Hydrogels / Applications in Opthamology

Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels
Hydrophilic polymer chains containing positive or negatively charged functional groups that interact electrostatic interactions to form a cross-linked network that attracts water

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Hylauronic Acid

Polyelectrolyte Multilayers
Layer by layer deposition

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Alginate gels

Enzyme Immobilization

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Cell Encapsulation

Alginate gels

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Alginate gels

Applications
artificial tendon and cartilage wound healing dressings (Vigilon®, Hydron®, Gelperm®) non-antigenic, flexible wound cover permeable to water and metabolites low-strength artificial kidney membranes artificial skin maxillofacial and sexual organ reconstruction materials vocal cord replacement

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Corning® Ultra Low Attachment Products Unique hydrogel surface inhibits cell attachment

Hydrogels: Applications
Earliest biomedical application contact lenses good mechanical stability favorable refractive index high oxygen permeability needs hygienic maintenance unable to correct for astigmatism

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Acrylates

Methacrylates

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Poly(methyl methacrylate)

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Poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate pHEMA

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Hydrogels: PHEMA
The most widely used hydrogel water content similar to living tissues inert to biological processes shows resistance to degradation permeable to metabolites not absorbed by the body withstands sterilization by heat prepared in various shaped and forms

Contact lens
PMMA HEMA Fabrication methods Computer assisted cutting ( p g (lathe)-PMMA rods ) Spin casting-polymerization Molding-polymerization

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Intraocular lens
PMMA HEMA Polymer backbone - mixture of PMMA and PHEMA Varying water contents y g Additives such as UV blockers

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Foldable IOL complications/explantations Survey Lens Totals 2001
9% 25% 8%

Reasons for Revision Surgery
Incorrect lens power seen most commonly Glare/optical aberrations Dislocation/decentration Late postoperative opacification

14%

Multifocal,Silicone One Piece (plate),Silicone One Piece with Haptics,Acrylic Three Piece,Acrylic Three Piece,Hydrogel Three Piece,Silicone

28%

16%

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IOL Optic Opacification
Surface opacification Opacification within the substance of the optic Analysis of opacifications reveals p y p presence of calcium Calcium staining Scanning electron microscopic analysis

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Accommodative IOL: 1CU (HumanOptics)
Total diameter: 9.7 mm

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