Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Facultad de Química

Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica

Fundamentos de Metalurgia y Materiales

Enseñanza Experimental

Pre informe de: “Identificación de materiales”

N° de Práctica: 4 Nombre del Alumno: Luis Angel Moreno Escutia Nombre del Profesor: Juan Manuel de la Rosa Canales Grupo: 4 Semestre lectivo: 3 Fecha de entrega: 05 de septiembre del 2012

. a) Materiales metálicos 1. Tipo de enlace interatómico: metálico conformando estructura cristalina específica de los metálicos.  Características de los materiales. Tenaces y deformables. y una combinación de los tres materiales principales que a su vez se llama compositos o compuestos(4). Altas densidades. sin conformar óxidos ni sales metálicas. . los polímeroscerámicos (2). . 3. . 6. .2/9  Clasificación moderna de los materiales Metales 3 4 Cerámicos 2 1 Polimeros También hay otras cuatro clasificaciones. . los metales. los metales-polímeros (1).cerámicos (3). 2. 4. en general. 5. Buenos conductores del calor y la electricidad. Resistencia aceptable hasta media temperatura. Compuestos de sustancias inorgánicas fundamentalmente metales. .

excluyendo metales puros. . 5. . Densidades medias. . Compuestos de sustancias inorgáni-cas fundamentalmente óxidos y sales metálicas. .3/9 b) Materiales cerámicos 1. d) Materiales compuestos 1. . H. . . 5. Malos conductores del calor y electricidad. con nula o media cristalinidad.upv. 6. Bajas densidades. 6. 4. Resistentes a bajas temperaturas. Frágiles e indeformables. . 3. O y otros elementos no metálicos.  Bibliografía: http://personales.es/~avicente/curso/unidad1/familia1. tenaces y plásticos otros. Son compuestos de dos o más materiales citados en los apartados anteriores tendentes a mejorar las propiedades débiles en unos y potenciar las fuertes de los otros pero conservando fuertemente su forma inicial. c) Materiales poliméricos 1. Resistencia a altas temperaturas. 3. Compuestos de sustancias orgánicas en base al C. 4. . . . . 2. Frágiles unos. Tipo de enlace interatómico: covalente conformando largas cadenas lineales o redes. Tipo de enlace interatómico: iónico conformando estructura cristalina específica de los cerámicos. El material a potenciar de propiedad débil se denomina matriz y el que potencia se denomina refuerzo. 2. Malos conductores del calor y la electricidad.html (consultada el día 6 de septimebre del 2012) . 2.

2. associated with its use. Materials normally classified as rubber compounds are not included. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.11 Standard Classification System for Nonmetallic Gasket Materials Significance and Use This classification system is intended to encourage uniformity in reporting properties. Facing materials for laminate composite gasket materials (LCGM) are included in Classification System F104. This system is based on the principle that nonmetallic gasket materials can be described in terms of specific physical and mechanical properties.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns. 1. and to be versatile enough to cover new materials and test methods as they are introduced. 1. if any. since details thereof are intended to be given on engineering drawings or in separate specifications.1 This classification system provides a means for specifying or describing pertinent properties of commercial nonmetallic gasket materials. use of the classification system as a basis for selecting materials is limited. Gasket coatings are not covered. to characterize a nonmetallic gasket based on properties that are important for the application. 1. or producer. to guide engineers and designers in the test methods commonly used for commercially available materials.4/9  Normas ASTM: ASTM F104 . cork. and other organic or inorganic materials in combination with various binders or impregnants are included. This enables the user. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Materials composed of asbestos. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) ASTM Standards D2000 Classification System for Rubber Products in Automotive Applications E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves F36 Test Method for Compressibility and Recovery of Gasket Materials F37 Test Methods for Sealability of Gasket Materials F38 Test Methods for Creep Relaxation of a Gasket Material F146 Test Methods for Fluid Resistance of Gasket Materials F147 Test Method for Flexibility of Non-Metallic Gasket Materials F148 Test Method for Binder Durability of Cork Composition Gasket Materials F152 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Nonmetallic Gasket Materials F433 Practice for Evaluating Thermal Conductivity of Gasket Materials F607 Test Method for Adhesion of Gasket Materials to Metal Surfaces F868 Classification for Laminated Composite Gasket Materials G21 Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi . Assembled LCGMs are covered in Classification F868.2 Since all of the properties that contribute to gasket performance are not included. cellulose. to provide a common language for communications between suppliers and consumers. Scope 1. since they are covered in ClassificationD2000.

2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. For additional requirements pertaining to cemented carbides. buckling and barreling (see Section 3) can complicate results and should be minimized. Scope 1. Young's modulus. 1.09 Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature Significance and Use Significance—The data obtained from a compression test may include the yield strength. see Annex A1. Flexibility--gasket materials. For brittle or nonductile metals that fracture in tension at stresses below the yield strength. In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture. see PracticeE209. gasket. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. specification. compression tests offer the possibility of extending the strain range of the stress-strain data.140 (Seals. description. Nonmetallic gasket materials.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns.5/9 Keywords classification. glands) ASTM E9 . line call-out. While the compression test is not complicated by necking as is the tension test for certain metallic materials. physical and mechanical properties. nonmetallic gasket. associated with its use. the stress-strain curve. compressive strength is a value that is dependent on total strain and specimen geometry. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. testing. if any. Flotation. and the compressive strength (see Terminology E6). Classification (standards)-gaskets. the yield point. specimens. Use—Compressive properties are of interest in the analyses of structures subject to compressive or bending loads or both and in the analyses of metal working and fabrication processes that involve large compressive deformation such as forging and rolling. 2. and procedure for axial-load compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature (Note 1). 1. 1.1 These test methods cover the apparatus. Gaskets.and Magnesium-Alloy Products . Referenced Documents (purchase separately) ASTM Standards B557 Test Methods for Tension Testing Wrought and Cast Aluminum. ICS Code ICS Number Code 21. NOTE 1—For compression tests at elevated temperatures. Line call-out.

