Thammasat Int. J. Sc. Tech.,Vol. 11, No.

3, July-September 2006

Understanding DynamicVoltage of RestorersThrough MATLAB Simulation
Paisan Boonchiam and Nadarajah Mithulananthan ElectricPower SystemManagement, EnergyField of Study,Asian Instituteof Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang,PathumThant 12120,Thailand; E-mail: mithulan(@,ait. th ac. Abstract This paper presents the applicationof dynamic voltage restorers(DVR) on power distribution systems mitigation of voltagesags/swells critical loads. DVR is one of the compensating for at types of custom power devices. An adequatemodeling and simulation of DVR, including controls in MATLAB, show the flexibility and easinessof the MATLAB environment in studying and understanding such compensating devices.The DVR, which is basedon forced-commutated voltage sourceconverter(VSC) has been proved suitablefor the task of compensating voltage sags/swells. Simulationresultsare presented illustrateand understand performances DVR in supporting to the of load voltagesundervoltagesags/swells conditions. Keywords: custompower,power quality, voltagesags, voltageswells,DVR. 1. Introduction Modem power systems are complex networks,where hundredsof generating stations and thousands ofload centersare interconnected through long power transmission and distribution networks [1]. The main concernof consumers the quality and reliability of power is suppliesat various load centerswhere they are locatedat. Even though the power generation in most well-developed countriesis fairly reliable, the quality of the supply is not so reliable. Power distribution systems, ideally, should provide their customerswith an unintemrpted flow of energy at smooth sinusoidalvoltage at the contractedmagnitude level and frequency l2l However, in practice, power systems, especially the distribution systems, have numerous nonlinear loads, which significantly affect the quality of power supplies.As a result of the nonlinear loads, the purity of the waveform of supplies is lost. This ends up producing many power quality problems.Aparl from nonlinearloads,some systemevents,both usual (e.g. capacitorswitching, motor starling) and unusual(e.g.faults) could also inflict power quality problems[3]. The consequence power of quality problems could range from a simple nuisance flicker in the electricallampsto loss of thousands ofdollars due to productionshutdown. A power quality problem is definedas any problemin voltage/current leading manifested or to frequencydeviationsthat result in failure or misoperation of customer equipment 13-41 Power quality problems are associated with an extensive number of electromagnetic phenomena power systems in with broad ranges of time framessuch as long durationvariations, short durationvariationsand other disturbances. Short duration variationsare mainly causedby either fault conditions or energizationof large loads that require high starting currents. Dependingon the electricaldistancerelated to impedance, type ofgrounding and connection of transformersbetween the faulted/loadlocation and the node, there can be a temporaryloss of voltage or temporaryvoltage reduction(sag) or voltage rise (swell) at different nodes of the system [5]. Voltage sag is defined as a sudden reductionof supply voltage down 90% to 10Vo of nominal, followed by a recoveryafter a short period of time. A typical duration of sag is, accordingto the standard,l0 ms to I minute. Voltage sag can cause loss of production in processes automated sincevoltagesag can trip a motor or cause its controller to malfunction. Voltage swell, on the other hand,is definedas a suddenincreasing supply voltageup I l0% to of 180%in rms voltageat the network fundamental frequencywith durationfrom 10 ms to 1 minute. Switching off a large inductive load or energizing a large capacitor bank is a typical

