Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP

This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 17-
20, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to
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Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.
______________________________
1
PhD., Senior Reservoir Engineer - PETROBRAS
2
PhD., President & CEO - TERRA 3E
IBP1615_12
CHALLENGES IN RESERVOIR SIMULATIONS
FOR FORECASTING PRODUCTIONS OF
PRE-SALT CARBONATE RESERVOIRS
Luis G. Rodrigues
1
, Dominique R. Guérillot
2


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Abstract (Times New Roman 12, Bold, Upper/Lower case)
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This article summarizes some challenges in the use of reservoir simulators for forecasting productions of pre-
salt carbonate reservoirs. These challenges will be described through the following topics:
- Flow properties of faults and fractures, considering that some pre-salt areas may present these geological
features;
- Heterogeneity of the petrophysical parameters;
- Thermodynamic behavior of the fluids in place;
- Rock-fluid interactions and the possible impact on well productivity and injectivity;
- Compositional modeling, considering rock-fluid interactions;
- Recovery processes which could be envisioned including sea water injection, water alternated gas injection
or combined water and gas injection in different wells.
For each of these topics, some theoretical questions are raised and ways of tackling them are described.
Finally, results of fluid flow simulations including rock-fluid interactions for theoretical situations will be
presented.
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1. Introduction (Times New Roman, 12, Bold, Left Aligned)
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Pre-salt reservoirs considered are those located in the Santos Basin, Southeast Brazil, along the west bank of
the South Atlantic Ocean of Brazil. This basin covers approximately 200,000km
2
of the Brazilian continental margin
and results from rifting of the Gondwana continent in the early years of the Cretaceous. In this basin, hydrocarbon
reservoirs are essentially carbonate reservoirs located below a variable thickness layer of salt, in water depths of
2,200m.
Due to its tectonic history, it may present, in specific areas and reservoirs, faults and fractures and possible
approaches to handle them in reservoir simulation methods will be commented.
As usual in carbonate reservoirs, the pre-salt carbonates are highly heterogeneous. Diagenesis history played
also an important role in the petrophysical values in these reservoirs, which must be considered. The diagenesis effects
have consequences not only on porosity and permeabilities but also on multi-phase properties such as wettability, and
relative permeability curves which will be commented.
It is proposed to generate high resolution geostatistical models with very thin layers to be sure to capture these
high frequency vertical variations in the petrophysical parameters and, after this step only, upscale (or up-layer) these
values. This approach has shown advantages for estimating vertical to horizontal anisotropies in reservoir simulators and
to capture essential heterogeneities for production forecast.
Most of reservoirs contain variable amounts of CO
2
at typical pressure of 550 bars and a temperature around
60°C. Such conditions are not frequent and bring new challenges in terms of the thermodynamic behavior of the fluids.
This will have, in particular, consequences on the Equation of State (EOS) which will be selected and on the methods
for CO
2
dissolution evaluation in the different phases.
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The rock-fluid interactions shall be considered and a more detailed paragraph will be devoted to their
mathematical modeling in reservoir simulations emphasizing on the dispersion.
Several possible recovery processes were studied since the earliest stages of the discoveries of the hydrocarbon
reservoirs in this basin. Here, a synthetic case shows results of a scenario of gas reinjection in a carbonate formation.
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2. Flow Properties (Times New Roman, 12, Bold, Left Aligned)
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Karner and Gamboa (2007) explained that “in the Santos basin, the extensional fault within the basin pre-salt
occurs to the base of the evaporates”. There are several possible mechanisms to explain the evolution of the pre-salt
basin. In the study by Garcia et al. (2011), a technique with full restoration of data integration is proposed to explain the
evolution of the basin.
To model these faults and fractures, which may occur in specific areas and reservoirs, there are some very
practical questions to answer:
- Is it important to capture the exact location of the fault using corner point geometries or is it more
significant to associate the proper transmissibilities to a an orthogonal mesh?
- Should we consider a double porosity or a double porosity and permeability approach for some cells close
to the faults, and if so, with which flow transfer function from matrix to fractures and faults?
- Would it be more efficient to capture a possible high permeability layer by a double medium thicker layer?
Moreover, the circulation of fluid can cause changes in permeability of the faults and fractures. As circulation
of the fluids which have modified the flow characteristics of these fault and fractures are nearly impossible to reproduce
at the geological time scale, inherent uncertainties of these properties will remain.
How to accurately capture the flow through faults? Tunc et al. (2010) developed specific numerical schemes
for representing faults with non matching grids to model effects of the fault connectivity in the reservoir simulator.
Petrophysical properties of the fault may differ from the petrophysical values of the adjacent cells. A natural
fault damage zone may contain many small thin faults that form complex arrays. Because small faults may reduce or
increase the horizontal and/or vertical permeability, this leads to scenarios with differences of behavior.
Methodologies and numerical tools are available to construct fractured reservoirs. But a critical step is to
validate these geometries. Bruyelle and Lange (2009) propose methods to history match well pressures through a
covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy to explore efficiently the properties space. This optimizer is coupled
with a surface response methodology to detect several solutions simultaneously.
This interesting approach can be combined with a scenario matching approach described in Guérillot and
Roggero (1995). With this scenario approach, it is possible to find out extreme behavior without running an
undetermined large number of simulations (as it is proposed with a classical Monte-Carlo approach) to forecast
uncertainties in the reservoir productions.
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3. Heterogeneity of the Petrophysical Parameters (Times New Roman, 12, Bold, Left Aligned)
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Geomodels are based on a conceptual geological model. A great effort is being devoted to geological and
petrophysical facies definition based on cores, logs and special core analysis.
In Santos Basin Pre-Salt, the main reservoir rock is a microbiolite/stromatolite (Figure 1), a biogenetic
carbonate rock formed in a high salinity lake environment. This environment conducts to stratified layering with variable
vertical to horizontal permeability ratios. In addition, due to the reactive nature of carbonates, chemical diagenesis
added heterogeneities inside this stratified system may have reinforced the vertical contrast or, on the contrary, helped
vertical communications between layers. Diagenesis can also play a role in the wettability of the rocks, and consequently
cause significant influence in the rock-fluid properties such as the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves.
Extensive studies using different upscaling methods to upscale the ¨high resolution” intrinsic k
v
/k
h
associated to the
lithofacies into an averaged K
v
/K
h
to be associated the fluid flow reservoir cells. Rules were deduced to associate
different averaged K
v
/K
h
depending of the thickness of the reservoir cell.
More generally, considering the high variability of petrophysical parameters, it is worth putting effort in
upscaling in the vertical direction (also called “up-layering”) to get an optimal size of vertical resolution fine enough to
capture important geological features without penalizing too much the overall CPU time of the fluid flow simulations. It
has been noticed that it is worth starting with a very high resolution geological model avoiding to loose heterogeneities
which may have importance depending on the recovery process.

