Unit 9

Finding Your Way Around

Learning Objectives
At the end of this unit you will be able to: Ask for directions and tell locations of notable landmarks Locate places in relation to other places Name different modes of transportaion Ask questions about modes of transportation Ask arrival or departure times Ask a driver to stop, slow down or drive carefully Use direct and indirect objects in the imperative, simple past, and compound imperfect tenses

xQÈÅ Ak΄t΄ač’a Directions
ሰሜን

ሰሜን ምEራብ

ሰሜን ምስራቅ

ምEራብ

ምስራቅ

ደቡብ ምEራብ

ደቡብ ምስራቅ

ደቡብ

G‰

gïra

q"

k΄äň

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Grammar Point
Bästä- is a prefix attached to compass points or any object used to indicate relative location and means ‘of’ or ‘towards’. Observe the following examples: Kenya käItyop΄ya bästädäbub tïgäñalläč. (Kenya is located south of Ethiopia. tïgäñalläč =is located) bSt Bästä can also be added to ‘G‰ gïra’ = left and ‘q" k΄äñ’ = right. Thus we can say: kTMHRT b@t$ bStq" Kl!n!K xl Kätïmïhïrt betu bStq" bästäk΄äñ’ clinic allä. “there is a clinic to the right of the school.” Note: here bSt bästä means ‘to the’ as in ‘to the left’
k@NÃ kx!T×’Ã bStdb#B Tg¾lC

Note: It is common to give the direction of a place in relation to other places/notable land marks. Some of the common landmarks you may use are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tïmhïrt bet school betäkïrïstian church mSg!D mäsgid mosque ê mNgD wanna mängäd main road DLDY dïldïy bridge ±l!S Èb!à polis t΄abiya police station
TMHRT b@T b@tKRStEÃN

Look at the following example: yn@ XHT TMHRT b@t$ yT nW? yäne ïhit, tïmhïrt betu yät näw? Passerby Tigist k±l!S Èb!ÃW bStq" nW käpolis t΄abiyaw bästäk΄äñ’ näw.

Vocabulary
Asking for Directions yT nW? Yät näw? byT bk#L nW? Bäyät bäkul näw? yT Yg¾L? Yät yïgäñal? bz!H ÃSk@ÄL? Bäzih yaskedal? Which way is it? In which direction is it? Where is it located? Does this way take to …?

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Grammar Point
Reviewing the Imperative

Infinitive

Imperative £D Hid ♂ mÿD Mähed [ÿd hedä] to go £©! Hiji* ♀ Y£Ç Yïhidu (xKBéT akïbïrot) £Ç Hidu (Bz# bïzu) m¬-F Mätat΄äf [¬-f tat΄äf ¬-F Tat΄äf ♂ ä] to turn ¬-ð Tat΄äfi ♀ Y¬-û Yitat΄äfu (xKBéT akïbïrot) ¬-û Tat΄äfu (Bz# bïzu) * Note the second person feminine imperative palatalizes following the pattern previously discussed.

Practice:
Conjugate the verb mmlS mämäläs [tmlS tämäläs] (return) as in the table above. ♂ _____ tmlS tämäläs_ ♀ xKBéT akïbïrot Bz# bïzu

Vocabulary
Giving directions q_ BlH £D/£©! k΄ät΄ bïläh hid/hiji go straight forward wdG‰ ¬-F/ð wädägïra tat΄äf/i turn left bz!H wd §Y £D/£©! bäzih wädälaay hid/hiji go up this way bz!H wd §Y Wጣ/ Wጪ bäzih wädälaay wut’a/wu č’i go up this way bz!H wd¬C £D/£©! bäzih wädätač hid/hiji go down this way bz!H wd¬C WrD¼Wr©! bäzih wädätač wuräd/ji go down this way bz!H/bz!à bk#L nW bäzih/bäziya bäkul näw this/that way ÃW yaw there it is DLD†N tšgR/¶ dïldïyun täšagär/i cross the bridge Xz!à xμÆb! STdRS -YQ ïziya akababi sïtdärs t΄äyïk΄ ask someone else when you reach there x-gB at΄ägäb beside „Q ruk΄ far QRB kïrïb not far away/ near jRÆ järba behind, at the back ðT lðT fit lä fit in front of ¯N gon at the side of / beside 74

k΄ ätïlo next to / next WS_ wïst΄ in, inside of xμÆb! akababi around ¥GßT magïňät (xgß agäňä) to find
q_lÖ

Ways to Express Direction:

kTMHRT b@t$ x-gB

Kätïmïhïrit betu at΄gäb

kçSpE¬l# ðT lðT

±S¬ b@T yT nW? Posta

Kähospitalu fit lä fit

bet yät näw?