fire-clay. complete or up to date.12 Standard Specification for Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile. resistance to fading. shale. Tangent Modulus. excluding natural salt-glazed ware. The former is a unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is 75 % or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane and the latter is a unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75 % of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. flame spread. toxic fumes. fire-clay. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard.1. and Type II or two-faced unit which is for general use where two opposite finished faces will be exposed. with or without the addition of grog or other mixtures. shale. for use with comparatively narrow mortar joints. having a finish consisting of a ceramic glaze fused to the body at above a certain temperature making them inseparable. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard.1 Grade S (select). imperviousness. The brick and tile are manufactured from clay. hardness. having a finish consisting of a ceramic glaze fused to the body at above 1500??F (655??C) making them inseparable. The heat treatment must develop sufficient fired bond between the particulate constituents to provide the strength requirements specified. as follows: 1. shale. 1. and abrasion resistance. .6/9 E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems E111 Test Method for Youngs Modulus. The masonry units are classified as solid masonry unit and hollow masonry unit. and two types are covered. resistance to autoclave crazing. the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. or similar naturally occurring substances and subjected to a heat treatment at elevated temperatures (firing). and Chord Modulus E171 Specification for Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing Flexible Barrier Materials E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods E209 Practice for Compression Tests of Metallic Materials at Elevated Temperatures with Conventional or Rapid Heating Rates and Strain Rates E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gauges E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method ASTM C126 . based on permissible variation in face dimensions. Type I or single-faced unit which is for general use where only one finished face will be exposed. Grade SS which is for use where variation of face dimension must be very small. or mixtures thereof.1 This specification covers structural clay load-bearing facing tile and facing brick and other ???solid masonry units??? made from clay. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate. The following grades and types are covered: Grade S which is for use with comparatively narrow mortar joints. excluding natural salt-glazed ware. smoke density. or mixtures thereof. Facing Brick. opacity. Scope 1. Two grades. with or without the addition of grog or other mixtures. and Solid Masonry Units Abstract This specification covers structural clay load-bearing facing tile and facing brick and other “solid masonry units” made from clay. Different tests shall be performed in order to determine the following properties: compressive strength. fuel contribution.

or similar naturally occurring substances and subjected to a heat treatment at elevated temperatures (firing). Standard ULNo. 1. 1.8-1 Test Method for Fire Hazard Classification of Building Material Government Standard FederalStandardTestN Keywords brick. 2. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.255 Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials Underwriters Laboratories.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard.1.723 Flammability Studies of Cellular Plastics and other Building Materials used for Interior Finishes International Conference of Building Officials Standard UBCNo.7/9 1.6 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test portion (Section 11) of this specification. The use of results from testing of brick and tile extracted from masonry structures for determining conformance or nonconformance to the property requirements (Section 4) of this standard is beyond the scope of this specification.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. if any. . Referenced Documents (purchase separately) ASTM Standards C67 Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile C1232 Terminology of Masonry E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPANo. tile . 1. for general use where only one finished face will be exposed. shale.3 Brick and tile covered by this specification are manufactured from clay. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns. clay. shale.4 Type II (two-faced units). 1. The heat treatment must develop sufficient fired bond between the particulate constituents to provide the strength requirements of this specification.2 The property requirements of this specification apply at the time of purchase. glaze properties. physical properties. associated with its use. masonry.3 Type I (single-faced units).) 1. ceramic glaze.1. for use where two opposite finished faces will be exposed. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1. (See firing and fired bond in Terminology C1232. Inc.

100. research and development. void content.8/9 ICS Code ICS Number Code 81. quality assurance. Tensile chord modulus of elasticity. associated with its use. which may be obtained from this test method include the following: Ultimate tensile strength. methods of material preparation and lay-up. 1. specimen conditioning. the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. if any.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents. 2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) ASTM Standards D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics D2584 Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins D2734 Test Methods for Void Content of Reinforced Plastics D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of . The composite material forms are limited to continuous fiber or discontinuous fiber-reinforced composites in which the laminate is balanced and symmetric with respect to the test direction.23 (Ceramic tiles) ASTM D3039 / D3039M . environment of testing. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Poisson's ratio. therefore. Scope 1. and structural design and analysis. and Transition strain. specimen stacking sequence.1 This test method determines the in-plane tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials reinforced by high-modulus fibers. each system must be used independently of the other. Within the text. 91. specimen alignment and gripping.08 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Significance and Use This test method is designed to produce tensile property data for material specifications.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns. speed of testing. Factors that influence the tensile response and should therefore be reported include the following: material. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Properties. and volume percent reinforcement. 1.080 (Refractories). 1. Ultimate tensile strain. in the test direction. time at temperature. specimen preparation.

025. Poisson's ratio. Composites--aerospace materials/applications. High modulus fibrous composites--resin-matrix. tensile strength. With Specified Precision. modulus of elasticity.40 (Rubber and plastics) . ICS Code ICS Number Code 49. the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process E132 Test Method for Poissons Ratio at Room Temperature E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods E251 Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gages E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics E1012 Practice for Verification of Test Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application E1237 Guide for Installing Bonded Resistance Strain Gages Keywords composite materials. Tensile properties/testing--composites.9/9 Polymer Matrix Composite Materials E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves E83 Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate. tensile properties. Resins (composite).