Deciduous Forest Biome

Location
Deciduous biomes are located primarily in the eastern half of the United States, Canada, Europe, parts of Russia, China, and Japan.

Climate
The average temperature of the forest is about 50 degrees F. The average amount of rainfall in the forest is 30 to 60 inches a year. As the seasons change, so do the colors of the leaves of the deciduous. During the winter months water is generally not available to keep the leaves of some plants alive. Therefore, the leaves of some plants fall off and grow back in the spring. Those plants, like evergreens, keep their leaves during the winter have special adaptations to stay alive. You can learn more about the vegetation of deciduous biomes.

Animals
Precipitation in the temperate deciduous forest is spread throughout the year. However, during the winter months it is usually frozen and unavailable to animals. Animals living within this biome must adjust to cold winters and hot

summers. Leaves generally fall off in the fall, leaving animals with less cover to hide themselves from predators. Also in the deciduous forests are such animals as
Black Bear

Fox

Brown Bear

More Pictures of Deciduous Forest Animals: Aspic Viper Cardinal Gray Squirrel Raccoon

Vegetation
In the deciduous forest there are many flowers like the passion berry and the blue lily. There are many other flowers but those are some of the main ones.

More Pictures of Deciduous Forest Vegetation: Dog Wood Leaves Fringe Leaf Ginkgo Leaves

Temperate Deciduous Forest Animal Printouts Temperate deciduous forests are found in the middle latitudes around the globe and have four distinct seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter. In the Northern Hemisphere, these forests are found in North America, Europe, and Asia. In the Southern Hemisphere, there are smaller areas of these forests, in South America, Africa, and Australia. The growing season in these forests is about 6 months long. Temperature and Precipitation: The average temperature in temperate deciduous forests is roughly 75°F (24°C) but gets as high as 86°F (30°C), depending on the altitude of the forest.

Forests higher in the mountains are colder. Deciduous forests receive from 2 to 5 feet (0.5-1.5 m) of precipitation (both rain and snow) each year. Humidity in these forests is high, from 60% to 80%. Layers of the Temperate Deciduous Forest: There are five layers (also called zones or strata) in the temperate deciduous forest. These include the:

 

Tree stratum, the tallest layer, 60 -100 feet high, with large oak, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, or sweet gum trees. Small tree or sapling layer - short tree species and young trees. Shrub layer - shrubs like rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurels, and huckleberries. Herb layer - short plants. Ground layer - lichens, clubmosses, and true mosses.

Some Animals Found in Temperate Deciduous Forests:

Ant
Ants are social insects.

Bald Eagle
The bald eagle is a large bird of prey. It is the symbol of the USA.

Beaver
The beaver is a large rodent that builds dams and dens.

Black Bear
A large, black to brown bear.

Brown Bear

The Brown Bear is a large bear with a muscular hump on its shoulders.

Collared Peccary Cardinal

Deer

A pig-like mammal, also The deer is a known as the javelina, shy, fastThe cardinal is a brilliant red bird from deserts, chaparrals moving planteater. with a short, wide and forests of North and Central America. bill.

Dhole
The dhole is a wild dog from Asia.

Earthworm

An earthworm is a little Tadpoles The fox is a meat-eating animal with a long, soft grow up to be mammal with a long, body and no legs. frogs. bushy tail.

Fox

Frog

Nightingale Muskrats are Newts are small, The Mallard is a common wild duck that rodents that often brightly-colored A small songird that sings beautiful, build domeis the ancestor of most salamanders. complex songs, often at shaped houses. domestic ducks. night.

Mallard Duck

Muskrat

Newt

Opossum
The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial in North America. Over 64 species of opossum are found in South America.

Rabbit Porcupine
Porcupines are mammals with protective, needlelike quills on their body. A fastRaccoon moving The raccoon is a mammal mammal with mask-like with long markings on its face and ears. a ringed tail.

Red Fox
The Red Fox is a meat-eating mammal with a long, bushy tail.