ÃW

Yaw

Bz!H bk#L nW

Bäzih bäkul näw.

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Dialog 1
Susan is trying to find her way to the police station. Read the following dialog and see how Kebede is trying to help her. Susan Kebede: Susan Kebede Susan
YQR¬ ±l!S Èb!ÃW yT nW?

Yïk΄ïrta polis t΄abiyaw yät näw? Bäzih bäkul k΄ät΄ bïläš sïtheji posta bet tagäñiyaläš. ±l!S Èb!ÃW k±S¬ b@t$ bStjRÆ nW ÝÝ Polis t΄abiyaw käposta betu bästäjärba näw. „Q nW? Ruk΄ näw? xr QRB nW! Ärä kïrïb näw! xmsGÂh# Amäsägïnallähu
bz!H bk#L q_ Bl> STÿ©! ±S¬ b@T ¬g¾l>ÝÝ

Note: XNÁ ïnde! and xr ärä! are multipurose terms used to express surprise, disbelief, disagreement. Listen for it in conversations.

Practice
A student from another village has asked you where a high school in your town is. Create a dialog in which you tell her the directions. Use the expressions provided above. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

mÙÙÏ Mäguaguaža Transport
Vocabulary
Bahïlawi mäguaguaža Traditional Transportation’ frS färäs horse bQlÖ bäk΄lo mule xHà ahïya donkey U¶ gari horse cart GmL gïmäl camel ¬Nμ* tankua canoe zmÂêE mÙÙÏ Zämänawi mäguaguaža Modern Transportation jLÆ jälba boat mRkB märkäb ship Æb#R babur train xWéP§N awïroplan airplane mk! mäkina vehicle ymk! ›YnèC Yämäkina Aynätoč: Types of Vehicles xWèb#S awïtobus bus y+nT mk! yäč΄ïnät mäkina truck/lorry ¬Ks! taksi taxi Æ©J bajaj motorcycle taxi äèRúYKL motorcycle motorcycle 76

Practice
Name the various means of transportation shown in the pictures below.

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Grammar Point
Review of Imperatives Infinitive mGÆT mägbat [gÆ gäba] to get on a vehicle Imperative GÆ gïba ♂ Gb! gïbi ♀ YGb# yïgbu (xKBéT akïbïrot) Gb#gïbu (Bz# bïzu) wïräd ♂ wïräj ♀ YWrÇ yïwïrädu (xKBéT akïbïrot) WrÇ wïrädu (Bz#bïzu)
WrD WrJ

mWrD mäwïräd [wrd wärädä] to get off/descend a vehicle, a stair, a ladder or a higher place

Vocabulary
w‰J Wäraj Use this word when you want to get off a vehicle. The word is a noun form of mWrD mäwräd. ï¬ xl Bota allä? Have you got a spare seat? (Lit. Is there space?) yT nH Yät näh?/ n>näš/ nW näw? Where does this vehicle go? ______ TÿÄlH tïhedalläh? Do you go to_______? bSNT s›T YnúL? Bäsïnt sä’at yïnäsal? What time does it depart? YdRúL? Yïdärsal? What time does it arrive? XÆKH qS BlH NÄ Ïbakïh k΄äs bïläh nïda. Please drive slowly.”

Practice
Translate the following into Amharic. 1. Is there a bus in the afternoon? 2. What time does the bus leave? 3. How much is the fare? (use ‘hisab’) 4. What is the arrival time?

Safety and Security Notes
You will find that many drivers drive too fast. If you feel uncomfortable, you can politely ask the driver to slow down (XÆKH qS BlH NÄ Ïbakïh k΄äs bïläh nïda) or to stop so you can get off. Ask for the fare before boarding a public transport vehicle (XSk ïskä _____ SNT nW sïnt näw?) After paying the fare, the conductor may not give you your change immediately. This is normal; however, ask for change before your arrival if it isn’t given to you after some time.

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Once you are at your site ask your counterparts/colleagues which modes of transport are the safest in the locality.