magnitude and within specified overvoltages/undervoltages of limits. For most practical cases.G. provided that the whole system remains to connected the supplygrid. This pre-specified quality may contain a combination of specificationsof the following !l: low phase low flicker at no unbalance. i. 3.a DVR can deal with voltage sagsanc swells which are consideredto have a severe impact on manufacturing places such as semiconductors and plastic products. As there are more and more concerns for the quality of supply as a result of more sensitiveloads in the of systemconditions. J.and negative of components the voltagedisturbance sequence seen at the input of the DVR.a betterunderstanding the devicesfor mitigating power quality problemsis important. July-September Thammasat system event that causes swells t I ] To the voltage sag/swell in a power compensate devicesneed to distributionsystem. Among compensatrng devices. industrial/ individual. and current or voltage injection for correcting anomaliesin supply voltageor load current. The DVR is one of the custom power devices which can improve power quality. This option is for reasonable because a typical distributionbus conhguration. Sc. t7l The power electronic controllers that are used in the custom power solution can be a type or a compensating nelwork reconfiguring type. Basic functions are fast switching. and unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) [2]. commercial parks or a supply for a high tech community on a wide areabasis. unbalanceconditions or improve the power quality of suppliedvoltage. voltage sags and voltage swells. compensating i.Custompower technology is a general term for equipment capableof mitigating numerouspower quality problems. the zero sequence part of a . to deal with various power quality problems. its power factor. solid statebreaker(SSB).appropriate be installedat suitablelocations. this with efficient control techniques. Custom Power Technology The concept of custom Power was introducedby N. Thesedevicesare either connected shunt or in seriesor a combinationof both. current breaking and current transferring devices. paper an attempt is made to understandthe functionsof DVR with the help of MATLAB. Tech. acceptance fluctuations.This would allow us to make use of the functions of such devices in a better way Hence. The network reconfiguratingdevices are which include current usually called switchgears limiting.a more economical design can be achieved by only compensating the positive.especially. Like Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) the systems. Dynamic Voltage Restorers A DVR is a device that injects a to in dynamicallycontrolledvoltage V. Just as FACTS improves the power transfer and stabilitymargins.Vol.e.Thesedevices are typically placed at the point of common c o u p l i n gt P C C I w h i c h i s d e f i n e da s t h e p o i n t where the ownership of the network changes. No. especially. the load voltage.. food places processing andpapermills. dynamic voltage compensator restorer (DVR).. term custompower for transmission pertains to the use of power electronics controllersin a distribution system. the line breaker does not trip. 2. This class o f d e ri c e s i n c l u d e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o ns t a t i c (D-STATCOM). i 1. These can be done on the basis of an large customer.. of The DVR works independently the type in of fault or any eventthat happens the system. This means that any differential in voltage causedby transientdisturbances the by ac feederwill be compensated an equivalent by voltage generated the converterand injected on the medium voltagelevel throughthe booster transformer. The a deviceseither compensate load. by reactiveand activepower.nonlinearand poor factor loads without significant effect on the terminalvoltage. custompower capabilities quality makes sure customersget pre-specified and reliability of supply. and solid state transfer switch (SSTS). power intemrptions. The amplitudesof the three injected phasevoltages are controlled such as to eliminate any detrimental effects of a bus fault to the load voltage V1@.low harmonicdistorlionin load duration of voltage.2006 Int.e. injectingor absorbing respectively t6l. Hingorani in 1995.(41 series the bus voltage by means of a booster transformeras depicted in Figure L There are three single phase booster transformers with energy to connected a threephaseconverter storage system and control circuit [8]. The solid state or static versions of the devices are called: solid state currentlimiter (SSCL). in etc.

