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Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies

Contents: Zener diode as Voltage Regulator, Transistor Series and Shunt Regulators, Current limiting, Line and Load Regulation. Points To Ponder: Power supplies are used when dc power is required such ac in adapters, power supply circuits in TV, VCR, DVD etc. Zener diode is used as voltage regulator because of its property to operate in the breakdown region. Regulated power supplies uses zener diodes as it provides constant output irrespective of ac main fluctuations. The limitation of using zener diode as a regulator is that its efficiency is poor at heavy loads because of lare losses in the resistance connected at series. The transistor series voltage regulator is an improved version of zener diode voltage regulator. The output voltage appears across the load will be approxirnataly equal to zener voltage i.e. VdC(OUt) V2. In transistor shunt. voltage regulator the voltage across the load is set by the zenerdiod and transistor base emitter voltage i.e. VL V + VBE Current limiting is one form oI short-circuit or over load protection. In this a short-circuit sensing resistance i used with a transistor which limits the maximum load current,

Q 1. What is the practical importance of voltage regulation in power supplies?

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Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics

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OR Explain clearly the role of regulated power supply. Ans. In an unregulated power supply, output voltage changes whenever input supply voltage or load resistance changes. It is never constant. The change in voltage from no-load to full load condition is called voltage regulation. The practical importance of voltage regulation in power supplies is to reduce these variations to zero or, at least to the minimum possible value. The percentage regulation or, simply regulation of a power supply is given by

Q 2. What are the limitations of transistorized power supphes? Ans. The transistorised power supplies have the limitation that the output voltage available is restricted by the V0 of the series transistor used. The power rating of the transistor used, as a series loser depends on the voltage difference between the input and output voltages. This difficulty can be minimised to a great extent by using thyristor. Thyristors have the ability to control large power with minimal control power, and this control power does not have to remain continuous as in the case of the base

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Ans.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Ans. 3. Draw the equivalent circuit of zener diode as voltage regulator and explain. It is like an ordinary diode characteristics except that it have a sharp breakdown voltage.A zener diode characteristics are always plated shown in figure above. Discuss the V-I characteristics of Zener diode. V-I characteristics current as: of zener diode between voltage and 1. Q 4. 2.loremate. high power operations are rarely available.com/ane/node/6 current of a transistor. Zener diode as voltage regulator: 3 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . Transistors for a relatively Imgh voltage. The sharp breakdown voltage is called zener voltage Vz. Q 3.

Q 5. when the input voltage (Vin) is more than zener voltage (Vz) this will cause the zener diode to conduct a large current Iz and more current flows through series resistor A which increases the voltage drop across the bleeder resistor A. PIV stands for peak inverse voltage. The zener diode of zener voltage Vz is reverse connected across the load RL across which constant voltage is required (Vo = Vz). It is the voltage which a diode pan withstand when it is 4 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.com/ane/node/6 The major application of a zener diode is as a voltage regulator.. Hence the constant voltage Vo (Vz) is maintained across the load RL Q 6.loremate. What is PIV of a diode in a rectifier circuits? Ans. What is the use of Bleader in Zener voltage regulator? Ans. It provides constant voltage to the load from a source whose voltage may vary by using potentiometer at input. In zener voltage regulator. The resistance A is connected in series with the circuit which absorbs output voltage fluctuations so as to maintain constant voltage V0 across the load.

There are two types of load line regulatibn: 5 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . PIV for half wave rectifier is Vm across each diode and for full wave center tap rectifier the PIV is 2Vmacross each diode.loremate.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. What characteristics. The sharp breakdown voltage is called zener voltage V. V-I characteristics of zener diode A zener diode characteristics are always plated between -voltage and shown in fig. It can act as a voltage regulator. Q 7. Q 8. is zener diode? Draw its V-I Zener diode is the diode which is connected in revnrse biased and provides constant voltage to the load from a source whose voltage may vary by using potentiometer at input. Ans.com/ane/node/6 connected in reverse biased. Explain line and load regulation? Ans. It is like an ordinary diode characteristics except that it have a sharp breakdown voltage.

Slope of load line is 0 point i. AC load line: This line is steeper than the dc line but the two intersect at the Q-point determined by biasing dc voltage and currents.1 the load line is drawn in fig. load line : In order to draw the dc load line Qf a transistor.loremate. one need to know only its cut-off and saturation points.e.e. For the CE circuit of following fig. the Quiescent point is point which lies between cut off and saturation i.C. Consider the following two particular cases lf Vcc and RL are known only then load line can be drawn. in the midway 2. In AC load line the cut off is given by 6 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . It is a straight line joining these two points.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. 2.current as Point A is the cut-off point and B is the saturation point.com/ane/node/6 1. D.

