Recent Judicial Rulings with Special Emphasis on Corporate Taxation

Rajan Vora 26 April 2012

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Recent Judicial Rulings

Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Particulars Issues arising in section 14A Issues under section 80IB(10) Issues under section 80HHC Taxability of Royalty under the Act and Treaty

6. 7. 8. 9.

Issues under section 40(a)(ia)
Allowability of Depreciation on intangibles, etc. Taxability of capital gain – Section 45 and Section 54EC, including non-compete Reopening under section 147 Revision under section 263

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Recent Judicial Rulings

Issues arising in section 14A

For earlier years. Such satisfaction must be an objective satisfaction arrived at in good faith and on relevant consideration of all facts and circumstances. the literal interpretation of the Section does not result in any absurdity Rule 8D will apply from AY 2008-09. [(2010) 328 ITR 81 (Bom HC)] ► ► Section 14A and Rule 8D are constitutionally valid Proximate relationship required between expenditure (direct and indirect) to invoke disallowance under section 14A Rule 8D cannot be invoked mechanically by the Tax Authority. Also. the Tax Authority must record reasons for non-satisfaction with the claim of the taxpayer [Also upheld in the decision of Delhi ITAT in the case of Jindal Photo Limited – ITA No. Hence. the tax authority has to apply reasonable method for quantifying section 14A expenditure BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► Page 4 . Ltd. The procedural provisions requires satisfaction of the Tax Authority having regard to the accounts of the taxpayer that the claim made by the taxpayer is not correct. Co.4539/Del.Godrej & Boyce Mfg./2010 dt 7 January 2011] ► ► The Section is framed on well-settled principle of taxation to tax the net income that is to say. gross income minus the expenditure.

Issue under section 14A Interest expenditure cannot be disallowed under Section 14A where investment is made out of interestfree funds Hero Cycles Ltd. based on such factual finding. It further held that no substantial question of law arose where the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) deleted the disallowance. . Page 5 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Punjab & Haryana High Court [323 ITR 518] ► ► ► Issue of disallowance under Section 14A of the Income Tax Act of the expenditure incurred in relation to exempt income. where it is factually found that no interest bearing funds are utilized for making investments which give rise to exempt dividend income. The HC held that the provisions of the Section cannot be invoked to disallow interest expenditure.

1050/M/10) AY 200809 dated 5 August 2011 Jindal Photo Ltd.P. Morgan India (P) Ltd. (2011) 50 DTR (Mumbai)(Trib) 158 Jindal Photo Ltd. (ITA No. decisions following ► ► Bunge Agribusiness (India) (P) LTD .Issue under section 14A Position after Godrej & Boyce. (ITA No. 814/D/11) AY 2008-09 dated 23 September 2011 (Del) ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Page 6 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . (2011) 135 TTJ (Mumbai) 663 J. 4539/D/10) AY 2007-08 dated 22 December 2010 (Del) Multi Commodity Exchange of (India) Limited (ITA No. (2011) 46 SOT 250 (Mumbai) Yatish trading co.(2011) 132 ITD 549 (Mumbai) Sudhir Genset Ltd (2010) 134 TTJ (Del)(UO) 78 Digital Electronics LTD (2011) 135 TTJ (Mumbai) 419 Delite Enterprises (P) LTD. (P) ltd.

On the issue of disallowance of expenditure incurred in relation to exempt income by way of dividend on shares held as „stock-in-trade‟. notional expenditure cannot be disallowed under Section 14A. 359 of 2011 dt: 28 February 2012) in the case of CCI Ltd . v.Issue under section 14A Issue 1 . as held in the case of Cheminvest Ltd.Whether Rule 8D is applicable in case of investments held as stock-intrade? ► Yes. as held in the case of CIT v. The Section cannot be applied to disallow expenditure incurred on shares purchased for trading purposes from interest-free funds merely because such shares give rise to incidental exempt dividend income. Page 7 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . Daga Capital (312 ITR 1) ► Yes. ITO (121 ITD 318) ► No. The HC held that when no expenditure is incurred by a taxpayer in earning dividend income. as held in the case of ITO v. Leena Ramchandran (235 CTR 512) Karnataka High Court (HC) (ITA No.

interest earned can be reduced? ► Yes. the issue is highly controversial.Whether while computing interest disallowance. has taken a view in favor of taxpayer and held that the rigor of the Section cannot be applied to expenditure incurred on shares purchased for trading purposes merely because such shares give rise to incidental exempt dividend income. as held by Mumbai Tribunal in the case of Morgan Stanley India Securities Private Limited.237 CTR 164) have held in favor of the Tax Authority. the Delhi HC (in the case of Maxopp .Issue under section 14A The Karnataka HC.203 Taxmann 364) and Karnataka HC (in the case of Catholic Syrian Bank . [ITA No. However. Issue 2 .5072/Mum/2005 dt: 13 April 2011] Page 8 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . These contra rulings do not appear to have been cited or considered by Karnataka High Court. in this ruling. On a similar issue.

Issue under section 14A Issue 3 . 5098 & 5099 / Mum 2004) Punjab State Co-operative and Marketing Fed. ACIT (ITA No. as held in the following decisions: ► ► ► Reliance Utilities & Power Limited ( 313 ITR 340) (Bom HC) International Nederlanden Bank (ITA No. v. 579/Chd/2011) (Chandigarh ITAT) Page 9 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . Ltd.Whether there can be disallowance of interest if mix funds are available and it can be demonstrated that surplus funds were utilized for making investment in tax free source? ► No.

2083/CHNY/2011.Issue under section 14A Issue 4 . dt.Sec 14A disallowance on interest expense not attracted since interest income exceeded interest expense.Sec 14A disallowance on interest expense not attracted since interest income exceeded interest expense ► ► ► Kolkata ITAT . a Delhi Bench of ITAT in Gillette Group [ITA No. Disallowance under section 14A read with Rule 8D not to exceed actual expenditure incurred in relation to exempt income Recently. 267/Del/2012 dt. Sec 14A disallowance would be attracted by the force of statute even when the taxpayer claims that no expenditure incurred in relation to exempt income. On the other hand.: 4/11/2011] had taken a similar view that Sec 14A disallowance (read with Rule 8D) could not exceed actual expenditure incurred in relation to exempt income.:28/9/2011] . a Chennai bench of ITAT in Lakshmi Ring Travellers [ITA No.Trade Apartment Ltd [ITA No. 1277/Kol/2011 dt. Thus.: 9/12/2011] )] held that Sec 14A is a deeming provision for presumptive disallowance. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings Page 10 .

s. 4931/Del/2010 dt: 29/06/2011) (ITAT Delhi) ► Mumbai Tribunal in the case of M/s Varun Shipping Company Ltd. if actual expenditure to earn tax-free income not debited in P&L A/c. since there ia already adjustment permissible in section 115JB ► Yes.: 30 November 2011]. 5576/Mum/2011 dt. the Tribunal held that provisions of s.14A are not applicable to tonnage tax companies which are covered by presumptive taxation. Page 11 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . On the first issue.Rule 8D cannot be invoked while computing book profit under section 115JB of the Act. Goetze (India) Ltd [32 SOT 101 (Del)] In computing book profits under section 115JA/JB. 14A cannot apply ► Quippo Telecom Infrastructure Ltd vs.14A of the Income Tax Act to tonnage tax companies and computation of book profit of shipping business for exclusion from taxation under section 115JB.115JB of the Act. where the issues before the tribunal were about applicability of s. the Tribunal held that exclusion of book profits related to shipping business should be with respect to same amount of book profit as computed in accordance with provisions of s.. ACIT (ITA No. On the second issue. (Taxpayer) [ITA No.Issue under section 14A Issue 5 .

can formula as per Rule 8D be used? Can disallowance as worked out exceed actual expenditure? ► ► ► Vatican Commercial Ltd. 4538/M/2005) dated 15 December 2010 (Mumbai Tribunal) Page 12 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . 880/Kol/2011) dated 30 August 2011 (Kolkata Tribunal) M/s Philips Carbon Black (ITA No. (ITA No.Disallowance of administration expenditure If expenses incurred cannot be identified.Issue under section 14A Issue 6 . 566/Kol/2009) dated 10 June 2011 (Kolkata Tribunal Third Member) Zensar Technologies (ITA No.

disallowance cannot exceed. the order of tribunal to the extent it directed consideration of section 14A was quashed & set aside. Page 13 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . Accordingly. Ltd..Issue under section 14A Issue 7 – Even while setting aside the matter by appellate authority. the tribunal could not have not touched the question of 14A and made observations prejudicial to the Assessee while remanding the matter. the disallowance originally proposed by AO? Top Star Mercantile (Bom HC) [334 ITR 374] As the AO had not made any disallowance under section 14A. It had no jurisdiction to issue directions to the AO decide afresh on the touchstone of section 14A and Daga Capital Management Pvt.

