IBP1626_12 MONITORING OF THE AQUATIC ECOSSYSTEMS IN THE AREA OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE URUCU-COARIMANAUS GAS PIPELINE 1 Ronaldo P.

Mannarino , Barbara Ann Robertson2 Assad José Darwich3
Copyright 2012, Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute - IBP
This Technical Paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held between September, 1720, 2012, in Rio de Janeiro. This Technical Paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event according to the information contained in the final paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers are not supposed to translate or correct the submitted papers. The material as it is presented, does not necessarily represent Brazilian Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Institute’ opinion, or that of its Members or Representatives. Authors consent to the publication of this Technical Paper in the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 Proceedings.

Abstract
For the natural gas industry in the Brazilian Amazon to develop the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline was constructed and currently provides gas to the emergent markets of Manaus and adjacent cities. It spans 630 kilometers of forests, rivers, lakes and other wetlands. The environmental management of this enterprise was a challenge and ultimately counted on scientific research to help elucidate the characteristics and functioning of regional environments. For this PETROBRAS contracted the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) and the Fundação Amazônica de Defesa da Biosfera (FDB) to develop a program to monitor the aquatic environments possibly affected by the construction of the pipeline. The research team established 45 sampling stations ranging from the upper Urucu River, 625 km southwest of Manaus, to Tupé Lake, situated 25 km west of Manaus. Sampling was undertaken four times during 2006, 2007, 2008, and during the peak high and low water periods of 2009. Each of the 14 expeditions covered about 2090 km and lasted an average of 15 days. Each expedition resulted in a detailed technical report including the materials and methods used to collect the water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, sediment and aquatic macrophyte samples and also the methods used for the physical, chemical and biological analyses in the field and in the laboratories. Based on these data, a robust limnological profile was generated for each ecosystem studied. Of note is that, with the exception of a small tributary of the upper Urucu River, approximately 260 km from the Amazon River, all the other environments were and are directly or indirectly influenced by the flood pulse of the Amazon River. The data also allowed us to conclude that the construction of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline did not cause any lasting perturbations in any of the aquatic systems studied.

Resumo
Para o desenvolvimento da indústria do gás natural na Amazônia foi construído o Gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus, que hoje disponibiliza as reservas de gás da bacia do Solimões para o emergente mercado de Manaus e cidades adjacentes. Ele percorre a distância de 630 Km de florestas, rios e lagos. O gerenciamento ambiental deste empreendimento, considerado um dos mais importantes desafios de engenharia em áreas terrestres da PETROBRAS, foi baseado em estratégias de excelência do conhecimento científico, para fazer frente às lacunas de conhecimento sobre a região. Foram contratados o Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) e a Fundação Amazônica de Defesa da Biosfera (FDB) para desenvolver um programa de monitoramento dos ambientes aquáticos possíveis de serem afetados pela construção do Gasoduto. A equipe do INPA estabeleceu 45 estações de coleta, desde o alto Rio Urucu, a 625 Km a sudoeste de Manaus, até a 25 Km oeste, no Lago Tupé.Amostras foram tomadas quatro vezes por ano de 2006 a 2008 e duas vezes, na cheia e na seca de 2009. Cada uma das 14 expedições percorreram 2.090 Km durando em média 15 dias. Cada uma delas gerou um relatório técnico detalhado dos resultados, incluindo as metodologias de campo e laboratório para as coletas de água, fitoplâcton, zooplâncton, sedimentos e macrófitas aquáticas, com análises físicas, químicas e biológicas. Com todos estes dados, foi gerado um robusto perfil limnológico para cada um dos ecossistemas estudados. É relevante por exemplo que, à exceção de um pequeno tributário do alto Rio Urucu, a 260 Km do Rio Amazonas, todos os demais ambientes estudados foram direta ou indiretamente influenciados pelo seu pulso de inundação. Mostra também o presente estudo, que nenhuma perturbação duradoura foi detectada nos ambientes aquáticos na área de influência da obra de construção do Gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus.