Scorpion

Skunk

A venomous Red-Tailed Hawk arachnid with a Skunks are black and white mammals that The Red-Tailed Hawk is large stinger on can produce a a bird of prey, a raptor its tail. terrible odor. from North America.

Weasel Squirrel
Squirrels are rodents. They live in a variety of biomes, including the taiga.

Turkey
Turkeys are large birds that nest on the ground.

A carnivorous mammal that has a long, slender body and short legs.

White-Tailed Deer
The white-tailed deer is a shy, fastmoving plant-eater.

http://www.zoomwhales.com/biomes/tempdecid/tempdecid.shtml http://ths.sps.lane.edu/biomes/deciduous3/deciduous3.html

American Beech
Common Names: beech, carolina beech, gray beech, red beech, ridge beech, stone beech, white beech, winter beech. Genus: Fagus Species: grandifolia
The American Beech tree grows in the southern and eastern parts of the United States. It grows in deciduous forests all over Maine and northern Massachusetts. It grows best in deep, rich, moist, well-drained soils. The American beech is a tall and wide tree. The mature tree size is anywhere from 90 to 100 feet tall, and spreads 50 to 70 feet. The bark that grows on the tree is very smooth, pale and gray. The growth buds have a

yellow tinge, looking a little like a bullet. The leaves are bright green and are about three inches in length. They start wide, and then get smaller and smaller, until they come to a point. The leaves have distinct, strong veins and toothed edges. The American Beech tree does not like city living, probably because of the carbon monoxide. The American Beech tree has a shallow root system and likes bottom land, and upland soil. There are two reasons why it is hard to grow anything beneath the tree. The first is because the leaves that grow on the tree block the sunlight and keep the ground constantly in shade. The second reason is because much of the root system grows all over the ground's surface, and uses any moisture that may reach the ground. There are many different uses for the American Beech tree. This is a list of some of the things this tree is used for: furniture such as cabinets, benches, stools and tables. The American Beech tree produces a lot of paper. The animals that feed on the nuts that grow on this tree are: the opossum, black bears, white-tailed deer,

rabbits, ruffed grouse, red and gray squirrels, flying foxes, porcupines and others. The American Beech tree helps people because the nuts that fall off the tree can be harvested and sold for food. The american Beech's population is healthy throughout its range.
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Carpet Moss
Genus: Mnium Species: hornum
Mosses are simple, rootless evergreen plants. They can live in a wide variety of habitats, but are most often found covering the ground, growing on stream beds, and on the base of trees in deciduous woodlands. Carpet moss grows in eastern North America and Europe. Carpet Moss, like its name, carpets the ground. In the spring the carpet moss is golden green, and turns dark green as it gets older. It looks almost velvety. Its leaves grow parallel to each other and taper off to a point at the end. The edges of the leaves have long, narrow cells which grow in pairs and make the margins look serrated.

Mosses originated from aquatic plants and still have a lot of things in common with them. Arctic moss actually survives the bitter cold of the arctic by growing under water. They absorb water through pores which always stay open, and require constant moisture. They don't have true roots, stems or leaves. They reproduce through spores and not through seeds.

Carpet moss reproduces both sexually and asexually. When producing sexually, depending on weather conditions, mosses produce small female structures that produce egg cells, or male structures that produce sperm cells. These can grow on different parts of the same plant. The sperms fertilize the eggs and develop into a spore-plant, or sporophyte. The sporophyte begins to grow from the female plant, taking nutrients from its parent because it can't produce its own food. This sporophyte is the long stalk with a small capsule on the end that you often see growing out of carpet moss. The capsules produce the spores. When conditions are dry, the capsules open and release the spores. These spores grow into the leafy male or female mosses. Moss can also reproduce asexually when bits of stem or leaves are separated from the plant and develop into new plants. Many people use Carpet Moss as a ground cover in gardening. Many years ago, people used to stuff their beds with Carpet Moss because they thought it made them sleep better.
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Common Lime:
Common Name(s): Lime Tree, Linden, Basswood, Bast Tree, Spoonwood Genus: Tilia Species: x europaea
The common lime is a tall, stately tree, which grows in the deciduous forests of Europe, the British Isles, and the USA. In the USA it is known as a linden tree. It is the tallest broad-leaved tree in Britain. In the past it was found growing throughout the old growth forests of Europe. Today there are no original forests left there, but the common lime is still widespread because it is frequently planted along avenues and in gardens. The common lime can live up to 500 years. The tree can grow to a height of

