IBP1686_12 REFORASTATION PROGRAM – INSTRUMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION Aline B. L. Pinheiro1, Claudio Serricchio², Flaviana V.

Caldas³, Jorge L. B. de Jesus4, Lisa Akahori5, Luciana G. Coimbra6, Luciana V. Veskesky7, Ronaldo G. de Araújo8
Copyright 2012, Brazilian Institute of Oil, Gas and Biofuels - IBP This paper was prepared for presentation at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012, held in Rio de Janeiro, on September 17-20. This technical paper was selected for presentation by the Technical Committee of the event, following the information contained in the full paper submitted by the author(s). The organizers will not translate or correct the received texts. The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect the views of the Brazilian Institute of Oil, Gas and Biofuels, Partners and Representatives. The publication of this Technical Paper in the Anals of Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 is knowledged and approved by the author(s).

Resumo
Este trabalho aborda as experiências vivenciadas nas ações de recuperação florestal e de mobilização social que foram implementadas no âmbito dos programas de reposição florestal dos gasodutos Cacimbas-Catu (GASCAC), CabiúnasVitória (GASCAV) e Ramal GASCAV-UTG Sul, e que contribuíram para a recuperação ambiental e transformação social dos núcleos inseridos no contexto das áreas de reposição. Esses projetos foram efetuados nas áreas do Corredor Central da Mata Atlântica (CCMA), como forma de atenuar e compensar os impactos decorrentes da supressão de vegetação nativa que foram necessários para a implantação desses empreendimentos. A definição das áreas de plantio e as ações de educação ambiental e mobilização social foram previamente discutidas e alinhadas com as coordenadorias estaduais (ES e BA) do Projeto Corredores Ecológicos (PCE) e com os órgãos de controle ambiental e florestal, sendo que a integração dos diversos agentes sociais envolvidos (setor privado, instituições públicas e organizações nãogovernamentais) foi um fator preponderante no processo de mobilização social e no fortalecimento dos Corredores Ecológicos Prioritários que receberam os projetos. Para o desenvolvimento dos trabalhos de plantio, manutenção e monitoramento buscou-se um alinhamento com o previsto no Pacto pela Restauração Florestal (referencial teórico), com algumas alterações decorrentes das experiências dos técnicos envolvidos. A compatibilização das atividades de recuperação florestal e as ações de educação ambiental criaram possibilidades de conectividade ecológica da paisagem, mediante o incremento de espécies nativas, contribuindo com a recuperação da biodiversidade e dos serviços ambientais, e, proporcionou às comunidades locais um novo olhar sobre as questões socioambientais, favorecendo a mudança de percepção ambiental e a participação social necessária ao bem-estar da coletividade; além, de oportunizar momentos de aprendizagem, de interação entre os diversos agentes sociais participantes desse processo e valorização dos bens naturais locais do CCMA.

Abstract
This paper discusses the experiences in the actions of forest recovery and social mobilization that have been implemented in the programs of reforestation in Cacimbas-Catu (GASCAC), Cabiúnas-Vitória (GASCAV) gas pipeline and in a GASCAV UTG-Sul gas pipeline extension that contributed for environmental restoration and social transformation of the nuclei within the context of the replacement areas. These projects were undertaken in the areas of Atlantic Forest Central Corridor (CCMA), in order to mitigate and offset the impacts resulting from the removal of native vegetation that were required to implement these projects. The definition of areas for planting and environmental education and social mobilization have been previously discussed and aligned with state coordinators (ES and BA) of the Ecological Corridors Project (ECP) and the environmental and forestry government agencies, and the integration of various social actors involved (private sector, public institutions and non-governmental organizations) was a major

______________________________ 1 Environmental Management Specialist, Biologist – Autonomous Professional 2 Environmental Specialist, Mechanical Engineer – Petrobras 3 Master in Environmental Management, Civil Engineer – Petrobras 4 MBA in Project Management, Mechanical/Equipment Engineer – Petrobras 5 Environmental Management Specialist, Biologist – LP Empreendimentos 6 Environmental Management Specialist, Administrator – LP Empreendimentos 7 Specialist in Education, Social Communicator – LP Empreendimentos 8 Geographer – LP Empreendimentos

