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**ABSTRACT : A modified Linear Feedback Shift Register is designed in which power consumption is reduced by
**

deactivating the clock signal to Flip Flop when the output signal is not different from input signal. The power consumption of the new LFSR is reduced due to the reduced switching of Flip Flop To verify, the maximum, minimum and average power of the two LFSRs are the compared. Keywords - LFSR, Optimization, Low power, Test Patterns

1. INTRODUCTION

TODAY, pseudo-random bit generators (PRBGs) are widely used in many electronic equipment. A good PRBG must be characterized by repeatability and randomness. Today, hardware implementation of the PRBGs is almost always made up of the well-known linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) whose generic circuit is reported. This circuit is very simple to be implemented, but since the clock-path of all flip-flops (FFs) toggle at every clock cycle, they consume a significant amount of power. In this paper, we present the gated clock design approach for LFSRs which can lead to power reduction without complicating the traditionally simple topology.

The main challenging areas in VLSI are performance, cost, testing, area, reliability and power. These demands for portable computing devices and communications system are increasing rapidly. These applications require low power dissipation for circuit implementation. The power dissipation during test mode is 200% more than the normal mode. Hence it is important aspect to optimize power during testing. Power optimization is one of the main challenges. There are various factors that affect the cost of chip like packaging, application, testing. In VLSI, according to thumb rule 5000 of the total integrated circuits cost is due to testing. During testing two key challenges are: Cost of testing that can't be scaled. Engineering effort for generating test vectors increases as complexity of circuit increases. Based on 1997 SIA data, the upper curve shows the fabrication cost of transistor and lower curve shows the testing cost of transistor. Figure 1 shows that the fabrication cost transistor decreases over the decades according to but the testing cost as constant.

Fig. Dynamic power dissipation is due to switching i. In this paper a modified low power LFSR are used in which the number of transitions of test pattern are reduced testing. This is due to lack of correlation between the Successive test patterns generated by ATPG or LFST and this large power dissipation cases following effects: The increased power may be responsible for cost. Power reduction using the switching activity doesn’t degrade the performance of the circuit. The above equation shows the dynamic power depends on three parameters: Supply voltage. achieve a measured quality level or reduce cost of testing. Static power dissipation is mainly due to leakage current and its contribution to total power dissipation is very small. autonomy and technology. DFT (Design for Testability) is the action of placing features in a chip design process to enhance the ability to generate vectors. switching activity. the power consumed due to short circuit current flow and charging of load capacitances is given by equation: P= 0. For complex circuits we use hierarchical approach.5 VDD 2E(SW)CL fclk Where VDD is supply voltage. Low power dissipation during test application is thus becoming an equally important figure of merit in. . E(SW) is the average number of the main challenges. The conventional DFT approaches use scan and BIST. Output transitions per fclk Is the clock frequency and CL is the physical capacitance at the output of the gate. Dynamic power dissipation contributed to total power dissipation.1 Fabrication and testing Cost curve There are main two sources of power dissipation in digital circuits. Clock frequency. these are static and dynamic power dissipation. reliability. During testing large power is dissipated compare to the normal mode. performance verification.e. Test input is given to each block and output is observed and verified. The advantage of hierarchical approach is that every block is tested separately.

At this point in the design flow. Fig.RTL clock gating is the most commonly used optimization technique for improving power consumption.2. Clock Gating at register transfer level Power should be optimized at all stages.2 Clock Gating at register transfer level. designer has flexibility in the implementation to make significant imcreament in the energy saving. . but depends critically on how well a design is clock gated. but it is generally convenient to address it after Register Transfer Level (RTL).

