THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Principles and Models of Solid Fuel Combustion

Henrik Thunman

Department of Energy Conversion CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden 2001

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Principles and Models of Solid Fuel Combustion

HENRIK THUNMAN ISBN 91-7291-058-5

© HENRIK THUNMAN, 2001

Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola Ny serie nr 1742 ISSN 0346-718X

Department of Energy Conversion CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY S-412 96 Göteborg Sweden Telephone +46 (0)31 772 1000

Cover: A burning piece (5cm long) of wood

Chalmers Reproservice Göteborg, Sweden 2001

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Principles and Models of Solid Fuel Combustion
Henrik Thunman Department of Energy Conversion Chalmers University of Technology S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden

Abstract
Combustion of solid fuels stands for a substantial part of the heat and power production in the world. In this thesis different aspects related to the thermochemical conversion of solid fuels in fluidized and fixed beds are treated, such as: the combustion temperature of a fuel particle related to the surrounding temperature in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC); the fuel loading in a FBC; a transient description of the conversion of non-spherical fuel particles; the thermochemical properties and composition of volatiles released from wood; the thermal conductivity of wood during different stages of conversion; the modelling of a grate furnace; the general combustion behaviour of a fixed bed on a reciprocating or a travelling grate; and finally, the design and construction of experimental units for investigation of combustion in a fixed bed. The main result is a number of sub models validated by comparison with measurements. The sub models are to be used to describe and understand various combustion behaviours. Besides the sub models derived, it is concluded that the generally accepted behaviour of combustion on a reciprocating or a travelling grate is not correct for wet biofuels. Measurements and supplementary modelling show that the ignition of the bed is not caused by reflection of radiation from specially designed arches in the furnace. Instead ignition takes place at the bottom of the bed, close to the surface of the grate. This is important for new designs of reciprocating and travelling grates. Keywords: Biofuels, Coal, Combustion, Fixed bed, Fluidized bed, Fuel loading, Grate, Measurements, Modelling, Single particle, Thermal conductivity, Thermochemical conversion, Thermochemical properties, Wood

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Paper III and IV. 1997. ‘Loading and size distribution of fuel in a fluidized bed combustor’.D.. Leckner. pp. Leckner. Filip Johnsson. Contribution by Henrik Thunman Paper I. 14th International concerance on FBC. Submitted for publication February 2001. Thunman. INFUB. Report to the European Commission JOR 3CT96 0059. Claës Breitholtz and Gennadij Palchonok improved the model concerning heat and mass transfer to the single particle. September. Rönnbäck. ‘Ignition and propagation of a reaction front in crosscurrent bed combustion of wet biofuels’. Breitholtz. Leckner. Chalmers University of Technology.. Tyrol. Leckner. Axell. H.The thesis is based on the following Papers: I. ‘Modelling and verifying experiments of the whole furnace’.Collin.. F. Submitted for publication June 2001.. Thesis for the degree of licentiate of engineering. B. ‘Combustion process in a biomass fuel bed – Experimental results’. Thunman. ASME. Thunman. F. B. Henrik Thunman carried out the analysis of these measurements and the fundamental part of the modelling showing the ignition phenomena. ‘Fuel loading of a fluidized bed combustor’.. ‘Composition of volatile gases and thermo-chemical properties of wood for modeling of fixed or fluidized beds’. Preto... Thunman. Johnsson. H. Paper II. Göteborg..Ward.. Fuel.. VI. Chalmers University of Technology. Thunman. 1999. Leckner.. Department of Energy Conversion. Fredrik Niklasson. Bridgwater. Accepted for publication in Energy & Fuels. R. Henrik Thunman. F. Thunman. Ed. A. (Awarded as best Paper) H.. J. Eds. Niklasson. Ghirelli. M. Sweden.S. 2000. 871-878. F. ‘Thermal conductivity of wood during different combustion stages’. L. Gustavsson. III. August 2001. Henrik Thunman carried out all work. Palchonok. B. IV.. Portugal 1-4 April. Thunman. Bo Leckner. H... M.. B. L-E.. Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion.. V and VII. (An appendix to the Paper is included from. which was carried out by Fredrik Niklasson. 80. C. Leuckel. Gennadij Palchonok summarised and wrote the article. W. B. H. H. VII. Reis. H. 2001. B. ‘Impact of heat and mass transfer on combustion of a fuel particle in CFB boilers’. except for the measurements and the evaluation of the measurements. Henrik Thunman is the principal author. 473-481.. H. Göteborg. Åmand. Department of Energy Conversion. Thunman. B. V. G..I. Leckner. Esphinho-Porto.. May 1997). Leckner.. Henrik Thunman together with Timo Joutsenoja from Tampere University of Technology carried out the pyrometer measurements. v ... Ed. VIII. 1997. II.. ‘Combustion of wood particles – a model for Eulerian calculations’. 4th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers.

Filip Johnsson is Fredrik Niklasson’s supervisor. and Lennart Gustavsson is Monica Axell’s and Marie Rönnbäck’s supervisor. All the papers. planed the survey measurements in the grate furnace. evaluated the first measurement campaign. Henrik Thunman acted as a project leader. Bo Leckner is the supervisor of this work and had an active role in the writing of all papers. derived the bed model. Monica Axell and Marie Rönnbäck constructed the furnaces and carried out the measurements.Paper VI. supervised the CFD-calculation. and summarised the report. Federico Ghirelli carried out the CFD-calculations as a part of his master degree thesis work. I to VIII. vi . Paper VIII. evaluated the second measurement campaign and made the conclusions concerning the NOx formation. Lars-Erik Åmand had an active part in the measurements. were thoroughly discussed and edited by all co-authors. Marie Rönnbäck wrote the paper. Henrik Thunman suggested the design of the two furnaces and the measurements.

........................................................................................................................................................... ix Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Errata list for the included Papers .............. iii Acknowledgements................................................................................................................................... 21 References............................................................ 2 Summary of Papers .......................................................Contents Abstract ............................................................ 1 Furnaces and Reactors used for Experiments ...................................................................................................... 19 Future Work . 24 Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning ( In Swedish )............................................................................................................. 25 Paper I to VIII vii ................................................................................................. 5 Conclusions......................................................................................................................................................

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Finally. As well.Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Claës Breitholtz. Lennart Gustavsson) and especially to Sven Andersson who introduced me into the subject. Monica Axell. I would like to thank all colleagues that are or have been working at the department during these years for providing a friendly and inspiring atmosphere. Lars-Erik Åmand. Filip Johnsson. Part of the work was carried out under the European Union contract JOR3-CT96-0059. All of them are gratefully acknowledged. Marie Rönnbäck. Fredrik Niklasson. and by grants from Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). I also would like to express my gratitude to all co-authors (Gennadij Palchonok. and Small scale Combustion Program of the National Energy Administration. This work was supported by a scholarship from the Nordic Energy Research Program for Combustion of Solid Fuels. ix . Bo Leckner for his dedication in my work and for providing me the opportunity to accomplish this thesis work. I would like to thank him for always being open for discussions and sharing his wide knowledge in the field of energy conversion.

