84

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS, FEBRUARY 1976

A QUADRAPHONIC FM BROADCASTING SYSTEM INCORPORATING PILOT-CONTROLLED COMPRESSION AND PRE-EMPHASIS

Pieter Fockens and Carl G. Eilers Zenith Radio Corporation 1900 North-Austin Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60639
I.
INTRODUCTION The system as described was field tested under the auspices of the National Quadraphonic Radio Committee as System 3C in the fall of 1974.

Described below is a system for broadcasting a discrete quadraphonic program over a single FM transmitter. The system is compatible with current monophonic and biphonic (stereophonic) broadcasting and also with current SCA service. The system maintains 15 kHz bandwidth for the audio signals.

II. BASEBAND SIGNAL DESCRIPTION
Since the quadraphonic system has to be compatible with monophonic and biphonic broadcasting services, the 4 audio source signals have to be so matrixed that a left plus right compatible signal appears in the main channel and a lef t minus right signal in the stereophonic subchannel. Many matrices are possible; the one chosen is illustrated in Fig. l(a). The M signal is L+R compatible and the Y signal is L-R compatible. Two additional signals are generated: X, which is a front minus back signal and U which is a diagonal difference signal. All 4 signals: M, Y, X and U have to be transmitted in order to maintain a discrete system. Thus 2 extra transmission channels are needed to accommodate the X and U signals. One extra transmission channel is available in the same frequency band as the stereophonic subchannel by using a subcarrier in quadrature with the existing stereophonic subcarrier. The X signal amplitude modulates the 38 kHz quadrature subcarrier, with double sideband and suppressed carrier. A fourth transmission channel is available above 53 kHz. An obvious band to use is from 61 to 91 kHz with a 76 kHz subcarrier; it results naturally when 4 audio signals are time-division-multiplexed at a 76 kHz rate. The

The receiver for the system is conventional through the FM detector. The detector is followed by a quadraphonic decoder which consists mainly of two integrated circuits. Four output amplifiers and four speakers complete the receiver.
In addition to the 19 kHz pilot, a 95 kHz pilot is transmitted to provide the receiver with the means to recognize a 4-channel broadcast.

The system has an Automatic Gain Control option whereby signal dependent variable compression and signal-dependent variable preemphasis are applied to the 4 audio source signals. Automatic gain control information is transmitted with the quadraphonic program enabling the receiver to apply

complementary variable expansion and de-emphasis yielding an improved signal-to-noise ratio. The control characteristics are so chosen that a receiver not equipped with variable expansion and de-emphasis but with standard 75 microseconds de-emphasis produces an acceptable signal. The automatic gain control system is also applicable to other broadcast systems.

Recelved January 5, 16

wt ost.k_14 .k3lsin 22 = Xcos 01t + COMPOSITE BASEBAND SIGNAL EXPRESSION g(t)= f(t) + PsinfLwit .~~~~~~ LF+LO +RB+RF L+R B A 0 LF+LB-RB-RF L-R LF-LB-RB+RF 0 0 LF-LB+RB-RF 1 0 1 M+Y M-Y X I LLLW1-. L. L RI 81 IMONO MATRIX RELATION BI QUAD MONO (a) ENCODING MATRIX M Y lo Y X. EILERS: QUADRAPHONIC FM BROADCASTING SYSTEM 85 MODE-" LFLBRBRF' QUAD I I 4.t + ScosIf o2l1t+ VcosiLt FIa2 BASEBAND SPECTRUM AND SIGNAL EXPRESSIONS (SEE TABLEI FOR LEGEND) .FOCKENS. I MATRIX RELATIONS QUADRAPHONIC BASEBAND SIGNAL EXPRESSION M f(t) k3G(w)tcos2ja0t +Ysina.(M-Y)-X+a A-(M+Y)+(-Y) (M-Y)+X-I I A -IRF_ FIG.Qsin 2-k (it + Tsin :j-2.LL-U . DECODING MATRIX u QUAD MATRIX RELATION 81 MONO (b) --LF a (N+Y)+XX+I L LM+Y A -*LB = (M+Y)-X-U L A R A-_RRB.

