BREAST FEEDING Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human

breasts (i.e., via lactation) rather than from a baby bottle or other container. BREAST MILK The AAP recognizes that, “Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and is species-specific; all substitute feeding options differ markedly from it… Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including premature and sick newborns.” Colostrum is a yellow, sticky fluid, which is secreted during the first 3-5 days postpartum:
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It contains over sixty components, thirty of which are exclusive to human milk. Colostrum continues to offer the immunities that were available to your baby via the placenta. It is high in protein, as well as fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. Colostrum contains high amounts of sodium, potassium, chloride and cholesterol thought to encourage optimal development of your baby’s heart, brain and central nervous system. The yellow color of colostrum is due to B-carotene, one of the many antioxidants present. Colostrum’s natural laxative benefit encourages the passage of meconium, which reduces the risk of jaundice in your baby. This fluid is rich in immunoglobulins, which protect your infant from viruses and infections. It continues to be secreted in breastmilk for up to two weeks postpartum.

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Human milk is a complex living, biological fluid. It contains just the right amounts of nutrients, in the right proportions for your baby. It is processed gently through the baby’s digestive system so that these important nutrients are easily absorbed. Breastmilk’s features include special factors and hormones that contribute to the optimal health, growth and development of infants:
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Human milk contains at least one hundred ingredients not found in any artificial infant milk. It resembles blood more than milk due to the many live cells called macrophages. These cells kill bacteria, fungi and viruses. Lactoferrin coats and protects your baby’s intestines. When combined with lysozyme, they have a direct antibiotic effect on bacteria such as E. coli and staphylococci. Secretory IgA, along with other immunoglobulins protect the ears, nose and throat, as well as the GI track against foreign viruses and bacteria. These antibodies are capable of altering their protective qualities to fight any allergens, germs or bacteria that may be present in your

environment. This action decreases your infant’s chances of developing allergies, respiratory infections, otitis media (ear infections) and asthma.

Lactose accounts for the majority of carbohydrates in human milk. It enhances calcium absorption and metabolizes into galactose and glucose, which supplies energy to your infant’s rapidly growing brain. Human milk contains numerous long-chain fatty acids including DHA and ARA. These lipids are responsible for cell membrane integrity in the brain, retinas and other parts of your baby’s body. Breastmilk changes during the course of a feeding and throughout the day. It is secreted first as foremilk, which satisfies your baby’s initial thirst. Hindmilk is secreted as the feeding progresses. It is high in fat and calories to promote growth and development in your baby. Preterm milk differs markedly from full term milk by offering premature babies longer access to colostrum, higher levels of IgA and other antiinfective properties. Preterm milk also contains greater concentrations of triglycerides and long-chain fatty acids. These qualities offer the premature infant optimal nutrition for his short-term energy needs as well as for his long-term neurological and visual development. Preterm milk also offers the best protection from necrotizing enterocolits (NEC), an often fatal condition in premature babies.

All the research on human milk confirms it’s many advantages. Babies who are breastfed have a decreased chance of developing:
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Respiratory and ear infections Allergies and atopic diseases Asthma Urinary tract infections Diarrheal infections, gastrointestinal reflux and NEC Bacterial meningitis SIDS Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Childhood lymphomas such as Hodgkin’s Disease and Leukemia

Current research indicates that human milk’s protective qualities last well into adulthood. Adults who were breastfed as infants have a decreased risk of developing:
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Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease and Obesity

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Multiple Sclerosis Breast Cancer