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The model is therefore extended by the introduction of model elements for drying. or gasification. and for evaluation and understanding of measurements. The conditions (i. These quantities determine the amount of particles that can achieve high temperatures. but mostly in small experimental units. supported by a model. for example. Depending on particle size and heating rate these processes can occur sequentially or simultaneously in the solid fuel particle. biofuels entering the furnace have moisture contents that often vary with time and. which is the subject investigated in Paper II. [4-6]. without losing important features influencing the combustion.Introduction The qualitative behaviour of the thermo-chemical conversion of solid fuels follows the same path. For non-homogenous fuels or/and particles exposed to a transient environment. measurements of surface temperatures on and heat and mass transfer to particles inside the CFB combustor were carried out. Different aspects of the thermochemical conversion of solid fuels in fixed and fluidized beds are studied in this thesis. where a and b are empirical coefficients. Work has been carried out previously in this area [1 . the time t for drying and devolatilisation of spherical particle with the diameter d can be described with a simple empirical correlation of the form t = a d b. However. independent of the combustion situation drying. A great effort was made to minimise the computational effort. general combustion behaviour of a fuel bed supported by a reciprocating or travelling grate. For the investigation. fuel loading in a CFB combustor. devolatilisation. significant simplifications can be made due to the well defined surrounding of the single particles in a fluidized bed. particle size) under which fuel particles can achieve a higher temperature than that of the surrounding in a CFB furnace. whereas the opposite results for a large fuel loading. For modelling of fuel loading a more extensive description is needed of the conversion of the solid fuel particles than for the description of the surface temperature in Paper I. fragmentation and attrition. The size distribution and the number of particles on different levels are a direct measure of the fuel loading. Furthermore. a small fuel loading gives a fast response to a change in the operating condition. is strongly connected to the size distribution and concentration of particles on different levels in the furnace. where a number of sub models are derived for comprehensive models of conversion. oxygen concentration.4]. char combustion. In the papers assembled. in a fixed bed or during changes in operation conditions in a fluidized bed. which can cause production of NOx or indicate bad mixing of the gas. the following has been investigated: excess temperatures of fuel related to the bed temperature (1123 K) in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The measurements in Chalmers 12 MWth CFB furnace provide data for comparison with the results from these small units. The importance of high excess temperatures can have on NOx production. therefore. This description of drying and devolatilisation is appropriate for homogenous fuels with spherical form and can therefore be used for most coals. devolatilisation. such as shrinkage and particle shape. the conversion rate of fuel particles in a fixed or fluidized bed. modelling of the combustion process in a reciprocating or travelling grate furnace. a transient particle model is needed. and finally. a transient model was derived for the combustion of single fuel particles or groups of fuel particles in different beds.e. For example. require a particle model that describes the progress of the drying and devolatilisation inside the particles. 1 . For example. are investigated in Paper I. The interest in the fuel loading is mainly for operation control. most biofuels have shapes that are far from spherical. such as. In Paper III.

two at SP (Swedish National Testing and Research Centre. The purpose is to investigate the possibility to model the entire grate furnace by connecting a model of the fuel bed to models included in an existing CFD-software. for simplicity. This combustion behaviour has been applied frequently because it is the generally accepted behaviour for combustion of a fuel bed on reciprocating or travelling grates. a 31 MWth reciprocating grate furnace located in Trollhättan (Sweden).A transient combustion model requires a large number of fuel properties. For validation. A fixed bed that is ignited from one end and with air introduced from the other. three laboratory furnaces for investigation of the propagation rate of a reaction front in fixed beds. thermal conductivity. for description of the gaseous combustion above the fuel bed. In Paper IV thermo-chemical data for wood during different stages of combustion are summarised together with a model for the determination of the composition of the volatile gases leaving a fuel particle. specific heat and shrinkage during conversion are the most important ones. This model is optimised for the determination of the maximum possible propagation rate of the reaction front in a fuel bed. extensive measurements in a 31 MWth reciprocating grate furnace were carried out. In Paper VI a simplified bed model is derived. To achieve a more detailed knowledge of the combustion behaviour in fixed beds. A general outline of the CFB combustor used in the experiments for Paper I and II is given in Figure 1. Finland). As a consequence of the validation of the model in Paper VI the assumed combustion behaviour of the bed model is questioned. Borås Sweden). Circulating fluidized beds are operating at a gas velocity that is higher than the 2 . follows the moisture and the volatiles through the bed and gives rise to internal heat generation by combustion. This is further investigated in Paper VII. The fuel is fed onto the inert bed and kept there until it is converted. shape and composition. These data are complemented in Paper V with a model for the thermal conductivity of wood during different stages of conversion. A laboratory scale fluidized bed located at SP was used for investigations of single particles. introduced for the conversion of the fuel bed. In the assembled papers. Furnaces and Reactors used for Experiments In Paper I to VIII measurements were carried out in a number of test units: a 12 MWth Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) combustor located at Chalmers University of Technology. and one at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland. the sub-models derived are general and can be used for various solid fuels. two additional small-scale combustors were built. fuel properties are taken for trunk wood. The validity of the measurements from these units is assured by comparison with measurements from similar units found in the literature. VTT-Energy Jyveskylä. [7-11]. Paper VII. The primary air for combustion of the fuel and fluidization of the inert bed is introduced in the bottom of the riser. can be seen as a large fuel particle. ignited from one end and with air introduced from the other end. The difference is that also air. based upon this assumption and including the main features of conversion of the fuel bed along the grate. For supplementary analyses an additional model of the conversion in a fixed fuel bed is derived. Paper VIII. among which particle size. However.

For the measurements referred to in Paper I and II. An outline of the reciprocating grate furnace referred to in Paper VI and VIII is shown in Figure 2. fabricated by Kvaerner Pulping AB. two for gas sampling. The main advantage with fluidized bed combustors is that primary measures can be taken for reduction of harmful emissions. resulting in entrainment of inert and fuel particles by the gas up through and out of the riser. When the fuel reaches the other end of the grate its conversion is finished and the remaining ash leaves the grate. This furnace is manufactured by Kvaerner Pulping AB and is operated by Trollhättan Energi AB as a part of the district heating system in the city of Trollhättan. Four types of measurement probes where specially designed for the measurements. one to measure the 3 . The primary air for conversion is distributed in five zones along the grate to optimise the conversion of the fuel. allowing measurement probes of different kinds to be introduced into the combustor. The particles leaving the riser are separated from the gas in a cyclone and are reintroduced to the riser. Grate cross-section 8×5 m. The Chalmers CFB combustor is specially designed for research and is prepared with a large number of measurement holes.5 m. heat transfer to a single particle. terminal velocity of the inert particles. that they are fuel flexible.44 m. the combustor is equipped with a large amount of measurement equipment and a permanent system for gas analysis. The predominant primary measure is introduction of limestone for sulphur capture. height 13.5 m.Flue gas Furnace Wall heattransfer surface Air Fuel inlet Cyclone Heat Transfer Surfaces Flue Gas Secondary Air Flue Gas Circulation Fuel Secondary Air Flue Gas Circulation Air Primary Air Ashes Figure 1 General outline of the 12 MWth CFB combustor at Chalmers University of Technology. Furthermore. probes were used for gas and particle sampling. height 12. where one was combined with the measurement of gas temperature. In a reciprocating grate the fuel is introduced from one end of the furnace and transported by reciprocating rods and burned along the grate. and during the measurements the furnace was prepared with temporary equipment to measure the primary airflow and the temperature of the surface of the grate. as the fuel is kept in the inert bed until it is fully converted. Figure 2 General outline of the 31 MWth reciprocating grate furnace in Trollhättan. and furthermore. facilitated by operation at a nearly constant temperature.7×1. Cross-section of riser 1. For this project the furnace in Trollhättan was specially provided with measurement holes for probes. surface temperature of burning fuel particles and for recording reducing and oxidising conditions.

