IBP1617_12 ROTARY STEERABLE TOOL DAMAGE PREVENTION BY UTILIZATION OF AN ASYMETRIC VIBRATION DAMPING SYSTEM 1 2 3 Timm Burnett , Benjamin Feauto

, Ian Forster , Alan Kabbara4

Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Abstract
Slick-slip and lateral shocks are harmful to many expensive downhole tools such as rotary steerable systems, down hole measurement tools, and logging tools. An asymmetric vibration damping device (AVDT) has been engineered to reduce these vibrations. It is a unique specialty tool that, when placed and ran per the recommended parameters, reduces stick-slip tendencies and dampens lateral shocks by placing the string near the tool in Forward Synchronous Whirl (FSW). As a result of placing the bottom hole assembly (BHA) into FSW, harmful vibration modes such as chaotic whirl and backward whirl are prevented. Due to the unique geometry of the device, the tool will interrupt harmonic modes during rotation that can lead to harmful shocks and stick-slip. Extensive research, laboratory, and field testing, has been performed using the vibration damping tool, and its success has been proven in multiple deep water applications (primarily with a hole opening BHA), but also on land with bicenter bits. These field tests utilized a single asymmetric vibration damping tool (AVDT) to dampen and mitigate the vibrations that cause these drilling issues. Recently, a new approach was undertaken that utilized two vibration damping tools in a single BHA. This was intended to control vibrations and reduce shocks that were causing extensive damage to the RSS in a horizontal application in North America. An operator drilling this type of well was experiencing down hole tool failures, expensive tool damages, and the inability to achieve the proposed directional plan. The operator was attempting to build a curve using a RSS but was not able to achieve the necessary build rates. Down hole sensors were recording high lateral shocks and chaotic whirl which lead to extensive down hole tool damages. The cost of these damages to the operator and directional company were estimated to be $500,000. This paper will primarily focus on dual placement of the AVDT in horizontal applications, and how it significantly reduces vibration levels, and extends tool life. A number of added benefits were discovered during this study, including improved directional control, smoother trajectory, and improved bit life. The vibration damping system resulted in extensive cost savings to the directional company, and also the operator.

1. Introduction
Vibrations associated with drilling can be harmful to the drilling operation, and often cause added cost for the operator. Vibrations cause slow rate of penetration (ROP), poor wellbore quality and damage to key BHA components such as the Measurement While Drilling (MWD), RSS, and drill bit. These damages cause increased drilling cost to the operator and decrease drilling efficiency. Vibrations, even at low levels in the drill string and BHA, sustained for long periods of time can escalate to catastrophic events such as backward whirl, chaotic whirl, SS, and high level lateral shocks.

______________________________ 1 Product Line Manager National Oilwell Varco-Downhole Tools Ltd 2 Drilling Solutions Engineer – National Oilwell Varco-Downhole Tools Ltd 3 Senior Design Mechanical Engineer – National Oilwell Varco-Downhole Ltd 4 Drilling Solutions Engineer – National Oilwell Varco-Downhole Ltd

