Popular Non Destructive Testing of Concrete Structure-review of Std. Methods



R. B. Singh, Chief Coordinator, ANULAB, Agra Introduction View Online Download Issue (PDF) Previous Issues In a short span of ten years after Bhuj earthquake, nondestructive testing has achieved an important place in the Quality Assurance of hardened concrete and the evaluation of existing concrete structure with regard to their strength & durability. This paper deals with the popular, economical and widely used NDT tests in the field in general & national highways in particular. The paper also has discussion on combined methods, when more than one nondestructive test method is used and condition assessment is based on the data obtained from Rebound Hammer, UPV & Core tests. The aim of the paper is to address the field engineers engaged in evaluation of quality of hardened concrete. An attempt has been made to keep the theoretical part of the subject to an absolute minimum, where necessary tables of std. values, photographs & comparisons have been included. Research oriented engineers who would want through treatment of the material and a more basic approach are referred to the original std. specification, NDT handbooks & original papers and literature on the subject given as reference. Although nondestructive tests are relatively simple to perform & instrument based, the analysis and interpretation of the test data are not easy, because concrete is a complex material, hence the engineers are cautioned that interpretation of the test data must always be carried out by trained specialists in NDT rather than by technicians performing the tests. If used properly, nondestructive tests can form a vital link in the chain of testing and evaluation of concrete and concrete structures, which starts with crushing of 150 mm cubes and may end with load testing of finished structure. At present, standard method of determination strength of hardened concrete consist of testing of concrete cubes (03 Nos. of 150X150X150 mm) in compression testing machine following the std. test method IS: 516. In case of PQC for rigid pavement, beam specimens are broken for flexural strength. The strength tests, regardless of the type, are excellent for determining the criteria of quality & quality control during construction, but they leave a lot to be desired. The main disadvantage of such tests are delay in obtaining test results, the fact that the test specimen may not be truly representative of the concrete in a structure, the necessity of stressing the test specimen to failure, the lack of reproducibility in the test results and the relativity high cost of testing & wastage of concrete in form of cubes.

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Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) test & Core Test which are widely used & accepted by engineers at site and also referred in IS: 456-2000. under Inspection & Testing of Structures. Principle The Schmidt Rebound Hammer is principally a surface hardness tester with little apparent theoretical relationship between the strength of concrete and the Rebound number of the hammer. Since then the Rebound Hammer (RH) test has gained recognition at construction site & precast Industry. Concrete Cover Measurement by Laser Based Instt. rebound number and its ability to allow ultrasonic pulse velocity to propagate through it. These methods. Permeability. thickness and its cement content. However. its durability and its elastic parameters is obtained. Cover Measurement. and tested under laboratory conditions by a properly calibrated hammer lies between ±15 and ±20%. 1.View Online Download Issue (PDF) Previous Issues For the NDT tests to monitor the service behavior of concrete structures over a long period. cured. Proper site calibrations eliminate the lab calibration. By consensus. density. Based on above. therefore. The direct determination of strength implies that concrete specimen must be loaded to failure.UPV Test 3. had long been used in the testing of metals in petroleum exploration & refining projects. The electrical properties of the concrete. within limits. Ernst Schmidt from Zurich developed a test hammer for measuring the hardness of concrete by the rebound principle. Rebound Hammer–RH (Schmidt) Test In 1948. empirical correlations have been established between strength properties & rebound number. the accuracy of estimation of compressive strength of test specimens cast. Such properties of concrete are its hardness. Popular NDT Tests for Concrete Used in field are: 1. However. Limitations and Usefulness The limitations of the Schmidt hammer are many. it becomes clear that nondestructive methods of testing cannot be expected to yield absolute value of strength. these should be recognized and allowances be made when using the hammer. Ingredient Analysis of Concrete Core 6. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. Sometimes it is referred as fieldcalibration of rebound hammer. various nondestruct ive methods of testing concrete have been developed. and tested under identical conditions as those from which the calibration curves are established. This paper. The Ingredient Analysis. Rebound Number and Compressive Strength There is a general correlation between compressive strength of concrete and the hammer rebound number. The large deviations in strength can be narrowed down considerably by proper calibration of the hammer. This correlation between the concrete strength and rebound number is required to be established at site/field laboratories before it is used for strength estimation of concrete. It cannot be overstressed that this instrument must not be regarded as a substitute for standard compression tests but as a method for determining the uniformity of concrete in the structures and comparing one concrete by the Schmidt hammer within an accuracy of ±15 to ±20% may be possible only for specimens cast. Rebound Hammer Test. describes in detail only Rebound Hammer (RH) test. calibrated Anvil for the purpose. it was imperative that these tests be nondestructive. which is for the checking of hammer performance. Combined Method UPV & RH Test 4. The prediction of strength of structural concrete by using calibration charts based on the laboratory test is not recommended. This approach. allow us to estimate its moisture content. attempt to measure some other property of concrete from which an estimate on its strength. though new for the testing of concrete. which allows for various variables discussed earlier. cured. and Density methods are of limited application and are briefly described the concluding part of the paper.RH Test 2. are checked on std. the probable accuracy of prediction of concrete strength in a structure is ±25%. Currently Online We have 168 guests online A lexa Rank . These are followed by a description of the combined methods approach in which more than one nondestructive method is used to estimate strength of concrete. Lab calibration are based on Brinell Hardness & Rebound Nos. Coefficients of variation for compressive strength for a wide variety of specimens averaged 25%. a Swiss Engineer. Core Extraction for Compressive Strength Test 5.

). Transducers with frequencies of 25 to 100 KHz are usually used for testing concrete. It can be used for quality control. Path Length 5. Level of Stress 7. simple to operate. Aggregate Size. The measured travel time is prominently displayed. Water-Cement Ratio 4. These transducers primarily generate compressional waves at predominantly one frequency. Typically. Studies on the Hydration of Cement 4. These influencing factors are discussed below: Effects of Concrete Properties 1. abrasion. Size and Shape of a Specimen 6. The applications of the pulse velocity method on a concrete structure are: 1.2. The factors affecting the pulse velocity can be divided into two categories: (1) factors resulting directly from concrete prope rties. Cement Type 3. Determination of Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity Combined Method–UPV & RH Test Hardness scales are arbitrarily defined measures of the resistance of a material to indentation under static or dynamic load or resistance to scratch. The interpretation of the pulse velocity . Factors Affecting UPV Test Although it is relatively easy to conduct a pulse velocity test. Establishing Homogeneity of Concrete 3. it is important that the test be conducted such that the pulse velocity readings are reproducible and that they are affected only by the properties of the concrete under test rather than by other factors. Admixtures 5. Moisture and Curing Condition of Concrete 4. wear. Studies on Durability of Concrete 5. one each for transmitting and receiving the ultrasonic pulse. Presence of Reinforcing Steel Applications of UPV Tests The pulse velocity method has been applied successfully in the laboratory as well as in the field. pulse times of up to 6500 os can be measured with 0. Transducer Contact 2. Age of Concrete Other Effects 1.e the ability of hammer to rebound or spring back. with most of the wave energy directed along the axis normal to the transducer face. India 6. The equipment is portable.P. Temperature of Concrete 3. as well as for the analysis of deterioration.1-os resolution. Type. i. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity-UPV Test The test instrument consists of a means of producing and introducing a wave pulse into the concrete and a means of sensing the arrival of the pulse and accurately measuring the time taken by the pulse to travel through the concrete. Measurement of Surface Crack Depth UPV Te st be ing pe rform on De ck Slab of Flyove r on NH-2 at Firozabad (U. Portable ultrasonic testing equipment are available. and Content 2. Grading. The instrument comes with a set of two transducers. and includes rechargeable battery and charging unit. Concrete test hammers evaluate surface hardness as a function of resiliency. Estimation of Strength of Concrete 2. and (2) other factors. cutting or drilling.