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Figure 1: Aptian carbonates, microbiolites/stromatolites in the Lula field area (Formigli, 2008).

To capture the thin layers which may have an impact on the flow either as a barrier or as a permeable layer,
proper grouping of layers must be done depending on the:
- Recovery process: It is easy to understand that for simulating water injection, coarser cells could be
considered than for a miscible gas injection for instance;
- Physical phenomena that the reservoir engineer would like to capture: For instance, it is known that
diffusion is very difficult to handle at full scale. Therefore, high resolution model could be kept as such to
evaluate some macroscopic diffusion parameters that will be then associated to coarser fluid flow
simulations;
- Chemical reactions to represent which may lead to modifications of well productivity and/or injectivity:
they are very much dependent on the concentration of species. Therefore, the use of too large cells may
underestimate some potential reactions simply by the dilution of the component in the cell;
- The well pattern, the location of perforations, and the distance between the aquifer to the perforations.
Knowledge of the wettability of a reservoir rock, defined as the tendency of one fluid to spread on or adhere to
a solid surface in the presence of other immiscible fluids, is a also a key factor for determining oil recovery mechanisms
and making estimates of recovery efficiency. When displaced, the wetting fluid will occupy the small pores and will be
present in the largest pores as a film on the rock surface. The existence of such a film enhances the continuity of the
wetting phase, affecting the petrophysical properties of the reservoir, in particular the relative permeability and the
capillary pressure curves, and therefore the overall flow displacements.
A full suite of experiments is being performed in several core samples to measure capillary pressure and
relative permeability curves with different scenarios of injection to define the most recommended one depending on the
recovery process.