This process is known as zener-breakdown. The junction regains its original position when the reverse voltage is removed. as long as current through the diode is limited by the external circuit to a level within its power handling capabilities. the electric field becomes as high as jQ7 V/rn in the depletion layer with only a small applied reverse bias voltage.com/ane/node/6 Q 9. the junction is not damaged. Ans. Explain zener diode breakdown mechanism. In this process. Zener breakdown takes place in a very thin junction i.loremate. This process is used in the zener diodes. The zener breakdown does not results in the destruction of the diode. when both sides of the junction are very heavily doped and the depletion layer is narrow. In the zener breakdown mechanism. 7 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . electrons to jump across the barrier from the valence band in p-material to some of the unfilled conduction band in n-material.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.e. In this process it becomes possible for some.

5A. Draw and design a zener voltage regulator circuit W provide output of 12V for a maximum load current of 0. when the input voltage variation is 15 to 18 V. In this case. A junction having a narrow depletion layer width and hence high field intensity (E 1 Q6 V/cm even at low ‘voltages) will break down by the zener mechanism. the vibrational displacement of atoms in the crystal grows.com/ane/node/6 Q 10. Explain in detail the effect of temperature on zener diode. This vibration increases the probability of collision with the lattice atoms of the intrinsic particles as they cross the deflectron width. intrinsic carriers to concide with valence electrons and create avalanche multiplication. Therefore the value of the avalanche voltage must increase with increase in temperature. The intrinsic holes and electrons thus have less opportunity to gain sufficient energy between collisions to start the avalanche process. Q 11.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.loremate. Ans. 8 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . Ans. Less applied voltage is therefore required to pull these electrons from their positions in the crystal lattice and convert them into conduction electrons. An increase in temperature increases the energies of the volume electrons and hence makes it easier for these electrons to escape from the covalent bonds. As the temperature increases. Thus the zener breakdown voltage decreases with temperature: A junction with broad depletion layer and therefore a low field intensity will breakdown by the avalanche mechanism.

Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Ans. the current supplied by the source is Is = 0.loremate.com/ane/node/6 To regulate 12V across the load.5 A Q 13. 9 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . What is the need of voltage regulator circuit in a power supply? Discuss the application of zener diode as voltage regulator. We must select a zener with Vz= 1 2V To meet the load current.

loremate. regulation ot a power supply is given by Zener diode as voltage regulator: The major application of a zener diode is as a voltage regulator.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. It is never constant.com/ane/node/6 In an unregulated power supply.load to tuli-ioad condition is called voltage regulation. to the minimum possible value The percentage regulation or. at least. output voltage changes whenever input supply voltage or load resistance changes. The change in voltage from no. It provides constant voltage to the load from a source whose voltage may vary by using potentiometer at input. The resistance R is-connected in series with the circuit which absorbs output voltage fluctuations so as to maintain constant voltage V0 across the load. 10 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . The practical importance of voltage regulation in power supplies is to reduce these variations to zero or. The zener diode of zener voltage Vz is reverse connected across the load RL across which constant voltage is required (Vo = Vz). simply.

(‘. It is called pass transistor because total current to be regulated passes through it.com/ane/node/6 Q 14. the transistor behaves like a variable resistance whose resistance is determined by the base current. It is also called as emitter-follower regulator because the voltage at the emitter follows the base voltage.Thus. we from KVL 11 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .‘ VL = ILRL if RL increases VLdecreases). Write a short note on transistor series and shunt regulators. VL decreases. Keeping in mind the polarities of different voltages they are related by the equation derived by KVL Current increases by decreasing RL. It uses transistor in shunt.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Ans. OR With the help of a circuit diagram explain with working of a transistor series regulator. Transistor shunt voltage regulator:It is as shown in fig. VBE will increase because Vz is fixed. In this. Transistor series voltage regulator : The circuit is as shown in fig. R is used for limiting current passing through the zener diode.loremate. Since path AB is in parallel across VL.

Zener regulator must operate in the breakdown region in order to hold output voltage constant under all operating conditions. suppose VL decreases. Thus. As a result. Q 15. The input voltage may vary from 20 to 35 V and load current from 15 to 75 mA. what should be the value of series resistance? Ans. 1c = Bl8 decreases. any decrease or increase in VL wiH have a corresponding effect on1 VBE. there must be zener current for all input voltages and load currents.loremate. 12 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . thereby decreasing I and hence VR Consequently. I decreases. A zeher diode regulator has vz = 12V. VL increases because at all times Same line of logic applies in case VL increases. then as seen from the above relation. The worst case occurs when the input voltage is minimum and load current is maximum because then zener current drops to a minimum value.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.com/ane/node/6 Since V is fixed. VBE also decreases. hence. To hold voltage constant under all conditions.