within the same project as the measurements in Trollhättan. Figure 3.2m. a batch of fuel is placed on a grate. There are differences between the units related to size and design. Figure 6. where designed and built at SP. Combustion chamber diameter 0. Figure 4 and Figure 5. The reactor is electrically heated to the temperature of the experiments and particles were dropped into the reactor from the top. The large unit at SP and the unit at VTT are prepared for gas analysis.fluctuation between reducing and oxidising conditions. 4 . operating under bubbling conditions (gas velocity lower than the terminal velocity of the inert bed particles). which are made in different positions. This unit is up side down concerning the ignition and introduction of air compared to the other two designs. but the only major difference is in the design of the large unit at SP.48 m. The work was focused on measurement of the propagation rate of the reaction front in a fixed fuel bed. Combustion chamber cross-section 0. Two of the units. The propagation rate is evaluated from temperature measurements. and special experiments were carried out using the same fuel as in Trollhättan.45 m. height 0. and the third was designed and built at VTT. Paper III and IV. For measurements on single particles.52×0. The combustion of a fixed bed of biofuel was investigated in three units. Air Holes for Measurement Probes Flue Gas Fuel Thermo Couples Distributor Plates Fuel Flue gas Scale Air Figure 3 General outline of the large experimental furnace at SP. was used. Figure 5. Figure 3 and Figure 4. Gas leaving the reactor is sampled and analysed.7 m Figure 4 General outline of the small experimental furnace at SP. All these three units operate in the same way. mainly along the height in the fuel bed. and the bed is ignited from the opposite end of the fuel bed. air is introduced from one end. Papers VII and VIII. a small fluidized bed reactor. one for detection of the gas flow direction. one large and one small. height 0.

obtained from the analysis of the measurement. and the particle must be between 0. based on a simple heat balance of burning spherical particles. By means of the diagram. Summary of Papers Paper I Surprisingly high temperatures of burning particles of bituminous coal. as combustion goes from kinetic control to diffusion control. Excess temperatures up to 600K above the bed temperature of 1123 K were registered. were measured with a two-colour optical pyrometer in the upper part of the Chalmers CFB combustor. The diagram can be built-up for all types of combustion conditions.Flue Gas Gas sampling for analysis Fuel Thermocouples Flue gas Gas sampling for analysis Fluidised bed III II III II Electrical heaters I I Air Scale Quartz reactor Air Figure 5 General outline of the experimental furnace at VTT. defined as the reaction rate divided by the mass transfer coefficient.5 and 2 mm. the oxygen concentration needs to be at lest twice as high as the highest measured average concentration. In order to investigate at which oxygen concentrations and particle sizes these high temperatures could exist. a diagram showing the ignition behaviour of a fuel was created. Figure 6 General outline of small fluidized bed reactor for single particle experiments at SP. From the diagram. it is possible to discuss the possibility and conditions of high excess temperatures. Figure 8. The X-factor for particles of different sizes located along the centre position of the view-field is shown in Figure 7b. In order to get excess temperatures of more than 500K. which is an equivalent view factor of the particle in the view field of the pyrometer. it is seen that ignition takes place if the oxygen concentration is above 8% and for fuel particle sizes of around 1 mm. but the paper focuses on the upper part of the CFB combustor. In the figure the Damköhler number. characterizes the ignition behaviour. height 1.056 m. Figure 7a. The excess temperature in Figure 7a is plotted against the X-factor.3 m.244 m. Reactor diameter 0.4 m. while the cross-section average oxygen concentration was around 6%. Combustion chamber diameter 0. The only explanation for the high particle 5 . height 0. temperature levels that can be suspected to cause a production of thermal NOx in the surrounding gasfilms. Figure 8. This means that the oxygen concentration must be at least 1/3 higher than the cross-sectional average value before ignition takes place.

the particle must follow the gas up through the furnace. The time intervals during oxidising conditions are short. small particles are more likely to follow the gas than larger particles.% 10 O2 9 8 7 6 4 -4 10 -3 10 -2 Particle diameter. for different particle diameters. b) The X-factor as a function of distance from probe-tip. - 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 b) Distance from the probe tip.5 X-factor. which in a gas flow is a function of the drag coefficient.2 0. mm 5 Excess temperature. and consequently it is more likely that the smaller fuel particles experience long enough periods in oxygen-rich environment to allow them to ignite and achieve high excess temperatures. Paper I includes a large work on heat and mass transfer to a single particle.1 Y . 600 Da=5 10 Excess temperature. enhanced by the collisions with surrounding small particles.5 16 14 200 100 0 10 12 0. The ability of particles to follow the gas is given by the terminal velocity. m Figure 8 Excess temperature versus particle diameter for different oxygen concentrations (solid lines). Besides the analysis summarised here. temperatures measured must therefore be a wide fluctuation of local oxygen concentration. The presence of such fluctuations is confirmed by simultaneous measurements of reducing and oxidising conditions.2 0. In general. and in order to allow a particle to have a sufficiently long residence time in the oxygen-rich environment to be ignited.800 10 0 di . 6 . K 500 2 400 1 300 0. and in a circulating fluidized bed. K 2 600 10 -1 1 0. resulting from insufficient mixing.1 200 10 -3 0 -4 10 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 -4 a) X-factor. and Damköhler numbers (dashed lines). which is covered extensively in the doctoral theses [12] and [13]. - 400 10 -2 0. m Figure 7 a) Temperature measured with two-colour pyrometry as a function of the X-factor.

d. The fragmentation and attrition are to some extent treated in a new way. Specially. The new treatment is in the definition of the rates of fragmentation and attrition. 7 . which for the fuel loading is nearly as important as the rate of devolatilisation and char combustion.f.01 0. [1/mm] 500 500 250 0 0. Here.06 0. a small fuel loading results in a fast response to changes in operating condition. Figure 9. a general model of fuel loading and size distribution of fuel in a fluidized bed combustor has been developed.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm] Fuel mass p.Paper II The fuel loading of a fluidized bed combustors affects the control of operation. During both devolatilisation and char combustion the fuel undergoes fragmentation and attrition.02 0 0. A good agreement between model and measurements in Chalmers 12 MWth CFBC is obtained.f.01 500 0. The fragmentation rate constants obtained from the evaluation of experimental data also show a good agreement with rate constants from literature data. [1/mm] 0.01 0.f. and size distribution of the fragments. Fuel mass p.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm] Fuel concentration [] 0 0.d. for the circulating fluidized bed combustor is that the fuel concentration and size distribution are modelled along the riser.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm] 0 0 5 Height [m] 10 Figure 9 Comparison between measured and modelled size distribution and fuel concentration on different heights.04 250 0. Devolatilisation is modelled with the classical empirical particle diameter power law (t=adb) and char combustion as a shrinking sphere exposed to a surface reaction. [1/mm] 250 Fuel mass p. The model includes the most influencing parameters and is computationally efficient. whereas the opposite is achieved for large fuel loading.d.