1 VARIOUS TYPES OF LFSR: 2. x0. A state with all ones is illegal when using an XNOR feedback. 14th. The rightmost bit of the LFSR is called the output bit. counting from the left.1. This state is considered illegal because the counter would remain "locked-up" in this state. The powers of the terms represent the tapped bits.11]. in which case it will never change. if the taps are at the 16th. same as a state with all zeroes is illegal when using XOR. The state shown. As the XOR based feedback in an LFSR. For example. The taps are XOR'd sequentially with the output bit and then fed back into the leftmost bit. The sequence of bits in the rightmost position is known as output stream. This is considered as the feedback polynomial or characteristic polynomial. This means that the coefficients of the polynomial must be one’s or Zeroes. 13th and 11th bits (as shown). but it results in an equivalent polynomial counter whose state of this counter is the complement of the state of an LFSR. The arrangement of taps for feedback in an LFSR can be expressed in finite field arithmetic as a polynomial mod. A maximum-length LFSR produces an m-sequence unless it contains all zeros. The sequence of numbers generated by an LFSR or its XNOR counterpart can be considered a binary numeral system just as valid Gray code or the binary code. Fig. another . not a linear map.14. which is equivalent to 1).1 Fibonacci LFSRs In a 16-bit Fibonacci LFSR the feedback tap numbers in white correspond to a primitive polynomial so the register cycles through the maximum number of 65535 states excluding the all-zeroes state. the feedback polynomial is The 'one' in the polynomial does not correspond to a tap — it corresponds to the input to the first bit (i. The bit positions that affect the next state are known as taps. There can be more than one maximum-length tap sequence for a given LFSR length once one maximum-length tap sequence has been found. The first and last bits are always connected as an input and output tap respectively.2.13. 0xACE1 (hexadecimal) will be followed by 0x5670. one can also use XNOR This function is an affine map. In the diagram the taps are [16.e.3 bit Linear Feedback Shift Register.

The new output bit is the next’s input bit. 3. Galois LFSRs do not concatenate every tap to produce the new input (the XOR'ing is done within the LFSR and no XOR gates are run in serial.1. otherwise the stream will be in reverse. 1. q − 1}. is an alternate structure that can generate the same output data as a conventional LFSR. In this configuration. 0]. which is also known as modular. This register also cycles through the maximal number of 65535 states excluding the all-zeroes state. The register numbers in white correspond to the same primitive polynomial as the Fibonacci example but are counted in reverse to the shifting direction. the order of the taps is the counterpart (see above) of the order for the conventional LFSR. the XOR component is generalized to addition modulo-q. 0].To generate the same output stream. 0] has as its counterpart [32. internal XORs as well as one-to-many LFSR. 2. 0]. and then the entire register is shifted to the right and the input bit becomes 1. 30. n − A. 2.4 Galois LFSRs A 16-bit Galois LFSR. 25. The Galois register shown has the same output stream as the Fibonacci register in the first section. . when the output bit is zero all the bits in the register shift to the right unchanged.. If the tap sequence.automatically follows the . are XOR'd with the output bit before they are stored in the next position.2 Galois LFSRs An LFSR in Galois configuration. In Non binary. Fig.1. 7. The taps. thus it is possible for each tap to be computed in parallel. . bits that are not taps are shifted one position to the right unchanged.3 Non-binary Galois LFSR Binary Galois LFSRs can be generalized to any q-ary alphabet {0. . where the feedback is multiplied by either 0 or 1. when the system is clocked. the bits in the tap positions. In the binary case. When the output bit is one. Note that the internal state of the LFSR is not necessarily the same. n − C. B. where the 0 corresponds to the x0 = 1 term. and the feedback bit is multiplied by a q-ary value which is constant for each specific tap point. n − B. increasing the speed of execution. C. 2. A. So the tap sequence [32. then the corresponding 'mirror' sequence is [n. therefore the propagation times are reduced to that of one XOR rather than a whole chain).. on the other hand. Both give a maximum-length sequence. and the input bit becomes zero. The state ACE1 hex shown will be followed by E270 hex. in an n-bit LFSR. is [n. 29.

The powers of the terms represent the tapped bits.For example. As shown in Fig. Back Ground behind Project: The important challenging areas in VLSI is performance.3. 4.1 NORMAL LFSR A linear feedback shift register is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. it is obtained with an array of FF’s with a linear feedback performed by several XOR gates. thus it is a shift register whose input bit is driven by the XOR of some bits of the overall shift register value. if the taps are at the 16th. Hardware Implementation 4. cost testing.. The taps of an LFSR can be represented as a polynomial mod. Fig. By using LFSR we can decrease power dissipation. reliability and power. area. The demand for portable computing devices and communication system increasing rapidly. Power dissipation for testing is 200% more than simple mode. 13th and 11th bits (as shown).5 TRADITIONAL LFSR. The first and last bits are always connected as an input and tap respectively. . LFSR’s are very easy to implement. It shows the coefficients of polynomial must be 1's or 0's. 14th. These applications require in low power dissipation for VLSI circuits. The only linear functions of single bits are XOR and inverse-XOR. the feedback polynomial is The 'one' in the polynomial does not correspond to a tap — it corresponds to the input to the first bit. counting from the left.