Grammar Point
The Direct and Indirect Object Affixes In previous units, you encountered the concept of the direct object affix. Lïju mästawotun säbäräw. The boy broke the mirror. Xn@ mS÷t$N kfTk#T Ϊne mäskotun käfätkut. I opened the window. sBl b@t$N x[ÄCW Seble betun as΄ädačïw. Seble cleaned the house. xL¥Z b„N TzUêlC Almaz bärun tïzägawaläč. Almaz closes the door.
L° mS¬wt$N snbrW

An indirect object is the person or thing to or for whom an action is done. For example, in the sentence “Give it to me,” “me” is the indirect object, while “it” is the direct object. In Amharic, direct and indirect objects are generally treated similarly, and context is used to determine which type of object is expressed. Also note that in the Amharic sentence, two objects cannot be indicated explicitly in the same verb; instead one is explicit and the other is implicit (from context). You saw in Unit 10 that the affixes –w and –t were used for singular male or neuter objects. Now we will present the direct and indirect object affixes for feminine, plural, and personal direct objects. Person Affix Xn@ ïne -ň, ïn, or –äň X¾ ïňňa -n or –än xNt anta -h or –ïh xNcE Anči -š or –ï XRsã Ïrso -wo or –wot XÂNt Ïnnantä -aččïh, -yaččïh, or –waččïh Xs# ï ssu -w, - äw, - ïw, or –t Xú* Ïssua -at, -yat, or –wat XúcW Ïssačäw -aččäw, -yaččäw, -waččäw Xns# ïnnsu -aččäw, -yaččäw, -waččäw The placement of these affixes in the verb form depends on the tense of the verb used. Imperative Examples
μ*ú*N S-ኝ S_

Kuasun sït΄äň. Give the ball to me. (Lit. The ball, you (♂) give to me.) sït΄ + - xኝ-äň = sït΄äň you (♂) give + to me = give (it) to me Ϊssuan wusädat. You (♂) take her. WsD wusäd + -xT -at = WsÄT wusädat you (♂) take + her = you (♂) take her

Xú*N WsÄT

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Note: Notice again the suffix –un or -n on the direct object. The –u marks definiteness (“the”) and the –n marks that the noun is the direct object. Sometimes the direct object is omitted, as in simply “WsÄT wusädat” taken to mean you (♂) take her.
Xú*N Ws©T

Ϊssuan wusäjat. You (♀) take her. WsJ wusäj + - xT-at = Ws©T wusäjat you (♀) take + her = you (♀) take her

Yäbet sïračïhun assayun. You (plural) show us your homework. (Lit. Your(Pl) homework, show (it) to us.) Note: here, the –n suffix on the direct object is attached after the possessive suffix: S‰ sïra + Ch# čïhu+ N n. xú† assayu + -N -n = xú†N assayun you (pl) show) + to us = you (pl) show to us
yb@T S‰Ch#N xú†

Generalization: In the imperative tense, the object affixes are attached to the end of the verb form. Simple Past Examples Tïnantïna Abebe wuha sät΄äň Yesterday, Abebe gave me water. s- sät΄ä + ኝň = s-ኝ sät΄äň he gave + to me = he gave (to) me Note: the noun W¦ wuha is general, and does not take the –n direct object suffix
TÂTÂ xbb W¦ s-ኝ ÆlfW úMNT ÄêET LJaN wd TMHRT b@T wsÄT

Baläfäw samïnt Dawit lïjituan wädä tïmïhïrt bet wäsädat Last week, Dawit took the girl to school. wsd wäsädä + xT -at = wsÄT wäsädat he took + her = he took her Note: the –a vowel in the suffix –at supercedes the ä vowel at the end of the verb
ÆlfW úMNT ¦Â LJaN wdTMHRT b@T wsdÒT

Baläfäw samïnt Hana lïjituan wädä tïmïhïrt bet wäsädäččat. Last week, Hanna took the girl to school. wsdC wäsädäč + - xT -at = wsdÒT wäsädäččat she took + her = she took her Tarikun nägäračïhun You (pl) told us the story. ng‰Ch# nägäračïhu + you (pl) told +
¬¶k#N ng‰Ch#N

-N -n = ng‰Ch#N nägäračïhun (to) us = you told us

Generalization: In the simple past tense, the object affixes are attached to the end of the verb form.