120-130 ft (25 m). Bushy side shoots grow along the trunk from near the ground. The lower branches arch out, giving the tree an upside-down pyramid look. The leaves of the common lime grow

singly along a stem but not opposite each other, and about 4-7 inches (5-10 cm) wide. They are roundish and slightly heart shaped with small, finetoothed edges. Their color is a dull, dark green color above and lighter green underneath. The tops of the leaves are hairless but have tufts of white hairs at the junction of the veins underneath. The leaves often have small blisters caused by aphids and other sap-sucking insects.
Flowers of the common lime are yellowish to dull white in color and are sweetly scented. They hang from slender stalks in flattened clusters of 4-10 on a stalk. They have five petals and are about 1/2 inch (15 mm) wide. Insects attracted by the abundant nectar pollinate them. The common lime blooms in June and July. The common lime fruit is a small round nutlet about the size and shape of a pea. Hairy and faintlyribbed, they hang together on green bracts. In October they float away from the parent tree on the wind.

The bark is smooth and a dull grey color when young. As it grows older, the bark becomes brownish-grey with perpendicular, shallow cracks. The stringy inner bark is called bass or bast. It is used to make mats, ropes, and fancy baskets. The wood is white, smooth and close-grained. It is a light wood and doesn't become worm-eaten. It is useful for small things that don't need much strength. It is often used for carvings and the sounding boards for pianos, and for artist's charcoal.

The common lime has been used as a home remedy for colds, flu, coughs, epilepsy and indigestion. The inner bark contains a gelatin-like material that was applied to soothe skin irritations. Tea made from leaves and flowers is used to treat cold symptoms. However, drinking too much flower tea may cause heart damage. During the Middle Ages statues of the Virgin Mary were carved from lime wood. They called the wood lignum sacrum, or sacred wood. In Germany the tree was thought to bring fertility and prosperity, and was considered the sacred tree for people in love.
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Guelder Rose
Common Names: European Cranberry, Cramp Bark, Snowball Tree, Red Elder, Rose Elder Genus: Viburnum Species: opulus
The Guelder Rose prefers to grow at low altitudes and in semi-shade in Scotland and England. It is native to the woodlands of the European deciduous forest. It is found at the edges of woods, hedgerows and marshes. In the United States it is found in agricultural zones 3 to 8, which is a relatively cool climate. It grows in both heavy clay and acidic soil. It was first cultivated in Gelderland, a Dutch province, then introduced to England.

The Guelder Rose is a deciduous shrub and a member of the honey-suckle family. This shrub is also like the Common Elder. The Guelder Rose's flower is snowy white with flat heads which are 3 to 5 inches across. The flower is wheel shaped and the outer flowers have five petals and are sterile. The inner flowers are fertile and very small. They provide nectar for the insects that pollinate

them. The flowers turn into red berries. The Guelder Rose is beautiful in August when the berries are ripe, and the leaves turn to a bright red or rich purple before falling. It has maple-like leaves. This shrub can grow to 5 to 10 feet high. The berries are bright red and attract birds that spread the seeds. The very large white outer layer of flowers also attracts pollinating insects to the inner part of the flower. Some can self-pollinate. Some species are sterile and don't have berries. It is an invasive shrub and will take over another plant's area and is able to spread out for more sunlight. Its bark is used as an herbal medicine for cramps and asthma. The berries can be used for ink. It is also used as a decorative shrub. In Canada it is used instead of cranberries. It is an importan food source for insects and birds who eat the nectar and the berries. The Guelder Rose can be an invasive shrub and therefore is definitely not threatened. It is definitely not an endangered species. by Andy K. 2002