the following appliesto eachphase: S t = P t j Q r = @ .the control is lf a DVR is a successful able to handle most sags/swells and the performancemust be maximized according to the equipment inserted.iQ) (1) wherevr..1(t) provided by st c t h e D V R . . the injection satisfies: SuDply Poir't n^^-.v. and Qt are the active and reactivepower taken by the load."-.1ft)is the voltage injected by the mitigation device as shown in Ftg. power quality problemsand types of sag/swell. j Q .it is suggested particularly focus on the losses of a DVR during normal this operation.rrti = e. I i. Fig. Fig.---r^---.-r(t). ( on'umer vL(. 4.-. .orft) the angle d dp. An equivalentcircuit diagram of the DVR and the principle of seriesinjectionfor is sagcompensation depictedin Figure2.. Modeling of DVR in MATLAB of The compensation voltagesag/swellcan be limited by a number of factors.(t/ is the sagged supply voltage and vi. Under nominal voltage conditions. actual source voltage vector V5ft) is moved to Vs.or(t) is assumed be 1.0 p. the load power on eachphaseis given by (2): S. device. Mathematically expressed.2006 Int.u. ) + ( P .The inject subscriptrefers to quantities injectedby the mitigationdevice. The control strategy should be able to compensatefor any of voltage sag/swell and considerthe limitation the DVR. Sc. and Pr. . islhe !0l. A s i m i l a rc o m p e n s a t i o n r a t e g y a n be drawn in the form of a phasor diagram for voltaseswellas well. 2 Equivalent : Fig.Initially.Two specific featuresaddressing in loss issuehave been implemented its design.t)=v"(t)+vi. the DVR may not be ableto avoid tripping and evencause to additionaldisturbances the loads. i -j Q . This means it does not inject any voltage (V. which are a transformer design with a low devicesused impedance. respectively. if the voltagedropsacrossthe seriestransformer When the voltage sagsoccur.ft) to and sameas Vt.o.. 2. July-September Thammasat disturbance will not passthrough the step down transformers becauseof infinite impedancefor this component. For most of the time the DVR has. Figure 3 shows the supply voltage vector during the pre-sag on as stage which is representeds V5'. 3 Compensation strategy DVR for of voltagesags. jQr Q) where I is the load current. 3.."-.ift) : 0) rndependentof the load to current. including finite DVR power rating.ft)is the load voltage. the are neglected. loading conditions. Tech.Vol. circuitof DVR. No.up in which the rotatingphase 0Xis. When the mitigation device is active and restores the voltages back to normal. during a sag/swell. is an injected voltage vector V1. I Schematic diagramof DVR System. "nothing to do.Therefore." except monitoring the bus voltage."-... is derived from Phase Lock Loop (PLL) [9].virtually. T. and the semiconductor for switching.To restorethe load voltagevector V/t). the load voltagevector V1. Otherwise. i ) (3) where the sag subscript refers to the sagged supply quantities. J.

When voltage sags/swells detected. of IOMV Fig.a singleline-ground(SLG) fault at supplybus bar at 400 ms is simulated. A DVR is connectedto the system througha seriestransformer with a capabilityto insert a maximum voltageof 50ohof the phaseto-ground system voltage. throughout the simulation.00 p..2006 Thammasat J. an unbalancedvoltage sag is createdimmediately after the fault as shown in Figure 7 (a). Simulation results In order to understandthe performanceof the DVR along with control. I l. can be seenfrom As the results. Apart from this a series filter is also used to remove any high frequency components of power. at andconstant . Output of this block is connectedto a phase lock loop (PLL) and anothertransformationblock that converts a. Figure 4 shows the basic control scheme and parameters that are measured for control purposes. When the grid voltageis at its normal level the DVR is controlledto reducethe losses in the DVR to a minimum. It quickly injects necessary voltage components smooththe load voltage to upon detecting voltagesag.Vol.00p. 0 Fig. July-September Int."'l'}*f. the DVR is able to produce the required voltage components for different phases rapidly and help to maintain a balanced loadvoltage 1. with total voltage sag durationof 150 ms. The load consideredin the study is a 10 MVA capacity with 0.. The MATLAB/Simulink environmentis a useful tool to implement this study becauseit has many tool boxes that can be used in this work and is easyto understand. respectively. The results are shown in Figure 6. 3. As a result of DVR. the supplyvoltageis connected to a transformation block that convefts stationary frame to crp-frame. It can be implementedusing a feedback control technique basedon the voltagereference values of supply and load and instantaneous voltage. 4 Control structure DVR. . Tech. The DVR injected voltageand the load voltageare shownin Figure 7 (b) and (c). In Figure4. a simple distribution network as shown in Figure 5.The control algorithmproducesa threephasereferencevoltage to the seriesconverter that tries to maintain the load voltage at its referencevalue [0]-[2].9 p.the DVR should react are as fast as possibleand inject an ac voltageto the grid. No. Vaq T J e d tr/. respectively. is implemented.this block If generates the reference load voltage.u.u. A 30% voltage sag is initiated at 400 ms and it is kept until 550 ms."t m. The d-referencecomponent is set to a rated voltage and the q-reference componentis set to zero. Sc. modulation 5.The detectionblock detectsthe voltage sag/swell.\ "N VSC dot PWM + qYu/ !. 5.1 VoltageSags First. DVR is doing nothing. a In order to understand the performanceof the DVR under unbalanced conditions. the Observethat during normal operation.f. The injection voltageis also generated difference by betweenthe referenceload voltage and supply voltageand is appliedto the VSC to producethe preferredvoltage. including the voltage sag period. Voltage sags/swells simulatedby temporary are connection differentimpedances the supply of at side bus. The voltage sag is detected measuring error betweenthe dqby the voltage of the supply and the referencevalues. the load voltage is kept at 1. (b) and (c) injected show the seriesof voltage components by the DVR and compensatedload voltage. which detects to the phase and changesthe axis of the supply voltage. Figure 6 (a).B-frame rotating frame (dq).. the supply voltage with two of the phasevoltages dropped down to 80%.As a result of SLG fault. a caseof symmetricalsag is simulated reactanceto the by connecting a three-phase busbar. voltagesag/swelloccurs. 5 Simple distributionnetworkwith DVR. lagging. with the help of pulse width (PWM).

