# CHAPTER 24

Problem
4.

GAUSS’S LAW

The net charge shown in Fig. 24-40 is +Q. Identify each of the charges A, B, C shown.

A

B C

FIGURE

24-40 Problem 4.

Solution From the direction of the lines of force (away from positive and toward negative charge) one sees that A and C are positive and B is a negative charge. Eight lines of force terminate on B, eight originate on C, but only four originate on A, so the magnitudes of B and C are equal, while the magnitude of A is half that value. Thus, QC = −QB = 2QA . The total charge is Q = QA + QB + QC = QA , so QC = 2Q = −QB. Problem
7.

ɵ A flat surface with area 0.14 m 2 lies in the x-y plane, in a uniform electric field given by E = 5.1î + 2.1ɵ + 3.5k kN/C. j Find the flux through this surface.

Solution ɵ The surface can be represented by a vector area A = (0.14 m 2 )( ± k). (Since the surface is open, we have a choice of normal to the x-y plane.) Then ɵ Φ = E ⋅ A = ± E ⋅ k × (0.14 m 2 ) = ± Ez (0.14 m 2 ) = ±(3.5 kN/C)(0.14 m 2 ) = ±490 N ⋅ m 2 /C. (Only the z component of the field contributes to the flux through the x-y plane.) Problem
9. What is the flux through the hemispherical open surface of radius R shown in Fig. 24-41? The uniform field has magnitude E. Hint: Don’t do a messy integral! Imagine closing the surface with a flat, circular piece across the open end. What would be the flux through the entire closed surface? And what’s the flux through the flat end? So what’s the answer?

Solution
All of the lines of force going through the hemisphere also go through an equitorial disk covering its edge in Fig. 24-41. Therefore, the flux through the disk (normal in the direction of E) equals the flux through the hemisphere. Since E is uniform, the flux through the disk is just π R 2 E. (Note: Gauss’s Law gives the same result, since the flux through the closed surface, consisting of the hemisphere plus the disk, is zero. See Section 24-3.)

µ C charge is at the center of a cube 7. 2 FIGURE 24-42 Problems 10 and 65 Solution.6. What is the electric flux through one face of the cube? Hint: Think about symmetry. 24-42 is given by E = E0 ( y=a)k.5 cm on each side. Solution From Gauss’s law. (b) −2 q=ε 0 . Find the flux through the square of side a shown. Solution ± E0 Use area elements described in the solution to Problem 65 and Equation 24-2: Φ = E ⋅ dA = z z ɵ ɵ z ( E y=a)k ⋅ (±adyk) = a 0 0 a 0 ydy = ± 1 2 E0 a . where E0 and a are constants. and don’t do an integral. For the surfaces shown. A 2. What is the electric flux through each closed surface shown in Fig.CHAPTER 24 569 FIGURE 24-41 Problem 9 Solution. Problem 13. 24-43? (c) (a) + +q – –2q – –q + +3q (d) – –3q (b) FIGURE 24-43 Problem 11. . Problem ɵ 10. this is (a) ( q − 2 q )=ε 0 = − q=ε 0 . (c) and (d) 0. The electric field shown in Fig. Problem 11. Φ = qenclosed =ε 0 .

. E = Ept + Eshell = k ( −2Q)= 1 R) 2 + 0 = −8 kQ=R 2 (2 2 (the minus sign means the direction is radially inward). Find an expression for the electric field strength in the region a < r < b. qenclosed = 4 π ( r 3 − a 3 ) ρ. 3 Equation 24-7 for a uniformly charged spherical volume is recovered.2 cm apart. The thick.570 CHAPTER 24 Solution The symmetry of the situation guarantees that the flux through one face is Φ face = 1 6 z 1 6 the flux through the whole cubical surface. and (c) Φ c = 0. and show that your result is consistent with Equation 24-7 when a = 0 .85 × 10 −12 C /N ⋅ m ) = 49. (a) At r = 1 R < R (inside shell). Problem 26. A point charge −2Q is at the center of a spherical shell of radius R carrying charge Q spread uniformly over its surface. (b) Φ b = −Φ a . Solution Use the result of Gauss’s law applied to a spherically symmetric distribution. but the field outside would be zero (since qshell + q pt = 2Q − 2Q = 0). What is the electric flux through each surface shown in Fig. A dipole consists of two charges ±6. 24-45 carries a uniform volume charge density ρ. the field inside would be ( unchanged. 24-44? + (a) – (b) (c) FIGURE 24-44 Problem 15. so E = ρ( r 3 − a 3 )=3ε 0 r 2 = ( ρ=3ε 0 )(r − a 3=r 2 ). If a → 0 .85 × 10 −12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 ) = 689 kN ⋅ m 2 /C. (b) At r = 2 R > R (outside shell). E = qenclosed =4πε 0 r 2 .1 µ C located 1.6 µ C)=6(8. so cube E ⋅ dA = q enclosed =6ε 0 =(2. E = E pt + Eshell = k ( −2Q + Q)= 2 R) 2 = − kQ=4 R 2 (also radially inward). What is the electric field at (a) r = 1 R and (b) r = 2 R? (c) How would your answers change if the charge on the shell 2 were doubled? Solution The situation is like that in Problem 21. Problem 23.0 kN ⋅ m 2 /C.1 µ C)=(8. Solution It follows from Gauss’s law that (a) Φ a = + q=ε 0 = (6. (c) If Qshell = 2Q. For a < r < b in a spherical shell with charge density ρ. spherical shell of inner radius a and outer radius b shown in Fig. 2 2 Problem 15.