this strategy is applied by the so-called ―gated clock‖ approach which disables the clock of FFs when output is same as input.4. This approach is perfectly compatible with a LFSR only adding some extra gates.6 Gate clock based synchronization respect input and output value of FF. Fig. & reducing power consumption. At circuit level.7 Gate-clock n-bit LFSR . activating the FF only when the input signal is different from the actual output value.2 CLOCK GATING LFSR To reduce power consumption in a digital syste dynamic power management (DPM) is often used. Fig. The DPMs strategy consists in disabling the logic circuits that are not performing functional operations during a particular time.

This randomization is removed at the receiver after demodulation.. and from that stretch of the output stream can construct an LFSR of minimal size that simulates the intended receiver by using the BerlekampMassey algorithm. used in Bluetooth. runs of 0's or 1's) from forming spectral lines that may complicate symbol tracking at the receiver or interfere with other transmissions. leading to fairly easy cryptanalysis. For example. 5. used in GSM cell phones. as in the alternating step generator.g. Important LFSR-based stream ciphers include A5/1 and A5/2. or as a counter when a nonbinary sequence is acceptable as is often the case where computer index or framing locations need to be machinereadable. Uses in digital broadcasting and communications:Scrambling: To prevent short repeating sequences (e. due to the ease of construction from simple electromechanical or electronic circuits. LFSRs have also been used for generating an approximation of white noise in various programmable sound generators. and this makes them useful in applications that require very fast generation of a pseudo-random sequence. Application of LFSR: LFSRs can be implemented in hardware. and very uniformly distributed output streams. When the .5. This LFSR can then be fed the intercepted stretch of output stream to recover the remaining plaintext. The A5/2 cipher has been broken and both A5/1 and E0 have serious weaknesses.1 Uses as counters: The repeating sequence of states of an LFSR allows it to be used as a clock divider. linear feedback registers are often used to "randomize" the transmitted bitstream. an attacker can intercept and recover a stretch of LFSR output stream used in the system described. However. LFSR counters have simpler feedback logic than natural binary counters or Gray code counters. One can obtain any other period by adding to an LFSR that has a longer period some logic that shortens the sequence by skipping some states. Non-linear combination of the output bits of two or more LFSRs (see also: shrinking generator). an LFSR is a linear system. Three general methods are employed to reduce this problem in LFSR-based stream ciphers: Non-linear combination of several bits from the LFSR state. E0. However it is necessary to ensure that the LFSR never enters an all-zeros state. or Irregular clocking of the LFSR. 5. given a stretch of known plaintext and corresponding ciphertext.2 Uses in cryptography: LFSRs have long been used as pseudo-random number generators for use in stream ciphers (especially in military cryptography). long periods. and the shrinking generator. and it can operate at higher clock rates.

this technique is referred to as scrambling.0 SATA[6] USB 3.LFSR runs at the same rate as the transmitted symbol stream. The Global Positioning System uses an LFSR to rapidly transmit a sequence that indicates high-precision relative time offsets. Australia. LFSRs are also used in Communications System Jamming systems in which they are used to generate pseudo random noise to raise the noise floor of a target communication system. this is direct-sequence spread spectrum. employs phase-shift keying driven by a 9-stage LFSR to increase the accuracy of received time and the robustness of the data stream in the presence of noise. Neither scheme should be confused with encryption or encipherment. When the LFSR runs considerably faster than the symbol stream. parts of Asia) NICAM (digital audio system for television) Other digital communications systems using LFSRs: IBS (INTELSAT business service) IDR (Intermediate Data Rate service) SDI (Serial Digital Interface transmission) Data transfer over PSTN (according to the ITU-T V-series recommendations) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) cellular telephony 100BASE-T2 "fast" Ethernet scrambles bits using an LFSR 1000BASE-T Ethernet. Digital broadcasting systems that use linear feedback registers: ATSC Standards (digital TV transmission system – North America) DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting system – for radio) DVB-T (digital TV transmission system – Europe.0 IEEE 802. They are instead used to produce equivalent streams that possess convenient engineering properties to allow for robust and efficient modulation and demodulation. expanding the bandwidth of the transmitted signal.11a scrambles bits using an LFSR Other uses: The German time signal DCF77. . scrambles bits using an LFSR PCI Express 3. in addition to amplitude keying. the most common form of Gigabit Ethernet. scrambling and spreading with LFSRs do not protect the information from eavesdropping.