2 by a heavy outline. 10] The sin 2h½1t term is the in-phase component and represents the double sideband envelope. in addition. the audio signals are intricately mixed and. The Y. in the described system the upper sideband of 76 kHz is. Symbols are explained in Table I. The outputs of the 38 kHz modulators are combined with the main channel signal M and with the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier and the sum is fed to the phase equalized 53 kHz lowpass filter. The block diagram is found in Fig. suppressed carrier. therefore. multiplied by a factor k3in½ IT The Q in Fig. the quadrature 38 kHz and the 95 kHz subcarrier. it is also phase equalized. more important. modulating and filtering. 4. when modulated. The U signal amplitude modulates a 95 kHz subcarrier. III. This is a bandpass filter with an upper skirt which has a Nyquist characteristic centered at 95 kHz. S and T in Fig. a distinct portion of the baseband spectrum there would be no reason to maintain linear phase or even constant amplitude throughout the system. 2 represents the 95 kHz pilot. overlaps the band occupied by the SCA service. reversed and moved slightly upward. The resulting quadraphonic baseband signal spectrum is illustrated in Fig. BASEBAND GENERATOR The generation of the baseband signal includes. The audio channels include 75 microsecond pre-emphasis networks which are switched out when the automatic gain control option is exercised.quadrature modulating techniques are applied. The receiver can use its presence as a positive indication that a quadraphonic broadcast is being received. V represents the SCA signal frequency modulating a 67 kHz subcarrier. The modulation is vestigial sideband. This is contrary to the desire for an economic decoder and. The cos 2½w1 t term represents the quadrature component which adds to the total amplitude of the envelope. it complicates the decoding process. which is the fifth harmonic of the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier. the analytical signal expression f(t) is placed below it.86 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS. and results in a transmitted band reaching from 80 to 98 kHz. however. The delay between the lower 53 kHz and the upper portion of the quadraphonic . The U modulator output in addition to the 95 kHz pilot feeds the vestigial sideband filter. The last two terms of f(t) represent the expression for the vestigial sideband signal. Fig. For these reasons the phase has to be kept sufficiently linear and the amplitude has to be kept sufficiently constant in the path between transmitter matrixing and receiver de-matrixing in order to maintain audio channel separation at the receiver. (1. however. FEBRUARY 1978 lower sideband of 76 kHz. If each of the 4 audio input signals were to occupy. in effect. It is possible to use only the upper sideband of 76 kHz for U but this leaves little guard space and. matrixing. X and U matrix output signals modulate the in-phase 38 kHz. 2 represent the audio processing information to be used by the receiver to apply variable expansion (S) and variable de-emphasis (T). respectively. in general terms. In order to limit the total amplitude to that of the double sideband envelope the vestigial sideband amplitude is . For the sake of compatibility.

.FOCKENS.n RI i CI 2 251±SECs RC s 225jaSEC. R.)Cl 225iLSEC.3 VARIABLE DE-EMPHASIS NETWORK (b) TO AGC PROCESSOR FIG.= . BLOCK DIAGRAM .2R 25iISEC : (R+R.4 BASEBAND GENERATOR. EILERS: QUADRAPHONIC FM BROADCASTING SYSTEM 87 R A' -O . R.= AR VARIABLE PRE-EMPHASIS NETWORK (a) FIG. : --.

