. was . Steers. we carried out a logistic regression analysis (with the method of forward stepwise inclusion of variables. Lastly. Regarding of . as we had assumed. It includes items such as: “I feel emotionally let down by my volunteer activity.” “I feel that my volunteer activity is wearing me down. 5 = daily). The direction of these differences indicates that the volunteers lower degree of satisfaction for their motivation of values. F = 5. F = 66. medium. the volunteers from Group 1 gave a much lower estimation of their future intention to remain in service and they discriminated much more among short-. 7 = extremely likely).27.001). and long term (F = 17.61. remaining variables of the three-stage model.95 (Table 1). one year. p < . 7 = strongly agree). we can conclude that.with the current mechanisms to solve problems the volunteers might encounter when carrying out their tasks.” “volunteerism is an important part of my identity. p < . However.05. We used the 9-item scale of Emotional Fatigue of the Burnout Inventory of Maslach and Jackson (1986). These volunteers also discriminated much more among the three types of intention than the volunteers who remained.DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 347 Results the way the organization manages volunteerism. based on the similarity rate..” The instrument was rated on a 5-point scale (1 = never. 10 = strongly agree).8 points on a 1-to-7 Data Analysis First. Chacón. Emotional Fatigue. and knowledge (F = 20.851.001) (Table 1).001. and as a consequence..001). as proposed in Hypothesis 1. It has 9 items referring to the emotional link between volunteers and their organization. F = 6. when the motivations were in the motivational satisfaction of values. 1999). regarding satisfaction with the organizational obtained (p < .817.76.and long-term intention (a difference of 1. p < . we analyzed the differences and similarities of the two groups of volunteers in the variables of interest by means of multivariate analysis of variance (one-factor Then. It includes 5 items such as: “I often think about volunteerism. the volunteers who drop out before 1 year are either as management and the degree of motivational satisfaction.” “.04. & Vecina. satisfaction (F = 16. df = 1. in effect. df = 1. which differences indicates that. measured with Cronbach’s alpha. We used the instrument designed by Grube and Piliavin (2000). df = 1. From the above pattern of differences and similarities.05.674. adapted to Spanish population (Dávila. Intention of remaining in service. p < .” “I am proud to be able to say that I am a part of this organization.” “I very similar. degree of satisfaction for their motivation of knowledge and improving their relevant skills in professional environments (improving one’s curriculum).05) to identify the set of variables that best predicted the inclusion of each case in one of the two groups. 2005). df = 1. df = 1. We used the instrument originally designed by Mowday. and two years. df = 1. It includes items such as: “I am concerned about the future of this organization.” “For tasks I carry out. df = 1.001). F = 54. p < .842. Organizational Commitment.” The internal consistency of the instrument. The direction of the differences indicates that the volunteers who remain for more than 8 years feel that their tasks have immediate feedback about their level of performance. The reliability of the instrument was .44.” “…with the friendly relations I have within the organization.001). a weaker volunteer role identity (F = 32. criterion p < ..76.45.” It was rated on a 10-point scale (1 = strongly disagree.001. less intention of remaining at short. medium.

00 5.77 1.14 5.55 1. p < .18 . even the ones that did not variance.157 . this model explains 64.15 1.993 . remained after 8 years).12 5.051 .87 Remain after 8 years M 5.38 1.000 . As proposed in Hypothesis 3.000 .27 32.50 3.000 .433 1. Defense of the self Task satisfaction (scale 1-10) Management satisfaction (scale 1-7) Organizational commitment (scale 1-7) Role identity (scale 1-10) Emotional fatigue (scale 1-5) Intention of remaining in service at 6 months (scale 1-7) Intention of remaining in service at 1 year (scale 1-7) Intention of remaining in service at 2 years (scale 1-7) 5.91 4. satisfaction with friendly relations. considering the withingroup differences as error.726 .86 17.40 16.059 1.61 .76 54.43 5.981 .43 6.77 for Group 2).45 19.68 .9% of the variance of the variable Group (dropped out before one year vs. the group of volunteers who remained after 8 years. volunteer role identity.03 1.21 5.85 1. According to Nagelkerke’s R2 statistic.395 1. IR is the score in Role Identity C is the score in Commitment CE is the score in Emotional Fatigue Table 1 Differences between Volunteers who Dropped out and Volunteers who Remain and Power of Contrasts Dropped out before 1 year M Motivational satisfaction (scale 1-7) 1. organizational commitment.000 .001).000 .25 1. Social relations 5.93 4. intention of remaining in service at 2 years.000 .33 5. and satisfaction with the acknowledgement of the role of volunteerism in the organization (-).348 VECINA JIMÉNEZ. Table 1 presents a summary of all the contrasts carried out.000 .07 2. The seven variables that allowed us to correctly classify 84.02 . The reason is that the analysis of variance focused on intergroup variability.64 SD . df = 1.000 .919 .000 1. which may indicate that sustained volunteer activity involves diverse costs to called emotional fatigue and which accumulates to a lesser degree among volunteers who drop out after a short time. Improve self-esteem 6.69 1.41 6. with the means and standard deviations of both groups.90 .43 1.73 SD . Values 2.00 4.95 1. motivational satisfaction of knowledge (-).23 44.523 . All the variables assessed were introduced in the logistic regression analysis. Where: Pr is the probability of belonging to the group that continues volunteerism. AND SUEIRO ABAD point scale for Group 1.89 1.88 .86 1. whereas the regression analysis focused on the predictive power of the variables to classify each subject in one of the groups.96 6.04 5.56 5.76 66.000 1.48 1.9% of the volunteers were: emotional fatigue.53 4.05 .76 1.63 3. whereas there was a difference of . Improve curriculum 4.073 . maximizing the number of correct prognoses.22 1. After seven iterations. Knowledge 3. we found a solution that included seven predictor variables.97 1.44 3.011 .59 1.33 1. these results support the existence of group differences in these variables.07 6.96 1.81 1.72 7.343 .53 .020 .58 5.36 4.000 .11 6.86.23 1.782 .53 .53 6.000 F p Power . Given that power is interpreted as the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false.987 1.42 3.10 . In the group of volunteers who dropped be seen that the powers are high for the contrasts with no null hypothesis.51 7. the degree of emotional Group 2 (who remained after 8 years of previous service) (F = 19.649 . CHACÓN FUERTES.60 5.71 6.53 .098 .86 1.67 7.94 1.000 .