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Quite often the use of drilling parameters changes, or BHA changes, is employed to prevent damaging whirl patterns and SS from occurring. These techniques are often are "minimally successful" (Gordon, 2010). The key to stopping these events is to prevent them from occurring, which is what the Asymmetrical Vibration Damping Tool (AVDT) can achieve. The AVDT has shown the ability to affect Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) which is defined as "a ratio quantifying the relationship between input energy (the force required to break the rock being drilled) and ROP" (Gordon 2010). SPE Paper 13195 provides information regarding the AVDT and how the tool was successful at minimizing vibrations and "thus making the system more efficient" by reducing the MSE of the well (Gordon 2010). The AVDT is a unique specialty tool that when placed and ran per the recommended parameters, reduces SS tendencies and dampens lateral shocks by placing the string near the tool in FSW. As a result of placing the BHA into FSW, harmful vibration modes such as chaotic whirl and backward whirl are prevented. Due to the unique geometry of the device the tool will interrupt harmonic modes during rotation that can lead to harmful shocks and SS. Traditionally a single AVDT has been used to dampen and mitigate the vibrations that cause these drilling issues. Recently a new approach was undertaken that utilized two vibration damping tools in a single BHA. This was intended to control vibrations and reduce shocks that were causing extensive damage to RSS in a horizontal application in North America. The initial trial wells used the dual placement within the curve and horizontal section. These applications have historically seen very high vibration levels due to both the well trajectory and challenging formations. Using vibration analysis and BHA placement programs the precise location, along with detailed run parameters, were provided to the operator. Careful planning and application of the AVDT will ensure the success of the tool. The details of the run and the outcomes observed by the operator will be detailed below. This paper will provide an overview of the extensive research and testing of the tool, plus successful field performance. It will primarily focus on dual placement of the tool in horizontal applications, and how it significantly reduced vibration levels that in turn extend tool life. A number of added benefits were discovered during this run including improved directional control, smoother trajectory, and improved bit life. The vibration damping tool resulted in extensive cost savings to the directional company and operator. 2. Theory During drilling operations, vibration effectively reduces ROP, increases MSE and causes damage to drill bits and other elements of the drill string. One particular mode of vibration is the lateral mode, where the drill string or BHA assumes a whirling motion. Another damaging vibration mode is torsional vibration – in particular, SS. There are three types of whirl that can be present in the drilling environment: Forward Whirl - The whirl is in the same direction as rotation; seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Forward Whirl Backward Whirl - where the whirl is in the opposite direction to rotation; seen in Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Backward Whirl Chaotic Whirl – An escalated backward whirl where there are more severe impacts between the drill string and borehole wall; seen in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Chaotic Whirl Backward whirl is the most likely whirl to occur due to the inherent friction between the drill string and the borehole wall which acts in the opposite direction to rotation. Discrete features of this occurring on the drill string are visual damages to the entire circumference to stabilizer blades, as well as other BHA components. Because the whirl is in the opposite direction to rotation, backward whirl results in particularly damaging reverse bending stress in the drill string. Conversely, because forward whirl is in the direction of rotation the tendency for reverse bending to occur is greatly reduced. Moreover, if the forward whirl is synchronous to the rotation, the reverse bending is eliminated – FSW. Forward whirl is unlikely to occur naturally and is required to be induced (Forster, SPE 128458- 2010). A tool that enables FSW to be induced in the drill string and/or BHA will be beneficial to the drilling operation, since it will oppose the natural tendency of the drill string to assume backward whirl. Such a tool will also create an additional beneficial braking torque on the drill string due to the FSW motion and, as a result, will also tend to damp torsional vibrations. The AVDT discussed in this paper is such a tool. The tool comprises an eccentric stabilizer with two blades in an acute V-angle configuration that has been shown in field operations to reduce damaging BHA and drill string vibrations, in both lateral and torsional modes. Its unique rotation is shown in Figure 4.

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Figure 4. Forward Synchronous Whirl Previously, the reasons for improvements in performance observed in field operations when using this tool had not been formally quantified, since the tool was originally designed for the purpose of stabilizing bi-center bits. It was found necessary to therefore study and quantify the behavior of the AVDT with the intention in studying the performance limits of the AVDT, and ultimately optimize the design.

3. Laboratory Test
The design of two test rigs to study the behavior of the AVDT was purposely small scale. This was in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the behavior, parameters, and variables associated with the technology that may arise without the potentially prohibitive safety issues associated with a large scale whirling drill string. The test rigs also provided repeatable test results. The optimum speed for the AVDT in the vertical was found to be at the first natural frequency seen in Figure 5. This vibration mode is benign when compared to the higher modes by providing low non-reversed bending stress at low frequency. Fatigue and impact on the drill string is minimal. The optimum speed will increase with inclination, and also will reduce with compressive load.

Figure 5. First Natural Frequency Produced by the AVDT at Optimum Parameters For the test rig an operating speed range, with respect to the first natural frequency, was studied that maintained a lower limit of 70% the first natural frequency; and an upper limit of 150% the first natural frequency. These centrifugal effects for the AVDT are due to the eccentric orbit of the BHA. The parasitic torque due to friction will result in reaction forces due to the contact point span on the tool blades. Although the reaction forces will tend to 4

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 force the AVDT into a backward whirl, the centrifugal force will oppose these destabilizing forces and will act to sustain AVDT motion. The knowledge gained on the small scale test rigs was then used in the design optimization and field operation of full size AVDT. The AVDT placement software takes determined optimum parameters for the tool for a given placement in the drill string.