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 factor in the process of social mobilization and the strengthening of Ecological Corridors that received priority projects. For the development of the work of planting, maintenance and monitoring aimed a line with the provisions of the Pact for Forest Restoration (theoretical), with some changes resulting from experience of the technicians involved. The compatibility of forest restoration activities and environmental education created opportunities for ecological connectivity of the landscape, through the increase of native species, contributing to the recovery of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and gave local communities a fresh look at the environmental issues, favoring the change in environmental perception and social participation necessary for the well-being of the community. In addition, offer moments of learning, interaction between different social actors participating in this process and appreciation of local natural assets of the CCMA.

1. Introduction
This paper presents the environmental management implemented for reforestation programs carried out in order to offset the removal of vegetation, which was required for the implementation of Cacimbas-Catu (GASCAC) and Cabiúnas-Vitória (GASCAV) gas pipelines and GASCAV-UTG Sul gas pipeline extension. However, during the implementation of the projects not only environmental legislation compliance was sought, but also the establishment of those projects as an instrument of social and environmental transformation, with the essential elements: the ecological recovery of the local landscape, the strengthening of the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor - CCMA (Ecological Corridors Project - ECP) and the social mobilization upon environmental education activities aimed at a participatory process involving several local social actors, for sustainability of the local production practices. The Cacimbas-Catu (GASCAC) and Cabiúnas-Vitória (GASCAV) gas pipelines and GASCAV-UTG Sul gas pipeline extension along with the Cacimbas-Vitória gas pipeline integrate the natural gas grid of Gasene, project of the energy infrastructure chain essential to the Brazilian energy matrix diversification. The Gasene Project, which starts from the Cabiúnas Terminal in Macaé/RJ and runs to Catu Station in Pojuca/BA, provided the southeast-northeast interconnection, through approximately 1,400 km of pipeline, and the last stretch (GASCAC) was included in March 2010. This pipeline system is inserted in its greatest extent in the Atlantic Forest biome. Thus, the areas selected for the implementation of the Reforestation Program are part of the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor, whose region has forest areas biologically priority and feasible to biodiversity preservation and conservation in the Atlantic Forest. In this context, the implementation of reforestation in these areas provides the reconnection of the ecological landscape, to ensure and/or contribute to the survival of species, the equilibrium of ecosystems, the maintenance of environmental services, the development of production processes and the desired environmental sustainability. Within this context, the Reforestation Program is presented as a valuable instrument of social and environmental transformation, depending on the ecological and silvicultural practices adopted in the promotion of forest restoration added to the practices of social mobilization of different social actors involved in the process (public institutions, non-governmental organizations and civil society). Thus, the main agents of this process are: State Coordination of the Ecological Corridors Project of the State Institute of Environment and Water Resources of the State of Espírito Santo – IEMA; the Ecological Corridors Project Coordination of Bahia; Institute of Espírito Santo for Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension - INCAPER, represented by the technicians of the Local Office of Rural Development - ELDR of Pinheiros / ES; the faculty of Escola Família Agrícola - EFA of Pinheiros; the manager of Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve of Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation - ICMBio; the technical representatives of the Agricultural and Forestry Defense Institute of the State of Espírito Santo - IDAF / ES. We may also mention, as important agents of the transformation process, the following: the technical staff of companies contracted to perform services of reforestation and the landowners before an action of irradiation, which, according to "Antônio Lino (accessed on May 5, 2012) the mobilization causes a movement that increasingly (quantity) involves different people (plurality), in an increasingly organized way”; in addition to the environmental analysts of the Municipal Secretary of Agriculture and Environment of the municipalities that will receive that Program.

2. Reforestation
The implementation of reforestation programs, object of this paper, provided the planting of about 155.40 ha of native species of the Atlantic Forest biome, representing more than the total area removed. The executive project of mangrove restoration in a total area of 0.88 ha in Itaúnas State Park in the city of Conceição da Barra/ES. Such areas belong to the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor - CCMA, in accordance with the Figure 01.