4. Thermodynamic Behavior of the Fluids in Place

Three points are interesting to focus: the high pressure, the CO
2
concentration and the salt content in the
formation brine.
Special procedures for setting PVT equation of state have been developed to reduce the number of components
in the modeling. The average density of the oil tank ranges from 28° to 30° API, and gas/oil ration (GOR) is usually
greater than 200 m
3
/m
3
.
Several models were tested and criteria of selection will be discussed among which the thermodynamic
approaches which are needed for a proper modeling of the fluids and, eventually, their interactions with the rocks.
In the oil and gas industry, compositional modeling is not recent and several models have been proposed and
implemented in industrial tools. But very few are proposing the coupling with the fluid-rock interactions. Fluid-rock
interaction is more commonly known as water-rock interaction and was studied mainly by Earth scientist and hydro-
geologists for modeling:
- diagenesis effects to explain the basin and reservoir petrophysical properties;
- transport of contaminants in soils;
- geothermal systems;
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- CO
2
sequestration, etc.
Let us describe the main transport processes that are involved if fluid-rock interaction are taken into account.
Let us consider only one component (or species) in a single phase (water). Then, the governing equation for reactive
transport will be given. This simplest model will help to better understand some differences with classical hydrocarbon
compositional models. Then multiphase will be considered introducing the thermodynamic aspects. Some questions will
arise concerning the mix of the hydrocarbon components, the water components (we should use the term species to
differentiate them from the hydrocarbon components).


5. Rock-fluid interactions

If occurring, mineralogical reactions are the result of interdependent thermodynamic, kinetic and transport
processes. They may modify the flow characteristics of the reservoir such as the porosities and permeabilities which will
have a direct impact on injectivity or productivity of wells but also may improve or deteriorate the flow in between the
wells. Several effects may be associated to the reactions. For example, rapid calcite dissolution around the injection
well might increase injectivity while mineral precipitation might block flow pathways needed to maintain high injection
rates as studied, for example, by Taberner et al. (2009) for a project of CO
2
sequestration.
A recurring theme is that geochemical reactions are highly reservoir specific, depending on the precise
mineralogy, fluid chemistry, pressure and temperature of the host formation. They are also space and time-dependent,
due to the transport of chemical components into a medium which chemical composition varies also. So it is important
to recognize that geochemical investigations need to be carried out on a reservoir by reservoir basis and quick reasoning
from one field to another may not give appropriate answers. The methodology which is on track is to use:
- 0 D model to quantify the modification of water composition;
- 1 D model to evaluate the space and time evolution. Sensitivity studies to mineral composition and rate of
the chemical reactions can be studied more easily with this 1 D model;
- Depending on the results of point a) and b) and the location where chemical reactions may occur, other 2D
or 3D models can be used.
- Some specific models to forecast injectivity behavior can also be developed.
When re-injecting the produced gas, the CO
2
will distribute to other phases present in the reservoir. It is
important to note that few data are available to forecast accurately this split and that it is a topic of laboratory
experiments in reservoir conditions. Let us notice that the dissolution in the different phases is a coupled problem with
the rock-fluid chemical reactions.
The modeling of these reactions is complex as it generally involves a large number of equations (typically 10 to
15) of different types:
- Homogeneous chemical reactions which attain the equilibrium conditions nearly instantaneously;
- Heterogeneous reactions with dissolution and/or precipitation of solid phases. In this case, the phases to
consider are not only the mobile ones (gaseous and aqueous phases, the oleic phase is generally not
considered in the chemical reactions) but also the solid phase. They are more difficult to model as they
depend on the surface exchanges between the fluids and the rock which are difficult to estimate or
measure.
During the thermodynamical equilibrium, not only the compositions of the hydrocarbons must be considered
(as in classical compositional reservoir modeling) but also all these chemical components entering in the chemical
equations (both homogeneous and heterogeneous).