To apply signal dependent variable compression. IV. In adding the 2 branch outputs a small spectrum portion of the lower sideband is removed while an equal portion is added to the upper sideband. The option is described in [3] in greater detail. 3a with maximum pre-emphasis for the following conditions: 1. a. c. resulting in a vestigial sideband characteristic with Nyquist slope. To apply variable pre-emphasis according to Fig. b.g. d. The lowest level signals. channel noise contribution to the output is negligible. It is well known (2] that companding can yield an overall reduction in source and transmission noise and improve dynamic range. 2. communication channel to have a wide enough bandwidth so that the receiver can follow the fastest attack times but narrow enough so that the a. FEBURARY 1976 baseband spectrum is matched and the signals are combined with SCA and also with the control signals if the automatic gain control option is used. since the filter is not responsible for the Nyquist slope. High level low frequency signals when no medium and high frequency signals are present. Maximum compression is 10 dB. 4. For this reason it is included as an option of System 3C. The pre-emphasis is variable between the limits of 25 . Phase equalization is needed but is simple due to the gradual cutoff characteristic at the high end of the filter. and 4. Between matrix and modulators are inserted the wideband phase shifting networks marked P and N. The 53 kHz lowpass filter is identical to the one in Fig. In the receiver maximum expansion is applied. Control signals to be transmitted as part of the composite baseband signal to enable a receiver to apply variable expansion complementary to the variable compression and variable deemphasis complementary to the variable pre-emphasis. 5 [1]. 3. THE AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL OPTION signal.88 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS. Actually the highpass filter constitutes the only difference with the well known second (phasing) method of single sideband generation. High level medium frequency signals when only medium high frequency signals are present.c. 5 and the simple RC high ass filter (HPF) form a network with 90 phase difference between upper (P) branch and lower (N+HPF) branch over the full audio band. as determined by the HPF response. Underlying the system is the following set of objectives: f. The lowest blocks marked P and N in Fig. The variable compression feature to include an override so that no compression is applied to the signal when the level sinks below a threshold value or becomes zero. A different method to generate the vestigial sideband signal is illustrated in Fig. The lowest level high frequency signals .g.c. Since FM quadraphonic broadcasting of discrete 4-channel programs is an essentially new service companding can be included from the onset. The following set of standards is proposed for the automatic gain control option. Delay matching is also needed. The a. The upper 3 networks marked "P" act as phase equalizers. 4 but the 95 kHz bandpass filter is very much simpler than the VSB filter in Fig. Variable compression and variable pre-emphasis to be of such a nature that receivers not equipped with variable expansion and variable de-emphasis but with constant 75 microsecond deemphasis receive a compatible e.

5 BASEBAND GENERATOR. BLOCK DIAGRAM AUDIO~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 0LF --O~~LF cx_ GAIACNTOVOTGCOTOVLAE RBSTAGES R F EMPHASIS R B~COMOSIT +STAKGEAG RF~~~~~~~~~~~PSGA FIG. ALTERNATE FORM.6 AGC PROCESSOR BLOCK DIAGRAM .0~ ~p~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ () z LF~~ COMPOSITE BASEBAND P l 53 KHz LF~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~P LB =~~~ < gANURp t 0-'98KHz 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ S X 0 SISNAL+ RF~~~~~~~P Pi zi !~~~~~~j Qi ~~COMPOSITE AGO SIGNAL SUBCARRIER GEN ERATOR _ 0z FIG.

BLOCK DIAGRAM .H l X VARIlABLE AP WlR CHIPLIONTOTPU DE-EMPHASIS SUCRRE DEMODULTOR r~l -1 1t I STRE I |f CHI U A | LF EXPANSION VARIABLE LS RS RF MATARIX B~~~~~9KH DETECOR m K A 6 6 FIG.7 QUADRAPHONIC FM RECEIVER.8 QUADRAPHONIC DECODER. BLOCK DIAGRAM FMCN DETECTOR | l U1 I I1 M+Y1XL) 1(R)M_Y SULCARRIER ..FM ACC DE- ~~DEMODUOUTPUT l SUBCARRIER 1 |REGENERATOR }L _ _ OPTIONAL LF LB RF~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~WR I FIG.

