BJT Basics

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

Bipolar Junction Transistor - Basics
Dr. Lynn Fuller
Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee/ Microelectronic Engineering Rochester Institute of Technology 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (585) 475-2035 Email: Lynn.Fuller@rit.edu MicroE webpage: http://www.microe.rit.edu

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

12-3-10 BJT_Basics.ppt
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

BJT Basics

OUTLINE

Definitions Schematic Symbols Theory Integrated BJT Structure Modes of Operation IC-VCE Family of Curves Modifications References Homework Questions

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

DEFINITIONS
Bipolar Junction Transistor - (BJT) Both holes and electrons participate in the conduction of current, hence the name bipolar. Minority carrier - In a p-type semiconductor electrons are the minority carrier type, in an n-type semiconductor holes are the minority carrier type. Emitter - Emits minority carriers into the base region of a BJT. For example, in an NPN BJT the n-type emitter, emits electrons into the p-type base. The emitter usually has the highest doping levels of the three regions of a BJT. Base - Thin region which is used to control the flow of minority carriers from the emitter to the collector Collector -Collects the minority carriers that make it through the base from the emitter. The collector usually has the lightest doping concentrations of the three regions. DC Beta ( βdc ) - The ratio of the collector current to the base current. βdc = IC / IB AC Beta ( βac ) - The ratio of the change in the collector current to the change in the base current. βac = ∆ IC / ∆ IB
Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

BJT - BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR

Label 2N3904

Flat 1 2 3

Emitter Base Collector

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS npn Base Collector n p n Emitter Collector Base Emitter
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pnp Base

Collector p n p Emitter Collector

Base Emitter
The arrow on the emitter is in the direction that current will flow in the Base Emitter pn junction
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

BJT Basics

IDEALIZED STRUCTURE

p-type Emitter
SC SC

Collector N n-type

N n-type

P

Base
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

ELECTRON CONCENTRATIONS IN AN NPN BJT

Emitter n~Nde n~very small but not zero ~ni2/Nab

Base E

Collector n~Ndc x BC

BE Space Charge Layer

With the B-E junction forward biased, and B-C junction reverse biased. There is a concentration gradient in the base that forces electrons to flow toward the collector.
Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

COMMENTS 1. The concentration of electrons in n-type silicon is ~ doping concentration in that region. 2. In p-type silicon the number of electrons is almost zero 3. A forward biased pn junction means more carriers of both types can cross the potential barrier. So a forward biased base-emitter junction (in an npn BJT) means more electrons on the base side than in equilibrium (no bias). 4. A reverse biased pn junction means less carriers of both types can cross the potential barrier. So a reverse biased base-collector junction (in an npn BJT) means less electrons on the base side than in equilibrium (no bias). Even closer to zero electrons in p-type base at the edge of the B-C space charge layer. 5. The base is so narrow that few electrons are lost as they diffuse across the base width. Diffusion is driven by a concentration gradient. So electrons move towards the collector and current flows in the opposite direction.
Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

INTEGRATED BJT STRUCTURE
Collector (n) ~ 1018 cm -3 Base (p) Emitter (n+)

~ 1018 cm -3 p-type ~ 1016 cm -3 electrons current

Lightly doped (~1015 cm -3) n-type silicon wafer Since the emitter is more heavily doped compared to the base than the collector, the emitter-base junction has a lower breakdown voltage than the base-collector junction. n+ means heavily doped n-type n- means lightly doped n-type Rochester Institute of Technology p+ means heavily doped p-type Microelectronic Engineering p- means lightly doped p-type
© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

BJT TERMINAL CURRENTS From device physics IE = ISE eVBE/VT where ISE = AqDni2/NAW and VT = KT/q IC = α IE where α represents the fraction of carriers from the emitter that make it to the collector IC = β IB where β represents the ratio of collector current to base current We can show that β = α/(1−α) or α = β / (β+1) With the B-E junction forward biased, and B-C junction Rochester Institute of Technology reverse biased. Microelectronic Engineering
© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics LARGE SIGNAL MODEL IN FORWARD ACTIVE MODE

Modes
Cutoff Active Inverse Saturation

Base/Emitter Reverse Forward Reverse Forward

Base/Collector Reverse Reverse Forward Forward

Collector IC With the B-E junction forward biased, and B-C junction reverse biased.
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α IE = Is eVBE/VT IB Base IE Emitter
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

BJT Basics

EBERS-MOLL MODEL OF NPN BJT This type of model works in all four regions of operation IC = αF iDe – iDc IE = -iDe + αR iDc The diode currents are: iDc = ISC (e Vbc/VT -1) iDe = ISE (e Vbe/VT -1) Base iDe IE Emitter αR iDc iDc IB Collector IC αF iDe