ADVANTAGES OF BREASTFEEDING TO THE MOTHER Breastfeeding is a cost effective way of feeding an infant, providing nourishment for a child at a small cost to the mother. Frequent and exclusive breastfeeding can delay the return of fertility through lactational amenorrhea, though breastfeeding is an imperfect means of birth control. During breastfeeding beneficial hormones are released into the mother's body and the maternal bond can be strengthened. Breastfeeding is possible throughout pregnancy, but generally milk production will be reduced at some point. Bonding Hormones released during breastfeeding help to strengthen the maternal bond. Teaching partners how to manage common difficulties is associated with higher breastfeeding rates. Support for a mother while breastfeeding can assist in familial bonds and help build a paternal bond between father and child. If the mother is away, an alternative caregiver may be able to feed the baby with breast milk expressed with a breast pump. Hormone release Breastfeeding releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing toward her baby. Breastfeeding soon after giving birth increases the mother's oxytocin levels, making her uterus contract more quickly and reducing bleeding. Pitocin, a synthetic hormone used to make the uterus contract during and after labour, is structurally modeled on oxytocin. Weight loss As the fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, extended breastfeeding—at least 6 months—can help mothers lose weight. However, weight loss is highly variable among lactating women; monitoring the diet and increasing the amount/intensity of exercise are more reliable ways of losing weight. The 2007 review for the AHRQ found "The effect of breastfeeding in mothers on return-to-prepregnancy weight was negligible, and the effect of breastfeeding on postpartum weight loss was unclear."]  Gestational changes Dramatic changes occur in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and body composition as she accommodates the demands of providing for the nutritional needs of the growing fetus, and metabolizing for two. In anticipation of lactation, the mother accumulates some stores of visceral fat, but most of it is stored as subcutaneous fat in the thighs, arms, buttocks, and breasts. This shift in fat content leads to increased insulin production, insulin resistance, and circulating lipid levels in the mother. Studies have indicated that gestational weight gain (GWG)

may contribute to complications during labor and delivery and it is the most reliable factor in predicting postpartum weight retention (PPWR). In general, the more weight those women put on during pregnancy, the more weight that they retain afterward. Long-term effects of lactation on health and body composition Recent data suggests that lactation is associated with a reduced risk in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and heart disease. The long-term effects of lactation on body composition vary, and seem to be influenced by socioeconomic factors. Studies have consistently indicated that lactation helps prepare the mother’s body for subsequent pregnancies and reduces complications in later periods of gestation and birth. Further research is needed to examine the long-term effects of lactation on maternal body composition and risk for chronic disease.

Natural postpartum infertility Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. A breastfeeding woman may not ovulate, or have regular periods, during the entire lactation period. The period in which ovulation is absent differs for each woman. This lactational amenorrhea has been used as an imperfect form of natural contraception, with greater than 98% effectiveness during the first six months after birth if specific nursing behaviors are followed. It is possible for women to ovulate within two months after birth while fully breastfeeding and get pregnant again. Long-term health effects For breastfeeding women, long-term health benefits include:
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Less risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. A 2009 study indicated that lactation for at least 24 months is associated with a 23% lower risk of coronary heart disease. Although the 2007 review for the AHRQ found "no relationship between a history of lactation and the risk of osteoporosis", mothers who breastfeed longer than eight months benefit from bone re-mineralisation. Breastfeeding diabetic mothers require less insulin. Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome Reduced risk of post-partum bleeding. According to a Malmö University study published in 2009, women who breast fed for a longer duration have a lower risk for contracting rheumatoid arthritis than women who breast fed for a shorter duration or who had never breast fed.

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Financial benefits

The American Academy of Pediatrics states that breast feeding also has economic health benefits because breastfeeding results in reduced health care costs. The significantly lower incidence of illness in the breastfed infant also allows the parents more time for attention to siblings and other family duties and reduces parental absence from work and lost income. ADVANTAGES OF BREASTFEEDING TO NEWBORNS Scientific research, such as the studies summarized in a 2007 review for the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a 2007 review for the WHO, have found numerous benefits of breastfeeding for the infant. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, research shows that breast feeding provides advantages with regard to general health, growth, and development while significantly decreasing risk for a large number of acute and chronic diseases including lower respiratory infection, ear infections, bacteremia,bacterial meningitis, botulism, urinary tract infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. They state that there are a number of studies that show a possible protective effect of breast milk feeding against sudden infant death syndrome, insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, lymphoma, allergic diseases, digestive diseases, and a possible enhancement of cognitive development.[15] Greater immune health During breastfeeding, approximately 0.25-0.5 grams per day of secretory IgA antibodies pass to the baby via the milk. This is one of the most important features of colostrum, the breast milk created for newborns. The main target for these antibodies are probably microorganisms in the baby's intestine. There is some uptake of IgA to the rest of the body, but this amount is relatively small. Also, breast milk contains several anti-infective factors such as bile salt stimulated lipase (protecting against amoebic infections) and lactoferrin (which binds to iron and inhibits the growth of intestinal bacteria). Fewer infections Among the studies showing that breastfed infants have a lower risk of infection than non-breastfed infants are:

In a 1993 University of Texas Medical Branch study, a longer period of breastfeeding was associated with a shorter duration of some middle ear infections (otitis media with effusion) in the first two years of life. A 1995 study of 87 infants found that breastfed babies had half the incidence of diarrheal illness, 19% fewer cases of any otitis media infection, and 80% fewer prolonged cases of otitis media than formula fed babies in the first twelve months of life. Breastfeeding appeared to reduce symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections in premature infants up to seven months after release from hospital in a 2002 study of 39 infants.

A 2004 case-control study found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acquiring urinary tract infections in infants up to seven months of age, with the protection strongest immediately after birth. The 2007 review for AHRQ found that breastfeeding reduced the risk of acute otitis media, nonspecific gastroenteritis, and severe lower respiratory tract infections.

Reduced sudden infant death syndrome Breastfed babies have better arousal from sleep at 2–3 months. This coincides with the peak incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. A study conducted at the University of Münster found that breastfeeding halved the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in children up to the age of 1. Less diabetes Infants exclusively breastfed have less chance of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 than peers with a shorter duration of breastfeeding and an earlier exposure to cow milk and solid foods. Breastfeeding also appears to protect against diabetes mellitus type 2, at least in part due to its effects on the child's weight. Less childhood obesity Breastfeeding appears to reduce the risk of extreme obesity in children. The protective effect of breastfeeding against obesity is consistent, though small, across many studies, and appears to increase with the duration of breastfeeding. A study has also shown that infants who are bottle-fed in early infancy are more likely to empty the bottle or cup in late infancy than those who are breastfed. "Bottle-feeding, regardless of the type of milk, is distinct from feeding at the breast in its effect on infants' self-regulation of milk intake." According to the study, this may be due to one of three possible factors, including that when bottle feeding, parents may encourage an infant to finish the contents of the bottle whereas when breastfeeding, an infant naturally develops self-regulation of milk intake. A study in Today's Pediatrics associates solid food given too early to Formula-fed babies before 4 months old will make them 6 times as likely to become obese by age 3. It does not happen if the babies were given solid foods with breast feeding. Less tendency to develop allergic diseases (atopy) In children who are at risk for developing allergic diseases (defined as at least one parent or sibling having atopy), atopic syndrome can be prevented or delayed through exclusive breastfeeding for four months, though these benefits may not be present after four months of age. However, the key factor may be the age at which non-breastmilk is introduced rather than duration of breastfeeding. Atopic dermatitis, the most common form of eczema, can be reduced through exclusive breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks in individuals with a family history of atopy, but when breastfeeding beyond 12 weeks is combined with other foods incidents of eczema rise irrespective of family history.

Less necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute inflammatory disease in the intestines of infants. Necrosis or death of intestinal tissue may follow. It is mainly found in premature births. In one study of 926 preterm infants, NEC developed in 51 infants (5.5%). The death rate from necrotizing enterocolitis was 26%. NEC was found to be six to ten times more common in infants fed formula exclusively, and three times more common in infants fed a mixture of breast milk and formula, compared with exclusive breastfeeding. In infants born at more than 30 weeks, NEC was twenty times more common in infants fed exclusively on formula. A 2007 meta-analysis of four randomized controlled trials found "a marginally statistically significant association" between breastfeeding and a reduction in the risk of NEC. Other long term health effects In one study, breastfeeding did not appear to offer protection against allergies. However, another study showed breastfeeding to have lowered the risk of asthma, protect against allergies, and provide improved protection for babies against respiratory and intestinal infections. A review of the association between breastfeeding and celiac disease (CD) concluded that breast feeding while introducing gluten to the diet reduced the risk of CD. The study was unable to determine if breastfeeding merely delayed symptoms or offered lifelong protection. An initial study at the University of Wisconsin found that women who were breast fed in infancy may have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who were not breast fed. Breastfeeding may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, as indicated by lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels in adult women who had been breastfed as infants. Although a 2001 study suggested that adults who had been breastfed as infants had lower arterial dispensability than adults who had not been breastfed as infants, the 2007 review for the WHO concluded that breastfed infants "experienced lower mean blood pressure" later in life. A 2007 review for the AHRQ found that "there is an association between a history of breastfeeding during infancy and a small reduction in adult blood pressure, but the clinical or public health implication of this finding is unclear". A 2006 study found that breastfed babies are better able to cope with stress later in life. NURSING POSITIONS The Cradle Hold This is the first hold many mothers will try, often soon after their babies are born. To start, cradle your baby's head in the crook of your arm with your baby's nose opposite your nipple. Use that hand to support your baby's bottom. Turn your baby on his or her side, so that your baby is belly to belly to you. Then, raise your baby to your breast. You can support your breast with your other hand.