including the 95 kHz are divided down from 380 kHz by digital division. The baseband response immediately prior to the decoder should be flat in amplitude and linear in phase with tolerances determined by the desired separation between the audio -channels. 3a. modulation that will actually control the variable de-emphasis and the variable expansion. One control voltage represents the compression with zero voltage for zero compression and maximum voltage (Table I) for 10 dB compression. 7. QUADRAPHONIC RECEIVER The quadraphonic receiver is conventional through the FM detector. There is a whole body of prior art in existance in the field of companding that can be applied to the present system and this art is still growing. these can be used for demodulating carriers to recover the slowly varying d. The other control voltage represents the pre-emphasis. The other 2 demodulators are the balanced type and yield the X and the U signal by using the quadrature 38 kHz carrier and the 95 kHz carrier. Two independent. The Processor is inserted in the system prior to the Baseband Generator of Fig. 3a.c . The first demodulator circuit is partially unbalanced and produces Left (L) and Right (R) outputs using the in-phase 38 kHz carrier. the positive maximum control voltage represents 25 microseconds and the negative maximum voltage reoresents 225 microseconds for the RC product in All control voltages are Fig. and described in more detail in (33. 8. respectively. It derives from that unit a 19 kHz synchronizing signal to generate two quadrature 57 kHz carriers to be modulated by the control voltages as indicated in the lower part of Fig. (L-LF+LB-M+Y and R-RF+RB=M-Y). suppressed carried. Due to the considerable 3rd harmonic content in 19 kHz square waves. M-Y. 57 kHz is the third harmonic of the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier. the required subcarriers are locked to the 19 kHz pilot in a phaselocked loop circuit that operates a VCO at 76 kHz which is divided down. 3a. All required subcarriers. and U signals are dematrixed as schematically indicated in Fig. A receiver equipped with complementary AGC de-processing has essentially reverse signal flow. An AGC Processor Block Diagram is illustrated in Fig. slowly varying. Only limits of control are specified and these limits are set considering receivers without audio de-processing. 4. A block diagram is shown in Fig. The 95 kHz is generated from the 19 kHz by S times frequency multiplication. 8. Another version of decoder includes a phase locked loop with VCO at 380 kHz. applied equally to all 4 audio input signals. The M+Y. 6. The gain control voltage actually transmitted is identical to the voltage applied to the variable gain stages except during the override referred to above under objective e. It is envisioned that in the actual operation of the broadcasting system consid erable f reedom exists in the specific manner in which the control voltages are derived from the audio signals because of the complementary processing in transmitter and receiver. V. Zero voltage represents 75 microseconds for the RC product in Fig. amplitude modulating 2 quadrature 57 kHz subcarriers.FOCKENS. lb. X. 6. following the FM detector is illus- The portion of the receiver . as illustrated in the lower dotted block in Fig. EILERS: QUADRAPHONIC FM BROADCASTING SYTM1 91 and 225 microseconds for the product RC in Fig. In one version of decoder. trated in greater detail in the block diagram of Fig. dc control voltages are developed from the audio signals and are transmitted in a narrow band by double sideband.

