Performer: Ballesteros II, Victoriano S. Documenter: Emperado, Cassandhra Pearl A.

Date Performed: December , 2011 Post Laboratory Report Separation and purification technique: Simple Distillation Activity # 3 V- Discussion Table 1- distillation In table one, we observe the condensation of the vapor as it rises toward the thermometer. We observed that there were very small bubbles seen from the boiling chips at 32oC. Then the vapors are very fast moving in the tube at 94oC. And lastly, there are intense bubbles in distillation flask at 95oC. For the completion of our experiment, we target to get the distillate at the temperature of 56oC as distillate number one, 78oC as distillate number two and 100oC as distillate number three. We are able to get the distillate of 56oC and 78oC and not in 100oC because the distillation flask is near to dry at the temperature of 98oC. Theory The boiling point of a compound – determined by distillation – is well-defined and thus is one of the physical properties of a compound by which it can be identified. The vapor pressure of the liquid will increase as the temperature of the liquid increases, and when the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure, the liquid will boil. Different compounds boil at different temperatures because each has a different, characteristic vapor pressure: compounds with higher vapor pressures will boil at lower temperatures. (Chemistry handbook) Ethanol or ethyl alcohol boiling point- 78 °C, 351 K, 172 °F, AppearanceColorless liquid. (Encyclopedia) Acetone boiling point- 56-57 °C, 329-330 K, 133-134 °F, Appearance- Colorless liquid. (Encyclopedia) Distilled water boiling point- 99.98 °C, 211.97 °F (373.13 K), Appearance- white solid or almost colorless, transparent, with a slight hint of blue, crystalline solid or liquid. (Encyclopedia) Explanation Boiling point is determined by distillation as a process of identifying a compound. As we get the distillate of the specific temperature and search the boiling point of the liquid mixed in the distillation flask, it is clear here that the distillate 1 is acetone; distillate 2 is ethyl alcohol base on their boiling point. And if we succeed to get the 100oC, it is the distilled water.

Table 2- flammability Distillate 1 ( 56 C)
o

Flammability Flammable

Other observations The color of the flame is orange and blue. There were some black particles left. There is also some colorless liquid left that did not burnt. we did not get the distillate

Distillate 2 (78oC) Distillate 3 ( 100oC)

Flammable

Theory Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. The most hazardous quality of acetone is its extreme flammability. At temperatures greater than acetone's flash point of −20 °C (−4 °F), air mixtures of between 2.5% and 12.8% acetone, by volume, may explode or cause a flash fire. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition sources and flash back. Static discharge may also ignite acetone vapors. It auto-ignites at 465 °C (869 °F). (Encyclopedia) Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it is also used in thermometers, as a solvent, and as a fuel. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirits. (Encyclopedia) Explanation Distillate 1 and 2 were proved to be flammable base on the source. And with this theory, it either says that distillate 1 and 2 can be either acetone or ethyl alcohol. Table 3- sodium Nitroprusside Distillate 1 ( 56oC) With sodium nitroprusside and sodium hydroxide + glacial acetic acid Distillate 2 (78oC) With sodium nitroprusside and sodium hydroxide + glacial acetic acid Color Reddish orange Dark gray maroon

Color Yellowish Maroon Violet Other observations The color at the side is light orange The color at the side are light

Theory Sodium nitroprusside is also used in the presence of buffers as a reagent for ketone strips, which test the ketone levels in the urine of a diabetic. Color change on the strip indicates the relative concentration of ketones. (Encyclopedia)

In 1882, Legal found that sodium nitroprusside in the presence of sodium or potassium hydroxide produces a ruby-red color in a solution containing acetone or creatinine. Coincidently, le Nobel (3) observed that if acetic acid is added to the solution before the*base, the color changes to purple (sometimes spoken of as violet or a permanganate tint), and that this occurs only when the solution contains acetone; it is not produced by creatinine. A solution of pure acetone gives a color reaction with sodium Nitroprusside. . A solution of diacetic acid, as free as possible from acetone, also gives a color reaction with sodium nitroprusside. Such a solution of diacetic acid gives a color reaction with ferric chloride; acetone alone does not. Explanation As what the theory says that the sodium nitroprusside together with the sodium hydroxide and acetic acid, when applied to pure acetone, the color will change into purple. Table 4- Esterification Test tubes Test tube 1 with Distillate 1( 56oC) Test tube 2 with Distillate 2 (78oC) Color Orange Clear white Odor Smells like acetone Smells like vinegar Time 25 sec. 44 sec.

Theory Esterification is the chemical process for making esters, which are compounds of the chemical structure R-COOR', where R and R' are either alkyl or aryl groups. The most common method for preparing esters is to heat a carboxylic acid, R-CO-OH, with an alcohol, R'-OH, while removing the water that is formed. A mineral acid catalyst is usually needed to make the reaction occur at a useful rate. Acetic acid (systematically named ethanoic acid) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3CO2H (also written as CH3COOH). It is a colourless liquid that when undiluted is also called glacial acetic acid. Acetic acid is the main component of vinegar (apart from water), and has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. (Encyclopedia) Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4.The sulfuric acid is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid which is clear or viscous [1] and is soluble in water at all concentrations.(Encyclopedia) Acetone is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO, a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid, the simplest example of the ketones. (Encyclopedia) Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. Its empirical formula is C2H6O. (Encyclopedia) And here is the reaction formula between acetic acid and ethanol. C2H6O + C2H4O2 -----------------H2SO4-------------------> C4H8O2 + H2O

Between acetone and acetic acid. C2H4O2 + C3H6O ----------------H2SO4--------------> C5H8O2 + H2O Explanation In the theory, esterification is a process for making ester. And the most common method of making ester is carboxylic acid and alcohol through heating. The change in color of distillate 1 depends on the reaction after mixing the liquid. It changes into orange because the sulfuric acid is slightly yellowish. The odor of distillate 2 smells vinegar because of the acetic acid that has main component of vinegar. Now the product of each distillate is already an ester. And the catalyst of the solution is the sulphuric acid.

VI- Conclusion At the end of the experiment, we are able to collect purified samples through the process of distillation. In addition, the purified samples were verified as pure samples through the test they undergo.

VII- Bibliography Acetone (December 9, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetone Ethyl alcohol (December 8, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetone Distilled water (December 9, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Distilled water Sodium nitroprusside (December 7, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sodium nitroprusside Glacial acetic acid (December 12, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Glacial acetic acid Sulfuric acid (December 9, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sulfuric acid Sodium hydroxide (December 9, 2011). Encyclopedia. Retrieved on December 14, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Sodium hydroxide Sunner, s. (1957). Reaction data. Retrieved on December 19, 2011, from http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?React=CH3CO2H&React2= %28CH3%292CO&Prod=&Prod2=&Rev=on&AllowOtherReact=on&AllowOther Prod=on&Type=Any&Units=SI E. J. BIGWOOD AND W. S. LADD. (August 22, 1923). THE QUALITATIVE TESTS FOR ACETONE BODIES ; THEIR SIGNIFICANCE AND VALUE. Retrived on december 17,2011, from http://www.jbc.org/content/58/1/347.full.pdf Pavia, Lampman, Kriz, and Engel. (1999). Esterification of Salicylic Acid: The synthesis of cool smelling molecules. Retrived on December 17, 2011, from http://www.westfield.ma.edu/cmasi/organic_lab/organic1_lab/esterification_salic ylic_acid.pdf