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Figure 01. Infographic of the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor and Priority Ecological Corridors The development of the Program sought to establish an interaction with the public bodies involved in managing and monitoring the use and conservation of environmental resources, such as the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (IBAMA) and other institutions mentioned. Among the objectives of the program, we may mention: restore the environmental services of degraded areas through reforestation with native species of Atlantic Forest; enable the connectivity between the forest remnants present in the areas of ecological corridors and Conservation Units allowing the movement of animals and seed dispersal, favoring gene flow and contributing to biodiversity conservation; promote environmental awareness of small and medium rural producers and other local community groups, as well as the dissemination (rural extension) of the legal aspects for the sustainability of agricultural practices, through the implementation of environmental education campaigns aimed at social mobilization; strengthen the conservation and preservation initiatives of the ongoing actions of the Ecological Corridors Project in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia. 2.1. Selection of Areas for Reforestation The selection and definition of micro-location of areas for forest restoration were carried out in partnership with various state and municipal institutions, through work meetings and other contacts. Among these institutions, we highlight the partnership held with the State Coordination Units (UCEs) of the Ecological Corridors Project of the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia with the implementation of actions to strengthen the implementation of the Atlantic Forest Central Ecological Corridor. The selection of areas took into account technical and operational aspects, aligning them with the interests of the institutions involved and the owners defaulted, since 99% of the areas for reforestation are located on private properties. Among the aspects evaluated, we may mention: the settlements with native species should form forests with few parcels of land to contribute to the establishment of ecological corridors; the areas should be of protection interest around Protected Areas or forest remnant to increase the forest cover; water resources protection (riparian forest restoration) especially those around sources of river or stream; steeply sloping areas (slopes) and natural headwater; among other environments that contribute to the environmental adequacy of farming and cattle raising property. Another criterion considered was that the forest restoration would become to the farmer (property owner) a new source of income, i.e. a diversification of their productive activities, such as rural tourism, collection of seeds for seedling production, implementation of agroforestry systems, in natura trade or by means of processing (production of candies, jams, among others, including medicinal ones) of fruit of native species, such as Anacardium ocidentale (cashew), Schinus terebinthifolius (peppertree), Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry), Genipa amaricana (genipap), Spondias mombin (hog plum) e others. Aiming the commitment of such owners to ensure the maintenance of the forest 3