______________________________ 1 M.Sc. Ecologist – Petróleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS 2 Dr. Limnologist- Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA 3 Dr. Limnologist - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA

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1. Introduction
According to article 2 of the resolution number 001/86 of the Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente, CONAMA, construction of gas pipelines can potentially cause damage to the environment. Because of this, a previous environmental impact study and close monitoring during the construction stage of the job is required. To attend this resolution and to accompany and evaluate the effectiveness of the procedures adopted for the construction of the UrucuCoari-Manaus gas pipeline, the PETROBRAS contracted the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) and the Fundação Amazônica de Defesa da Biosfera (FDB) to develop a program to monitor the aquatic environments possibly affected by the construction of the pipeline. This because although some parts of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline go through terra firme forests, for the most part the pipeline goes through floodplains, streams, lakes and rivers, that is, a complex mosaic of different aquatic environments (Figures 1 & 2).

Figure 1. Confluence of the Badajós River with the Amazon River. From left to right, yellow dots are sampling stations in the Amazon River, Paraná das Onças and Badajós River and the blue dot is the Miuá Lake sampling station.

Figure 2. Upper reaches of the Urucu River, the Açu tributary and the gas pipeline. Red dots are the location of the sampling stations in Açu stream and yellow dots are two sampling stations in the Urucu River. 2

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 In the Amazon the majority of aquatic environments are subject, directly and indirectly, to the flood pulse of the big rivers, in particular to that of the Amazon River. Figure 3 illustrates the typical monomodal graph of the lower Negro River flood pulse during the study period, 2006-2009. It can be seen that, in the vicinity of Manaus, the average difference between the peak high water level and peak low water level is in the range of 10 meters, but it can reach up to 14 meters.

31,0 29,46 m a.s.l. 28,0

meters above sea level

25,0

22,0

19,0

16,0 15,43 m a.s.l. 13,0 fev jun fev jun fev jun fev out out out out dez dez dez ago/05 ago ago ago dez ago out dez/09 abr abr abr abr fev jun

Figure 3. Lower Negro River water level expressed as meters above sea level m.(a.s.l.) from August 2005 to February 2010 including the study period 2006 - 2009. (data from the Serviço Nacional de Portos e Hidrovias). The biggest challenge in working with Amazonian aquatic environments subject to dramatic differences in water level during the year is to determine the natural variation in the physical, physico-chemical, chemical and biological properties of the lakes and rivers. The challenge in working with the diverse wetlands transposed by the gas pipeline was just this because for the great majority of the environments there was no limnological information available. And without knowing the natural variability of the limnological properties of the aquatic ecosystems it is not possible to differentiate between natural variations and anthropogenic impacts.

2. Material & Methods A total of 45 sampling stations were established ranging from the upper Urucu River, 625 kilometers southwest of Manaus to Tupé Lake situated 25 kilometers west of Manaus in the lower Negro River (Figure 4). Of these, 21 were situated in rivers, 18 in lakes, 4 in streams and 2 in an abandoned meander.

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Figure 4. Limnological sampling stations of the Urucu-Coari-Manaus gas pipeline monitoring program (INPA/FDB/TAG – PETROBRAS)

Sampling was undertaken four times during the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and during the high water period and the low water period of 2009. Each of the 14 expeditions covered an average of 2090 kilometers and lasted an average of 15 days. Each expedition resulted in a detailed technical report including the material and methods used to collect the water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, sediment and aquatic macrophyte samples and also the methods used for the physical, chemical and biological analyses in the field and in the laboratories (Figures 5 & 6). The collecting methods and the analytical procedures were based on Strickland & Parsons (1972), Golterman et al., (1978), Rodier (1978), Schindler (1987) APHA (1998), Wetzel & Likens (2000) and Thorp & Covich (2001).