hence Eout = ρπ R 2 ℓ=2π rℓε 0 = ρR 2 =2ε 0 r. for points outside the slab ( x > 1 d ). (b) Gauss’s law. Solution The charge distribution has line symmetry (as in Problem 29) so the flux through a coaxial cylindrical surface of radius r (Equation 24-8) equals qenclosed =ε 0 . Find expressions for the electric field strength (a) inside and (b) outside the slab. For r < R (inside the rod). 24-46. by E = ρR 2 =2ε 0 r and E = ρ r=2ε 0 . ) Problem 36. 24-46. E is directed away from (toward) the central plane for positive (negative) 2 charge density. A slab of charge extends infinitely in two dimensions and has thickness d in the third dimension. EA + EA = ρ dA=ε 0 . For r > R (outside the rod). and radially inward if ρ < 0. from Gauss’s law. Solution If the slab were really infinite. where r is the distance from the rod axis. Problem 31. the electric field would be everywhere normal to it (the x direction) and symmetrical about the center plane. hence Ein =ρπ r 2 ℓ=2π rℓε 0 = ρr=2ε 0 . qenclosed = ρπ r 2 ℓ . qenclosed = ρπ R 2 ℓ. An infinitely long rod of radius R carries a uniform volume charge density ρ. respectively. or E = ρd=2ε 0 (equivalent to a sheet with σ = ρ d ). as shown in Fig. as functions of the distance x from the center plane. Show that the electric field strengths outside and inside the rod are given. (a) For points inside the slab 2 ( x ≤ 1 d ). (The field direction is radially away from the symmetry axis if ρ > 0.CHAPTER 24 571 Gaussian surface r FIGURE 24-45 Problem 26 Solution. or E = ρ x=ε 0 . applied to the surface superposed on Fig. A -x x x FIGURE 24-46 Problem 36 Solution. 2 EA = ρ 2 x A=ε 0 . The slab carries a uniform volume charge density ρ . . gives.

E pt = kq=x 2 = kπ σ a 2 =x 2. (b) For large x. The range 0 ≤ x < ∞ corresponds to 0 < φ ≤ π=2.01( x 2 + a 2 ). is good to 10% for Ept − E =E < 0. . one finds E = 2π kσ (1 − cos φ ).) (a) For small x. or 2. Take the x axis perpendicular to the sheets.1 x 2 + a 2 . If a = 20 cm.13 × 10 −2 a. Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field in each of the four regions shown. (a) for what range of x values does treating the disk as an infinite sheet give an approximation to the field that is good to within 10%? (b) For what range of x values is the point-charge approximation good to 10%? Solution (Note: The expression given.01= . so E pt =E = (1 + cos φ )=2 cos 2 φ . The steps in the solution of this inequality are: 11x < 0. . and x the distance from the disk center. The quadratic formula for the positive root gives cos φ > (1 + 1 + 8. produces a fractional error less than 10% if Esheet − E =E < 0.572 CHAPTER 24 Problem 37.1. x < a 0. Furthermore. so E pt =E > 1 and the inequality becomes E pt =E = (1 + cos φ ) ÷ 2 cos 2 φ < 11. using the field strength of an infinite sheet. such that cos φ = x= x 2 + a 2 and tan φ = a=x. for the field strength on the axis of a uniformly charged disk. Ept = kπσ tan 2 φ . the point charge field. . Figure 24-47 shows sections of three infinite flat sheets of charge. 1 9. In terms of φ . Solution The field from each sheet has magnitude σ=2ε 0 and points away from the positive sheets and toward the negative sheet. The electric field strength on the axis of a uniformly charged disk is given by E = 2π kσ (1 − x= x 2 + a 2 ). Esheet = σ=2ε 0 = 2π kσ . to the right in Fig. as shown. Since Esheet > E. + – + – + – + + + – + + – + – + + + – + + – + + – + + 1 2 3 4 FIGURE 24-47 Problem 37.4 = .83 cm. this implies that Esheet =E < 11 or 2π kσ=2π kσ (1 − x= x 2 + a 2 ) < 11. tan 2 φ = sin 2 φ=cos 2 φ = (1 − cos φ )(1 + cos φ )=cos 2 φ . First sheet: Second sheet Third sheet: Sum: = −σ î=2ε 0 (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) σ î=2ε 0 −σ î=2ε 0 (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 3σ î=2ε 0 (−) (−) (−) (−) σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 −σ î=2ε 0 −σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 (+ ) (+ ) (+ ) σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 (−) (−) (−) −σ î=2ε 0 σ î=2ε 0 (+ ) (+ ) (−) Problem 41. The solution of this inequality is simplified by defining an angle φ . Superposition gives the field in each of the four regions. x < 1.2 cos 2 φ − cos φ − 1 > 0.20 = .8 )=4. holds only for positive values of x.1. 1. For a = 20 cm. with σ the surface charge density.21x 2 < 0. a the disk radius. 24-47. and E pt =E = tan 2 φ=2(1 − cos φ ). each carrying surface charge density with the same magnitude σ .