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 settlement implemented and the conservation of these areas after the project completion period (plantation, maintenance and monitoring), a Statement of Commitment was signed, which are duly registered / annotated in the real state registry. All this from an educational process, based on the premise of rural extension and environmental awareness. The areas of forest restoration of GASCAC and GASCAV in the state of Espírito Santo were indicated by UCE/IEMA/ES and are inserted in farms located in the terrestrial priority corridors of the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor in the state of Espírito Santo (set by the State Decree no. 2529-R, dated 06/02/2010). Córrego do Veado Ecological Corridor is located at Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, under the management of ICMBio and Guanady Ecological Corridor has as conservation exponent the Guanandy State Environmental Protection Area. The sites in the process of forest restoration of GASCAV UTG-Sul gas pipeline extension are located between the Guanandy Ecological Corridor and Municipal Ecological Station of Papagaio, of which 1.20 ha were implanted in the riparian band of Parati lagoon, whose surroundings are occupied by residential allotment with the same name. Initially, this differential in territorial component represented an even greater challenge for the project implementation. The forest restoration in the state of Bahia included areas of Monte Pascoal-Pau Brasil Ecological Corridor and Conduru-Boa Esperança Ecological Corridor, in the coastal region of the APA Almada River Basin and Lagoa Encantada, and they are also considered as priority areas for forest restoration activities in the scope of CCMA. Table 01 and Figure 01 show the location of reforestation areas. Table 01 - Location of reforestation areas LOCATION PROJECTS GASCAV-UTG Sul gas pipeline extension GASCAV ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS (CE) Area between Guanandy Ecological Corridor and Municipal Ecological Station of Papagaio MUNICIPALITIES/UF Anchieta/ES Itapemirim/ES CE Guanandy Piúma/ES CE Córrego do Veado GASCAC/ES Itaúnas State Park (mangrove area) CE Monte Pascoal – Pau Brasil GASCAC/BA Source: Own elaboration 2.2. Operating Procedures of Forest Restoration The operating procedures of plantation, post-plantation and occupancy and operation (maintenance period, assessment and monitoring) of forest restoration projects follow the guidelines of the theoretical framework of the Pact for the Atlantic Forest Restoration developed by the Laboratory of Ecology and Forest Restoration of ESALQ, 2009 and the practices/experiences usually adopted by the consultants of each project. Thus, the projects were developed according to the following steps: a) STEP 1: Planning and Mobilization of materials, equipment and manpower, and training them. b) STEP 2: Prepare the Area with the adoption of techniques to prevent erosion, and the purchase of seedlings and other inputs needed for the correction and fertilization of the soil and control of leaf-cutting ants. c) STEP 3: Planting with fertilizer and irrigation. In this phase were also carried out social mobilization activities and environmental education. To plant, was adopted the functional grouping of species model, Fulfilling species group and Diversity species group, aimed at the combination of species of different behaviors (primary, secondary early/late and climax) or of different ecological groups. The Fulfilling species have as function the rapid coating of the planted area by creating a favorable environment for the development of individuals in the Diversity group, and at the same time, discouraging the development of competing species such as grasses and opportunistic species. Figure 02 illustrates the organization of planting and the expected process of ecological succession - recovery of the landscape (physiognomic and environmental services aspects). CE Boa Esperança - Conduru Pinheiros/ES Conceição da Barra/ES Porto Seguro/BA Ilhéus/BA 10,9 10,076 0,88 103,53 8,3 AREA (Ha) 8,98 13,61

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Pioneering Early Secondary Climax Pasture - Plantation - After 2 years - After 5 years - After 15 years - After 50 years Figure 02. Organization of planting and process of ecological succession Source: adapted from Rodrigues et al. (2009) The grouping of species into only two groups alternately (fulfilling line - diversity line) enabled the logistics for the allocation of the seedlings in the field, presenting a less complexity and cheaper operating costs. d) STEP 4: Maintenance and Monitoring, where the native seedlings are preserved. Monitoring is an important element in analyzing the effectiveness of forest restoration process. According to Rodrigues & Gandolfi, 2004 "Evaluation and monitoring of areas under restoration process cover aspects wider than just the purely physiognomic assessment of the area restored, even if periodic, which is the procedure normally required by the inspectors and the certification bodies" (apud Rodrigues et al. 2009, p. 129). Considering such principles, the activity of monitoring has been performed based in three subgroups of indicators of assessment and monitoring, such as: deployment phase (1-12 months), with assessment of the occurrence of erosion and soil conservation, evaluation of exotic grass coverage and evaluation of planted individuals and/or seedlings, post-deployment phase (1-3 years), in this phase the phenology (flowering and fruiting) and richness (number of species per area) are highlighted; and phase of occupation and operation/vegetation restored (4 years or more), aimed to assess the physiognomic aspects of the restored vegetation/stratification and the arrival of other life forms (such as lianas and herbaceous). Thus, we installed permanent plots for monitoring, permitting the evaluation of 40 individuals per plot.

3. Transformation of Landscapes
The areas selected for reforestation presented landscapes greatly changed due to changes in land use and occupation, i.e. 90% were areas set aside for pasture (grasses very aggressive) and 10% had macega formation and/or early stage of regeneration with the predominance of one specie. Therefore, we noted a landscape altered by human action through the replacement of native vegetation by exotic grasses. In this context and considering the approach of landscape ecology that, according to "Santos (2004) [...] the landscape is the central object of analysis, seen as a set of natural units, altered or replaced by human action, which comprises a complex, heterogeneous and interactive mosaic." Thus, Figure 03 (A, B and C) illustrates this conception of landscape transformation, since, from the application of silvicultural techniques, the recovery of the natural landscape is sought, but not only in relation to the aspect of phytogeographical space of that micro-region or micro watersheds. However, aims to rehabilitate the environmental and ecological functions of degraded or disturbed areas, which can be classified according to that author as “[…] natural or flow corridors of environmental resources (like riparian forest), with or without connection between fragments of natural vegetation coverage; change or disorder corridors (such as power lines, roads); rehabilitation corridors (such as riparian reforestation) and others, Santos (2004)”