If load resistance RL is reduced. At an increased the voltage across RL becomes greater than the zener breakdown voltage.com/ane/node/6 Q 16. the resistor R5 and RL make a potential divider across V. The resistor R5 bnits the zéner current from exceeding its rated maximum i. without fluctuation voltage regulator circuit is used. The simplest regulator circuit consists of a resistor R connected in series with the input voltage and a zener diode connected in parallel with load as shown in fig.e. Ans. the zener diode does not conduct. As long as the voltage across AL is than the zener breakdown voltage V. Hence. Thus voltage drop across Rs becomes constant. the dc output voltage varies withi the change in ac input voltage. Let be the voltage to the regulator circuit. the zener diode passes an extra current Iz such that the current Is is kept constant.e Izman From fig.loremate. If on the other hand. The output voltage of the circuit is thus stabilized. Write note on: Voltage regulator. If the zener diode don’t conduct. To get the constant oUtput voltage i. the current lz through zener falls by the same percentage in order to maintain constant current Is.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Voltage regulator: In case of power supplies. the load current should decrease. 13 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . the output voltage Vo remains constant. IL should increase.

a full-wave rectifier is twice as effective as a half-wave rectifier. Show that a full-wave rectifier is twice as efficient as a half-wave rectififer? Ans. Therefore.com/ane/node/6 Q 17.2% This is double the efficiency of halt wave rectifier (i.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Maximum efficiency = 81.loremate. Efficiency is given by: The efficiency is maximum if rf is negligible as compared to RL. 40.6%). 14 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .e.

The ripple factor for full wave rectifier circuit is given by: Q 19. Determine the value of ripple factor in the full-wave rectifier operating at 50 Hz with a 100 uF capacitor filter and 100 ohm load. Ans.com/ane/node/6 Q 18.loremate. What is a regulated power supply? Draw the block diagram of a regulated power supply. Ans. 15 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . Rectifier circuit may be half wave or full wave. Filter circuit has capacitor and inductor to filter the frequency components. The power supply that maintains constant output -voltage irrespective of mains fluctuations or changes is known as regulated power supply. Regulator stage may be a zener diode as voltage regulator or regulator IC’s of particular voltage value. Block diagram is as shown Transformer may be step-up or step-down depending upon the requirement of output.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.

Ans.VNL = No load dc voltage at the output VFL = Full load dc voltage at the output.com/ane/node/6 Q 20. as the change in dc output voltage from no load (VNL) to full load (VFL) with respect to full load vàltage (VFL) of a power supply circuit.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. Ans. Define the term voltage regulation.loremate. The percentage voltage regulation is given by Where . Q 21. Calculate the regulation of a power supply if its dc output voltage decreases 50 V to 48 V when loaded. Voltage regulation is defined. Given 16 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .

Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. What are the limitations of using zener diode as voltage regulator? Ans. Q 23.loremate. Advantages: 17 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . Draw the block diagram for series voltage regulator. its efficiency is poor for heavy loads. Ans. As the loss in series resistor is very large thus. Limitations of using zener diode as voltage regulator are 1. Q 24. 2.com/ane/node/6 Q 22. Due to change in load the output voltage also changes slightly. What are the advantages and disadvantages of zener diode regulator? Ans.

it results in poor efficiency. 2. Zener chode as voltage regulator: The major application of a zener diode is as a voltage regulator. Disadvantages: 1. constant voltage to the load from a source Whose voltage may vary by using potentiometer at input.regulation over a wide range of current.loremate. As there is power dissipation in series resistor and the diode. The stabilized output is determined breakdown voltage and cannot be varied. The resistance R is connected in series with the circuit which absorbs output voltage fluctuations so as to maintain constant voltage V0 across the ‘load. How does zener diode maintain constant voltage across load in the breakdown region? Ans. 2.. It is simple ir cirOuit.com/ane/node/6 1. The zener diode of zener voltage V is reverse connected across the load RL across which ‘constant voltage is required (V0 Vi). 18 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. by the zener Q 25. It is light in weight. 3. It-is more reliable and provides. It provides.