A forcedcommutated voltage sources converter is considered in the DVR along with energy storageto maintain the capacitorvoltage. which is a condition of a temporary reduction in supply voltage.Vo1. Conclusion In this paper. unbalanced In this case.No. balanced to Fig. Tech. 8 Simulationresultsof DVR response a voltageswell. 3.a.which is a condition of a temporary increasein supply voltage. As can be seenfrom the results. Similar to the caseof voltagesag. In the caseof a voltage sag. Sc. unbalanced given in Figure 9(c). including during the unbalanced voltageswell event. the DVR injects an appropriate unbalanced three-phase voltage components 5. " \) i i l b)g a ^\ i to Fig.2 Voltage Swells Next.the DVR reactsquickly to inject the voltage component(anti phasewith appropriate the supply voltage or negative voltage to magnitude) correctthe supplyvoltage. performanceof a DVR in is mitigating voltage sags/swells demonstrated with the help of MATLAB. J. the load voltage is kept at the nominal value with the help of the DVR.. the performanceof DVR for a voltage swell condition is investigated.Here. The DVR handles both balanced and unbalanced without any difficulties and injectsthe situations appropriatevoltage componentto correct any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value. 7 Simulationresultof DVR response an voltagesag.. the DVR injects an equal positive which are voltagecomponent all threephases. the DVR injects an equal negative which are anti-phase voltagein all threephases. For unbalanced conditions. 0{ to Fig. The voltage amplitude is increasedabout l25o/oof nominal voltage. 9 Simulationresultof DVR response an voltageswell.for a voltageswell case.The injectedvoltagethat is producedby DVR in order to coffect the load voltageand the load voltage. respectively. voltage swell is generatedby energizing of a large capacitor bank and the correspondingsupply voltage is shown in Figure 8 (a).are shown in Figure 8 (b) and (c). On the otherhand.rt. This results in an unbalanced voltageswell wheretwo phase voltagesare equaland the otherphasevoltageis voltages. the unbalancedvoltage swell is createdby partly rejectingthe load. The performance of the DVR with an voltage swell is shown in Figure 9. slightly higher that the first two phases The anti phase unbalancedvoltage component injectedby the DVR to correctthe load voltage is shownin Figure9(b) and the load voltageis . 6. Notice the constant and balanced voltage at the load throughout the simulation. balanced Ph.2006 Int.{es a) b' )ti . 11. in in phasewith the supplyvoltageto correctit. 6 Simulationresultof DVR response a voltagesag. unbalanced to Fig. July-September Thammasat ! . with the supply voltage.

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