Davis. 1999). 1972... FEAPS. Lemon. Paisleys. 2003. medium. This last assumption of the model also receives indirect empirical support in this work. Friedmann. in fact.. but satisfaction in itself would not The results of the logistic regression analysis allow us to conclude that the variables that predict belonging to one or the other group are developed over time: organizational commitment. and long term. that is. Clary & Orenstein. it is necessary to develop an emotional link with the organization and subsequently a self-concept that incorporates the volunteer role. Dávila. stronger intention of remaining in service at the long term. The latter develop organizational commitment. & Wandersman. These results can be interpreted in the light of the logic of the model. we expected the volunteers who dropped out before 1 year (they did not complete diverse aspects of their volunteerism and. whereas they express less satisfaction from the tasks performed and as much satisfaction from the management of the organization as the volunteers who continue (Group 2). the balance of which must be positive and contribute to the development of an emotional link with the organization (commitment) in order to explain permanence in Stage 2. 1999. 2007). we expected and could. Carpenter. permanence is associated with factors that are more dispositional than situational.DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES AMONG VOLUNTEERS 349 IP is the Intention of remaining in service at longterm (2 years) SM7 is Satisfaction of the motivation of knowledge SG11 is Satisfaction with friendly relations SG12 is Satisfaction with the acknowledgement of volunteerism in the organization observed less task satisfaction and equal satisfaction in the other two dimensions (management and motivations). they are suffering from a higher level of emotional fatigue (Chacón et al. The results obtained seem compatible with these constraints proposed by the condition to explain permanence. With the interpretational reservations due to this kind of comparative analysis. These results are compatible with the assumption sustained volunteerism. Smith. Winniford. & López. Medina. for some time. On the one hand. observe important group differences in the variables that develop over time and that explain the dynamism of the process: higher organizational commitment. we . it can be concluded that the pattern of differences and similarities found is mostly consistent with the assumptions of the three-stage model of volunteers’ duration of service (Chacón et al. Vecina & Chacón. Jones. at a merely descriptive level. Florin. Marta & Pozzi. Some isolated items of the satisfaction dimensions were also good predictors: satisfaction with friendly relationships within the organization. at the same time. in effect. manifest (necessary condition). Vecina. and they have a stronger intention of remaining at the short. 2004. Moreover. medium and long term. their motivation of values— which turns out to be the most important for volunteers in most of the studies (Clary et al. and more emotional fatigue in volunteers who remain after 8 years (Stage 3). Hall. according to which. and satisfaction with the acknowledgement of the role of volunteerism in the organization (also higher in the dropout group). Okun & Eisenberg. 2001. even though. and intention of remaining in service at long term. they have developed a more solid volunteer role identity (Chacón et al. & Jacobson. volunteer role identity. Pérez & López. Omoto & Snyder. 2003. Wandersman. When this occurs. 2003. volunteers who drop out before the motivations of knowledge and curriculum improvement. Regarding the sociodemographic variables. This is the only way to offset the costs that are undoubtedly involved in maintaining volunteerism in organizational contexts and that can be inferred from the higher level of emotional fatigue among volunteers who remain for long periods of time. 2007). stronger role identity. 2007. 1998. 1995. 1998. satisfaction of the motivation of knowledge (higher in the dropout group). 2000. 1991. In contrast. making the organization’s acknowledgement of the volunteers or the satisfaction of learning needs less relevant. Penner & Finkelstein. Stanley & Grider. & of other variables such as commitment and role identity In contrast. 1986. as we observed that the volunteers who had developed commitment and volunteer identity (dispositional variables) made less differentiated estimations of their intention of remaining in service at short. 1995)—is organization to which they belong. volunteers compare their expectations and motivations with reality and.. there are adjustments. as shown by most of the studies (Cortes. emotional fatigue. 1992. in order to remain in service at long-term. 1983. Hernán. & Meyer. 1998. In other words. Florin. the model predicts Discussion This work has shown that volunteers who remain in service and accumulate a previous permanence of 8 years seem to be achieving higher levels of satisfaction from the tasks they carry out than the volunteers who drop out.

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