shrinkage and swelling. The values of these empirical coefficients are severely restricted by both the resulting fuel loading and size distribution. it can handle the conversion of a solid phase in a computational cell. Larger shrinkage results in a 8 . and to keep the fuel loading at the measured level. fragmentation and gas pressure inside the combustor. all these parameters have a great influence on combustion. When modelling a large combustion system. For example. The parametric study shows that the fuel loading depends on type and size of fuel. shows that the substantial simplifications made do not severely influence the overall agreement of the model. A comparison with experimental time of devolatilisation. in the measurements there are nearly no large particles found. Bed temperature and air to fuel ratio also have an influence on the fuel loading. The development and the temperature of these layers are computed as function of time. the superficial gas velocity mainly affects the variation of fuel concentration along the riser. The model divides the particle into four layers: moist (virgin) wood. and time of char combustion. a significantly larger fragmentation rate during char combustion would lead to a much lower fuel loading than the measured one. Figure 13. char residue and ash. and limits the minimum rate of attrition. This is shown in Figure 14. and it agrees well with measurements performed on more than 60 samples of particles of different sizes. dry wood. The model calculations predict the great influence from shrinkage on time of devolatilisation and char combustion. and the conversion can be described by the heat and mass transport to the surface of the particle. indicating that the large fuel particles fragment almost immediately after they are introduced into the combustor. and also the fuel loading. considering also typical shapes (spheres. release of volatiles. is derived.Despite of the complexity of the fragmentation and attrition during combustion in a fluidized bed combustor the model derived in this paper gives a good agreement with measurement by adjusting four empirical coefficients. where the conversion is related to surface area per unit volume instead of surface area of a single particle. as shown in Figure 11. In fact. Furthermore a large number of fuel particles found in the fly ash indicates the amount of particle produced by attrition. wood species and moisture contents. as the model should not be limited to just a single particle. 35 and 45%. and by the conversion of the solid fuel. such as a fluidized bed or a fixed bed on a grate. this is a great advantage. The model operates with a small number of variables and treats the most essential features of conversion of solid fuel particles. which leaves the fragmentation rate during char combustion as the only parameter that are not directly restricted by the measurements. A rise in pressure and/or superficial velocity increases the power output from the combustor. The model is validated numerically by a heat and mass balance. such as temperature gradients inside a particle. independent of particle size and shape. which is a severe restriction on the possibility to fit the fuel loading. For a CFBC. The size distribution of fuel in the bed is mostly dependent on the fragmentation behaviour of the fuel. Paper III A simplified model of thermochemical particle conversion. but not as great as that of the other parameters investigated. finite cylinders and parallelepipeds). Since. This significantly reduces the fuel loading. The attrition also reduces the fuel loading. Figure 12. For the coal used in the measurements it is concluded that this fragmentation rate must be rather small. In the figure the shrinkage by volume during drying and devolatilisation is chosen to 15. The model treats the particle in one dimension. which illustrates the influence of shrinkage for the largest particle size of spruce used in the experiments 10×25×40 mm. The derivation of a control surface of a finite cylinder is illustrated in Figure 10.

and consequently higher thermal conductivity and a shorter time of devolatilisation. and wet (∗) and dry (+) birch. devolatilisation (2). because increased shrinkage means a smaller external surface. l l x 10 5 d/2 -3 r0=(d-l)/2 d Particle radius [m] l/2 l/2 d/2 r0=0 d 4 3 2 1 3 4 1 2 l l r d r r r d 0 0 200 500 400 Time [s] 700 600 T[K] 300 900 1100 Figure 10 Definition of the starting position of the radius r0 and the control surface Γ (solid line) at radius r inside a finite cylinder (dashed line) having a length l. longer or shorter than the diameter d. wet (o) and dry ( ) spruce. wet (o) and dry ( ) spruce. 200 Measured time [s] 400 20% Measured time [s] 150 -20% 100 50 0 300 200 100 0 20% -20% 0 100 200 Calculated time [s] 0 200 Calculated time [s] 400 Figure 12 Comparison between calculated and measured time of devolatilisation for 61 samples of. char combustion (3) and particle surface (4) inside a wet spruce particle as a function of time. supported by a qualitative judgment of the fit between measured and calculated times of devolatilisation and char combustion. 9 .more compact char layer. Figure 11 Example of simulated temperature and positions of drying (1). and wet (∗) and dry (+) birch. On the other hand. for char combustion the trends are the opposite as shown by the model. Figure 13 Comparison between calculated and measured time of char combustion for 61 samples of. The shrinkage coefficients used in the calculation are obtained from direct measurement.

for example. Figure 15. As the specific area increases (size decreases) a nearly linear decrease of the char yield and linear rise of the ratios 10 . This collection of data is especially selected to suit combustion and high temperature gasification. The measurements were carried out in a fluidized bed reactor operated at 1123 K and the results show a clear correlation between the size of the fuel. However. Due to the complexity of the transformation of the fuel. ratios of CO to CO2. expressed as specific area (initial surface area divided by initial volume of the particle). but similar collection of data can be established for other fuels as well. one energy balance and two empirical ratios. and they have to be specified for certain classes of fuel. light hydrocarbons (mainly methane and ethylene). and the energy balance can be used for validation. whose structure is valid for any solid fuel. and light hydrocarbon to CO2. measurements have been carried out on two types of wood to provide data that can be compared with data from literature. Therefore. The data are specialized to wood. and several quantities such as char yield. much work has been published on releases of volatiles [15-25]. dependent on the available input data. Arrows indicate the influence of increasing shrinkage. Here. there are a need of a sub model providing a sufficient composition of the volatile gases leaving a fuel particle of typical sizes. thermo-chemical properties of the fuel during its various phases of conversion are needed. Because of time restrictions a more simplified description of volatile release is needed for comprehensive bed models. or for a measured set of data needed to be checked. Paper IV For comprehensive models of combustion devices. CO. The system of equations consists of three mass balances. Gases from devolatilization of the dry part of high-volatile fuel are assumed to consist of CO2. but a general model of the composition of volatile gases and a comprehensive presentation of the related thermo-chemical properties of the fuel are still missing. the energy balance can be replaced by an additional empirical ratio. The measurements concern softwood (spruce) and hardwood (birch). H2. for wood the composition consists of more than 100 species [14]. The method proposed is for estimation of the quantities of these gas components in a case when no data are available. and lumped hydrocarbons (that is. The real composition of the volatile gases becomes too complex for these models. for example fixed and fluidized beds. In some cases. a sub model is presented. it becomes excessively time-consuming to model the gas leaving the thermally large particles by means of a set of reaction rates. H2O. the remaining hydrocarbons). since. The model includes empirical coefficients. In addition to the empirical ratios.400 Measured time [s] 200 0 0 200 400 Calculated time [s] Figure 14 Times of devolatilisation (o) and char combustion (∗). The model solves a system of six equations to obtain the six gas concentrations.