The Cross-Cradle or Crossover Hold This hold is similar to the cradle hold, but your arms are positioned differently. Instead of supporting your baby's head in the crook of your arm, use the hand of that arm to support your breast. Your opposite arm should come around the back of your baby. Support your baby's head, neck, and shoulder by placing your hand at the base of your baby's head with your thumb and index finger at your baby's ear level. Like the cradle hold, your baby will be belly to belly to you. The cross-cradle position allows you to have more control over how your baby latches on. Many moms find that they're able to get their babies latched on more deeply with this hold. The Side-Lying Position This position is comfortable for mothers who've had a cesarean section (C-section) because the baby doesn't put pressure on the mother's abdomen. This is also a great way for you to get some rest while nursing your baby. Start by lying on your side with your baby on his or her side, facing you. Your baby should be positioned so his or her nose is opposite your nipple. Use your lower arm to cradle your baby's back, or you can tuck a rolled-up receiving blanket behind your baby to help nestle your little one close to you while you use your arm to support your own head. You can support your breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for the mom who's had a C-section and also for mothers with large breasts or small babies. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — which is also good for mothers with a forceful milk ejection reflex (or let down). To achieve the clutch (or football) hold, place a pillow next to you. Cradle your baby — facing upward — in your arm. Use the palm of your hand on that same arm to support his or her neck, and nestle your baby's side closely against your side. Your baby's feet and legs should be tucked under your arm. Then lift your baby to your breast. Latching On After your baby is positioned correctly, make sure he or she latches on (takes the breast into his or her mouth) properly: 1. Make sure your baby's mouth is opened wide and his or her tongue is down when latching on. 2. Support your breast with your hand, positioning your thumb on top and your fingers at the bottom, keeping your thumb and fingers back far enough so that your baby has enough of the nipple and areola (the circle of skin around the nipple) to latch onto. 3. Gently glide your nipple from the middle of your baby's bottom lip down to his or her chin to help prompt your baby to open his or her mouth.

4. When your baby opens his or her mouth wide and the tongue comes down, quickly bring your baby to your breast (not your breast to your baby). Your baby should take as much of the areola into his or her mouth as possible, with more areola showing at the top lip than at the bottom. 5. Make sure your baby's nose is almost touching your breast (not pressed against it), his or her lips are turned out (orflanged), and you see and hear your baby swallowing. (You should be able to tell by seeing movement along your baby's lower jaw and even in your baby's ear and temple.)

When properly latched on, you may have 30 to 60 seconds of latch-on pain (this is caused by the nipple and areola being pulled into your baby's mouth), then the pain should subside. It will then feel like a tug when your baby is sucking. If you continue to feel pain, stop feeding momentarily and reposition your baby on your breast. Your baby should give four to five sucks, followed by a 5- to 10-second pause. Your baby's sucks will increase in number as the quantity of your milk increases. As the milk flow slows, your baby's pattern will probably change to three or four sucks and pauses that last longer than 10 seconds. Erikson’s Stages of Development Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from another, social/cultural identity (the collection of social roles a person might play). Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle. 1. Infant (Hope) – Basic Trust vs. Mistrust 2. Toddler (Will) – Autonomy vs. Shame 3. Preschooler (Purpose) – Initiative vs. Guilt 4. School-Age Child (Competence) – Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Adolescent (Fidelity) – Identity vs. Identity Diffusion 6. Young Adult (Love) – Intimacy vs. Isolation 7. Middle-aged Adult (Care) – Generativity vs. Self-absorption 8. Older Adult (Wisdom) – Integrity vs. Despair These eight stages, spanning from birth to death, are split in general age ranges.