Transistors are modeled by determining appropriate values of: αF, αR, ISC and ISE

Νοτε:Rochesteroften of Technology β is Institute given instead of α but α = β/(1+β) Microelectronic Engineering
© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

EARLY VOLTAGE Increasing VCE increases the reverse bias on the BC junction increasing the width of the BC space charge layer resulting in a decrease in the base width and increase in concentration gradient and an increase in collector current. To account for this the equation relating the collector current to the VBE can be modified slightly as shown: VA is the Early voltage after Dr. Jim Early of Fairchild Semiconductor. IC IC = IS 1+ VCE VA
-V A

eVBE/VT

VCE
This isRochesterof the of Technology one Institute many modifications to make the BJT models more accurate. Other modifications include resistors to account for series resistance in the Microelectronic Engineering collector, base and emitter.
© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TERMINAL DEVICES I I + V -

V

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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

BE JUNCTION, BC JUNCTION, CE I -8 0.7 -8 0.7 I -8 0.7 I

V

V

V

Collector I Base + VV+ Base I Emitter
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+ V -

I Collector

Emitter

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE TERMINAL DEVICES Iin Iout

Iin

+ + Vin Vout Common Vin

Iout

Vout Each trace is for a different value for Iout or Vout
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Each trace is for a different value for Iin or Vin
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

BJT Basics

BJT IC-VCE FAMILY OF CURVES
IC
10 mA 9 mA 8 mA 7 mA 6 mA 5 mA 4 mA 3 mA 2 mA 1 mA

Steps of base current - IB
IB = 30 µ A 10 µ A increments β dc ∆ΙC = 2.5 mA β ac IB = 20 µ A ∆ΙΒ = 10 µA IB = 10 µ A

V CE
Beta (β ac ) = β ∆ IC 2.5x10-3 = 250 = ∆ΙΒ 10x10-6 IC 5.0x10-3 = 250 = ΙΒ 20x10-6

Beta (β dc ) = β

The two Beta values are not always the same!

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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

NPN COMMON EMITTER IC-VCE CHARACTERISTICS
Forward Active Mode Base-Emitter junction is forward biased Base-Collector junction is reverse biased npn
B-C junction is reverse biased

Va > 0 is a forward biased junction Va < 0 is a reverse biased junction Va is defined as the voltage from p to n

IC - +5 V
S weep from 0 to 5 Volts

Vbc negative
base - p

Collector - n

IB
base current steps

0.7 V

+ + Emitter - n

Vbe positive
B-E junction is forward biased

0V

Inverse Active Mode Base-Emitter junction is reverse biased Base-Collector junction is forward biased

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, leads Switch the connections to the emitter and collector Professor

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BJT Basics

TRIPLE DIFFUSED BJT STRUCTURE
Collector n+ p-wafer Emitter n+ Base

p-base Doping Conc n+ emitter p-base

n-well collector

1-D Doping Profile

§ Simple BJT structure
§ Large collector series resistance § Large dimensions § Isolation issues
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n-well collector depth WB Base Width WB ~ 0.5µm µ
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© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

BJT Basics

SHALLOW TRENCH ISOLATION
Collector SiO2 n+ plug SiO2 Emitter n+ Base SiO2 n-type epitaxial silicon n+ buried layer

p-base

p-wafer

§ Process Enhancements
§ Oxide-plug isolation § Patterned buried sub-collector § Epitaxial silicon

§ Performance Improvements
§ Low collector series resistance § Improved collector/emitter isolation § smaller geometries

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

REFERENCES 1. Sedra and Smith, 5.1-5.4 2. Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, 2nd Edition, Kamins and Muller, John Wiley and Sons, 1986. 3. The Bipolar Junction Transistor, 2nd Edition, Gerald Neudeck, Addison-Wesley, 1989.

Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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BJT Basics

HOMEWORK - BJT’S 1. Why won’t two back to back diodes behave like a BJT? 2. Sketch a figure like that on page 7 showing the hole concentration for a pnp transistor with B-E junction forward biased and B-C junction reverse biased. Show direction of current flow. 3. The Ic versus Vce family of Vce curves for a 2N3906 BJT is shown. What is the current gain, Beta, β Ib 4. Look up the 2N3906 and see Emitter what the typical β is. 5. Look up some information about John Bardeen. Write a few sentences.
Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering

© December 3, 2010 Dr. Lynn Fuller, Professor

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