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Guelder Rose
Common Names: European Cranberry, Cramp Bark, Snowball Tree, Red Elder, Rose Elder Genus: Viburnum Species: opulus
The Guelder Rose prefers to grow at low altitudes and in semi-shade in Scotland and England. It is native to the woodlands of the European deciduous forest. It is found at the edges of woods, hedgerows and marshes. In the United States it is found in agricultural zones 3 to 8, which is a relatively cool

climate. It grows in both heavy clay and acidic soil. It was first cultivated in Gelderland, a Dutch province, then introduced to England.

The Guelder Rose is a deciduous shrub and a member of the honey-suckle family. This shrub is also like the Common Elder. The Guelder Rose's flower is snowy white with flat heads which are 3 to 5 inches across. The flower is wheel shaped and the outer flowers have five petals and are sterile. The inner flowers are fertile and very small. They provide nectar for the insects that pollinate them. The flowers turn into red berries. The Guelder Rose is beautiful in August when the berries are ripe, and the leaves turn to a bright red or rich purple before falling. It has maple-like leaves. This shrub can grow to 5 to 10 feet high. The berries are bright red and attract birds that spread the seeds. The very large white outer layer of flowers also attracts pollinating insects to the inner part of the flower. Some can self-pollinate. Some species are sterile and don't have berries. It is an invasive shrub and will take over another plant's area and is able to spread out for more sunlight. Its bark is used as an herbal medicine for cramps and asthma. The berries can be used for ink. It is also used as a decorative shrub. In Canada it is used instead of cranberries. It is an importan food source for insects and birds who eat the nectar and the berries. The Guelder Rose can be an invasive shrub and therefore is definitely not threatened. It is definitely not an endangered species. by Andy K. 2002
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Lady Fern
Common Names: Northern Lady Fern Genus: Athyrium Species: felix-femina Parts Used: the leaves are used for decoration

You may have Lady fern in your own house. Many people use it to decorate their homes. You may see it hanging or potted. People in Victorian times were crazy about Lady fern. However, Lady fern is not only found in the house. It also grows in the wild, especially in deciduous forests and the taiga of North America and Eurasia. Lady Fern is a deciduous, perennial fern about 24 to 36 inches tall. Its light green, lacy leaves are about 24 to 30" long and 6 to 9" wide and tapered at both ends. The fronds are cut twice and

grow from a central base. The J-shaped spore casings, or sori, grow on the underside of the leaf. In the wild, Lady ferns can be found growing in meadows, open thickets, moist woods, and along stream beds. They also grow in the cracks of rocks. In the taiga it usually grows in the understory of white spruce, black spruce, Douglasfir and western hemlock. Lady ferns prefer shaded areas. Many Lady ferns will grow in a group in the shape of a circle. As they grow farther and farther outwards, the centers die away, leaving a ring of Lady Ferns. Lady ferns reproduce by thick, scaly rhizomes and spores. They grow in most semi-shaded areas. Grizzly bears like to eat Lady ferns as a major food source. Elk will also eat it also. Native Americans had many uses for Lady ferns. They used lady ferns for drying berries on, and covering food. The young shoots, or fiddleheads, were cooked, baked or eaten raw. Tea was made from the leaves to help urination and to stop breast pain caused by childbirth. The tea was also used to ease labour pains. Roots were dried and ground into a dust to help heal wounds. Oil from the roots of Lady ferns has been used since the 1st century AD to get rid of worms. An overdose could cause weakness, coma, and often blindness. Lady ferns are a dominant plant in the understory of the taiga, and will cover the forest floor. It is not an endangered plant.