1. Infancy: Birth-18 Months Old Basic Trust vs. Mistrust – Hope During the first or second year of life, the major emphasis is on the mother and father’s nurturing ability and care for a child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled. If a child does not experience trust, he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness, and general mistrust to the world. 2. Toddler / Early Childhood Years: 18 Months to 3 Years Autonomy vs. Shame – Will The second stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years. At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong. The well-cared for child is sure of himself, carrying himself or herself with pride rather than shame. During this time of the “terrible twos”, defiance, temper tantrums, and stubbornness can also appear. Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and and low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills. 3. Preschooler: 3 to 5 Years Initiative vs. Guilt – Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations. We make up stories with Barbie’s and Ken’s, toy phones and miniature cars, playing out roles in a trial universe, experimenting with the blueprint for what we believe it means to be an adult. We also begin to use that wonderful word for exploring the world—”WHY?” While Erikson was influenced by Freud, he downplays biological sexuality in favor of the psychosocial features of conflict between child and parents. Nevertheless, he said that at this stage we usually become involved in the classic “Oedipal struggle” and resolve this struggle through “social role identification.” If we’re frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt. The most significant relationship is with the basic family. 4. School Age Child: 6 to 12 Years Industry vs. Inferiority – Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage

of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem. As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important. 5. Adolescent: 12 to 18 Years Identity vs. Role Confusion – Fidelity Up until this fifth stage, development depends on what is done to a person. At this point, development now depends primarily upon what a person does. An adolescent must struggle to discover and find his or her own identity, while negotiating and struggling with social interactions and “fitting in”, and developing a sense of morality and right from wrong. Some attempt to delay entrance to adulthood and withdraw from responsibilities (moratorium). Those unsuccessful with this stage tend to experience role confusion and upheaval. Adolescents begin to develop a strong affiliation and devotion to ideals, causes, and friends. 6. Young adult: 18 to 35 Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation – Love At the young adult stage, people tend to seek companionship and love. Some also begin to “settle down” and start families, although seems to have been pushed back farther in recent years. Young adults seek deep intimacy and satisfying relationships, but if unsuccessful, isolation may occur. Significant relationships at this stage are with marital partners and friends. 7. Middle-aged Adult: 35 to 55 or 65 Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation – Care Career and work are the most important things at this stage, along with family. Middle adulthood is also the time when people can take on greater responsibilities and control. For this stage, working to establish stability and Erikson’s idea of generativity – attempting to produce something that makes a difference to society. Inactivity and meaninglessness are common fears during this stage. Major life shifts can occur during this stage. For example, children leave the household, careers can change, and so on. Some may struggle with finding purpose. Significant relationships are those within the family, workplace, local church and other communities.

8. Late Adult: 55 or 65 to Death Integrity vs. Despair – Wisdom Erikson believed that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage involves much reflection. As older adults, some can look back with a feeling of integrity — that is, contentment and fulfillment, having led a meaningful life and valuable contribution to society. Others may have a sense of despair during this stage, reflecting upon their experiences and failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering “What was the point of life? Was it worth it?” PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating. The Oral Stage Age Range: Birth to 1 Year Erogenous Zone: Mouth During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation. The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting.

The Anal Stage Age Range: 1 to 3 years Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults. However, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive. The Phallic Stage Age Range: 3 to 6 Years Erogenous Zone: Genitals During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety. The term Electra complex has been used to described a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy. Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. Psychologists such as Karen Horney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead, Horney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.

The Latent Period Age Range: 6 to Puberty Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego andsuperego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests. The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. The Genital Stage Age Range: Puberty to Death Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life. Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.