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(A) 08/18/2010

(B) 01/19/2011

(C) 12/28/2011

Figure 03 (A, B and C) - The process of transformation of the landscape - reforestation area in Fazenda Alvorada, in Pinheiros/ES Considering also the aspect of transformation of the landscape, it is mentioned the recovery process of soil degraded by the removal of the organic layer and especially the A and B horizons found in one of the reforestation areas. To prevent gullies present in the area evolve, measures were adopted control and recovery measures, such as the introduction of rows of coconut straw in a longitudinal direction to reduce the surface concentrated runoff, planting of tussocks (seedlings) to rapid coverage of soil and planting of native seedlings. The combination of these elements provided a structural stabilization of the erosion process; reducing the transport of sediment; hence the reduction of sedimentation of the water body. Figure 04 outlines the modification of the degraded landscape and the process of edaphic, physiognomic and ecological recovery ongoing.

Erosion Process (B)

(A) Orthophotomosaic (2008)

(B) 01/06/2011

(C) 12/23/2011

(D) Image Google Maps (2012)

Figure 04 (A to D) - The process of transformation of the landscape and soil restoration - reforestation area in Fazenda Rainha da Paz, in Anchieta/ES In some areas, it has already been established, after about a year and three months after planting, the flowering and fruiting of some pioneer species, and the occupation by reptiles and birds, in nesting stage, according to Figure 05 that, according to "Rodrigues et. al. (2009) may be evaluated as bioindicator agents of the success of the restoration projects."

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(A) 05/19/2011 Bauhinia variegata

(B) 10/10/2011 Inga thibaudiana

(C) 11/29/2011

(B) 01/20/2012

Figure 05 (A to D) - Phenology (A and B) of some species planted in areas under recovery in Pinheiros and Anchieta and restoration of wildlife (C and D) in the restoration area in the municipalities of Pinheiros

4. Social Mobilization and Environmental Education
The principle of the Reforestation Program was to reconcile the reforestation operations with social mobilization of communities present in the vicinity of the planting areas. With this approach, we intended to raise awareness of these communities with the project objectives, and contribute to enhance its results. Methodologically, it was adopted environmental education, rural extensionism and social responsibility, including: hiring of skilled local labor force, performance of recreational activities and art workshops (including techniques using recycled materials); lectures (meetings); mini-courses on Agroforestry Systems; construction and assembly of seedlings nursery of essential native trees, associated with a qualification course; and production of posters, brochures, pamphlets and videos of institutional purposes. The definitions of the topics covered in lectures/meetings have been built in meetings between the entrepreneur and the manager of UCE/ES, the technicians of the municipal secretary of environment and associated bodies of the PCE were consulted, considering their knowledge about everyday life (environmental problems, disputes and potentials) of rural and urban communities. The activities executed will be presented hereinafter. The activity of the local manpower mobilization for the implementation of the program in the state of Bahia has contributed to the strengthening of Cooperativa dos Reflorestadores de Mata Atlântica do Extremo Sul da Bahia COOPLANTAR, which consists of residents of the municipalities of Itabela/BA and Nova Caraíva/BA, one of the partners in the implementation of the reforestation process in the municipality of Porto Seguro. To meet the needs of seedlings (approximately 170,000 seedlings) for the project, there was also a mobilization and involvement of the Environmental Group Natureza Bela which was responsible for providing much of this amount. The activities developed in the areas of restoration in Boa Esperança-Conduru Ecological Corridor are being developed in partnership with the NGO Instituto Floresta Viva, which develops work in reforestation and seedling production in the region since 2003. This NGO has implemented in 2009 the Viveiro Comunitário Floresta Viva in the municipality of Uruçu/BA, which has provided the seedlings for the project. Integrating the actions of visibility and consolidation of PCE in Bahia, there was the preparation of videos (institutional and infantile); printing of institutional leaflets and posters related to the campaign entitled "Know the Law of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia." The activities of the program related to GASCAC and GASCAV in Espírito Santo also gave priority to the local manpower, in the municipalities of Pinheiros, Piúma and Itapemirim, where plantings occurred. For the execution 7