it is highly desirable to develop a prior correlation relationship in which factor such as aggregate type and approximate age of concrete are introduced as constants. but is calculated from the time taken by a pulse to travel a measured distance.P. curing conditions. It often possible to perform a large and thus a representative number of tests at a reduced C ore Drilling in Progre ss on the Inside cost compared with coring. (M.measurements in concrete is complicated by the heterogeneous nature of this material. etc. proportions. and without an adverse effects on the integrity of structural W all (Afte r Epox y Grouting) of Box C ulve rt on NH-26 at Sagar. For most in site concrete an approximate age and petrological type of aggregate can be determined. which is in contact with the opposite face of the test object. The most important influences on the accuracy and reliability of strength estimates seem to be the coarse aggregate type in the concrete. age.) element. Development of a prior correlation relationship is essential if the estimated from the combined test are to be meanigful. Core Extraction for Compressive Strength Test Test Specimens Core Specimens. UPV Te st be ing pe rform on Minor Bridge Conclusion Combined nondestructive methods refer to techniques in which one test is used to improve the reliability of the in site concrete strength estimated by means of another test alone. India Of the various combinations proposed by (BO SC H) in Horizontal O pe ration on R C C different researchers and from the reported C olum n data it seems that only the combined techniques based on the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and surface hardness measurement have been adopted for practical evaluation of the in site compressive strength of concrete. except when a variation in the properties of concrete affects the component test results in opposite directions. The validity of a combined technique can be evaluated from the degree of improvement this additional test provides to the accuracy and reproducibility of predictions. the use of combined nondestructive techniques provides a realistic alternative to destructive testing. except when a variation in the properties of concrete affects the component test. The limitations of a combined method are usually those pertinent to the limitations of each component test. the additional cost and complexity of the combined method and the extent to which it is practicable to perform the additional test in site. The more information that can be obtained about the concrete ingredients. vs. The wave velocity is not determined directly. Portable C oncre te C oring Machine C oncre te C ore from R C C C olum n be ing Ex tracte d afte r Diam ond Bit C ore Drilling When testing suspect quality concrete of unknown composition.A core specimen for the determination of compressive strength shall . the errors can be self-correcting. In this case. the more reliable the estimate is likely to be.). A piezoelectric transducer emitting vibration at its fundamental frequency is placed in contact with the concrete surface so that the vibrations travel through the concrete and are received by another transducer. When a reliable prior correlation relationship exists for a particular concrete type. thus reducing the number of uncontrollable variables. Pie r on NH-11 at Dausa (R aj.

Measurement of Drilled Core Specimens Mean Diameter. Position of Reinforcement.2 mm and their weight shall be noted before testing. The capped surfaces shall be at right angles to the axis of the specimen and shall not depart from a plane by more than 0.P. one pair being taken at the middle of the core and the other pairs at the quarter points of the depth. A correction factor according to the height/diameter ration of specimen after capping shall be obtained from the hardened curve.The mean diameter shall be determined to the nearest millimeter from three pairs of measurements. Surface water and grit shall be wiped off the specimens and any projecting fins removed. calculated from the mean dimensions of the section and shall be expressed to the nearest kg per sq cm. and in no case shall the diameter of the specimen be less than twice the maximum nominal size of the coarse aggregate. CalculationThe measured compressive strength of the specimen shall be calculated by dividing the maximum load applied to the specimen during the test by the cross-sectional area. The mean of the six readings shall be taken as the diameter.The positions of any reinforcement shall be determined by measuring to the nearest millimetre from the centre of the exposed