4. Previous Field Test
The AVDT has been utilized in the past on numerous wells, and under various scenarios, in order to optimize drilling performance (Forster-2011). Each application showed an increase in ROP, as well as a substantial decrease in torsional vibrations and SS down hole. A five well project was evaluated in order to identify the advantages; three wells without the AVDT, and two wells with. All of these runs in evaluation were similar in each being a 14-1/2" x 161/2" undereaming while drilling section with a RSS drilling assembly. Prior to employing the AVDT, the three nonAVDT wells were drilled with the results recorded accordingly. While they were all successful runs with no down hole failures, the runs were characterized by extreme levels of SS and consequently, and low ROP. On another note, the runs with the AVDT were characterized with reduction in SS which led to an increase of ROP. Figure 6 highlights the results from the five field test wells with green to yellow to red representing SS severity (red represents the highest levels of SS).

100% FSW

<100% FSW During build

Figure 6. Field Test Results This field test proved the effect of the AVDT on lateral vibrations most effective at 100% FSW. The 70% FSW minimum required rotary speed was the lowest speed needed in order to effectively dampen lateral vibrations. At 100% FSW being the optimum recommended rotary speed, the levels on the first AVDT well showed lower lateral vibrations than the second well. Although in both cases it was quantified as low non-damaging vibrations, the first AVDT well average lateral vibrations were lower. The effect of this vibration type on the ROP was little to none; due to the fact the ROP remained consistently high. The reductions in lateral vibration were not as apparent as the reduction in SS, since the primary vibration mode on these wells was SS. But the data does show that when 100% FSW can be achieved, lateral vibrations can be reduced. The end result of this field test was a 40% reduction in lateral vibration between the first AVDT well and the non-AVDT wells that led to a 47% increase in ROP. The second AVDT well was comparable to the non-AVDT wells in terms of lateral vibration, since the rotation speed was below 100% FSW and ROP was increased by an average of 36% as seen in Figure 7.

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AVDT Reduced RPM

Figure 7. Field Test Results (Continued)

5. Current Field Test
Wells which are drilled in North Louisiana in the Cotton Valley formation can be difficult, and present many issues such as high vibration and shocks created by higher compressive strength formations. This is exponentially increased by drilling into the Cotton Valley formation at a horizontal inclination. An operator in this area drilling this type of well was experiencing down hole tool failures, expensive tool damages, and the inability to achieve the proposed directional plan. Recent attempts to build a curve using a RSS were unsuccessful in achieving the necessary build rates for the well. After 328 feet of drilling, the maximum build rate recorded was 6.3˚/100 feet. During the build, down hole sensors were recording high lateral shocks and also chaotic whirl. Two trips were made to change out damaged components to the BHA in this section such as the MWD and RSS tool. The estimated total cost of these damages to the operator and directional company was $500,000. Summary for the First Run: • Initial ROP achieved was < 1.0 ft/hr • Severe whirl and SS experienced throughout the run • Parameter adjustment unsuccessful in mitigating down hole shock and vibrations • RSS was only successful with tool face and build rate for the first 20 feet before failing down hole • Pulled out of hole (POOH) to change out damaged BHA components • Total of 48 feet drilled, with broken and chipped cutters on the PDC bit Summary for the Second Run: • Severe whirl and SS experienced throughout the run • Attempts to control downhole parameters allowed proper tool face and build rates from the RSS, but would only last for short intervals • Pulled out of hole to place dual AVDT tools within the BHA in attempts to control down hole whirl and SS • Stabilizer blades and RSS visually damaged from down hole shock and vibrations • PDC bit had one chipped cutter, and was re-run on the following BHA On the third run two AVDT tools were placed in the drill string, one close to the PDC bit and one up in the heavy weight drill pipe (HWDP). The reason for placing two AVDT tools in the string was due to the complex trajectory of the well. The 9-7/8" vertical section of the well was drilled to the kick-off point (KOP) of 11,000 feet. The curve section was planned to be drilled using an 8-3/4" PDC bit with 6-3/4" BHA components. This large amount of offset between the borehole wall and the drill string components intensified the probability of shock and vibration issues being experienced. In an effort to decrease SS in the upper vertical section of the drill pipe a larger 8-1/2" x 9-1/2" AVDT tool with less offset to the borehole wall was inserted within the HWDP. To dampen the lateral shocks lower in the BHA a 7-1/2" x 8-1/2" AVDT tool was inserted closer to the PDC bit in drill pipe, as seen in the BHA table setup in Figure 8.