Issues under section 80IB(10) .

whether the merger of two flats into one so as to exceed the maximum size of 1000 sq feet violates the condition set out in section 80IB (10)? Page 15 Recent Judicial Rulings . (iii) Whether the housing project must be on a vacant plot of land which has minimum area of one acre and if there are multiple buildings and the proportionate area for each building is less than one acre.1993 for construction of A and B building. Vandana Properties (Bombay High Court) [ITA No. therefore.1998 and.10.5. section 80-IB(10) can be denied?. (ii) Whether if approval for construction of ‘E’ building was granted by the local authority subject to the conditions set out in the first approval granted on 12. benefit of section 80IB (10) cannot be granted?.3633 of 2009 dt 28 March 2012] The High Court considered the following questions on interpretation of section 80-IB(10): (i) What is a ‚housing project‛ under section 80-IB(10)?.Issues under section 80IB(10) Section 80-IB(10): Multiple Housing Projects On 1 Acre Plot Permissible M/s. construction of ‘E’ building is an ‚extension‛ of the earlier housing project for which approval was granted prior to 1.

The approval granted to a building plan constitutes approval granted to a housing project. ► On facts. Construction of even one building with several residential units of the size not exceeding 1000 square feet would constitute a ‘housing project’ under section 80IB (10). it need not be a vacant plot.Issues under section 80IB(10) The High Court held: ► As the expression ‘housing project’ is not defined. The object of s. Page 16 Recent Judicial Rulings . ‘E’ building was not even contemplated and came into existence much later. 80IB (10) is to boost the stock of houses. The fact that the approval was granted on the same terms as that granted to the other buildings does not make it an ‚extension‛. While the plot must have a minimum area of one acre. ► Section 80IB (10)(b) specifies the size of the plot of land but not the size of the housing project. There can be multiple housing projects on a plot of land having minimum area of one acre. as there was no merger of flats and no application was made to the local authority seeking merger of two flats. there was no violation. it must have the common parlance meaning and means constructing a building or group of buildings consisting of several residential units. ► ‘E’ building is an independent housing project and not an extension of the housing project already existing on the plot because when the earlier plans were approved.

the ‚housing project‛ was given to the owner and not to the taxpayer. The Assessing Officer & CIT(A) rejected the claim on the ground that the taxpayer was not the ‚owner‛ of the land and that the approval of the local authority to. On appeal by the department to the High Court. and the completion certificate of. Deduction under section 80‐IB(10) in respect of the profits arising from the said activity was claimed on the ground that it was ‚derived from the business of undertaking developing and building housing project approved by the local authority‛. Radhe Developers ( 2012) 204 Taxman 543(Guj. HELD dismissing the appeal: Section80IB(10) allows deduction to an undertaking engaged in the business of developing and constructing housing projects.80IB(10):Deduction – Undertaking Developing and building Housing Project Eligible even if developer not ‚owner‛ of land.)(High Court) ► ► ► The taxpayer entered into a ‘development agreement’ with the owner of the land pursuant to which it agreed to develop the land. There is no requirement that the land must be owned by the taxpayer seeking the deduction Page 17 Recent Judicial Rulings . However.Issues under section 80IB(10) S. the Tribunal allowed the claim.

1. The land owner had accepted the full price of the land and had no responsibility. The entire risk of investment and expenditure was that of the taxpayer. the taxpayer had undertaken the development of housing project at its own risk and cost. 53A of the TOP Act even though formal title had not passed Page 18 Recent Judicial Rulings .f.4. It had full authority and responsibility to develop the housing project by not only putting up the construction but by carrying out various other activities including enrolling members. it had to be deemed to be the ‚owner‛ under section 2(47)(v) r.Issues under section 80IB(10) ► ► ► Under the development agreement. given possession and had also carried out the construction work for development of the housing project. as the taxpayer was.s. profit and loss also accrued to the taxpayer alone. The risk element was entirely that of the taxpayer.w.2001 has no application as the project is not a ‚works contract‛. The Explanation to section 80IB inserted w. accepting members.r. carrying out modifications engaging professional agencies and so on. The taxpayer had total and complete control over the land and could put the land to the agreed use. The taxpayer was a ‚developer‛ in common parlance as well as legal parlance and could not be regarded as only a ‚works contractor‛. Resultantly.e. in part performance of the agreement to sell the land. Further.

deduction under s. ITAT held that once the project is approved by the local authorities.7050/Mum/2010 dt 12 March 2012] Clause (d) inserted in section 801B[10) with effect from April 1. Since deduction under section 801B[1Oj were on the profits derived from the housing projects approved by the local authority as a whole. 80IB(10) Once the project is approved by the local authorities. 80-IB(10) is allowable to housing projects approved by the local authority having residential units with commercial user to the extent permitted under the DC Rules/Regulations framed by the respective local authority irrespective of the fact that the project is approved as ‘housing project’ or ‘residential plus commercial’ Page 19 Recent Judicial Rulings . then deduction has to be allowed on the whole of the project Harsh Construction (Mum Tribunal) [ITA No. Followed Brahma Associates – Bombay High Court [ 51 DTR 298] Wherein it was held that upto 31st March.Issues under section 80IB(10) S. is prospective and not retrospective and hence could not be applied for the period prior to April 1. then deduction has to be allowed on the whole of the project. 2005. 2005. 2005.

80-IB(10) would be allowable to the projects approved by the local authority having residential building with commercial user upto 10 per cent of the total built-up area of the plot. 1st April. cl. (d) inserted in s. deduction under s.e. 80-IB(10) w.f. 2005. 2005 is prospective and not retrospective Page 20 Recent Judicial Rulings .Issues under section 80IB(10) Tribunal was not justified in holding that upto 31st March.

Issues under section 80IB(10) Amendment and insertion of clause (d) is prospective in nature ► Bombay High Court’s decision in case of Saroj Sales Organisation approving the Mumbai Tribunal’s reported at 3 DTR 494/ 115 TTJ 485 (Mum) ► H. 370/M/10 dated 13 May 2011 ► Bhumiraj Homes Limited. No. 993/Mum/09) ► Hiranandani Akruti JV Vs. 3175/M/09) dated 30 September 2010 (Mum Trib) ► Pramukh Enterprises (ITA No.01. 179/M/09 dated 28. 6356/M/08) dated 30 September 2010 (Mum Trib) ► Anik Development Corporation (ITA No.D. Enterprises ITA No. 2764/M/09 dated 27 April 2011 ► Shree Ashapura Construction (ITA No.2011 ► Chedda Construction ITA NO. 5712/M/08 dated 6 August 2009 ► M/s.506/Mum/2009) dated 20 May 2011 Page 21 Recent Judicial Rulings . 6055/M/09) dated 26 Nov 2010 ► Shree Ashapura Construction (ITA No. DCIT 39 SOT 498 (Mum) ► Raviraj Construction (Royal) (ITA No.(ITA. Pathare & Associates (ITA No.

relevant for determining period of project completion u/s 80IB. 138 of 2010 dated 29 February 2012) (Karnataka High Court) Page 22 Recent Judicial Rulings . Even single building satisfying conditions u/s 80IB qualifies as 'housing project'. Sec 80IB deduction allowed on buildings forming part of project & completed within prescribed time limit. Mumbai ITAT decisions in Vandana Properties and Mudhit Madanlal Gupta relied Calculation of Build Up Area (‘BUA’) and Amendment in 80IB(14) is prospective in nature by Finance Act 2004 ► ► Bombay High Court’s decision in case of Sheth Developers approving the Mumbai Tribunal’s reported at 33 SOT 277 (Mum) Anriya Project Management Services Pvt Ltd (ITA No.Issues under section 80IB(10) Even single building qualifies as housing project. eligible for Sec 80IB benefit Rahul Construction Co. and not date of approval of project. [TS-227-ITAT-2012(PUN)] Date of approval of building plan.

