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CHAPTER:! Shearing Force I

**CHAPTER:! Shearing Force
**

• A very different type of stress is obtained when transverse forces P and P' are applied to a member AB (Fig. 1.14). ! • Passing a section at C between the points of application of the two forces, we obtain the diagram of portion AC shown. ! • We conclude that internal forces must exist in the plane of the section, and that their resultant is equal to P. ! • These elementary internal forces are called

shearing forces

• What is mean internal

forces must exist in the plane of the section, and that their resultant is equal to P.

Example 1.0

• Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins, and rivets used to connect various structural members and machine components.! • Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a bolt CD . If the plates are subjected to tension forces of magnitude F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt corresponding to the plane EE'.

Example 1.0

• Drawing the diagrams of the bolt and of the portion located above the plane EE', we conclude that the shear P in the section is equal to F. ! • The average shearing stress in the section is obtained, according to formula, by dividing the shear P = F by the area A of the cross section:

ISE ERC EX

A single rivet is used to join two plates as shown in Figure. If the diameter of the rivet is 20 mm and the load P is 30 kN, what is the average shearing stress developed in the rivet?

30kN 30kN

20mm

A=

30kN 30kN

A= 30kN

Example 2.0

• The bolt we have just considered is said to be in single shear. Different loading situations may arise.! • For example, if splice plates C and D are used to connect plates A and B, shear will take place in bolt HJ in each of the two planes KK' and LL' (and similarly in bolt EG).

Example 2.0

• The bolts are said to be in double shear. To determine the average shearing stress in each plane, we draw free-body diagrams of bolt HJ and of the portion of bolt located between the two planes. ! • Observing that the shear P in each of the sections is P = F/2, we conclude that the average shear-ing stress is

ISE ERC EX

Consider the bolted joint shown in Figure. ! The force P is 30 kN and the diameter of the bolt is 10 mm. ! Determine the average value of the shearing stress existing across either of the planes a-a or b-b.

Shearing Force, F

a-a P = 30kN b-b

Shearing Force, F

Shearing Force, F

a-a P = 30kN b-b

Shearing Force, F

**BEARING STRESS IN CONNECTIONS
**

• Bolts, pins, and rivets create stresses in the members they connect, along the bearing surface, or surface of contact. ! • For example, consider again the two plates A and B connected by a bolt CD that we have discussed in the preceding section. ! • The bolt exerts on plate A a force P equal and opposite to the force F exerted by the plate on the bolt.

• The force P represents the resultant of elementary forces distributed on the inside surface of a half- cylinder of diameter d and of length t equal to the thickness of the plate.! • Since the distribution of these forces—and of the correspond-ing stresses—is quite complicated, one uses in practice an average nominal value of the stress, called the bearing stress, obtained by dividing the load P by the area of the rectangle representing the projection of the bolt on the plate section.! • Since this area is equal to td, where t is the plate thickness and d the diameter of the bolt:

PLE XAM E

Tie B a

r

Tension happen

**Deformations Due to Shear Stresses
**

**The faces of the element parallel to the plane of the paper are assumed to be load free.

• Since there are no normal stresses acting on the element, the lengths of the sides of the rectangular element will not change when the shearing stresses assume the value τ.

• However, there will be a distortion of the originally right angles of the element, and after this distortion due to the shearing stresses the element assumes the conﬁguration shown by the dashed lines.

Shear Strain

The change of angle at the corner of an originally rectangular element is deﬁned as the shear strain. It must be expressed in radians and is denoted by γ.

Shear Modulus

Shear Modulus is the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain is called the shear modulus and is denoted by G. Thus

! !

G = τ/ γ

G is also known as the modulus of rigidity.

The units of G are the same as those of the shear stress, i.e., N/m 2 , since the shear strain is dimensionless.

ISE ERC EX

**Low-carbon structural steel has a shearing ultimate strength of approximately 300 MPa. !
**

!

**Determine the force P necessary to punch a 2.5-cm-diameter hole through a plate of this steel 1 cm thick. !
**

!

If the modulus of elasticity in shear for this material is 82 GPa, ﬁnd the shear strain at the edge of this hole when the shear stress is 143 MPa.

Let us assume uniform shearing on a cylindrical surface is 2.5 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick, as shown in Figure.

!

For equilibrium the force P is

SUMMARY ! Comparison: ! Axial Loading vs Shearing Force

Axial Loading / Stress

Shearing Stress

STRESS ON AN OBLIQUE PLANE UNDER AXIAL LOADING

Assume, angle is 45 o

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