6. Compositional modeling

Reservoir simulator will be the main tool used to forecast the reservoir behavior in the pre-salt reservoirs. This modeling
can also be used to design 4D seismic campaign (Rodrigues et al., 2012). The rock-fluid interactions are probably the
most challenging aspects not only because this adds new components increasing drastically the computing efforts: as an
example, one may have 5 components for representing the oil and gas (C
1
, C
2
-C
4
, C
5
-C
7
, C
8
-C
12
, C
12
+
) and more
components (or species) which will react between them. In addition to the primary species such as Na
+
, NaCl, Cl
-
, Ca
+2
,
Mg
+2
, SO
4
, CO
3
, some models also consider several stable aqueous complexes which are the products of aqueous
complexation reactions among the primary species. Therefore, it becomes very important to model the main transport
processes that are involved by one component in a single phase (for simplification).


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6.1 Advection (or convection)

First of all, this component will flow with the ambient fluid by advection. Advection involves the translation in
space of dissolved or suspended material at the rate of movement of the bulk fluid phase.
The advective flux
i , a
J

of a dissolved species in porous media can be described mathematically as:
q C J
i i , a


=
where
i
C is the concentration of the i
th
species and q

is in our case the volumetric flux through the porous media
given by the Darcy’s Law :
) gz P (
k
q µ ÷ V
µ
÷ =

,
where P is the fluid pressure, k the absolute permeability tensor, µ the viscosity of the fluid, µ its density, and g the
acceleration due to the gravity. Therefore, the advective flux becomes:
) gz P (
k
C J
i i , a
µ ÷ V
µ
÷ =

.


6.2 Molecular diffusion

Molecular diffusion is described mathematically using Fick’s law of diffusion. This law postulates that the
diffusive flux goes from high concentrations to low concentrations with a magnitude proportional to the concentration
gradient. This diffusive flux is:
i i , d _ mol i , d _ mol
C d J V ÷ =

,
with a parameter of proportionality
i , d _ mol
d named the molecular diffusion coefficient specific of the component i.
Let us remark that:
- a more general law relates the diffusive flux to the gradient of chemical potential rather than concentration,
- this law is true only for uncharged species.


6.3 Hydrodynamic dispersion

Due to the microstructure of the medium, the flux inside the pores varies in magnitude and direction increasing
the dispersion of the species. Therefore, the molecular diffusion is supplemented by hydrodynamic dispersion (also
called cinematic dispersion). The importance of this phenomenon in the oil industry has been emphasized since the 60’s:
”In a recovery process utilizing a zone of miscible fluid, there is the possibility of losing miscibility by dissipating the
miscible fluid or by channeling or ‘fingering’ through the miscible zone. Diffusion and dispersion are two of the
mechanisms that may lead to mixing and dissipation of the slug. On the other hand, dispersion may tend to damp-out
viscous fingers which may be channeling through the miscible slug. Hence, dispersion may be detrimental or beneficial
(if it prevents fingering through the miscible zone)”, after Perkins and Johnston (1963). It has been observed that the
dispersion increases with time or length, causing a scale effect. After a certain time this dispersion may reach an
asymptotic value. Some authors, as Marle (1967), consider that, because the size of the heterogeneities increases with
the size of the experiment, the stationary condition could be violated. This will be particularly true for a fractured porous
media. A proper evaluation of this hydrodynamic dispersion is in our case of main importance because it will also
condition the concentration of species in the porous media and then their potential effects on the rock.
The dispersivity flux is proportional the gradient of the concentration, as with the Fick’s law but with a
proportionality coefficient including the molecular diffusion and the mechanical dispersion:
i
i , disp
i , disp
C d J V ÷ =