05. 205/3/2001/ITA.Issues under section 80IB(10) Deduction to be allowed if building constructed on existing building ► Ganga Developers ITA No.II) ► Khyati Finacial Services (Mum) (Trib) Amendment in 80IB(10) by Finance Act 2010 to not to sell the flat to the related person is prospective ► Emgeen Holdings P. DCIT [ TS-409-ITAT-2011(Mum)] Page 23 Recent Judicial Rulings . 1089 of 2009 (Bom) dated 9 September 2009 ► Ganga Developers Vs.2001 (F No. Ltd v. 9136/M/04 (Mum) dated 28 June 2007 ► CBDT letter dated 04. DCIT ITA No.

SJR Builders Vs.1595/Kol/2005. ITA No.V. 119 TTJ 269 (Bang) Bengal Ambuja Housing Development Ltd. ACIT 3 ITR 569 (Bang) Page 24 Recent Judicial Rulings . Ltd. 14 DTR 371 (Bang) G.Issues under section 80IB(10) Even if some of the flats have area exceeding 1500 sq. Corporation 38 SOT 174 (Mum) KZK Developers 130 TTJ 57 (Cut) 9.dated 24 March 2006 (Affirmed by the Kolkata High Court) Sheth Developers 33 SOT 277(Mum) Bridage Enterprises P. approved by Brahma Associates – Bombay High Court [ 51 DTR 298] ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Air Developers 25 DTR 287 (Nag) Bridage Enterprises (P) Ltd. proportionate deduction is to be allowed ► Brahma Associates 30 SOT 155(SB)(Pune) . ft.

Issues under section 80IB(10) Pravin Kumar Bhogilal Shah (2012) 66 DTR 236 (Guj. High Court quashed the notice and held that reopening only on the basis of retrospective amendment of law is not justified. on basis of retrospective amendment to section 80IB(10) is held to be invalid. dt.)(High Court) Vinayak Construction (2012) 66 DTR 233 (Guj.: 12/3/2012] ► S. 15067 of 2011. 147 : Reopening. was amendment brought in the statute book with retrospective effect. inserting Explanation with retrospective effect from 1st April. 2001 which denied benefit of deduction under section 80IB(10) to works contractors execution housing project. 80IB(10)] taxpayer claimed the deduction under section 80(IB)(10) after enquiry the deduction was allowed. 147 : Reassessment. Page 25 Recent Judicial Rulings . 2009. beyond four years for housing project. even within 4 years.(Guj)(High Court)[special civil application no. The amendment was introduced by Finance Act. The said notice was challenged before the High Court.)(High Court) ► ► S. Reassessment held to be invalid only on the basis of retrospective amendment as there is no failure to disclose fully and truly all material facts. The only reason for issuing the notice. [S. Ganesh Housing Corporation Ltd.

Taxability under section 80HHC .

1 Case name of Special High Court (HC) Bench Topman Exports [124 ITD 1 ( Mumbai SB)] Reversed by Bombay HC in case of Kalpataru Colours and Chemicals [328 ITR 451 (Bom)] Date: 29 June 2010 Supreme Court (SC) Decision of Special bench upheld and Bombay HC reversed.Sr. available in respect of export incentives in the form of cash assistance and profit on transfer of DEPB. the excess over face value of DEPB alone represents „profit‟. hence. SC held that DEPB has an inherent cost and. Recent Judicial Rulings Ruling Page 27 . Topman Exports (SC)[ 342 ITR 49] Date : 8 February 2012 Issue Whether entire sale proceeds or only profit on transfer of Duty Entitlement Pass Book (DEPB) would be eligible for export profit deduction. inter alia. The face value of DEPB will qualify as „cash assistance‟. No. Export profit deduction is.

Recent Judicial Rulings Ruling Page 28 . while determining export profits deduction under the Income Tax Act (the Act). No. The SC ruled that. the exclusion of non-export receipts is to be made at net amount. Ltd vs. reduction of non-export receipts should be made with respect to net amount. CIT (SC) [ 247 CTR 372] Date: 8 February 2012 Lalson Enterprises [89 Reversed by the Bombay HC in ITD 25 ( Delhi SB)] case of Asian Star [326 ITR 56 (Bom) (HC)] Date : 19 March 2010 Issue Whether. 2 Case name of Special Bench High Court (HC) Supreme Court (SC) Decision of Special bench upheld and Bombay HC reversed. ACG Associated Capsules Pvt. exclusion for non-export receipts is to be made with respect to net amount or gross receipts. while computing export profits deduction. The SC held that. This SC ruling settles the long-drawn controversy on the scope of exclusion of non-export receipts while computing export profits deduction. given that the exclusion is from „profits‟ and not gross receipts.Sr.

This claim was upheld by the Tribunal by relying on the judgement of the Special Bench in Syncome Formulations [106 ITD 193]. section 80HHC deduction to be computed as per P&L Profits and not normal provisions Al-Kabeer Exports Ltd . the impugned judgment of the High Court is set aside and the judgments of the ITAT in these cases stand affirmed.For section 115JA/JB. the taxpayer claimed that the deduction admissible thereunder under section 80HHC had to be computed on the basis of the “book profits” and not on the basis of the income computed under the normal provisions of the Act. the High Court (233 CTR 443 (Bom)) reversed the Tribunal. HELD reversing the High Court: In view of this Court‟s Order in the case of Bhari Information Technology Systems [328 ITR 380] upholding the judgment of the Special Bench of Tribunal in Syncome Formulations (I) Ltd.32274/2010 dt: 3 February 2012] In computing “book profits” under section 155JA & 115JB.Supreme Court [Petition(s) for Special Leave to Appeal (Civil) No(s). On appeal by the Revenue. On appeal by the taxpayer. Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► ► Page 29 .

80HHC. 90 per cent of the gross interest received by the assessee has to be reduced from the profits and gains of the business for the purposes of computing the deduction under s.Section 80HHC deduction Asian Star Co – Bombay High Court [ (2010) 326 ITR 56] As per Expln. 80HHC and not the net interest. (baa) to s. Page 30 Recent Judicial Rulings .

The Finance Act 2011 carried out a retrospective amendment with effect from tax year 2004-05 withdrawing the deductions available for export profits under MAT provisions. Accordingly.Issue of deductibility of export profits from the net profit while computing ‘book profit’ for determining (MAT) liability Bhari Information Technology Systems (P) Ltd – Supreme Court (SC) [340 ITR 593] ► ► ► The SC ruled that while making downward adjustment to „book profit‟ in respect of export profits. the taxpayer will still be eligible for deduction of export profits computed on book profit base for MAT purposes. Thus. the impact of the present decision will be restricted to pending matters upto tax year 2003-04. the basis of adjustment should be the net profit as per Profit and Loss Account (book profit base) and not the taxable income computed as per normal provisions of the ITL. Recent Judicial Rulings Page 31 . The SC ruling settles the controversy over the basis of export incentive deduction for MAT purposes in favor of taxpayers and effectively overrules some High Court rulings which had taken a contrary view. even if the taxable income is Nil under normal provisions.

Taxability of Royalty .

Ltd. under the provisions of the Indian Tax Laws (ITL) and the applicable Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs). (Karnataka High Court) [64 DTR 178] ► ► ► Issue of whether payment for purchase of shrink-wrapped computer program would be in the nature of „royalty‟. the HC held that the payment was for right to use a copyright and would be characterized as royalty under the ITL as well as under the DTAAs. the HC was of the view the end users were granted a copyright under the Indian Copyright Act 1957 (ICA) . As the end-users of the computer program were granted a license to make copies of the computer program for back-up or archival purpose.Payment for purchase of shrink-wrapped computer program characterized as royalty Samsung Electronics Co. Accordingly. making such a copy would have been an infringement of the ICA. Page 33 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . in the absence of which.

On the first issue. the Taxpayer did not have a business connection in India. the HC ruled that as the sale of the telecommunication equipment took place outside India and title in goods also passed outside India. the HC ruled that the consideration paid by the cellular operators can be treated as royalty only if the cellular operators had obtained all or any of the copyright rights in such software that is protected in India as a literary work.Delhi High Court [204 Taxman 192] ► ► ► The two main issues were that were before the High Court were: (i) whether sale of telecommunication equipment to cellular operators in India constituted a business connection under the provisions of the Indian Tax Laws (ITL) and (ii) whether payments received for software that was sold as part of the telecommunication equipment is taxable as royalty under the ITL and the India-Sweden Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (Sweden DTAA). On the second issue. A distinction also needs to be made between acquisition of a „copyright right‟ and a „copyrighted article BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings Page 34 .Tax treatment of payments for software bundled with hardware Ericsson Radio Systems AB .

no part of the payment could be classified as payment towards royalty. the software was embodied in the telecommunication equipment that was supplied and software could not be used independently. as the software merely facilitated the functioning of the telecommunication equipment and formed an integral part it. Hence.Tax treatment of payments for software bundled with hardware Ericsson Radio Systems AB .Delhi High Court [204 Taxman 192] ► In the present case. Page 35 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .

Comparative summary of Samsung and Ericsson Serial Number 1 2 3 4 Particulars Taxable as royalty under section 9(1)(vi) Karnataka HC in Samsung Yes Delhi HC in Ericsson Does not amount to „royalty‟ Does not amount to „royalty‟ Copyrighted Article Not discussed. discussed in Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co Ltd 332 ITR 340 (Del) Yes TCS relied on OECD relied on Recent Judicial Rulings Taxable as Royalty under DTAA Yes Copyright or copyrighted article Providing software amounts to use of „Process‟ Copyright Yes 5 6 7 Page 36 Whether software is a literary work? Reliance on SC‟s ruling in TCS on sales tax Reliance on OECD Commentary Separate from other literary works TCS cannot be relied OECD cannot be BCAS relied on .

Tribunal held that consideration paid merely for right to use cannot be held to be royalty and the ratio would also apply when “shrink wrap” software is sold. Where two views are possible.Tax characterization of shrink wrapped computer software Solid Works Corporation .Mumbai Tribunal (ITA No. the view in favour of the taxpayer has to be preferred. 3219/M/2010) dated 8 January 2012 ► The taxpayer sold “shrink-wrap application software” called “Solid works 2003″ to customers in India and claimed that the same was “business profits” and not assessable to tax as it did not a PE in India. The AO held that the income was assessable to tax as “royalty” under section 9(1)(vi)/ Article 12(3) though the Tribunal (for an earlier year) reversed it on the ground that the product was a “copyrighted article” and not “copyright“. ► ► Page 37 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .

– Mumbai Tribunal (ITA No 2180/M/2009) dated 29 February 2012 ► The taxpayer had availed 'advanced dedicated hosting solution services of Rackspace Inc USA. to host and run its matrimonial site. Hence. The issue before Tribunal was whether website hosting charges paid to Rackspace US by Shaadi. under Article 7 of India. a non not 'royalty' under section 9(vi) or India-USA DTAA. not 'royalty' under section 9(vi) or India-USA DTAA ► ► ► ► Taxpayer has no physical access or right to operate equipment situated outside India and payment is not for use of equipment but for hosting services BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings Page 38 .USA DTAA the payments were not taxable in India. Website hosting charges paid to Rackspace US by Shaadi. The certificate under section 195 stated that the amount paid was business income for Rackspace and Rackspace had no Permanent Establishment in India.Taxability of website hosting charges People Interactive (I) P.

Whether the license charges earned by the taxpayer for granting right to use the software. The AO held that the license income was assessable to tax as “royalty” under section 9(1)(vi). that license charges earned by the taxpayer was not liable to be taxed as royalty. The Tribunal had held that what has been transacted in the license agreement is only the grant of user right in the copyrighted software and not the use of copyright itself and concluded in favour of the Taxpayer.Pune Tribunal (ITA No. 1569/PN/08) dated 14 March 2012 ► The taxpayer entered into a software license agreement with Bajaj Allianz life Insurance and Bajaj Allianz General General Insurance whereby the latter companies were granted right to use software for internal purpose. pursuant to software license agreement is liable to be taxed as Royalty under the Income tax Act. ► ► Page 39 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Taxability of software payments Allianz AG . 1961 and under the DTAA between India and Germany.

BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► Page 40 . includes and has always included transfer of all or any right for use or right to use a computer software (including granting of a license) irrespective of the medium through which such right is transferred. which are as under: Explanation 4 to Section 9(1)(vi) clarifies that the consideration for use or right to use of computer software is royalty by clarifying that transfer of all or any rights in respect of any right. property or information is in India. property or information is with the payer. (c) the location of such right. whether or not (a) the possession or control of such right.Implications of the proposed amendments by Finance Bill 2012 (FB) ► ► The FB seeks to retrospectively tax payments towards software payments as „royalty‟ through insertion of new explanations to Section 9(1)(vi). property or information is used directly by the payer. property or information. (b) such right. Explanation 5 to Section 9(1)(vi) clarifies that royalty includes and has always included consideration in respect of any right. property or information as mentioned in Explanation 2.

These amendments will take effect retrospectively from 1st June. refer Article published in BCA Journal on April 2012 edition on the topic "Controversy on Taxability of Cross-Border Software Payments" Page 41 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . downlinking signals transmitted by satellite or other similar technology.Implications of the proposed amendments by Finance Bill 2012 (FB) ► Explanation 6 to Section 9(1)(vi) is inserted to bring to tax the payments made for uplinking. Thus payments made for use of process whether secret or not would be taxable as royalty. 1976 and will accordingly apply in relation to the assessment year 1977-78 and subsequent assessment years. For further insight on taxability of software payments as royalty.

Conditions of Sec 36(2)(i) fulfilled as part of debt being brokerage taxed as income. ITAT Special Bench (40 SOT 432) ruling upheld ► ► ► ► Page 42 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Bad Debts ► Issue: Whether Share brokers eligible for bad debts claim on un-recovered balances of share transactions carried on behalf of clients? Shreyas Morakhia .Bombay High Court [342 ITR 285] Share brokers eligible for bad debts claim on un-recovered balances of share transactions carried on behalf of clients Brokerage as well as value of the shares due from clients constitute „debt‟.

Disallowance under Section 40(a)(ia) .

Retrospective amendment in Section 40(a)(ia) M/s. the AO & CIT (A). Alpha Projects Society P.2010 to provide that no disallowance should be made if the TDS was paid before the due date of filing the ROI should be held to be retrospective. it is noteworthy that the Special Bench of ITAT Mumbai in the case of Bharati Shipyard Ltd has taken a view that the amendment is prospective in nature and would apply accordingly.4. 40(a)(ia): Special Bench verdict cannot be followed in view of High Court verdict In AY 2005-06. 40(a)(ia). The same view has been taken in Rajamahendri Shipping (ITAT Vizag) and Piyush Mehta (ITAT Mumbai) Page 44 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . the assessee made payments to contractors & for professionals & technical services. rejected the claim by relying on Bharati Shipyard Ltd 132 ITD 53 (Mum) (SB). However.e. Respectfully following the decision of Virgin Creators the order of the CIT(A) is not sustainable and the assessee's appeal is allowed.Ahmedabad Tribunal [ITA No. as amended by the FA 2010 w. Though TDS was deducted. However.2869/Ahd/2011 dated 23 March 2012] S. HELD allowing the appeal: The issue involved has now been decided by the Calcutta High Court in Virgin Creators against the Revenue. it was paid after the end of the FY but before filing the ROI.f. On appeal to the Tribunal. The assessee pleaded that s. 1. Ltd .

DCIT 132 ITD 53 (Mum) could not be followed. 40(a)(ia) is retrospective in nature. ► For AY 2005-06. 139(1) was retrospective in nature as held in CIT vs. 1. ► ► Page 45 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .4.Retrospective amendment in Section 40(a)(ia) Rajamahendri Shipping & Oil Field Services Ltd . Virgin Creations and that the contrary ruling of the Special Bench in Bharti Shipyard Ltd vs. HELD by the Tribunal: In Virgin Creations the Calcutta High Court has passed a reasoned order and held that the amendment to s.Vizag Tribunal (ITA No.26 lakhs u/s 40(a)(ia) on the ground that the TDS had not been paid in time. The assessee claimed that the amendment to s.2010 to provide that no disallowance could be made if the TDS was paid on or before the due date specified in s.e. the AO disallowed Rs. 47.f. 352/Vizag/2008) dated 13 April 2012. 40(a)(ia) by the Finance Act 2010 w.

it has to be followed in preference to the decision of the Special Bench of the Tribunal in Bharti Shipyard Ltd. ► ► The binding nature of the decision of the Special Bench when a lone decision of non-jurisdictional High Court is available on the very same issue was examined in the Third Member decision in Kanel Oil & Export Ltd 121 ITD 596 where it was held that where there is only a judgment of the nonjurisdictional High Court prevails over an order of the Special Bench even though it is from the jurisdictional Bench (of the Tribunal).Vizag Tribunal (ITA No. amounts in respect of which TDS is paid on or before the due date of filing the ROI is eligible for deduction. 352/Vizag/2008) dated 13 April 2012. Consequently. 40(a)(ia) is retrospective. As the Calcutta High Court‟s decision is the lone one on the issue whether s.Retrospective amendment in Section 40(a)(ia) Rajamahendri Shipping & Oil Field Services Ltd . Page 46 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .

the only decision of non-jurisdictional high court will be binding decision: ► ► ► ► Prasad Production [37 DTR 418 (Che)(SB)] Saurashtra Kutch [ 305 ITR 227 (SC)} Thane Electricity [ 206 ITR 727 (Bom High Court)] Sanghvi & Doshi [ 131 ITD 151 (Che)(TM)] Page 47 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Binding nature of decision Also refer the following decisions where it is held that.