8 THC/CO2 (by mass) 4.0 CO/CO2 (by mass) x100 20 10 0 γH x1000 γCO x100 x100 γC 1. affects the composition of the volatile gases. both for conductivity in the perpendicular and parallel direction relative to the fibres in the wood. expressed as mass fractions.6 1. together with the two ratios mentioned. The two tested woods. *. two principal models of effective thermal conductivity on the basis of the pore structure in wood. (Observe the different scaling factors). o. hardwood (birch) and softwood (spruce). since it favors the lumped hydrocarbons on the behalf of the carbon dioxide. The validation leads to a more general model. the general 11 nHmOk i j 2 2 . of CO to CO2. for birch (* solid line) and spruce (∇ and dashed line). Here. It varies both with temperature and conversion of the wood. which. but the level of carbon dioxide decreases on the behalf of a rise of the mass fraction of lumped hydrocarbons. dry. spruce (wet.2 1. In the present work the most relevant temperature for the application was studied.2 1. dry. There are measurements available in the literature and suggestions on modelling of this problem. especially for wet and dry wood. It can also be applied to pellets and chipboards.6 1. carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons are rather constant with specific area. are validated by a comparison with direct numerical simulation of the fibre structure.8 300 600 900 Specific Area [1/m] 22 γC H x100 18 14 10 300 600 900 Specific Area [1/m] 20 10 0 300 600 900 Specific area [1/m] Figure 15 Ratios of THC to CO2. versus specific area.5 2. ∇.4 1. A secondary result is that the thermal conductivity of the solid phase in the fibre wall of the wood can be evaluated for dry and wet fuel from measurement data on effective thermal conductivity. Figure 16 Estimated composition of volatile gases.8 3. Paper V The effective thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameters for modelling of the thermo-chemical conversion of wood. birch (wet. Further work could involve other fuels and a more detailed investigation on the influence of temperature. In addition. and light hydrocarbon to CO2 can be seen. Figure 16.0 0. show the same trends.0 0. but for char the knowledge is poor.5 3. hydrogen. and char yield. solid trend lines).1.0 2. density and moisture content of the wood.4 1. related to the specific area of the wood particles. shows that the mass fractions of water.0 300 20 10 0 20 10 0 20 10 0 300 600 900 Specific area [1/m] 2O γH 600 900 Specific Area [1/m] 600 900 Specific Area [1/m] γCO x50 20 10 0 H2O/CO2 (by mass) Char Yield [%] 1. [26] and [27]. Analysis of the measurement data with the model derived for the composition of the volatiles. dashed trend line). +. CO to CO2 and H2O to CO2. The effective thermal conductivity can be estimated from given values of temperature. The lower char yield is accompanied by an increasing amount of carbon relative to hydrogen and oxygen in the volatile gases.8 300 1. The only differences are in the level of char yield and in amount of H2O in the volatile gases.

From the model. for example. [29] (rhombs).52 W/mK for the solid material in the dry wood by a least-square fit to measurement data from [28] and other authors. In [26] this heat conductivity is suggested to be 0.3 0. 0.6 0. Figure 18 Comparison of measured.3 0. [28] (circles). measured data. for wet wood.2 0. and calculated effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibres in wood. Measured. Conductivity perpendical to ibre.model expresses the effective thermal conductivity of char. since the wood material maintains its fibre structure during conversion. Here. Parallel to the fibre.7 Measured thermal conductivity [W/mK] 0. If these values are used. with a moisture content of 7-45% (based on wet wood). it is proposed that carbon in the porous structure has the same thermal conductivity and density as amorphous carbon. based on measurements reviewed in [29].5 0. If the values mentioned are inserted into their respective equations. [29] (stars). for dry wood.4 0. the difference between the models can be more than 15 %.1 0.43W/mK.5 Heat conductivity [W/mK] 0.5 Calculated thermal conductivity [W/mK] Figure 17 Heat conductivity of dry wood as a function of density. there is an even better agreement with measurements than the one shown in Figure 17. which have a high density (1000-1300 kg/m3). and Figure 18.3 0. [26] (dotted line). Conductivity parallel to fibre (solid line with dots). the resulting porous structure is nearly pure carbon. but the difference becomes noticeable if one regards the heat conductivity of the solid in the fibre.2 0.4 0.2 0. model derived in [27] (dashed line). reviewed in [29].6W/mK.1 0 0 0. the corresponding thermal conductivity is estimated to 0.73 W/mK.1 0 0 500 1000 Dry density [kg/m3] 1500 0. the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibre is estimated to 0. but in [27] it is suggested to 0. model derived here (solid line).8 0. The agreement between the model derived here and the models of [26] and [27] and measurement data can be seen in Figure 17. but for high density fuels the difference becomes noticeable. When char is produced at a high heating rate and with a high final temperature. [28]. to estimate the heat conductivity of pellets. 12 . There is good agreement between all of the models and the measurement data for dry wood.4 0.

where surface temperature of the bed and temperature and composition of the gas leaving the fuel are used as boundary conditions. In the present work. The bed model gives resulting position of the reaction front. which describes the conversion of the fuel bed. ion fro nt ar xU Primary air Time or Length of grate la r ye 13 . such as fuel properties. For each layer a heat and mass balance is established. bed height and porosity. and temperatures inside the bed. such as equivalent radiation temperature for the radiation exchange with the surface of the bed. Input to the model are data on the fuel fed. which results in an iterative calculation procedure. bed height. The heat flux to the bed resulting from the CFD calculation is recalculated to an equivalent radiation temperature. and the conversion of the fuel bed is calculated. the propagation of the drying. devolatilisation and gaseous reaction. Heat transfer and gas exchange between the bed and the free-room above the bed is used as boundary condition to the two models. gas flow and velocity of the bed. This is followed by a CFD-calculation of the gaseous combustion above the bed. the surface of the bed that is interacting with the surrounding. and along the grate. based on an assumed combustion behaviour of the bed.Paper VI During the last decade the gaseous combustion in the free-room above the grate in a reciprocating grate furnace has been modelled with different CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools. Figure 19. in order to model an entire furnace. where the combustible gas leaving the bed is distributed along the grate based on the assumed combustion behaviour of the fuel bed. and so on. and used as a boundary condition for the fuel bed. and then combined efficiently in an iterative calculation. surface layer. char layer. The main task of the work is to investigate if the combustion of the fuel bed and the gaseous combustion above the bed can be calculated separately. Heat Flux xs Bed height xc xr Re act Unreac l layer ted fue Su Ch rfa ce lay er Figure 19 Schematic figure of the four layers describing the bed. Figure 20. The experience from the calculations made is that the solution reaches convergence in just a few iterations. reaction front layer and virgin fuel layer. For this purpose a simplified bed model was derived. composition and temperature of the gas. which separates the bed in four layers. The layers represent: the nonreacting layer of virgin fuel. the conversion of the char residue. The thicknesses of the layers are indicated by x and a subscript related to the layer. where the equivalent radiation temperature above the grate is assumed first. an independently derived bed model is connected to a CFD calculation of the gaseous combustion above the bed.