10 RTL of Normal LFSR.6. Simulation 1. . Normal LFSR: Fig.

12 waveform of normal LFSR. Fig.11 RTL schematic OF normal LFSR. 2. LFSR using Clock gating: .Fig.

.13 RTL of maximal LFSR. 4 RTL schematic OF maximal LFSR.Fig.

7. SAIF files after the post simulation. There is 52% reduction in Dynamic power. we have evaluated the power consumption in 16 bit Traditional LFSR and power consumption in 16 bit LFSR with clock gating for same input vector and same clock cycles.Fig.2 implementation with the device xc3s1600e-5-fg320 in which. we have generated NCD. 1. which gave the Total. VHDL code of traditional 16 bit LFSR was simulated in Xilinx 13.5% reduction in total power achieved. that may be due to power consumed in initial transitions and that is in order of mili-watts. Reduced power Linear Feedback Shift Register with gated clock is here designed. PCF. dynamic and quiescent power consumed through Xilinx XPower Analyzer. The results obtained from the Xilinx 13. In contrast to the above results. which is too small as compared to power reduction in Dynamic power and total power. Xpower is used to calculate the with the simulation file. Result and conclusion In order to evaluate the power reduction obtained by applying clock gating approach in LFSR.2 ISE Navigator and then VHDL code of 16 bit LFSR with gated clock was simulated and synthesized and the power was obtained using Xilinx XPower Analyzer. WITHOUT CLOCK GATING(mW) WITH CLOCK GATING (mW) .15 waveform of maximal LFSR.

Nawabi. K. Bushnell. low transition LFSR for BIST based applications‖. [3]Dr. vol. Nisar Ahmed‖. Umamageswaran. ― A novel BIST TPG for testing of VLSI circuit‖.43 205.35 Table. K. S. References [1] E.pp. IEEE internatonal conference on industrial and Information system.Gunavathi.Total Dynamic Quiescent 208. Ms P. Subashini Lavanya. [4]Michael N.91 5. afzali-khusa ― A new power scan path architecture‖ IEEE international symposium.pp.94 2. .59 203.pp 138-143. essential of electronic testing for digital memory and mix signal VLSI circuits‖.23-26 May 2005 [2]The national technology road map for semiconductor (ITRS) 1997 Edition. Dr. Hatami. Alisaface and A. Mehrdad Nourani. Vishwani D. Atoofian.5278-5281.8-11 Aug 2006. M. 18-21 dec 2005.48 203. Semiconductor industry association. Paramshivam. 14th Asian test symposium.1 Comparison between 16 bit Traditional LFSR and16 bit clock gate LFSR. 8. Kluwer Academic publishers 2000. M. Agawal‖. Z. [5]Mohammad Tehranipoor.5.

" IEEE transactions on computer. Michael J. R.[7]F. Rodgers "Test of Future System-on-Chips"ICCAD 2000.aided design of integrated circuits and systems. Prinetto. computing and architecture. [10]Yervant Zorianl. Paolo prinettom. 753-759. [9]Jinkyu Lee and Nur A.Rebuadengo. Matteo sonzar Eorda ―testability analysis and ATPG on behavioral RT-level VHDL‖ IEEE international test conference. Sujit Dey.2008." Comparison of hardware implementation and power consumption of low-power multiple output linear feedback shift register.Corno.[6]Fulvio corno. Chao You. Touba. 2007. . 1-5.Sonza Reorda‖ A test pattern generation methodology for low power consumption‖. February 2007." LFSR-Reseeding Scheme Achieving Low-Power dissipation during Test.pp.pp.1997 . [8]Shilesh Malliyoor. 26(2). M." Journal of engineering. P.

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