Before the Tribunal. 1. the Assessee‟s appeal allowed.4.f. ACIT (ITA No. The Tribunal followed Calcutta High Courts order in case of Virgin Creations and held that the amendment to s. the AO made a disallowance of expenditure incurred by the assessee on the ground that the assessee had made the TDS payments u/s 194C after the end of the year. 40(a)(ia) amended by the FA 2010 w. no disallowance could be made as per s. ► ► ► Note: Similar view is taken by Vizag Tribunal in case of Rajamahendri Shipping & Oil Field Services Ltd vs. 40(a)(ia) is retrospective from 1.Retrospective amendment in Section 40(a)(ia) ► ► Piyush C. Page 48 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . Mehta (ITA No 1321/M/2009) dated 11 April 2009 For AY 2005-06.2010.2005 and any payment of TDS on or before the due date for filing the ROI is sufficient. the assessee claimed that as the TDS had been paid before the due date of filing the ROI.e. 352/Vizag/2008) dated 13 April 2012.4. Hence.

The TDS was deposited after the end of the FY though before the due date of filing of the return of income. The Tribunal allowed the taxpayer‟s claim.e.4.Calcutta High Court (ITA No 302 of 2011) dated 23 November 2011 ► The taxpayer deducted tax at source from paid charges between the period 1.2005 & 28. 1. The AO invoked s.2010 to provide that the TDS has to be paid on or before the due date for filing the ROI was prospective or retrospective. On appeal by the department.4.f. the deduction was not admissible. 40(a)(ia) by the FA 2010 w. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► Page 49 . the High Court had to consider whether the amendment to s. 40(a)(ia) and held that as the TDS had not been paid on or before the last day of the previous year.2006 though it paid the TDS in July and August 2006.4. The HC followed Allied Motors 224 ITR 677 & Alom Extrusions 319 ITR 306 where the Supreme Court held that a provision which was inserted the remedy to make a provision workable requires to be treated with retrospective operation so that reasonable deduction can be given to the section as well and dismissed the appeal.Retrospective amendment in Section 40(a)(ia) M/s Virgin Creations .

Disallowance for withholding tax default where expenses are ‘paid’ during the year
Merilyn Shipping & Transports - Special Bench (SB) of the Vishakhapatnam, ITA No. 477/M/2008) dated 9 April 2012

The taxpayer incurred brokerage expenses of Rs.38.75 lakhs and commission of Rs.2.43 lakhs without deducting TDS. Of this only Rs. 1.78 lakhs was payable and the rest was paid. The AO disallowed the entire expenditure under section 40(a)(ia). Taxpayer argued that disallowance under section 40(a)(ia) could be made only of the amount “payable” and not of that which had already been “paid”.In sec. 40(a)(ia), which was inserted by the Finance Bill 2004, there was a difference in the language of the Bill and the Act. The Tribunal held that the change in language between the Bill and the Act is conscious and with a purpose. The legislative intent is clear that only the outstanding amount or the provision for expense (and not the amount already paid) is liable for disallowance if TDS is not deducted. Consequently, s. 40(a)(ia) can apply only to expenditure which is “payable” as of 31st March and does not apply to expenditure which has been already paid during the year.
BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings

Page 50

Taxes paid by payee, no ground for avoidance of disallowance under section 40(a)(ia)
DICGC Ltd. - Mumbai Tribunal (ITA No 2361 & 2524/M/2011) dated 13 February 2012

For AY 2007-08 & 08-09, the taxpayer paid VSAT & transaction charges without deduction of TDS. The AO held the payment to be “fees for technical services” & disallowed the payment under section 40(a)(ia) for want of TDS under section 194J. Before the Tribunal, the taxpayer argued that the deduction had to be allowed because s. 40(a)(ia) was not a „tax-levying‟ provision but was merely to ensure that tax was paid by either the payer or the payee. As the payee had already paid the taxes, the bar in s. 40(a)(i) did not apply in line with Hindustan Coca Cola Beverage 293 ITR 226 (SC). The Tribunal held ,the argument that since the payee has already paid due tax on the income, s. 40(a)(ia) cannot be invoked is not correct. The law in Hindustan Coca Cola Beverage 293 ITR 226 (SC) that if the payee is assessed, the tax cannot be recovered from the payer was in the context of s.201 and pursuant to Circular No.275/201/95-IT dated 29-1-1997. In the absence of such circular in case of disallowance under section 40(a)(ia), the principle laid down cannot be adopted for s. 40(a)(ia).
BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings

Page 51

Allowability of deduction of expense under section 40(a)(ia) on account of alleged short withholding of tax
S K Tekriwal - Kolkata Tribunal (ITA No 1135/Kol/2010) dated 21 October 2011

The taxpayer paid Rs. 3.37 crores as “machine hire charges” on which it deducted TDS under section 194C at 1%. The AO held that the payment was “rent” and TDS ought to have been deducted at 10% under section 194-I. He disallowed the expenditure under section 40(a)(ia). This was reversed by the CIT (A). The tribunal held that section 40(a)(ia) provides for a disallowance if amounts towards rent etc have been paid without deducting tax at source. It does not apply to a case of short-deduction of tax at source. As the taxpayer had deducted under section 194C, it was not a case of “nondeduction” of TDS. If there is a shortfall due to difference of opinion as to which TDS provision would apply, the taxpayer may be treated as a defaulter under section 201 but no disallowance can be made under section 40(a)(ia).

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Recent Judicial Rulings

6506/M/08) dated 15 July 2011. the Hon'ble Tribunal held that the disallowance under section 40(a)(ia) of the Act is to be restricted to the extent of expenses attributable to the amount of TDS not paid by the Assessee Page 53 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ." Against view .Allowability of deduction under section 40(a)(ia) Issue of disallowance under section 40(a)(ia) in case of short deduction of TDS.proportionate disallowance However in case of Beekaylon Synthetics Ltd. the Hon'ble Tribunal expressed a view that "so we are of the opinion that provisions of section 40(a)(ia) also do not apply as the said provision can be invoked only in the event of non deduction of tax but not for lesser deduction of proportionate disallowance In case of Chandabhoy & Jassobhoy (ITA No. 20/M/10) dated 8 July 2011. (ITA No. Favorable view .

Allowability of deduction under section 40(a)(ia)

Also refer following decisions, wherein no disallowance if view prevailing in past that receipt is not taxable in hands of recepient:
► ►

Kotak Securities Ltd [ 340 ITR 333] Bom High Court Dynamic Vertical Software India (P) Ltd. [ 332 ITR 222] Delhi High Court

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Recent Judicial Rulings

Allowability of Depreciation

Depreciation on intangibles
Techno Shares & Stocks - Supreme Court [327 ITR 323]
► ►

Issue of whether cost of membership rights of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) card is an intangible asset, eligible for depreciation. The SC held that the BSE card gives a non-defaulting member a right of membership and a consequential right to participate in the trading session on the floor of BSE. Such right has an economic and monetary value and is a „license‟ or „akin to a license„ or a „business or commercial right‟ of similar nature and, hence, qualifies for depreciation as an intangible asset.

Page 56

no depreciation is allowable on the BSE membership card held by the Taxpayer prior to the corporatization. Ltd .Mumbai Tribunal (2012) 134 ITD 321] ► ► Wherein it is held that post demutualization and corporatization (collectively „corporatization‟) of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in the tax year 2005-06. It further held that the ratio of Supreme Court‟s ruling in the case of Techno Shares & Stocks Ltd. v. CIT [327 ITR 323] (Techno Shares ruling) allowing depreciation on the BSE membership card is valid only for the period prior to the corporatization of BSE. Page 57 .Depreciation on Intangibles Sino Securities Pvt.

315/2010 dt 30 March 2012] ► Intangible rights such as business information.Depreciation on intangibles Areva T & D India LTD .Delhi High Court [ITA No. contracts. SC ruling in Techno Shares [327 ITR 323] relied upon Page 58 . skilled employees acquired upon slump sale are covered by the definition of “business or commercial rights of similar nature” under section 32. Depreciation available even though described as „goodwill‟ in the agreement. Legislature intended depreciation on other categories of intangible assets which were neither feasible nor possible to exhaustively enumerate.