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Run01
PDC Bit Pivot Stabilizer Bias Unit Barrel Collar HEL/IDS NM Stabilizer NMDC Slick X/O Sub 31 Jts DP 2 Jts HWDP Drilling Jar 9 Jts HWDP

Run02
PDC Bit Pivot Stabilizer Bias Unit Barrel Collar HEL/IDS NM Stabilizer NMDC Slick X/O Sub 31 Jts DP 2 Jts HWDP Drilling Jar 9 Jts HWDP

Run03
PDC Bit Pivot Stabilizer Bias Unit Barrel Collar HEL/IDS NM Stabilizer NMDC Slick X/O Sub 2 Jts DP V-Stab #1 31 Jts DP 17 HWDP Drilling Jar 2 Jts HWDP V-Stab #2 9 Jts HWDP

Figure 8. BHA Setup for All Three Runs Over the course of the third run that followed the operator was able to achieve the directional plan, and the down hole sensors also measured vibration levels 80%-90% lower than the previous runs. Summary for the Third Run: • Dual AVDT tools overall performance was exceptional in mitigating downhole shock and vibrations • BHA drilled ahead with an average build rate of 8˚/100 feet for 138 feet farther than the second run • Pulled out of hole to change out the PDC bit and RSS assembly • BHA components and stabilizer blades in great shape with some evident wear on the NMDC • The previously ran 1-1 dull graded PDC bit was still in great condition with a final 1-1 dull grade
Run # 1 2 3 Depth In (ft) 8,712 8,760 9,040 Interval Drilled (ft) 48 280 418 Average ROP (ft) 6 23 23 Bit Dull Grading 2‐3‐BT‐S‐X‐I‐CT‐DTF 1‐1‐CT‐A‐X‐I‐NO‐BHA 1‐1‐WT‐S‐X‐1‐NO‐PR

Figure 9. Tabulated Results from All Three Runs (Depth In, Interval Drilled, Average ROP, Bit Dull Grading) The tabulated ROP results and PDC bit dull grading for all three runs can be seen in Figure 9, indicating a significant increase in PDC bit quality, a longer interval drilled, and in one instance a faster ROP. The vibrational data recorded by the down hole tools for all three runs was also visually plotted in Figure 10 to show the significant decrease in shock and vibrations experienced due to FSW induced by the dual AVDT tools.

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Reduction in SS in run 03 with dual AVDT

Figure 10. Vibrational Data from Run01 (left), Run02 (middle), and Run03 (right)

6. Analysis
An in depth pre-run planning was required in order to optimize the functionality of the AVDT tools that resulted in the benefits that were attained, and also described previously. This planning in Figure 11 had to resolve shock and vibrations within the drill string while dealing with a key limitation in revolutions per minute (RPM) supplied by the rig to the drill string.