with:
i , d _ mec i , d _ mol i , disp d d d + = .
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But, in addition to these local mechanisms, dispersion must be quantified at much larger scales in reservoirs.
Dispersion in porous media is typically defined as the product of the fluid velocity and dispersivity given by the
following diagonal matrix in the axes of the main flow
i
V (Bear, 1961):
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

o
o
o
=
i , t _ disp
i , t _ disp
i , l _ disp
i , d
D
0 0
0 0
0 0
,
= o
i , l _ disp i i , l _ disp
V d and
i i , t _ disp i , t _ disp
V d = o ,
where
t _ disp l _ disp
d , d are respectively the longitudinal and transverse dispersivity coefficient for the main streamline of
the flow.
Therefore, the diffusive flux becomes:
i i , d i , d
C D J V ÷ =



The equation of motion of a single component in a single phase under the advection and dispersion is:
0
q C ) J J ( div
t
C
i i , d i , a
i
= + +
c
c
 
,
with
0
q the source term.


6.4 Reaction equations

Let us consider a typical chemical reaction:
qQT pP bB aA + ÷ +

The reaction rate (also called kinetic rate) is defined as:
| | | | | | | |
dt
Q d
q dt
P d
p dt
B d
b dt
A d
a
r
1 1 1 1
= =
÷
=
÷
=
,
with the brackets denoting the concentration of the species, the lower letters represent stoichiometric coefficients and the
capital ones the reactants (left side) and the products (right side). The rate is always positive.
For the mineral dissolution and precipitation reaction, the kinetic rate law of the minerals generally comes from
Lasaga (1984):
)
K
Q
( ) a ( ) T ( k A r
i , eq
i n
H
i i i
÷ =
+
1
,
where
i
r is the, rate of the dissolution/precipitation of the specie i (positive values indicate dissolution, negative values
precipitation), A is the reactive surface, k(T) is the temperature dependent rate constant, +
H
a is the proton activity, n is
the order of the reaction (0<n<1),
i , eq
K is the equilibrium constant for the mineral water reaction written for the
destruction of one mole of mineral I and Qi is the corresponding ion activity product. For all minerals it is assumed that
the precipitation rate equals the dissolution rate.
The kinetic rate constants for the selected minerals are taken from the literature. Literature data for the value of
the power n in the rate expression are fragmentary and sometimes inconsistent. Therefore a uniform average value for n
of 0.5 is usually selected for all minerals. The surface areas depend on the internal structure of the pore network. These
values seem to be very difficult to obtain with accuracy.
Introducing the chemical reaction, the equation of motion of a single component in a single phase becomes:
i i i , d i , a
i
r q C ) J J ( div
t
C
+ = + +
c
c
0
 
.



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7. Recovery Processes

In recent years there has been a growing interest in processes of water alternating with gas (WAG), both
miscible and immiscible. The total recovery R can be schematically described as the product of three factors of
efficiency:
R = E
h
* E
v
* E
m

The first two (efficiency scan horizontally and vertically, respectively) are related to the geometry of the scan,
and the third is related to the microscopic efficiency.
The recovery process known as WAG is a combination of two processes: water injection and gas injection. It
was originally proposed as an ideal system due to mixing two advantages:
- the water injection will have a better E
h
and E
v
than the gas injection,
- the gas injection will have a better E
m
than the water injection.
One key element is the value of the residual oil saturation that one could obtain as, under certain conditions, for
a carbonate core (Chalbaud et al., 2007), the CO
2
does not wet the solid surface when the porous media is already water-
wet but that the CO
2
partially wets the porous media when it presents an intermediate wettability. Rock-fluid interactions
may also alter the wettability of the reservoir rock if there is dissolution or precipitation occurring during the recovery
process.
The design of the development basis for Lula field in the Pre-Salt Cluster (SBPSC) is described in Pizarro et
Branco (2012). It includes the analysis of different recovery processes and first field results, including miscible
processes using hydrocarbon gas and CO
2
, and a water alternating gas (WAG) injection process.