Other decisions on allowability of Depreciation on intangibles Sr. [Mumbai ITAT] OSRAM India Pvt Ltd [51 DTR (Del)(Trib) 297] 4 Non-Compete Fees Real Image Tech Pvt Ltd [120 TTJ (Chn) 983] Medicorp Technologies India Ltd [30 SOT (Chn) 506] Serum Institute of India Ltd Pune Tribunal KEC International Ltd [41 SOT 43 (Mum)] 5 6 7 Page 59 Brand received on amalgamation Commercial rights for exploration of mineral ONGC Videsh Ltd oil [37 SOT (Del) 97] Toll Collection Rights Ashoka Info (P) Ltd [123 TTJ (Pune) 77] . No Intangible assets on which depreciation is allowed 1 2 3 Licenses/Approvals/Registrations for operation of hotels Business Brand and Commercial Equity Licenses and other business/ commercial rights of similar nature Decisions Piem Hotels Ltd [135 TTJ (Mum) 228] B Co. Ltd.

Depreciation vs.) ► Page 60 . 1698/M/2003 dated 7 September 2011)(Mum. (ITA No. Revenue expenditure If Non compete is held to be capital in nature. 122 TTJ 394 (Chennai) Real Image Tech (P) Ltd. depreciation is to be granted on Non compete Fees ► ► ► Medicorp Technologies India Ltd. Ltd.) Bunge Agribusiness (India) P. 120 TTJ 983 (Chennai) Schott Glass India Pvt. Ltd. 132 ITD 549 (Mum.

Though a view favouring the taxpayer has been taken in case of Real Image (supra) and ITO vs Medicorp Technologies India Ltd (30 SOT 506)(Chennai). and held that payment of non compete fee constituted capital expenditure eligible for depreciation as an intangible asset.Non-compete fee – whether allowable? Serum Institute of India Ltd . there also exists contra rulings in the case of Srivatsan Surveyors (P) Ltd vs ITO (32 SOT 268)(Chennai) and Sharp Business Systems Ltd vs DCIT (59 DTR 385)(Del)(Trib). ► The ITAT upheld Taxpayer's claim by relying on Chennai ITAT ruling in the case of ACIT vs Real Image Tech (P) Ltd (120 TTJ 983).:18 January 2012] ► Where one of the issues before ITAT was whether payment for non compete fee is a capital expenditure eligible for depreciation. Page 61 . ► The issue of allowability of depreciation on non-compete fee payment of capital nature is subject matter of conflicting rulings of different benches of ITAT.Pune Tribunal [ITA No 948/PN/2005 dt.

Y.Hyderabad Tribunal Special Bench [ ITA No. was not 'carrying out business' of manufacturing cement but was 'associated with manufacturing companies' in various capacities. capital gains was not chargeable to tax. The Special Bench held as under: Taxpayer. 2000-01.11 crores pursuant to a noncompete agreement which was for 5 years. being promoter of company. the matter was referred to the Special Bench in view of conflicting decisions on the issue. Page 62 . B V Raju . On appeal to the Tribunal. The Assessing Officer (AO) held that there was a “transfer” by way of relinquishment of the taxpayer‟s “right to manufacture” and that the same was chargeable to capital gains by taking Nil cost under section 55(2)(a). This was reversed by the Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) [CIT(A)] on the ground that the personal skills of the taxpayer were placed under restraint and as the said personal skills were not a “capital asset”. the taxpayer received Rs. 1034/Hyd/2004] dated 13 February 2012 ► ► ► ► ► In A.Taxability of non-compete fee Late Dr.

Taxability of non-compete fee ► ► ► The Tribunal observed that the terms „right to manufacture‟ and „right to carry on business‟ appearing in section 55 of the Act have different connotations. wherein it was held that non-compete fee paid for a period of five years was held to be capital in nature ► Page 63 . Since. 784 of 2011 dt. being capital receipt as per the ratio laid down by Supreme Court ruling in case of Guffic Chem Ltd 332 ITR 602. fees received is not taxable.: 30 November 2011. agreement was entered into in 1999. Non-compete agreement entered into by taxpayer clearly fell under the latter category. ITA No. Note: On the related issue also refer Delhi High Court decision in case of Pitney Bowes India Pvt Ltd.

in the facts of the case where The Taxpayer was not carrying on any business and transferred the shares. so as to separately tax the component attributable to the non-compete obligation. not applicable if company.Taxability of non-compete fee Savita N. transfer of shares and non-compete obligation. The Taxpayer transferred shares held by her as nominal shareholder in a company and agreed for a non-compete obligation alongwith other shareholders. Page 64 . The Tribunal held that. 3900/Mum/2010 dated 07/10/2011] ► ► ► ► Issue of taxation of receipt towards non-compete covenants..Mumbai Tribunal [ITA No.compete obligation. the composite consideration for transfer of shares could not be split up into two components viz. The Tribunal held that the non-compete provision is attracted only if a taxpayer is carrying on business. There was no separate consideration specified for the non-compete obligation and a composite consideration was agreed for sale of shares and non. where she is shareholder is carrying on the business and agrees for a non-compete obligation for a separate consideration. Mandhana .

and not s. if at all. 28(va) could not be invoked by AO by determining the book value of shares and treating the difference between the sale price of shares and book value as consideration towards non-compete fees. 28(va) Page 65 . it was s. s.Taxability of non-compete fee Also refer decision of Mumbai Tribunal in case of Hami Aspi Balasara [30 DTR 576] ► Taxpayer having sold the shares only and no consideration was assigned towards non-compete fees in the share purchase agreement. 55(2)(a) which could be applied.

► The Tribunal held that.Taxability of non-compete fee Ramesh D. and that it was liable to tax as business income in terms of the specific non-compete receipt taxation provision in the Income tax Act. ► The Tribunal ruling provides guidance that a separate consideration received towards non-compete covenant is assessable as business income in terms of the specific provisions of the Act if it is not accompanied by transfer of right to carry on business. hence. although included in the same agreement. Tainwala – Mumbai Tribunal [ 48 SOT 324] ► Taxpayer transferred shares held by them as promoters in a company and agreed for a non-compete obligation ► The consideration for the non-compete obligation was separately stated in addition to the consideration for sale of shares. the amount was not chargeable as capital gains. It held that the receipt was not for transfer of right to carry on business and. Page 66 . the receipt towards non-compete obligation was independent of the transfer of shares.

Taxability of Capital Gain – Section 48 and Section 54EC .

The HC held that there is no reason why the legislature would want to deny or deprive an taxpayer the benefit of the previous holding for computing “indexed cost of acquisition” while allowing the said benefit for computing “indexed cost of improvement”. will.1996. etc indexed cost to be determined with reference to holding by previous owner Arun Shungloo Trust – Delhi High Court (ITA No 116 of 2011) dated 13 February 2012 ► The settlor acquired property before 1.1.In case of transfer by gift. The AO accepted that the settlor‟s cost of acquisition had to be treated as the taxpayer‟s cost of acquisition but held that the settlor‟s period of holding could not be treated as the taxpayer‟s period of holding. The taxpayer-trust sold the property and computed the indexed cost of acquisition on the basis that it “held” the property from the time the settlor had held it. The benefit of indexed cost of inflation is given to ensure that the taxpayer pays capital gain tax on the “real” or actual “gain” and not on the increase in the capital value of the property due to inflation.4.1981 and he settled in on trust on 5. trust. The HC reversed the Tribunal‟s decision and allowed taxpayer‟s appeal. ► ► ► Page 68 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . The term “held by the taxpayer” should be interpreted to include the period during which the property was held by the previous owner.

Indexation benefit for gifted asset from year of acquisition by previous owner Manjula Shah – Bombay High Court (ITA No 3378 of 2010) dated 11 October 2011 ► The taxpayer‟s daughter purchased a flat on 29. Hence. This object cannot be defeated by excluding the period for which the said asset was held by the previous owner while determining the indexed cost of acquisition of that asset to the taxpayer. In computing LTCG.1. 1. The taxpayer sold the flat on 30. the taxpayer took the indexed cost of acquisition under Explanation (iii) to s.10 crores. The AO held that as the taxpayer had “held” the flat from 1.1993. 48 on the basis that she “held” the flat since 29.2003. in determining the period for which any asset is held by an taxpayer under a gift.2.48 lakhs.1993 at a cost of Rs. the cost inflation index for 2002-03 would be applicable. The object of the legislature is to tax the gains arising on transfer of a capital acquired under a gift or will by including the period for which the said asset was held by the previous owner. 2(42A).1. She gifted the flat to the taxpayer on 1.6. The HC held that under explanation 1(i)(b) to s.2.2003 for Rs.2003. the period for which the said asset was held by the previous owner has to be included.50. the department‟s appeal dismissed. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► ► ► Page 69 .