EVERY THREE MONTHS

Measurements: Depth Secchi disk Air temperature Light penetration Water temperature pH, O 2 µS25/cm Turbidity
Filtratration/Separation of Samples for: Suspended solids Dissolved SiO 2 ; Fe N & dissolved fractions P & dissolved fractions Na+ ; K+ ; Ca2+ ; H +; Mg2+ ; Chlorophll a ; Total pigments ; color

Colection of: H 2O O 2.BOD e BOD 5 CO 2 free – Total CO 2
Total & Fecal Coliform

EXPERIMENTS: Phytoplankton Primary production

Field work

Field work and preparation of samples

Step 01 Step 02 Step 03 Step 04 Step 05 Step 06

Phytoplankton Zooplankton Aquatic plants Sediments

Analyses of:

Separation of samples for: N-total ; P-total Cl- ; SO 4= ; Fe total ; NTU

CO 2 L – CO 2 T Alcalinity HCO 3- - hardness Digestion of N e P Separation/ Preservation/ drying Sediments Aquatic macrophytes

Analyses: O 2.BOD - BOD 5 – COD DOC- O 2 demand

Separation/filtration of samples: Al – Ba - Cd – Co - Cr - Cu - Fe - Mn - Ni – Pb - Si - Zn

Figure 5. Field work: collecting and procedures.

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EVERY THREE MONTHS

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:
O 2 demands O 2.BOD - BOD5 COD - DOC Total C Na+ - K+ ; Ca2+ - Mg2+ - H+ Color – Turbidity Suspende material

ACHEMICAL ANALYSIS: NH4+-N NO2--N NO3 -N Total N Dissolved N Phosfhate Total P Total Dissolved P Cl – SO42Silicate Total & dissolved Fe N e P = fractions

BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS:
Total Coliform Fecal Colifiorm Total Pigments Chlorophyll a

WATER

Granulometria Organic matter & C Na+ - K+ ; Ca2+ - Mg2+ Al – Ba - Cd – Co Cr - Cu - Fe – Mn Ni – Pb - Si - Zn

Laboratory Analysis

SEDIMENT

ANALYSIS:

ZOOPLANKTON

Composition Diversity Abundance

ANALYSES: Composition Diversity Abundance

PHYTOPLANKTON

MACROPHYTS

Dry weight – Organic matter - Al – Ba - Cd – Co - Cr - Cu - Fe - Mn - Ni – Pb - Si - Zn

CALCULATION

Trophic state index – Water quality index – Primary production Calibration curves – concentração of ions and nutrients – ionic balance.

Figure 6. Laboratory analysis and procedures

3. Results & Conclusions Based on the data gathered in the four years of study a detailed limnological profile for each sampling station was obtained. This means that, if need be, the diagnoses of almost any environmental impact to these aquatic ecosystems will be able to count on a solid data base. Throughout the construction of the pipeline, the monitoring program also helped preserve and guarantee the integrity of the natural environmental conditions and produced information of great importance for the planning of regional logistics, One example is that, with the exception of a small tributary in the upper Urucu River (can be seen in Figure 2), approximately 260 kilometers from the Amazon River, all the other environments were and are directly or indirectly influenced by the flood pulse of the Amazon River (Figure 7).

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0 0 (m)

µS25/cm

50

100

1

0 0

µS25/cm

50

100

(m)

5 10 15
27 32

Badajós

5 10

Manacapuru

79

98
12

15

94

1

0 0 5 10

µS25/cm

50

100 0 5 10

0

µS25/cm

50

100

(m)

38

(m)
29
12

15

15

0 0 (m)

µS25/cm

1

50

100 0 (m) 5 10

0

µS25/cm 16
28

50

100

5 10 15
24

35 93
12

15

8,9

14

Figure 7. Seasonal variation in conductivity (µS25/cm) in the water column of the Badajós and Manacapuru Rivers during the sampling periods of 2006, 2007 and 2008. (squares =rising water period, losenge = high water period, triangles = falling water period, circles = dry season).

