Elastomers

Definition- materials capable of reversible change in length at operating temperatures, that is, once a load is removed the material returns to its original dimensions; a rubbery compound; Generally amorphous thermosets with Tg below room temperature to allow full chain mobility- the restoring force in entropic; referred to as “memory”

Elastomers

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1

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Types
Natural and synthetic rubber-Thiokol, Buna, Neoprene Polyurethanes Silicone-polysiloxanes Natural proteins-elastin p

Mechanical Properties
Fibre

10

5

Rigid Plastic Flexible Plastic

10

4

Stress N/cm2

B A
0
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10

3

Elastomer 1 5 6

10

2

Strain ∆ L/ L

Elastomers have properties that can be explained by a model that shares characteristics of thermosets and thermoplastics -have all of the domains shown below

Principles of Polyurethane Chemistry
High molecular weight polymers based isocyanate chemistry Polyisocyanates have the following general formula: R-(N=C=O) R (N C O)n, n= 2 4 2-4

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Addition of Nucleophilic Reactants
The most important reactions of isocyanates is the formation of carbamic acid derivatives (7) by the addition of components with an acidic H-atom (6) across the C=N double bond (1).

OH group-containing compounds (8) are by far the most important reactants for isocyanates. They are added under mild conditions, forming carbamic esters (9). Primary alcohols, secondary alcohols, and phenols show decreasing reactivity in that order.

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The trivial name urethane which is used for the compound ethyl carbamate, gave the whole polyurethane chemistry its name: polyisocyanates and polyols form polyurethanes. 3/12/2010

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Intermolecular Bonds in Polymers

The more nucleophilic primary and secondary amines react much more vigorously with isocyanates. In this reaction, ureas are formed (11).

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Important Building Blocks for Polyurethanes- Isocyanates
OCN CH3 NCO OCN CH2 NCO CH3 NCO TDI-80 NCO 80% 20% H12MDI MDI or aromatic polyisocyanate

Polyols
HO(CH2CH2CH2CH2O)nH HO(CH2CH2O)nH CH3 HO(CHCH2O)nH CH3 HO(CH2)x O HO R OC Si O CH3 CH3 Si (CH2)xOH y CH3 O (CH2)x CO y R OH PSX PPG PTMO PEO

OCN

CH2

NCO

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OCN(CH2)6NCO

HDI

11

Synthetic Scheme of Polyurethanes

Typical Chain-extenders
HOCH2CH2OH HOCH2CHOH CH3 HO(CH2)4OH HO(CH2)6OH H2N(CH2)2-6NH2

CH2 OH CH OH CH2 OH

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Polyurethane Structural Model

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Schematic Model Domain Sturcture

Hard Segment Interactions affect Mechanical Performance

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Effect of Polyurethane MW on Mechanical Properties

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