2008 (FY 2008-09.2007 and computed long-term capital gains. 50 lakhs prescribed in s.4. within the 6 M time limit) and Rs. The taxpayer invested Rs.S. 50 lakhs in respect of the NHAI bonds on the ground that (i) it exceeded the monetary limit of Rs.10. ► Page 70 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .5.12. 50 lakhs in NHAI bonds on 26.2007 (FY 2007-08.2008 to 28.2008 and that he applied in the NHAI bonds as soon as it opened and that he was prevented by sufficient cause from investing within the time period of 6 months. The taxpayer claimed that no eligible scheme was available for subscription from 1. The AO & CIT (A) rejected the claim for exemption of Rs. 1 crore. 54EC and (ii) it was made beyond the time limit of 6 months.Ahmedabad Tribunal (ITA No 3226/Ahd/2011) dated 30 March 2012 ► The taxpayer sold property on 22. beyond the 6 M time limit) and claimed a deduction of Rs. 50 lakhs in REC bonds on 31.5. 54EC exemption for investments over two financial years aggregating to INR 1 Crore allowable Aspi Ginwala .

5.4.5. Exemption should be granted in cases where there is a delay in making investment due to non-availability of the bonds Hence.1 crore under section 54EC.2008 and the investment was made as soon as the subscription opened on 26. The Tribunal ruling is without considering or distinguishing the contra decision of Jaipur Tribunal in the case of Raj Kumar Jain & Sons (HUF) ► ► ► ► Page 71 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .2008 to 28. the taxpayer‟s appeal allowed. Since. 54EC exemption for investments over two financial years aggregating to INR 1 Crore allowable ► The Tribunal held that if the taxpayer transfers his capital asset after 30th September of the financial year he gets an opportunity to make an investment of Rs. The taxpayer was accordingly prevented by sufficient cause which was beyond his control in making investment in these Bonds within the time prescribed. no bonds were available for subscription between 1.50 lakhs each in two different financial years and is able to claim exemption upto Rs.2008.S.

54EC that the investment made in the specified asset “during any financial year” should not exceed Rs. 1. the taxpayer. Hence. 1 crore. 50 lakhs.47 crores and disclosed capital gain of Rs.2008 (FY 2008-09) and claimed a deduction of Rs. the taxpayer sold property for Rs. 50 lakhs. The AO rejected the claim though the CIT (A) allowed it.06.03. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► ► Page 72 . invested Rs.14 crores.Accordingly. 54EC exemption for investments over two financial years not to exceed INR 50 lakhs Raj Kumar Jain & Sons . To overcome the restriction in the Proviso to s. 50 lakhs on investment by an taxpayer in the long term specified assets. within the prescribed period of 6 months. The Tribunal held that the object of the proviso to section 54EC is to provide a ceiling of Rs. the tribunal held in favor of revenve. 50 lakhs on 31.S.2008 (FY 2007-08) & 10.Jaipur Tribunal (ITA No 648/JP/2011) dated 31 January 2012 ► In AY 2008-09. 2. the investment has to be linked to the financial year in which transfer has taken place and the claim for deduction cannot exceed Rs.

54EC that the consideration had to be invested in the specified bonds within 6 months of the date of transfer. If the consideration is not received. the taxpayer‟s appeal allowed.Kolkata Tribunal (ITA No 1146/Kol/2011) dated 21 February 2012 ► The taxpayer entered into an agreement and handed over possession to the buyer which constituted a “transfer”. 54EC requires the “consideration” to be invested. the period of 6 months for making deposit under section 54EC should be reckoned from the date of actual receipt of the consideration. Also. 54EC Bonds beyond 6 months from the date of transfer though within 6 months from the date of receipt of the consideration. s. there is no question of investing it. The consideration received from the buyer was invested by the taxpayer in s. The Tribunal held that in a case where the consideration for the transfer was received several months after the date of transfer. 54EC investment time limit begins from date of receipt of consideration Chanchal Kumar Sircar .S. The Tribunal had to consider whether in view of the language of s. Hence. the relief could be allowed. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► ► Page 73 .

Reopening under section 147 .

in view of recent Delhi High Court decision in case of Usha International [ ITA No. The SC held that income cannot be reassessed on a mere change of opinion.No reassessments on mere ‘change of opinion’ ► ► Kelvinator of India Ltd. as that would imply conferring arbitrary powers on the Tax Authority. the Tax Authority is empowered to reassess an already assessed income on a mere „change of opinion‟ that income has escaped assessment. under the Income Tax Act. – Supreme Court (SC) [320 ITR 561] Issue of whether. 2026/2010 dated 23 April 2012] Page 75 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . The question of whether there is "change of opinion" if AO does not specifically apply his mind referred to Full Bench. It is only when there is a „tangible material‟ to believe that income has escaped assessment that the power of reassessment can be exercised and the reasons for reassessment must have a live link with the formation of the belief.

reassessment was initiated beyond 4 years and the AO had also resorted to rectification under section 154 of the Act.Whether AO can initiate reassessment proceedings for invoking section 14A? Honda Siel Power Products Ltd .regular assessment was completed.P No.19085 of 2011] ► The proviso to section 14A bars reassessment but not original assessment on the basis of the retrospective amendment ► The object and purpose of the proviso is to ensure that the retrospective amendment is not made as a tool to reopen past cases which have attained finalityIn the facts of the case. But there was nothing on record to show that in the original assessment. the Assessee had disclosed and the then AO has applied his mind] Page 76 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Supreme Court [W.9036 of 2007 (Del HC) upheld by the SC vide SLP No. there was a failure on the part of the Assessee to fully disclose the material facts [In the aforesaid decision .

only recourse available is rectification under section 154 ► ► Titanor Components Ltd [ 243 CTR 520] Bom High Court Hindustan Unilever [ 325 ITR 102] Bom High Court BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings Page 77 .Delhi Special bench [301 ITR 111] On pure mistake. reopening cannot be done.Whether AO can initiate reassessment proceedings for invoking section 14A? Proviso to section 14A restrict only AO for invoking reassessment proceedings however CIT(A) and Tribunal are empowered to apply 14A in appeal pending before them ► Aquarius Travel .

148 would be necessary. the AO is satisfied that there is no escapement of income which initially formed the reasons to issue notice u/s 148. if any opinion is expressed at the time of grant of certificate it is tentative or provisional or interim in nature and the same would not debar the AO from initiating a proceeding under Section 147 of the Act on the ground that there has been a change of opinion.Reassessment/ Reopening Areva T&D (Delhi HC) ► ► The order passed u/s 197 is interim in nature as the scope of Section 197 is limited. which was the basis of the formation of belief. the legality of which would be tested in the event of a challenge by the Taxpayer BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► Page 78 . he can also assess or reassess any other income which has escaped assessment which comes to his notice during the course of the proceedings If after issuing a notice under section 148. 331 ITR 236 (Bom) ► Only when the AO assesses or reassesses the escaped income. a fresh notice under s. Jet Airways (I) Ltd. it is not open to him to independently assess some other income If he intends to assess some other income. On a conjoint reading of Sections 195 and 197 of the Act.

dt. 7932/2010. dt: 14 December 2011]. Mohan & Co.Section 147/292BB: Delay in issue of section 143 (2) notice renders assessment invalid Page 79 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . 15566 of 2011 .: 24 January 2012] . she cannot use that as “reason to believe” Others ► Alpine Electronics Asia Pte Ltd (Delhi High Court) [WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO.Reopening Retrospective amendment in a section cannot be basis for reopening ► Ganesh Housing Corporation Ltd (Gujarat High Court) Special Civil Application No. dt.: 1 july 2011] Audit objection ► Cadila Healthcare Ltd (Gujarat High Court) [Special Civil Application no.147: If AO disputes Audit objection.2347 of 2010 and 1263 of 2011. dt.: 12 March 2012 ► Doshion Ltd (Gujarat High Court) [342 ITR 6] ► M/s K. 15067 of 2011. (Exports) (Bombay High Court) [ITA No.

it held that. 2230/Mum/2010. the entire amount was claimed as a deduction. cannot be reopened under section 147 in absence of ‚new material‛ HV Transmissions Ltd .] dated 7 October 2011 ► The Assessing Officer (AO) accepted the return of income filed by the taxpayer under section 143(1) of the Act. Though the assessment was originally under section 143(1). it is clearly evident from the recorded reasons that there was no new material coming to the possession of the AO on the basis of which section 143(1) assessment was reopened.T. The taxpayer claimed that the reopening was not valid as there was no “new material” in the AO‟s possession.A. though under section 143(1). No.Assessment. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► ► Page 80 . He thereafter issued a notice under section 148 on the ground that the taxpayer had claimed a deduction for ERP software and that although only 20% of the said expenses was debited to the Profit & Loss Account.Mumbai Tribunal [I. On appeal to the Tribunal.