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Figure 11. Example of an AVDT Calculator Output The AVDT functionality with respect to these torsional vibration modes is to maintain the drill string in a controlled forward whirl. This is accomplished by utilizing the rotational speed of the drill string to send the asymmetric mass off center, and to the outside of the borehole wall. This mass will then follow the rotation of the drill string in a controlled manner as long as the energy provided by the system overcomes the tendency of this mass to naturally dampen and return back to a state of rest. If this energy input is not sufficient enough for the mass to be off center 100% of the time, then only a partial FSW rotation will be induced down hole. The mass will then fluctuate between FSW and its center rotation, considering the energy input can only sustain FSW for limited intervals of time. This partial FSW is still beneficial in mitigating SS down hole, but is limited in the amount of lateral vibration it can control. The SS is mitigated by the AVDT by the simple concept of offsetting the amount of friction affecting the drill string. This is achieved by orienting the lateral velocity of the drill string in a way that overcomes the friction coefficient present down hole. In a normal BHA without an AVDT, the lateral movement can be directed in multiple directions that counteract its own lateral velocity to the point where the friction coefficient is dominant and SS is initiated. By having the AVDT present, the lateral movement is then oriented to not be counter intuitive in overcoming the friction coefficient. This lateral orientation is naturally sustainable and effective for a small duration by its own directed momentum before being damped out, and is why partially induced FSW is still highly effective against SS. For the AVDT to control the lateral vibrations within the drill string, the continuous forward whirl is more essential to the system to be beneficial. The FSW that is created down hole must be sufficient enough to withstand itself with rotational RPM, as well as have enough momentum of inertia to overcome any lateral shocks going through the drill string. This momentum of inertia is exponentially increased in the system with proper placement in the BHA. Alternatively, if the calculated rpm is not achievable (usually too high), alternative placement may be considered – i.e. using small outer diameter collars or HWDP; using a smaller size AVDT to achieve a greater orbit; using collars with an offset bore to increase the orbit; and using stabilizers to alter the FSW nodes (Kabbara, SPE 151356 2012). In this particular instance the BHA setup had to take into effect the trajectory of the well, along with the limitations on RPM. This trajectory made it necessary for a dual AVDT application to be present to increase the amount of sustainable FSW through the drill string. The placement, AVDT sizes, and surrounding components were then specifically chosen in order to maximize this effect where it was most critical. In this way a higher percentage of FSW would be possible to mitigate of the lateral vibrations, along with the SS.

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7. Conclusion
Vibrations and shocks generated while drilling can be harmful to key BHA components such as the drill bit, the RSS tool, and the MWD tool. These damages, when they occur, are costly to the operator and the directional company. Preventing these damages from occurring can be possible by using an AVDT tool, and in some particular cases two AVDT tools. According to the information captured from runs using two AVDT tools together in challenging wells in North Louisiana proves that the dual AVDT assembly can prevent these damages from occurring. The AVDT is a value added tool because in addition to preventing harmful tool damages when the tool is ran per the proposed parameters and placement guidelines, the tool will also increase the overall drilling performance. The overall key to the success of the run described above was due to the detailed analysis of the well plan, the placement of the AVDT within the BHA, and the parameter guidelines that were presented to the operator. The well analysis, the placement and run recommendations along with the AVDT comprise the vibration damping system used to mitigate the harmful effect of vibrations on the drilling process. Additional testing in the future will determine the usefulness of the AVDT system in horizontal applications for friction reduction, hole quality and hole cleaning.

8. References
ANSYS – Design Space/Work Bench FEA – Version 11 – 2008. BARTON, S., CLARKE, A., GARCIA, A., PEREZ, D., NOV/REEDHYCALOG, MORA, G., CARRION, C., Petroamazonas. 2009. Improved Drilling Performance: Downhole Dynamic Logging Tools Break Paradigm in Ecuador. Paper SPE 122208, presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 31 May-3 June. FORSTER, I., MACFARLANE, A., DINNIE, R., NOV Downhole Ltd. 2010. Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool – Small Scale Rig Testing and Full Scale Field Testing. Paper SPE/IADC 128458, presented at the Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 2-4 February. . GORDON, JEANETTE, AGR Petroleum. 2010. Case History: Continuous Improvement in a Staggered Drilling Campaign. Paper SPE 131395. Presented at the Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference, Brisbane, Queensland Australia, 18-20 October 2010. MCCARTHY, J., FORSTER, I., BURNETT, T., KABBARA, A., National Oilwell Varco. 2011. Careful Planning and Application of an Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool Dramatically Improves Underreaming While Drilling Performance in Deepwater Drilling. Paper OTC 22439. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Rio de Janerio 4-6 October 2011. KABBARA, A, MCCARTHY, J. P., FORSTER, I., BURNETT, T., National Oilwell Varco. 2011. Understanding How the Placement of an Asymmetric Vibration Damping Tool Within Drilling While Underreaming Assemblies Can Influence Performance and Reliability. Paper SPE 151356 prepared for the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, San Diego, CA 6-8 March 2012. NOV Downhole Ltd, Field Tests – 2011.

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