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 of the planting of the GASCAV-UTG Sul gas pipeline extension, this percentage was lower, about 30%, however the phase of maintenance and monitoring this percentage increased to 50%. These workers also had the opportunity to participate in the activities of environmental education. The activities of environmental education in ES involved approximately 110 people including students from the elementary school Família Agrícola de Pinheiros and students of early childhood education from the municipal schools of Santa Rita, Água Limpa and Parati, in Anchieta. These actions aimed to promote a greater environmental awareness, thus enabling a change of habits and values with a view to preserving natural resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from the focus on the importance and value of the environment for socioeconomic development and well-being. Thus, we used role-play (recreational activities and workshops), such as "monitored track" in Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, "dynamic balance of ecosystems" and symbolic planting of native seedlings among other educational activities - Figure 6 (A). In order to continue these actions, educational material was distributed to teachers aiming to complete the educational process at school, focusing on the theme of the environment. The cycle of lectures/meetings was attended by community leaders, representatives of rural union, farmers and other stakeholders - Figure 6 (B).

(A)

(B)

Figure 06. Guided visit to Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve (A) and lecture on water resource uses (B) The events were held in the municipalities of Pinheiros/ES and Itapemirim/ES, where the following topics were presented and discussed: - Annotation of Legal Reserve and the importance of Permanent Preservation Areas (APP) - there was broad participation of stakeholders, because of the ambiguity between the interests of the production sector and preservationists, whose central focus was the situation of the process of annotation of legal reserve areas in Espírito Santo, and the APP conditions due to their importance for the water resources preservation in the scope of the production activities and ecological unbalance; - Grant for Water Use - the participants had the opportunity to settle all matters (legal and technical requirements) on the construction of small dams and other uses necessary directly linked or not to agricultural activities; the importance of the Ecological Corridors Project, and the audience had the opportunity to know the environmental and social and economical benefits that rainforests bring to us and the strategies for the Atlantic Forest protection, in example the ecological corridors; - Sustainable Pasture Management, with emphasis on Voisin system of rational pasture - the participants had the opportunity to know and/or expand their knowledge about the legal and technical aspects and the ecological and economical benefits of this system of pasture management - The importance of Ecological Corridors - performed by UCE/IEMA in Pinheiros/ES and Itapemirim/ES as a way to disclose and emphasize the importance of the implementation of ecological corridors for biodiversity conservation and restoration of the ecological landscape of the Atlantic Forest biome on the slogan "Connecting People and Forests.” Figure 07 (A); - How to prevent forest fires and the importance and benefits of green areas in urbanized locations (urban forest) - the lectures were directed to the residents surrounding the area of reforestation of Parati Lagoon. In these meetings the residents could ask questions about the actions that must be taken in case of fires and the care that should be adopted to avoid an early fire. This strategy was used to avoid fire and illegal disposal of household waste that commonly occur on the banks of Parati Lagoon, object area of reforestation of GASCAV UTG-Sul gas pipeline extension. In addition, signs of environmental awareness and warning/ban were fixed on reforestation area of Parati Lagoon. Another dynamics were employed to carry out two mini-courses (theoretical and practical) on agroforestry systems - Figure 07 (B), whose public of interest was made up of farmers, family farmers, technicians of INCAPER/ELDR Pinheiros and Itapemirim and municipal secretary of agriculture and environment. The participants 8

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 had the opportunity to meet and/or expand their knowledge about the deployment and management of the consortium of native forest species and cultivars of white/permanent crop (coffee, banana and others) including fruitful individuals of recognized nutritional and commercial value.