J. L. Immediately above the SCA frequency band the quadraphonic diagonal difference signal band reaches down to 80 kHz. Fockens and C. The quadraphonic baseband signal to be protected on the low end of the SCA channel reaches up as f ar as the stereophonic signal (to 53 kHz) except in the case when the automatic gain control option is used (to 57. FEBRUARY 1976 The listener knows from the signal lights whether he receives a quadraphonic. J. the program is monophonic and the signal passes through the partially unbalanced demodulator. there is a biphonic program and the 2 balanced demodulators are off so that no noise is added to the output. Whittman.Lin. Without such extra selectivity there is audible crosstalk from the 4-channel signal into the SCA with some program material. the 19 kHz phase detector output controls the stereo light and the 95 kHz phase detector controls the 4-channel light. or a monophonic program. The lights are controlled by the pilot signals. Proceedings of the 1974 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. H. BIBLIOGRAPHY I'l] "Quadraphonic FM" by P. The diagonal difference signal has to be protected which may require additional f iltering of the SCA generator output.92 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS. it may be desirable to provide more selectivity on the high end of the SCA receiver bandpass filter. by . When both the 4-channel light and the 2-channel (stereo) light are on there is a quadraphonic program received and all 3 demodulators are operative. (IEEE Catalog No. Only the first demodulator is operative. SCA SERVICE The SCA signal frequency spectrum used in connection with FCC approved stereophonic FM broadcasting reaches nominally from 61 to 73 kHz in the baseband of the composite signal for 5 kHz maximum modulating frequency and 6 kHz deviation of the 67 kHz FM carrier. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The following additional persons made major contributions to the development of the system: 0. At maximum expansion and maximum de-emphasis the signal-to-noise ratio improvement is 13.6 dB. DeWeger. 74CH0818-5 CAS) The optional AGC de-processor follows the dematrixing circuit. In the latter case the SCA generator output also needs additional filtering on the low end. Burgyan. disc and broadcast systems". VIII. VI. Rypkema and R. "Design Criteria of a Universal Compander for the elimination of audible noise in tape. The decoding process is typically performed by 2 integrated circuits and so is of potential low cost. Harna. When only the stereo light is on. a biphonic.5 kHz). H. or quadraphonic. D. Beckman.C. The conventional SCA receiver usually incorporates a bandpass filter whifth is not especially designed to discriminate against unwanted spectrum components immediately above the SCA band (20 dB attenuation at 80 kHz is typical). There are uanual controls to inhibit automatic action. With the proposed quadraphonic system the identical SCA signal can be accommodated but with some [2] desirable equipment modifications. one for each audio channel. Prosser. biphonic. Thus when considering interference from the quadraphonic diagonal difference signal into the SCA band. The control voltages are demodulated as briefly described previously and control the variable de-emphasis circuits and the variable expansion stages. VII . When no light is on. Poremba. when the stereo control is off the reproduced signal is monophonic regardless whether the received signal is monophonic.

Mr. TABLE 1 Composite Baseband Signal Specifications (Legend to Fig.000 radians per second k3 .211 x 38. Journal AES.10%.5%. Eilers received his BSEE degree in 1948 from Purdue University and his MSEE degree in 1956 from Northwestern. Number 8. the 95 kHz Pilot Amplitude ITI < 5%. pp 610-622.SCA Subcarrier Radian Frequency. G. Controls the Variable Pre-emphasis S < 5%. Hoffman. by Howard F. D. Rosenberg. w. 30./72 G(w) . Carl G. the 19 kHz Pilot Amplitude Q . Volume 23. 100% corresponds to 75 kHz deviation Pieter Fockens Mr.FOCKENS. Duncan.Hilbert Transform of U *Amplitudes in %. (3] "A Companding and Noise Reduction Technique for FM Broadcasting and Reception Using a Transmitted Control Channel".10%. G. EILERS: QUADRAPHONIC FM BROAD-CASTING SYSTEM BIOGRAPHIES sa M. 1975.25 kHz as 3 dB Frequency P . 21 x 67. Eilers Mr. Mr. pp 294-298. He joined the Research Department of Zenith Radio Corporation in 1954 and is a group leader in the Circuits and Communication Systems Research group. He has been a member of the IEEE since 1947 and the SMPTE since 1956. W. Vol. Mr.000 Radians per second when unmodulated UU . Pieter Fockens is a native of the Netherlands. Prosser. . the SCA Subcarrier Amplitude Q . 2) Carl G. Fockens is a member of the IEEE. . He joined the company's Research Engineering staff in 1948. Controls the Variable Compression V . Proceedings of the NEC. He obtained his BSEE degree in 1952 from the Delft Technological Institute. Eilers has been division chief of the Circuits and Communication Systems Research group at Zenith Radio Corporation since 1961. October 1975.Highpass RC Transfer Function with 2. Eilers has published several papers and holds nine patents. He received the BTR Service Award in 1961 for organizing the first Chicago Spring Conference on Broadcast and Television Receivers.