2 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 Bed length [m] 5 6 7 8 0 Velocity change bed Velocity change gas Figure 20 Input data and result of modelling.2 0 7.4 0.5 4 3 2 1.6 0.5 1 .3 0.8 0. 14 Bed velocity [mm/s] (Input) N2 O2 H O (Input) (Input) (Input) Relative mass loss [−] 0.5 Ingoing Molar Flow [moles/s] (Input) 8 6 2 6 Bed vel.4 0. (Input) 4. The grey areas indicate the given changes in the primary airflow and velocity of the fuel layer along the grate.2000 Temperature [K] 1600 1200 800 400 0 10 Char layer Surface layer Surrounding (Input) Outgoing Molar Flow [moles/s] 8 CH4 CO O2 CO2 H O 2 N 2 6 4 2 0 Bed height [m] 0.1 0 10 Bed surface Reaction front Mass loss 0.

however. Paper VII Grate firing is the most common way to burn bio-fuels in small-scale units. followed by a reaction front propagating from the grate up to the surface of the bed. but some additional data can be found in Paper VII. Kvaerner Pulping AB) 15 . where the volatiles enter the furnace from the bed. which is discussed in paper VII. Figure 21 Position of measurements in the reciprocating grate furnace. additional experiments were carried out in batch-fired pot furnaces. The measurements also show that the final burnout of the gases leaving the bed takes place in a narrow region around the introduction of the secondary air. The measurements in the lower part of the combustor show on a major combustion zone in the first part along the grate.In order to validate the models. [7-11]. Gas sampling ( ). there are clear indications on some general errors in the assumed combustion behaviour made in the bed model. However. and on a final char burnout in the later part along the grate. Hence. extensive measurements on a commercial reciprocating grate furnace were carried out for two different operating conditions. The measurement positions in the grate furnace are shown in Figure 21. in the upper part above the secondary air inlet the gases from the lower part of the furnace are well mixed and a better agreement between calculation and measurements is observed in this region. therefore. In Paper VI the generally assumed combustion behaviour of wet biofuels was questioned and. the combustion in the mentioned 31 MW reciprocating grate furnace (a crosscurrent flow combustor) is further studied. For the investigation. continuous sampling was made of more than 30 operating parameters. The generally accepted suggestion on the combustion in a cross-current flow furnace is that it start by ignition on the surface of the bed. followed by a reaction front propagating from the surface down to the grate. Measurements and visual observations presented here show. Average data from most of these measurements are reported in Paper VI. The extensive documentation of the measurement data in Paper VI and VII makes the data useful for validation of new and existing models and for comparison with other furnaces. an internal circulation of gases in the upper part of the furnace is seen from the measurements. the progress of combustion in the bed is opposite to the expected one. forest waste with a moisture content of approximately 50%. In these measurements gas sampling and temperature measurements were made in more than 80 positions. Furthermore. Different combustion modes are achieved depending on how fuel and primary air are introduced. When comparing the model calculations with the measurements. using the same fuel as in the reciprocating grate. Furthermore. that in the case of wet fuels the ignition takes place close to the grate. Thermocouples ( ) (31 MW furnace. In continuous systems fuel and air are usually fed in cross-current and counter-current flow.

3% (VTT) and D.c 40.Figure 22 Principle combustion behaviours in a cross-current flow unit. 16 . Measurements from operation with pure wood chips. B. Figure 25 Calculated maximum propagation rate of the reaction front for 10mm wood particles. Fig 3). III devolatilisation. A. II drying. V ash. A position indicates of ignition. Solid lines are curve fits of the measurements. Filled circles indicate the second measurement row and unfilled circles the first measurement row (Cf. I unreacted fuel.b 30% [8]. B vertical view. (a) if the bed is ignited from the surface of the bed.a 10% [8]. Filled circles indicate measurement with pure wood chips and unfilled circles are measurement with forest waste. IV char combustion or gasification. the different moisture contents are indicated by. C reaction front. Figure 24 Total hydrocarbon concentration above the bed of the reciprocating grate. C. or (b) from the surface of the grate.6% (SP).d 56. The measurements are indicated by capital letters and calculation with small letters. dotted lines. Figure 23 Measured time-average temperature on the reciprocating grate.

6 m after ignition on the surface. 5.5 m of the bed. Even the highest velocity of the reaction front. The calculation shows that the maximum moisture content the range of air flows considered is between 35 and 45%. In such a case. This occurs at a moisture content of 85 to 90%. The temperature inside the bed is around 1300K. and the actual time for complete drying and devolatilisation should be less than two minutes.The result from the investigation is that the progress of combustion can not be the one generally expected. The reaction takes place inside the bed in a location that is quite well insulated from the surrounding. Figure 24. Ignition is measured within the first 1. on the other hand. Figure 22b. the theoretical maximum moisture content is attained when the lower heating value for moist fuel is equal to zero. it would take 1430 s for the reaction front to propagate from the surface of the bed to the grate. The heat is generated at the bottom of the bed by char combustion and is transported up through the bed by the gas. in the furnace case. during char combustion. according to visual observations in the reciprocating grate furnace. This observation is supported by the model calculations.7 m along the grate in two minutes. Figure 23. most likely on the surface of the grate. devolatilisation and combustion takes place in a narrow front. shows that heat was generated in the bed before ignition was visually observed on the surface of the bed. if the bed is ignited from the top. In contrast. which is ignited from the top.8 m. Combustion and heat release in the bottom part of the bed generates gas. In the pot furnaces the reaction front could not propagate through the bed for the same type of fuel and air flows as in the furnace.7 m) distance from the feed point if the reaction had propagated from the top of the bed to the grate. This explains the heavy evolution of smoke. which transfers its heat to the fresh fuel and exits the bed at a temperature. 3. There was a heavy evolution of smoke from the bed before the position of ignition on the surface of the bed and before the visible flame zone. according to Figure 23.8+0. The fuel is transported 0. Volatiles were found far from the fuel inlet. according to following observation: 1. and all moisture and volatiles should have left the bed before 2. With the velocity of the grate. Figure 24 shows that volatiles leave the bed up to 4-5 m from the beginning of the grate. the reaction front would reach the grate 8. 2. The corresponding distance at velocities measured for wet fuels is 18 to 60 m. It is also clear from the calculation that the velocity of the reaction front becomes very slow for these moisture contents. this moisture content is too high. shown in Figure 22a. 17 . since in this case. The arguments supporting this observation and that reaction propagates up through the bed. Moisture content of up to 70 or 80 % should therefore generate sufficient heat for drying and devolatilisation. 4.8 m for pure wood chips on the reciprocating grate. is not sufficient for the front to reach the surface of the reciprocating grate within the first 4 m. The conclusion from these facts is that the ignition has not taken place on the surface of the bed. For a bed height of 500 mm. However. The temperature on the grate. 0. are: 1. For a counter-current bed. Figure 23. 2. A moist wood-chip particle (50% moisture) dries and devolatilises completely in two minutes at a temperature of 973K. observed to leave the first 1 to 1. where the fuel burned without problems. not much higher than that of entering fuel particles. [8] and Paper VIII.5 m (1. 6 mm/s.35 mm/s. measured for wood cubes with a moisture content of 10%. which dries and devolatilises fresh fuel. excluding heat losses. [30]. the high temperatures clearly indicate that combustion takes place at or close to the surface of the grate after less than 1. but in the bed.