Note: The same view had been taken earlier in Aipita Marketing 21 SOT 302 after considering Rajesh Jhaveri 291 ITR 500 (SC) Page 81 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . the reopening was not valid. ► As the AO had reopened the section 143(1) assessment on the basis of the material which was already on record.Assessment. that a section 143(1) assessment could not be reopened under section 147 without there being any new material coming to the possession of the AO. after considering Rajesh Jhaveri Stock Brokers 291 ITR 500 & Kelvinator of India 320 ITR 561 (SC). the Third Member held. though under section 143(1). cannot be reopened under section 147 in absence of ‚new material‛ ► In Telco Dadaji Dhackjee Ltd.

since the amount was received on mandatory retirement on reaching the age of superannuation. No failure to disclose primary facts . Non-existing reasons.Assessment.148 to apply S. The issue of notice under s. Page 82 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . since there were no reasons to believe that any income escaped assessment.Disclosure in Note to Return Summary AY 2004-2005. cannot be reopened under section 147 in absence of ‚new material‛ Balkrishna Hiralal Wani vs ITO and Ors – Bombay High Court [321 ITR 519] ► ► ► Validity of: Re-assessment Sub Topic Irrelevant reasons.28(iv) was not valid. even under section 143(1). The assessee disclose the sum received on retirement from firm and attached a note stating that the amount was not taxable.

147 of the Income Tax Act 1961 Expln. The notice under s. 50 lakhs in addition to his credit balance in final settlement. S.28(iv) or under s. 2(b) of s. There were no reasons to form a belief. It was not offered for tax on the ground it was capital receipt. That income escaped asstt.Bom High Court[324 ITR 154] Topic Validity of: Re-assessment Summary AY 2005-2006 and 2006-2007.148 of the Income Tax Act 1961 Page 83 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . even under section 143(1).148 was invalid.Assessment. The assessee was partner in a firm.45(4). The amount received was not taxable either under s.28(v) or under s. On retirement he received Rs. cannot be reopened under section 147 in absence of ‚new material‛ Prashant S. Joshi and Dattaram Shridhar Bhosale vs ITO and UOI .

Reopening Sr. No 1 Within 4 years Kelvinator of India Ltd 320 ITR 561 (SC) Beyond 4 years Grindwell Norton Ltd 267 ITR 673 (Bom) 2 German Remedies Ltd 285 ITR 26 (Bom) Hindustan Lever Ltd 268 ITR 339 (Bom) German Remedies 287 ITR 494 (Bom) Cartini India Ltd 3 Siemens Information Systems Ltd 295 ITR 333 (Bom) 4 Cartini India Limited 314 ITR 275 (Bom) 5 Asteroids Trading and Investment P Ltd 308 ITR 190 (Bom) Asian Paints Ltd 308 ITR 195 (Bom) Page 84 BCAS 291 ITR 0355 (Bom) Sesa Goa Ltd 294 ITR 101 (Bom) 6 Recent Judicial Rulings .

object if reasons not justifiable . AO cannot start reassessment without disposing of objections ►Evaluate whether and at what stage reopening to be challenged or fight out in normal course Page 85 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .Key Take-Aways ►Check for reasons for reopening.

Revision under section 263 .

263. the issue was referred by the Full Bench as to the supposed conflict between various judgements of the Court on the subject: Jurisdiction under Section 263 can be exercised whenever it is found that the order of assessment was erroneous and prejudicial to the interest of the Revenue Page 87 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .5. On appeal of the taxpayer.640. On appeal by the department.6. A gain of more than 30 times was made in one year. hence.36.536 and sold them on 2. The AO accepted the LTCG and allowed s. the Tribunal relied on B & A Plantation 290 ITR 395 (Gau) and held that as the order of the AO was not without jurisdiction.2001 for Rs. Jawahar Bhattacharjee (Gauhati High Court Full Bench) [(2012) 341 ITR 434(Gauhati)(High Court)(FB)] The taxpayer bought shares on 21.2000 for Rs.19.4. revision held to be valid. The CIT passed an order under section 263 in which he held the order to be `erroneous and prejudicial to the interest of the revenue' on the ground that the AO had not made any enquiry to determine the genuineness of the transaction though the circumstances warranted the same. 54F relief.Revision under section 263 Not application of mind to relevant material or an incorrect assumption of facts or an incorrect application of law will satisfy the requirement of order being erroneous. it could not be held to be `erroneous' for purposes of s.

An incorrect assumption of facts or an incorrect application of law will satisfy the requirement of the order being `erroneous'. Accordingly. the High Court held that the time limit for revision u/s 263 should be reckoned from the original order. Non application of mind and omission to follow natural justice is in same category.Revision under section 263 Not holding such inquiry as is normal and not applying mind to relevant material would make the assessment `erroneous' warranting exercise of revisional jurisdiction. (Bom) (HC) Section 263 The High Court observed that the bar of limitations arises because the revisional jurisdiction u/s 263 is sought to be exercised in respect of the issues which did not form the subject matter of reassessment proceedings. ► Page 88 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . ► ► Ashoka Buildcon Ltd. Daga Entrade 327 ITR 467 (Gau) lays down the correct law and is not in conflict with Rajendra Singh 1979 STC 10 (Gau).

263 : Revision of orders prejudicial to revenue . The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (2012) 67 DTR 67 Delhi)(High Court) The Assessing Officer has passed the order under section 143(3) and allowed the exemption under section 10(23C)(iv). Page 89 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings . Commissioner revised the order under section 263 on the ground that the assessee was carrying on business of coaching against charges of fee and separate books of account were not maintained.Revision under section 263 S. High Court in appeal quashed the order passed under section 263 of the Income-tax Act.Revision of order on the ground that the Institute was carrying on business of coaching against charge of fee held to be not valid. Y. 1961 and held that Institute cannot be said to be carrying on business. 2005-06). (A.

(A.Revision under section 263 ► ► Infosys Technologies Ltd.Reasoned order . Tribunal set aside the order of Commissioner and restored the order of the Assessing Officer. 1995-96 & 1996-97).Double taxation relief – India-Canada .As the computation was not clearly indicated in the assessment order the revision was held to be valid.S. Assessing Officer has allowed the claim under section 143(3). (Art. 263 : Revision of orders prejudicial to revenue . can be construed as an orderboth erroneous and prejudicial to the interest of revenue hence the revision order was justified. and directed the Assessing Officer to examine the enactment of both the countries and to ascertain the exact relief that the assessee can claim under Article 23(2) with Canada and Article 23(3) of the DTAA of Thailand .)(High Court) Issue 1 . (No 2) (2012) 341 ITR 293(Karn. BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings ► ► Page 90 . 23) Assessee while filing the return of income. On further appeal to High Court by the revenue the court held that as the Assessing Officer has not clearly indicated the computation with the relevant Articles of DTAA and the basis. claimed relief under DTAA relief in respect of Canada and Thailand. The Commissioner passed the order under section 263. Ys.

(A. 1994-95). while giving effect the Assessing Authority had passed an order dated on 31st March. 1999. Y. ► ► ► Page 91 BCAS Recent Judicial Rulings .. 1999. (No 2) (2012) 341 ITR 293(Karn. The assessment order was subject matter of appeal. The Commissioner has passed the revision order on 31st March. Assessment order was passed on 27th Feb. The Tribunal set aside the order of Commissioner. 263 : Revision of orders prejudicial to revenue – Limitation .Order giving effect of order of Commissioner (Appeals) . On appeal to High Court by revenue the High Court held that the order passed by the Commissioner in exercise of the revisional jurisdiction beyond two years of assessment order was clearly barred by limitation and confirmed the order of Tribunal.Revision under section 263 ► Infosys Technologies Ltd.)(High Court) Issue 2 -S. 1997.Revision of orders beyond the period of two years held to be bad in law.