Along with the limnological profiles of the individual sampling stations we also examined the longitudinal profiles of some rivers, particularly the Urucu River. The results allow us to reiterate that even in the most unlikely and distant of places the Amazon River flood pulse can be felt. For example, the influence of the damming effect of the Amazon River when the river levels rise affects Coarí Lake, then Urucu Lake and finally the lower and middle reaches of the Urucu River. We detected a damming influence up to sampling station 5 on the Urucu River about 190 kilometers from the Amazon River (Figure 8).

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Depth - Urucu River
1 0 (m) 5 10 15 2 3 4 5 6 7

Secchi Disk - Urucu River
1 0,0 (m) 0,6 1,2 1,8 2 3 4 5 6 7

Euphotic Zone - Urucu Rover
1 0 (m) 2 4 6 2 3 4 5 6 7

Turbidity
60 UNT 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 E.Limn 7

Figure 8. Longitudinal and seasonal variation in depth, Secchi disc reading, euphotic zone and turbidity in the Urucu River. Data refer to the means of the measurements taken during the study period, 2006 -2009. (station 1 is at the headwaters of the river and station 7 the lowermost station) (triangle = rising water period, square =high water period, losenge = falling water period, circles= dry season).

Finally, although Amazonian aquatic environments, plants and animals are resistant and resilient to the natural perturbations imposed by the flood pulse regime of the Amazon River, there are limits. All ecosystems, fauna and flora are vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Based on the results of the present study, however, it can be said that no lasting perturbations were detected in the aquatic ecosystems in the areas of the construction of the Urucu-Coarí-Manaus gas pipeline. 7

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4. References APHA-AWWA-WPCF. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th edition American Public Health Association. Washington DC. 119 pp., 1975. DAJOZ, R. Ecologia Geral. 3 ed. Editora Vozes. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978. DOWNING, A. & LEIBOLD, M. Species richness facilitates ecosystem resilience in aquatic food webs. Freshwater Biology v. 55, p.2123-2137, 2010. GOLTERMAN, H. L., CLYMO, R. S & OHNSTEAD, M. A. Methods for physical and chemical analyses of fresh waters. 2nd edition. IBP Handbook n°8. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Oxford. London, 214 pp, 1978. Google Inc., 2006 Google Earth: Explore, Search and Discovery. (http://earth.google.com/) Access:March, 2006. JUNK, W. J. Áreas inundáveis – um desafio para Limnologia. Acta Amazônica v. 4, p. 775-795, 1980. JUNK W. J. (ed) The Central Amazon Floodplain. Ecology of a pulsing system. Ecological Studies 126 Springer. 525 pp, 1997. JUNK, W. J. & WANTZEN K. M. The flood pulse concept: new aspects, approaches and applications – an update IN: R. WELCOMME & T. PETR (eds) Proceedings of the 2nd Large River Symposium (LARS). Phnom Penh, Cambodia, RAP Publication v.6 p.117-149, 2004. MAGURRAN, A. & HENDERSON P. Explaining the excess of rare species in natural species abundance distributions. Nature v.422 p.714-716, 2003. RODIER, J. L´analyse de l´eau. 6a edição, Paris, Bordas 1136 pp., 1978. SHINDLER, D. W. Detecting ecosystem responses to anthropogenic stress. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences v.44 supp 1 p. 6 -25, 1987. STRICKLAND, J.D. H. & PARSONS, T. R. Practical Handbook of Seawater Analyses. 2nd Edition Misc. Special Publ. 25 Fish Environment Canada 180 pp,1972. THORP, J. H. & COVICH, A. P. Ecology and classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates 2 ed. Academic Press, Boston,1056 pp, 2001. WETZEL, R. G. & LIKENS, G. E. Limnological Analyses 3a edition, Springer 429pp, 2000.

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