8. Synthetic Case Study

Here, the presented simulations do not correspond to any pre-salt field. They just show some typical results
that could be obtained with compositional simulators including rock-fluid interactions.


8.1 Geology, petrophysics and geometry

An idealized carbonate formation carbonate reservoir is supposedly composed with calcite, dolomite and quartz
without anhydrite. The carbonate formation porosity is set to 11%. Permeabilities varies along the vertical. The
geometry is represented using a 3D domain representing a quarter of five-spot of 5km by 5km in horizontal directions
and with 36 m of thickness. The model domain is discretized using 4000 grid blocks (20x20x10). The injector and
producer are both vertical and perfored on the entire reservoir.


8.2 Recovery method and operating conditions

The rate of injection of the gas mixture including CO
2
varies with time and is limited by a maximum injection
pressure in order to comply with the injection system limitations. The period of injection is of 13 years and is done in a
vertical well. The producer, also vertical, is located 7 kilometers away from the injector. The CO
2
rich stream gas is
injected directed into the oil zone. The injection rate is 700000 m
3
/d in average. The oil producer rate with 8% of CO
2

initially is at maximum 500 m
3
/d.The gas injection rate with 80% of CO
2
is at maximum 1,5 millions m
3
/d.


8.3 Fluids and their thermodynamical properties

Pressure and temperature is around 600 bars and 60°C respectively. There is no water-oil contact in the model.
The oil is light and subsaturated with API 26 with 20% of CO
2
.
The initial saturation of the system is 30% of water and 70% of oil with 8% of CO
2
.
The selected Equation of State (EOS) was the Peng-Robinson equation using the volume translation of
Peneloux et al. (1982) for improving the density prediction. The aim of this model is to calculate density, fugacity and
equilibrium phase composition of 6 pseudo-components used to represent the hydrocarbons. One of them is CO
2
alone.
The CO
2
solubility model used is the general Henry law corrected by Harvey to consider not only temperature
but also salinity and pressure to calculate Henry’s constant. It is used only for the equilibrium water phase. The
limitation is that in this framework, the dissolved CO
2
is in a context without reaction. Another limitation is that Henry’s
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constant represents the solubility of gas component into a liquid alone without the presence of another liquid. Potential
improvements are possible in the thermodynamic representation of the fluids in this environment.
.

8.4 Water components and chemical equations

The formation water brine is 200,000 ppm (NaCl dominant). The aqueous species used were 'H+', 'Ca++',
'Mg
++
', 'SiO
2
(aq)', 'Na
+
’, 'Cl', 'HCO
3
-
', 'CO
3
--
', 'OH
-
', ‘SO
4
--
'. The chemical equilibrium in aqueous solution is obtained by
the minimisation of the Gibbs free energy. The used activity model needed to calculate this equilibrium is a B-dot
model.
To represent the potential chemical reactions between the fluids and the minerals, seven equilibrium water
reactions were retained. To represent the reaction rate of minerals dissolution and precipitation, a specific surface and
kinetic parameters for the involved chemical equation is needed. Varying the surface of exchange between these
minerals and the fluids, different scenarios of reactions can be evaluated. As a rule the dissolution or precipitation of a
mineral can involve different mechanisms with different reaction rates.


8.5 Reservoir simulations

The fluid flow modeling of the injection of the gas was performed with industrial software. The method for
modeling the aqueous phase behavior and the chemical reactions in this software is described in Nghiem et al. (2011).
This model solves simultaneously the flow, thermodynamic and chemical equations.