3.com/ane/node/6 1.loremate. What is transformation utilisation factor? Ans. Q 26. A zener diode characteristics are always plated between voltage and current shown in figS 2.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. It is like an ordinary diode characteristics except that it have a sharp breakdown voltage. It is defined as 19 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . The sharp breakdowr voltage is called zener voltage V.

loremate. It is used for industrial application. While bulky step down transformer have to be used it becomes uneconomical to have more than one regulator for voltage requirements of different values for different circuits. The regulator operates continuously leading to wastage of power. 20 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . There are types of regulators 1. The input voltage has to be higher than output voltage and this leads to poor efficiency.com/ane/node/6 If Rf << RL. Supply automatic voltage regulator. 2. 3.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. What are the disadvantages of voltage and current regulators? Ans. load. The supply automatic voltage regulator is divided into three types:Type 1: It maintains the output voltage constant in spite of changes in the input voltage Type 2: It maintains the output voltage constant in spite of changes in the load Type 3: It maintains the output voltage constant in spite of changes in input voltage and the load. Voltage can be controlled either at the source or near the. 1. 2. Write the classification for voltage regulators? Ans. Q 28. then TUE = 0 286 or 28 6% Q 27. Generator automatic voltage regulator It is used for regulating the output voltage of generator.

1 the load line is drawn in fig. one need to know i its cut-off and saturation points It is a straight line joining these two points For the CE cuit of following fig. Ans. Q 29.6 mA. Differentiate between line and load regulation. the supply is from battery and dc to ac converter has to be used. . Draw the circuits of a series ulator and explain how it regulates the supply Incorporate current limiting factor the circuit to have overload protection. There are two types of load line regulation 1.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. In remote locations such as in satellite.com/ane/node/6 4.loremate. D C load line: In order to draw the dc load line of a transistor. A transistor supplies 2 watts to a load of 4 K2 The zero signal dc collector current is 35 mA and with signal it is 39 mA Determine % second harmonic distortion Ans. B0 = B =4 mA Q 30. Increase in DC collector current with signal = 39 — 35 =. 2. 4 mA. This s the fundament B1 = 31. 21 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .

e. in the midway 2. AC load line : This line is steeper than the dc line but the two intersect at the Q-point determined by biasing dc voltage and currents.e.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. In AC load line the cut off is given by 22 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .com/ane/node/6 Q point i.loremate. the Quiescent point is point which lies between cut off and saturation i.

In this. VL = 1L L if RL increases VL decreases). – 23 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . It is also called as emitterfollower regulator because the voltage at the emitter follows the base voltage. we have from KVL.loremate. It is called pass transistor because total current to be regulated passes through it. VBE will increase because V fixed.com/ane/node/6 Transistor series voltage regulator : The circuit is as shown in fig. the transistor behaves like a variable resistance whose resistance is determined by the base current. Since path AB is in parallel across VL. R is used for limiting current passing through the zener diode. Transistor shunt voltage regulator: It is as shown in fig.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece. VL decreases. they are related by the equation derived by KVL: Current increases by decreasing RL. Thus. It uses transistor in shunt. Keeping in mind the polarities of different voltages.

Consequently. As a fesult. VBF also decreases. suppose VL decreases. without fluctuation age regulator circuit is used. To get the constant output voltage i. then as seen from the above relation. VL increases because at all times Same line of logic applies in case VL increases. 24 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM .com/ane/node/6 Since V is fixed. hence. l decreases. Ans. the dc output voltage varies with he change in ac input voltage.e. Q 31. thereby decreasing I and hence VA = IR. The simplest regulator circuit consists of a resistor R connected in series with the input tae and a zener diode connected in parallel with load as shown in fig. IC = BI decreases. any decrease or increase in VL will have a corresponding effect on VBE.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.loremate. Write short note on Zener diode as voltage regulator. Voltage regulator: In case of power supplies.

the zener diode passes extra current l such that the current I is kept constant. 25 of 25 7/20/2012 2:36 PM . The resistor limits the zener current from exceeding its rated maximum. the zener diode does not conduct If the zener di dont conduct the resistor R5 and RL make a potential divider across V At an increased the voltage across RL becomes greater than the zener breakdown voltage. the load current should decrease. the output voltage V0 remains constant If on the other hand. The output voltage of the circuit thus stabilized.com/ane/node/6 Let V be the voltage to the regulator circuit As long as the voltage across RL is than the zener breakdown voltage V. If load resistance RL Is reduced L should increase the current l through zener falls the same percentage in order to maintain constant current Is Thus voltage drop across becomes constant Hence. From fig.loremate.Chapter 6 : Regulated Power Supplies | Analog Electronics http://ptuece.