see Figure 22. The reason for this is most likely that the moisture content of the fuel was somewhat lowered during ignition of the bed. Figure 23. This result questions some design principles for grate furnaces: the ignition arches designed to reflect radiation from the flames to the bed surface to ignite the bed are not needed. as the reaction 18 . 4. The theoretical maximum is determined by a calculation where all ingoing parameters are chosen in favour of the propagation of the reaction front. the design of the furnaces may not change after all. air is introduced from the top end and ignition take place in the bottom end. Larger particles need longer time to heat up and ignite. [8] and measurements carried out in the present work in the large unit at SP and at VTT. the larger unit. However. Ignition of the fuel on the surface of the grate takes place as soon as the fuel has reached the ignition temperature. The disadvantages consist in the difficulties in interpreting the measurement results from inside the bed. no conclusion was drawn except that further investigation is needed. The larger size also gives the opportunity to supply the unit with more measurement equipment and to penetrate the fuel bed with measurement probes without a significant disturbance of the combustion behaviour. later on it was found that the same observation was made in [31]. The low measured propagation rates of the reaction front in a wet fuel bed are confirmed to be close to the theoretical maximum. the relatively large surface area of the grate gives a one-dimensional combustion behaviour and allows larger particle sizes. two small batchfired furnaces were designed and built. Furthermore. In Figure 25 it is seen that all measurement data. and during this time also the fuel below dried by heat from the same heating source and from the convective air flow through the bed. Furthermore. thus creating a better possibility to follow the progress of the reaction front. as the relative position of the location of the measurement inside the bed changes as the bed shrinks away. However. since these arches also have positive affects on the gas flow in the furnace. where combustion of wet cellulose on a laboratory travelling grate was investigated. Paper VIII In order to further investigate combustion of a fuel bed placed on a grate. are within or close to the theoretical maximum given by the model. where the same combustion behaviour is indicated in a small grate furnace. even if two-dimensional effects are present. after submission of the paper measurements from burning wood chips on a travelling grate was presented in [32]. and consequently there is a later ignition of the pure wood chips than of the forest waste that includes a large portion of fine saw-dust. but ignition or stirring caused by the transport of the bed along the grate were not observed on the surface during the first 1 to 1. Large scale mixing of the fuel bed could be another reason for the temperature raise before 1. For the highest moisture contents there can be observed a slightly higher propagation rate than the theoretical maximum one. This explains the volatile release far down on the grate. This means that the propagation rate in a reciprocating grate cannot be that much higher in the same combustion situation. A large part of the fuel had to be dried by the heat added for ignition before the fuel ignited.3. In the first furnace.8 m from the fuel inlet. Another fact that talks against large scale mixing is the tendency of wood chips to stick together.5 m from the fuel inlet. However. The reaction front propagates up through the bed and the devolatilisation continues until the devolatilisation front reaches the surface of the bed. When publishing this paper we did not find any support for this combustion behaviour in the literature. This unit has the advantage that heat transfer and thereby the ignition can be controlled. although the moisture content was 10% higher.

must be provided with a few rather large holes. on which the fuel bed rests. The smaller unit is also much easier to operate.08 0. However.08 0. Conclusions Paper I.5 0. Gort wood 5-20 mm.02 0. pellet 8mm Small test rig.06 0.00 0. Furthermore.4 0. but an even gas flow through the bed can easily be arranged and the relative bed position of the measurements inside the furnace is easier to approximate. wood chips as function of air mass flow rate.5 0.1 0.0 wood 8 mm wood 10 mm. front in the bed propagates from the grate to the surface of the bed.4 0. in the large and the small unit. as a position inside the bed is fixed until the reaction front passes.3 0.10 0.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure 26 Measured ignition rate (coincide with the propagation rate) in a bed of 8 mm wood pellets as a function of airflow. the air is instead introduced from the bottom and the ignition takes place at the top. which makes it more sufficient for initial and preliminarily experiments. 10-mm wood cubes.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0. The comparison shows that the units built provide the expected behaviour and can be used for more detailed investigations in future work.1 0.00 0. measurements of surface temperature in a large scale fluidized bed combustor show that the fuel particles can have excess temperatures of 500 to 600 K in relation to the bed temperature. which have a high thermal capacity. This results in an unwanted gas flow pattern close to the surface of the grate. Figure 27 Ignition rate for 8-mm wood cylinders. the smaller unit. in the present work. Horttanainen Large test rig.06 0.02 0.2 0. [8]. and 5-20-mm. Figure 26 and Figure 27. the small unit.0.04 0. In the second furnace. in order to avoid the grate to clog.3 0. Fluidized bed combustors are usually considered to be practically isothermal due to the good mixing provided by the fluidization of inert material. pellet 8mm 0.0 0.10 0. 19 . Model calculations show that these excess temperatures only can be present at higher oxygen concentrations than the mean concentration measured in the combustor.12 0. In this furnace the ignition and heat transfer to fuel bed surface is not controlled. The performance of the two units was validated by comparing results from tests with fuel beds of uniform fuel particles operated at different airflows with similar tests in other furnaces reported in the literature [8] and [33]. This indicates that the mixing is not as good and the temperature is not as even as expected.12 Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0. the grate.04 0.2 0. [33].

The model presented here treats particles that change in size during conversion and are realistically shaped. The model accounts for the most essential physical processes of the conversion of the fuel bed along the grate that are modelled and based on the generally accepted combustion concept.Paper II. For model validation. a representation is needed of the composition of the volatile gases. A general model of fuel loading and size distribution in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC) has been developed. The bed model is successfully connected to a CFD-calculation of the gaseous combustion above the grate by an iterative procedure. based on modelling. Paper III. which makes it suitable for Eulerian calculations. a sub model for the composition of the volatile gases leaving particles that are non isothermal during conversion and fulfils the elemental species and energy balances of the fuel is derived. The model accounts for the most influencing parameters and is computationally efficient. For the circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) the fuel concentration and size distribution along the riser are also modelled. but the lower part indicates that there are some fundamental controversies in the model assumptions for the bed (To be treated in Paper VII). Paper IV. The fragmentation rate constants obtained from the evaluation of experimental data show a good agreement with the literature data. However. Therefore a more detailed investigation. a survey is made of the different gas concentrations in the furnace by measurements in a 31 MW grate furnace. The model describes the conversion of the fuel particles in a one-dimension formulation. A comparison of the model with experiments shows that the simplifications made do not significantly influence the overall agreement of the model. Modelling of a great number of large solid fuel particles in a combustion system needs a model that account for the most essential features of the conversion process with as few equations and as small computational effort as possible. The fragmentation is to some extent treated in a new way. has been carried out. When modelling combustion of large wood particles. Previously there have been suggestions on how to model the thermal conductivity of wet and dry wood. since internal heat transfer in most cases is decisive for the conversion rate of the solid fuels. Comparison with measurements from a 31 MWth reciprocating grate furnace shows a good agreement in the upper part of the furnace. the present paper shows that this is not the case. The generally expected combustion behaviour of cross-current furnace is that the bed is ignited on the top of the bed by radiation from the flames and ignition aches (assumption made in Paper VI). the thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties. The concept presumes that a reaction front propagates from the surface of the bed down to the surface of the grate. In the present work. especially of high volatile fuels. Paper VII. The result of the investigation is a more general model and suggestions on how to model the thermal conductivity of char. Paper VI. The model is validated for wood and the physical properties required for the modelling are summarised. especially for 20 . but the models differ slightly. A simplified bed model is derived for the combustion behaviour of a cross-current (reciprocating) grate furnace. Paper V. When modelling combustion systems.