the flux through any closed surface within the cavity ( S1) is zero. so E = ( ρ=3ε 0 )(r − a 3=r 2 ). Problem 63. If the conductors carry equal but opposite charges. to the outer cylindrical conducting surface. or (1.5 cm. An irregular conductor containing an irregular. This implies x = a=tan φ > a=tan 20. hence so is the field. (Note: The argument in part (a) depends on the conservative nature of the electrostatic field (see Section 25-1). E = σ=ε 0 (positive away from the surface). 24-50.CHAPTER 24 573 0. the point charge in the cavity must equal −Q . E = qenclosed =4π ε 0 r 2 . 24-49). What is the electric field strength just outside the surface of a conducting sphere carrying surface charge density 1. Thus. as shown in Fig. Problem 43. qenclosed = ρV = 4 πρ (r 3 − a 3 ). A coaxial cable consists of an inner wire and a concentric cylindrical outer conductor (Fig.85 × 10 −12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 ) −1 = 158 kN/C in this problem. Since the conductors in the cable carry opposite charges of equal magnitude. The solid portion carries a uniform volume charge density ρ. as in Equation 24-8. Problem 49.72 a. show that there is no surface charge density on the outside of the outer conductor. Solution From Gauss’s law and Equation 24-5. (b) If the surface charge density on the outer surface (and also the electric field there) is to vanish. A sphere of radius 2a has a hole of radius a. where qenclosed is the charge within a spherical gaussian surface of radius r about the center of symmetry. Find an expression for the electric field strength within the solid portion. empty cavity carries a net charge Q. or φ < 20. (a) Show that the electric field inside the cavity must be zero. 3 . For a = 20 cm.2°.) Problem 49 Solution. for then positive flux on one part of S1 canceling negative flux on another part is ruled out.4 µ C /m 2 )(8. what value must it have in order to make the surface charge density on the outer surface of the conductor everywhere zero? Solution (a) When there is no charge inside the cavity. there is zero charge enclosed. so the field and the charge density there (σ = ε 0 Esurf ) vanish. Problem 54. (b) If you put a point charge inside the cavity.4 µ C /m 2 ? Solution At the surface of a conductor. For a < r < 2 a.2° = 2. x > 54. then the net charge inside a gaussian surface containing the conductor ( S2 ) is zero. and apply Gauss’s law. 2π rℓEsurf = qenclosed =ε 0 . as a function of the distance r from the center.939. Solution Assume line symmetry.

as shown in Fig. and (b) use it to find an expression for the gravitational field strength within the Earth. (a) Formulate this law.) FIGURE 24-53 Problem 75 Solution. Show that the electric field everywhere in the hole points horizontally and has magnitude ρR=6ε 0 . Hint: Treat the hole as a superposition of two charged spheres of opposite charge. g = F=m = −GM r=r 2 . whose center we take at the origin. Solution A large solid sphere can be considered to be the superposition of the sphere with a cavity plus a small solid sphere filling the cavity. the gravitational field g also obeys a form of Gauss’s law. A solid sphere of radius R carries a uniform volume charge density ρ. and Coulomb’s law for the electrostatic field. A hole of radius R=2 occupies a region from the center to the edge of the sphere. the electric field of the sphere with the cavity is uniform (with direction parallel to the line between the centers of the sphere and cavity). for any point 2 inside the cavity. (b) Extending the analogy to Equation 24-7. E(large sphere) = 2 2 E(sphere with cavity) + E(small sphere). Since the gravitational force of a point mass goes as 1=r 2 . E = ρR î=6ε 0 . By analogy to Equation 24-4. Solution ɵ (a) Newton’s law for the gravitational field. r = rP . Thus. that is. For the large sphere. Problem 75. Therefore. whose center is at 1 R î. where r is a vector from the center of each sphere to the field point P. Treat Earth as a sphere of uniform density.574 CHAPTER 24 FIGURE 24-50 Problem 63 Solution. ɵ E = q r=4π ε 0 r 2 (both for point sources) are identical when q=4πε 0 is replaced by −GM . in both (see Equation 24-7). we find . r = rP − 1 R î. The electric field inside the solid spheres is ρ r=3ε 0 . 24-53. Problem 78. and for the small sphere. both with uniform charge density ρ. or ρ rP =3ε 0 = E + ρ (rP − 1 R î )=3ε 0 . as a function of distance r from the center. the H expression of Gauss’s law for gravity is g ⋅ dA = −4π GM enclosed . (Note that this result holds for any size spherical cavity if one replaces 1 Rî with the vector 2 to the center of the cavity.

) . (The minus sign means g is radially E inward.CHAPTER 24 575 g(r ) = − GM E r=R 3 for the gravitational field at a point r < RE within a uniform Earth. as appropriate to an attractive force.