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Compound Imperfect Examples
kr»§ Xs_šlh# XÏ

Kärämela ïsät΄ïšallähu. I will give you (♀) a candy. + s_ sät΄ + X> ïš + xlh# alähu = Xs_šlh# ïsät΄ïšalähu give to you (♀) + Tarikun ïnägïrïšalähu. I will tell you (♀) the story. nägïr + X> ïš + xlh# alähu = XnGRšlh# ïnägïrïšalähu tell to you (♀)
nGR

¬¶k#N XnGRšlh# X

Ï

Remember the formation of the compound imperfect tense: prefix + root verb + ending based on allä. The prefix and the verb ending indicate the subject of the verb. The object affix falls between the root verb and the ending. Now observe how this works with other pronouns.
Ts¸¾l> T

Tïsämiňaläš? Do you hear me? Tï + sM säm + x!ኝ iň + xl> aläš hear me Wädä hospital tïwäsïdataläh.
xT

= Ts¸¾l> tïsämiňaläš You (♂) take her to the = TwSĬlH tïwäsïdataläh

wd çSpE¬L TwSĬlH

hospital. T Tï + wSD wäsïd + take
X¾ gNzb#N XNsÈC“lN

at + xlH aläh

her

Ïňa gänzäbun ïnsät΄ačïhualän. We give you (plural) the + xCh# ačïhu + xlN alän = XNsÈC“lN ïnsät΄ačïhualän (to) you (pl)

money. XN Ïn + s_ sät΄ give

Note: The second and third person plurals are irregular
xMST BR TkF§*cê§Ch#

Amïst bïrr tïkäfïluačawalačihu. + x# u +
xcW

You (plural) will pay

them five birr. T Tï + kFL käfïl

t¥¶ãc$ mMH„N Y-Bq$¬L

alačihu = TkFl#xcê§Ch# tïkäfïluačawalačihu Tämariwoču mämïhïrun yït’äbïk΄utal. The students
x§Ch# x#u

ačaw +

wait for the teacher. Y Yï + -BQ t’äbïk΄ + wait

+

T

t + xL al (for) him

= Y-Bq$¬L yït’äbïk΄utal

An additional –u falls before the object marker in these persons. The final -x#–u disappears from the third person plural (Y-Bq$¬L yït’äbïk΄utal, rather than Y-Bq$¬l#

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yït’äbïk΄utalu). The -x§Ch#–alačihu ending in the second person plural remains unchanged. Look at the example of mNgR mänïgär (ngr nägärä), to tell, in the third person plural with and without indirect object affixes, below:
YnG‰l# Y

Yïnägïralu. Yï + nGR nägïr

They tell (no object). + xl# alu They tell me. + x#u + ß ň + xL al They tell you (♂). + x#u + H h + xl al They tell you (♀). + x# u + > š + xL al They tell us. + x#u + N n + xL al

YnG„¾L

Yïnägïruňal. Y Yï + nGR nägïr Yï Yï Yïnägïruhal. + nGR nägïr Yïnägïrušal. + nGR nägïr

YnG„¦L Y

YnG„šL Y

YnG„ÂL

Yïnägïrunal. Y Yï + nGR nägïr

Generalization: In the compound imperfect (present/future) tense, in general the object affix falls between the verb root and the ending based on allä. Remember that in the second and third person plural forms, an additonal –u is added before the object affix.

Practice
Fill in the appropriate forms for the verb mWdD mäwïdäd (wdd wädädä), to like/love. And also try the script version of the forms you are adding. I love you (♀): XwDšlh# ïwädïšalähu I love you (♂): _____________________ I love you (pl): _____________________ I love you (pol): ____________________ I love him: ________________________ I love her: _________________________ I love them: _______________________ You (♀) love me: ___________________ You (♀) love us: ___________________ You (♀) love her: ___________________ You (♀) love him: __________________ You (♀) love them: _________________ 82

Take this Challenge as well! We love you (plural): _ They love you (plural): You (plural) love them:

Application
Asking directions. Ask people on the road to show you the way to a bus station (if you already know it, pretend that you don’t) Once you get to the bus station and find out from the driver or his assistant: a. Which bus goes to a town of your choice b. The bus fare and c. Arrival and departure times Report what you did (what was said and done) to your class.

Practice Reading and Pronouncing Script
-Q§Y ¸n!St&R mlS mNGST MKR b@T ±l!S Èb!à q+N ­R§¥ wF‰M xStêY xmlμkT

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