bars to the top of the core. C appe d and C ure d C oncre te C ore Spe cim e n unde r C om pre ssive Stre ngth Te st in C TM . The material used for the capping shall be such that its compressive strength is greater than that of the concrete in the core.The ends of the specimen shall be capped before testing. Otherwise repeat tests shall be made. when capped. preferably from different batches. shall be as nearly as practicable twice its diameter. shall be made for testing at each selected age. The dimensions of the specimens to the nearest 0. with its axis perpendicular to the bed of the concrete as originally placed. when possible. The length of the specimen. the spacing of the bars shall be recorded.Specimens stored in water shall be tested immediately on removal from the water and while they are still in the wet condition. this being the equivalent strength of a cylinder having a height/diameter ratio of two.At least three specimens. if possible. Capping. The two measurements in each pair shall be taken at right angles to each other.) C ore Dre ssing-C utting in Lab using Diam ond W he e l C utte r in the Lab be fore C apping and C uring for C om pre ssive Stre ngth Te st on C TM Procedure. Apparatus Number of Specimens. The equivalent cube strength of the concrete shall be determined by multiplying the corrected cylinder strength by 5/4. Average of three values shall be taken as the representative of the batch provided the individual variation is not more than ± 15% of the average. The diameter and. Caps shall be made as thin as practicable and shall not flow or fracture before the concrete fails when the specimen is tested.have a diameter at least three times the maximum nominal size of the coarse aggregate used in the concrete. Specimens when received dry shall be kept in water for 24 hours before they are taken for testing.05 mm. The product of this correction factor and the measured compressive strength shall be known as the corrected compressive strength. and also the minimum top and bottom cover. Ex tracte d Thre e Num be rs of C ore s (Mak ing O ne Sam ple ) from R C C Structure -Box C ulve rt on NH-26 at Sagar (M. Procedure Core DrillingA core specimen taken perpendicular to a horizontal surface shall be located.

SERC.Report.M. Advanced Testing Methods and Damage Assessment of Distressed Concrete Structures by H. Compressive Strength. . 2006. CSIR. if these are Unusual. Organised by SERC. Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete. e.Chennai. NBMC W O ctobe r 2010 < Prev T E RMS & CONDIT IONS PRIVA CY POLICY Next > DIS CLA IME R CA NCE LLA T ION/ RE F UND POLICY Copyright © 2010 NBM Media Pvt. Testing Hardened Concrete: Nondestructive Methods by V. Age of Specimen. Advanced Course on Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation of Concrete Sructures. 4-6. c. Including date Manufacture of Specimen in the Field. ASTM & CRC Press. h. Appearance of Fractured Faces of Concrete and Type of Fracture. b. Near-Surface Testing for Strength and Durability of Concrete. Repair and Rehabilatation of Concrete Structures Feb. Edited by V.M. Chennai. Basheer. Dimensions of Specimen. 2006.The following information shall be included in the report on each test specimen/core: a. Recommendations for Measurement of Velocity of Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete. Second Edition. BS: 1881: Part 203: 1986 British Standard-Testing Concrete Part 203.M. CSIR. Weight of Specimen f. Reference IS: 13311 (Part 1): 1992 Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete-Method of Test. Sreenath Proceedings of the Advanced Course on Structural Health Monitoring.J.M. Editor P. Fifth CANMET/ACI International Conference on Durability of Concrete. and C appe d and C ure d C oncre te C ore Spe cim e n unde r C om pre ssive Stre ngth Te st in C TM of j. ASTM C 597-02 Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity through Concrete. Fourth Edition 1996. IS: 13311 (Part 2): 1992 Non-Destructive Testing of Concrete-Method of Test. i. Carino. Identification Mark. d. Date of test. Malhotra and N. 2006. Published Jointly by the IOWA State University Press & American Concrete Institute (ACI) 1976. Maximum Load. g. Malhotra. Neville.A. Ltd. by A. Acknowledgement The article has been reproduced from the proceeding of "National Seminar on Green Structures for Sustainability" with the kind permission from the event organisers. Properties of Concrete. Part 1-Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity. Part 2-Rebound Hammer. All Rights Reserved. Curing Conditions.G. Published by ELBSLongman. Cross-Sectional Area.