8.6 Results

Here, this is, as far as we know, the first numerical experiments combining thermodynamic of hydrocarbons
and heterogeneous chemical reactions. The following results were found:
1. Porosity increases near the injector and decreases near the producer (Figure 2);
2. The CO
2
follows faster the longitudinal high permeable zone and diffuses slower laterally in the section
showed in Figure 3. It was also noted that CO
2
concentration and propagation depend strongly on the size
of the cell;
3. Near the injector well, pH is reduced from ~5.4 to ~4.2 (Figure 4) which needs to be verified in the field;
4. Other results found that calcite dissolves as the CO
2
rich stream advances during injection but dolomite is
precipitated. The arbitrary reaction surface which was used takes an important role in these results. The
presence of oil may also makes more complicated the evaluation of this effective surface of exchange for
the rock to react with the injected fluid.


















Figure 2 – Change in porosity due to chemical reaction


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Figure 3 – Change in the global mole fraction of CO2


















Figure 4 – Change in pH due to chemical reactions



9. Conclusions

All the physical and chemical phenomena needed for forecasting the behavior of pre-salt reservoirs could be
found implemented in some industrial tools. The challenges are more on their use selecting the appropriate data, the
right numerical schemes, etc. A methodology is requested to be sure to capture the essential phenomena at the right
scale at which it occurs when using them. Some progresses have been achieved in particular in the up-layering of high
resolution geological models capturing potential barriers or high permeability layers. Being at the early stage of
production, it is also important to address the challenge of the propagation of uncertainties from the geology to the well
productions.


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10. Bibliography

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Bruyelle, J., Lange, A. Automated Characterization of Fracture Conductivities from Well Tests Inversion.
EUROPEC/EAGE Conf., 8-11 June 2009, SPE 121172.

Chalbaud, C., Lombard, J.-M. Martin, F., Robin, M. Bertin, H., Egermann, P. Two Phase Flow Properties of
Brine-CO2 Systems in a Carbonate Core: Influence of Wettability on Pc and kr, 2007, SPE paper 11420.

Formingli, J. Santos basin Pre-salt cluster: how to make production development technical and economically
feasible. Rio Oil & Gás, 2008.

Garcia, S. F. M., Letouzey, J., Rudkiewicz, J.L., Danderfer, A., Frizon, D. Structural Modeling of Salt
Tectonics in Central Portion of Santos Basin, Brazil, 73rd EAGE Conf., 2011,Vienna, Austria.

Guérillot, D., Roggero, F. Matching the Future for the Evaluation of Extreme Reservoir Development
Scenarios. 8
th
European symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Vienna, May 15-17, 1995, Proc., Vol.1, 229-240.

Karner, G.D., Gamboa, L.A.P. Timing and origin of the South Atlantic pre-salt sag basins and their capping
evaporates, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 285, 15–35, The Geological Society of London. 2007.

Lasaga, A. C. Chemical kinetics of water rock interactions. Journal of Geophysical Research 89: 4009-4025,
1984.
Marle, C. M. Signification de l’hétérogéneïté dans les milieux poreux. 7
th
World Petroleum Congress, April 2 -
9, 1967 , Mexico.

Nghiem, L., Shrivastava, V., Kohse, B. Modeling Aqueous Phase Behavior and Chemical Reactions in
Compositional Simulation, 2011, SPE 141417.

Perkins, T. K., Johnston. A Review of Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media O.C., SPE Journal 480,
Vol.3, N.1, pp.70-84,1963

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11. Acknowledgements

The authors thank Mrs. Roberta Alves Mendes, Manager of “Reservoir Engineering” Department, and M.
Carlos Eugenio Melro Silva da Ressurreição, General Manager of “Reserves and Reservoirs” Direction at E&P of
Petrobras, for permission to publish this paper.