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/deciduous_plant_page.htm

Northern Arrowwood
Common Names: Smooth Arrowwood Genus: Viburnum Species: recognitum Parts Used: leaves and berries
These plants have dark green, oval deciduous leaves which grow opposite each other on the stem. The tips of the leaves are pointed and the bottoms are rounded or heartshaped. The leaves are about 4 inches long and 3 inches across. Northern Arrowwood is different from other viburnums because its leaves have big spiky edges, but its surface is smooth. It has small white to pink flowers in flat-topped clusters about 4 inches across. The plant blooms from May to June. The leaves and flowers grow on the top of long shoots. The fruits of the arrowwood are fleshy and blue-black in color about 1/2 inch across. They are a favorite food of Ruffed Grouse and chipmunks. Deer love to eat the leaves and stems. The shoots were once used by Native Americans for arrow shafts.

The bark of Northern Arrowwood is grey and smooth. This shrub can sometimes grow to fifteen feet in height.

The Northern Arrowwood is usually found in the decidouos biome. It grows from New Brunswick and southern Ontario, to south-east New York, northern Ohio and Michigan. It prefers wetland areas along rivers, streams and lakes. by Robin B. 2000.

White Birch
Common Names: Canoe Birch, Silver Birch, Paper Birch Genus: Betula Species: papyrifera Parts Used: leaves, sap, lumber,
The White Birch is a small to medium sized deciduous tree which grows to 70 or 80 feet in height. As far as trees go it doesn't live very long, only about 140 years. Small hear-shaped leaves are found at the ends of drooping twigs and branches. The paper birch has both male and female flowers called catkins. These turn into little winged nutkins, which ripen in early August to mid September. The wings help the seeds to fly away from the parent tree so there won't be competition for food and water. You can identify this tree by its white bark which peels easily and is marked by narrow horizontal stripes. White birch trees can either have one slender stem or several stems. Moose like to browse on the young trees and will eat off the tops. This forces the tree to send up more stems.

The paper birch doesn't like shade and is the first tree to grow back in places that have had a fire or where trees have been cut. Although moose and white-tailed deer will eat the leaves and tender shoots of the paper birch, it isn't their favorite food. Porcupines like to eat the bark and rabbits will eat the seedlings and young saplings. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers will peck little holes in the bark and feed on the sap. Hummingbirds and squirrels also drink the sap from the sap wells the sapsuckers made. The bark is often used as a fire starter because it burns even when its wet. Native Americans also used the bark to cover their canoes. They also used it to make baskets, baby carriers, mats, torches and moose calls. Because the wood was strong and flexible it was made into spears, bows and arrows, snowshoes and sleds. The wood is now used for building lumber to make veneer, pulpwood and plywood. Syrup, wine, beer, and medicinal tonics are made from the sap. The white birch is found in Newfoundland, Labrador, Canada, and from New England to North Carolina in the United States. It prefers colder climates, however. 2000.

White Oak
Genus: Quercus Species: alba
The White Oak tree can grow from 80 to 100 feet tall ,3 to 4 feet in diameter around the trunk and can spread from 50 to 80 feet. The Oak tree grows upright and its bark is whitish gray . The life span of the Oak tree, if undisturbed is 500 to 600 years old. The Oak tree's leaves have 7 to 9 rounded points which resemble finger like lobes. In May and early June male flowers appear in slender catkins. Female flowers are not noticeable to