(A)

(B)

Figure 07 (A and B) - Lecture on the Importance of Ecological Corridors (A) and practical activity of implementing agroforestry system (B). Considering also the process of social mobilization and strengthening of PCE in ES, a nursery was built with a capacity to produce 50,000 seedlings/year of native forest species in the area of EFA Pinheiros, combined with the implementation of a theoretical and practical qualification course on production of native seedlings and operation of nurseries. This course was directed to future operational manpower and managers of the nursery, as well as local leadership in rural areas, technicians of INCAPER, employees of Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, farmers and students of technical courses in farming and cattle raising, and these potential multipliers. In this way, all these elements, events, and efforts were essential for the process of social mobilization (Figure 08), which can be understood as "an educational process that promotes participation (empowerment) of many and different people (irradiation) towards a common purpose (convergence) Antonio Lino (accessed on May 05, 2012).”

(A)

(B)

Figure 08. Participants of the course on production of seedlings and operation of nursery (A) and mobilization of several social agents in the beginning of nursery operation (B).

5. Outcomes
Given the above scenario, along the four (04) years of monitoring of services of implementation, maintenance and evaluation/monitoring of the areas undergoing reforestation and environmental features (soil, water and air), we may consider as results of environmental change in the region where the programs were developed, the following: (A) planting and seedling development in priority areas for biodiversity conservation and restoration of the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo; (b) the possibility of connectivity between fragments and remnants of forest present in the conservation units close to the reforestation areas; (c) initial recovery of environmental services promoted by forests (soil conservation, gas absorption, protection of surface and underground water resources); (d) the ongoing process of change in anthropogenic landscapes of the natural landscape (local fitofisionomy); (e) the 9

Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference 2012 beginning of vegetation dynamics (natural regeneration of the species) and restocking of species of wild fauna and other life forms essential for the consolidation of reforestation projects. Regarding the results of social change, we highlight the following: (1) the synergy of actions between management bodies and partners of the ecological corridors project and the entrepreneur; (2) the approach in the relationship between society and public bodies of environment, technical assistance, research and rural extension; (3) conducting field classes using the reforestation areas for the identification of some species of the Atlantic Forest biome (open lab); (4) participatory management of the nursery operation performed between the INCAPER, the Municipal Secretary of Agriculture and Environment of Pinheiros, EFA Pinheiros and representative of Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, with the intervention of IEMA / UCE; (5) decentralization of forest seedling nursery; (6) changes in environmental awareness and membership of farmers and residents of the residential allotment Parati, due to the process of adaptation of rural properties, as well as the absence of fires and reducing the irregular deposition of household waste / construction on the banks of Parati Lagoon; and (7) the mobilization/hiring of local manpower. Finally, we consider that the program has promoted the environmental education upon changes in attitudes of farmers and teachers, as well as the practice of social participation; the initiative of managers involved in finding solutions to environmental issues, among them, the formation and annotations of areas of legal reserves; involvement (irradiation) of various representatives from different segments of the federal, state and municipal government and unions / associations in rural areas; and the awakening and/or promotion of social mobilization in order to promote the improvement of socio-environmental quality of the community whose actions should be gradual and continuous.

6. References
LINO, A. Mobilização Social. Aracati – Agência de Mobilização Social. Disponível em:<www.aracati.org.br>. Acessed on: May 05, 2012. RODRIGUES, R.R., BRANCALION, P. H. S., ISERNHAGEN, I. Pacto pela restauração da mata atlântica: referencial dos conceitos e ações de restauração florestal. São Paulo: LERF/ESALQ: Instituto BioAtlântica, p. 128-146, 2009. SANTOS, R.F. dos. Planejamento ambiental: teoria e prática. São Paulo: Oficina de textos, p. 110-150, 2004. __________. Imagens Google Maps. Disponível em: <http://maps.google.com.br/>. Acessed on: May 04, 2012). __________.Orfotomosaico. Disponível em:< http://www.geobases.es.gov.br>. Acessed on: Jan 10, 2012).

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