the naked eye. The Oak tree's seeds are commonly known as

acorns, they are small oval shaped nuts with a cap and they are mostly eaten by squirrels ,chipmunks and deer. The Oak tree grows in many different habitats. It can grow from seacoasts to high mountain slopes. It also can grow from wet lowlands to dry mesas. When the White oak is only a seedling it produces a taproot. The taproot plunges into the ground during a drought to bring the tree water. This taproot disappears with age and then a fibrous root system with tapered laterals grows. The white Oak tree is valued for its timber products such as furniture, flooring and pallets, cabinet making, barrel making, interior finishes, and for heavy construction. The Oak tree also produces acorns which are a food source for wildlife. The white Oak is the most common tree species of the Eastern United States and is definitely not endangered. by Will J. R. 2001
The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of multiple cultures. Whether it is a question of North as opposed to South; West as opposed to East; Orthodoxism as opposed to Protestantism as opposed to Catholicism as opposed to Secularism; many have claimed to identify cultural fault lines across the continent. There are many cultural innovations and movements, often at odds with each other, such as Christian proselytism or Humanism. Thus the question of "common culture" or "common values" is far more complex then it seems to be. The foundation of European culture was laid by the Greeks, strengthened by the Romans, stabilized by Christianity, reformed and modernized by the fifteenth-century Renaissance and Reformation and globalized by successive European empires between the sixteenth and twentieth centuries. Thus the European Culture developed into a very complex phenomenon of wider range of philosophy, Christian and secular humanism, rational way of life and logical thinking developed through a long age of change and formation with the experiments ofenlightenment, naturalism, romanticism, science, democracy, and socialism. Because of its global connection, the European culture grew with an all-inclusive urge to adopt, adapt and ultimately influence other trends of culture. As a matter of fact, therefore, from the middle of the nineteenth century with the expansion of European education and the spread of Christianity, European culture and way of life, to a great extent, turned to be "global culture," if anything has to be so named (Vide. Sailen Debnath, "Secularism: Western and Indian," Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Europe
The culture of the United States is a Western culture originally influenced by European cultures. It has been developing since long before the United States became a country with its own unique social and

cultural characteristics such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine, andfolklore. Today, the United States of America is an ethnically and raciallydiverse country as a result of large-scale immigration from [1] many different countries throughout its history. Its chief early influences came from English, Scottish and Irish settlers ofcolonial America. British culture, due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence. Other important influences came from other parts of western [2] [citation needed] Europe, especially Germany, France, and Italy. Original elements also play a strong role, such as the invention ofJeffersonian Democracy. Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reactionary piece to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic [3] originality was degenerate. Prevalent ideas and ideals which evolved domestically such as national holidays, uniquely American sports, military tradition, and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a [citation needed] strong sense of national prideamong the population as a whole. American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, military and scientific competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism, egalitarianism, and faith in freedom and democracy), American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity. The flexibility of U.S. culture and its highly symbolic nature lead some researchers to categorize American [4] culture as a mythic identity; others see it as American exceptionalism. It also includes elements which evolved from Native Americans, and other ethnic subcultures; most prominently the culture of African Americans and different cultures from Latin America. Many cultural elements, especially popular culture, have been exported across the globe through modern mass media. The United States has often been thought of as a melting pot, but recent developments tend towards [5][6] cultural diversity, pluralism and the image of a salad bowl rather than a melting pot. Due to the extent of American culture there are many integrated but unique socialsubcultures within the United States. The cultural affiliations an individual in the United States may have commonly depend on social class,political orientation and a multitude of demographic characteristics such as religious background, occupation and [1] ethnic group membership.
[3]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_the_United_States
30-60 in

Which is about 76 cm to 152 cm (rounded off) Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_average_rainfall_for_deciduous_forests#ixzz1nCNraFS F Biomes are the world's major habitats. These habitats are identified by the vegetation and animals that populate them. The location of each biome is determined by the regional climate.

Tropical Rain Forests Tropical rain forests are characterized by dense vegetation, seasonally warm temperatures, and abundant rainfall. The animals that dwell here depend on trees for housing and food. Climate Tropical rain forests are very hot and wet. They can average between 6 and 30 feet of precipitation per year.

http://biology.about.com/od/landbiomes/a/aa042806a.htm

http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?q=deciduous+forest+temperature&hl=tl&gbv=2&biw=1024&bih=67 7&tbm=isch&tbnid=0OyJVilw7yme4M:&imgrefurl=http://www.mb