Chirone. There are also test facilities built up for future investigation.. both from the reciprocating grate furnace and the CFB combustor. Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion. L..P. The measurements performed both in the large scale furnace and in laboratory furnaces show that the ignition has to start close to the grate. Combustion and Flame. J. 505-509. 89. 1995. Ross. 73. and to extract more information on the oxygen fluctuations in the CFB combustor. based on the surface temperature measurements. “The Contribution of Attrition and Fragmentation to Char Elutriation from Fluidized Beds”. two furnaces were constructed and their functionality is proven by comparing measurement data with similar units found in the literature. Massimilla. Future Work In the papers assembled in the present thesis a number of models are derived.. 1989. 10911099. For example. Pittsburgh.. ‘A predictive model of Carbon Attrition in Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification of a Graphite’. They can be combined in different ways and be complemented for further use and analysis of measurements performed. D.. The work that will hopefully be done in the near future is to introduce the transient model for single particles into a general bed model.. 44. Vienna. Christofides. Chemical Engineering Science. FUEL. 79. University of Technology. Further. R. especially for the combustion in a fixed bed. This conclusion explains why the bed model derived in Paper VI did not properly work for the investigated grate furnace. References 1.A. ‘On the Timing of Primary Fragmentation During Bituminous Coal Particle Devolatilisation in a Fluidized Bed Combustor’ The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. P. 4. for supplementary evaluation of measurement data obtained from the small grate furnaces built and the reciprocating grate.wet biofuels. there are still a large part of the measurements carried out during this work that are not analysed. D. Heidenreich.K. 1994. 2. N. In order to further investigate the propagation rate of a reaction front moving in the same direction as the one generally expected in cross-current combustion. a third measurement campaign was carried out in the reciprocating grate in Trollhättan. The Combustion Institute.. 2000. F... Cammarota. Stubington. ‘Single Fuel particle and NOx/N2O-emissions characteristics under (circulating) fluidized bed combustor conditions’...95-102. 219-226. Winter. 1995. ’Primary and secondary fragmentation of coals in a circulating fluidized bed combustor’.. Other interesting work for the future is to formulate a transient model for the fuel loading in the CFB combustor. 873-883 21 . U. Academic Dissertation. 1992. Arena. B. A. 6.. 3. Moss. Salatino.F. Zhang. C. J.C. Brown R. 5. which means that it starts on the opposite side related to what is generally expected. Paper VIII. ‘Devolatilisation times of coal particles in a fluidized-bed’. Ahrens..

C. J. P. 121.S. vol. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development. ‘Modelling of fixed bed combustion’. 1998. 25. 836-844..W. Academic Dissertation. J. Fuel Processing Technology. Combustion and Flame... 1985. 50-62. Chan. J. 8.7. ‘Modelling and experimental verification of physical and chemical processes during pyrolysis of a large biomass particle’.. Valenzuela. 75-83. T. R. Longwell. L. J..B. 10. 4-11. Palchonock. 27. R. 17.G. 36. 1.. Miller J. J.R. P.. C.. D. Cook. 18. Hortanainen. Encinar. 2000. ISBN 91-7197-712. ‘The Role of Temperature in the fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose and wood’. Ford N. Schwob.A... 1987. Taipale. ‘Propagation of ignition front in fuel beds of particles’.A. 78-85. 13. 1. 14. ISBN 909008751-6.. A. Nunn. ‘Influence of Physical and Chemical Parameters on Wood Pyrolysis’. W-C. Shin. Fundamentals’... J.. Figueiredo. 1985. Academic Dissertation. Fuel. 15. Roberts. 1988. 214-216.. 1012-1016. Chio. 21. 109-113. Milne. Chalmers University of Technology.. ‘Pyrolysis of Holm-Oak Wood: Influence of Temperature and Particle Size’.J.. 1995. Beamont.. R. F... ‘On the propagation of a reaction front in a packed bed. 1946.. Kanury. R. 1989. A. Peters. 1505-1513. Academic Dissertation. M.... M. M. 1972. Combustion and Flame. Kelbon. Sakomaa. Combustion and Flame. 16. Energy&Fuels. Krieger-Brockett. Industrial & engineering chemistry research.P. A. Scott. Graham. ‘A Review of Kinetics Data for the Pyrolysis of Wood and Related Substances’. S. Fuel.. Y. T. ‘Product Composition and Kinetics in the Rapid Pyrolysis of Sweet Gum Hardwood’. 1993. 18. ‘Molecular Characterization of the Pyrolysis of Biomass.M. Article series in ‘Fuel Science and Practice’.J. M.. B. 637-641. 19. 9. University of Twente. 23. Evans R. 12. 11. 261-272. 14. ISBN 91-7197-891-7.. M. 159-162.. Bergeougnou. ‘Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Wood Pyrolysis’. ‘The Combustion of Simulated Waste Particles in a Fixed Bed’.. Chalmers University of Technology. ‘Mode of combustion of coal on a chain grate stoker’. 1970. Combustion and Flame 2000. 8-15. thermal conversion of municipal waste and biomass’. 123. G.. 68. 167-180.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development. ‘Heat and Mass Transfer to Single Particle in Fluidized Bed’. W. Marskell W.J. 2000. M. ‘Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers’.. 22 . 20. 1984. D. Saastamoinen.. Brëitholtz.J. Gort. 55-63. Bernalte. O. 64.W. Sage. p. 24.123-137.A. Howard. Piskorz.

1977.J. ‘Pyrolytic behaviour and Products of Some Wood Varieties’. 106. 1996. Combustion and Flame. Article Number 200003... D. 1996. 1998. J. Branca. ‘A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Thermal Degradation of Biomass’. 1051-1059.. M. Signorelli. 501508. Saastamoinen. 37. F. ISBN 82-471-0009-6. Santoro. I.. Gonzalez Hernadez. J. 28. Grønli. Rea. 75. P. C. 27. Obernberger.. T. R. G. G. L. Williams. Di Blasi. Dikalenko. IFRF Combustion Journal.. Stanchits. P. Siau. 24. J. Di Blasi. Bilger. G.W. Transactions American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. Werther. ‘Product Distribution from Pyrolysis of Wood and Agriculture Residues’. Vancouver. Berlin. Sarkomaa.net. 2000. Industrial & Engineering Chemical Research. A. B. C.. 125-134. 1st World Conference on Biomass. The University of Sidney. J. Lamb. F. Reina. Ignition front propargation in packed beds of wood particles. 4290-4295. 38. ’Investigation on the Release of Nitrogen and Volatile Compounds from the Fuel Bed in Grate Furnaces’. 1984. J.D. ASME. ‘The combustion of wet cellulosic fuel bed’. Saastamoinen. J. Di Russo. E. Horne. A.ifrf. B.. Springler-Verlag. Borodulya. ISBN 3-540-125744. 30. Fleck. Puigjaner. V. 32. 165-177. Proc. T. 23.A. Seville.. ‘Thermal Conductivity of Wood’.. ‘Simultaneous Drying and Pyrolysis of Solid Fuel Particles’. P. 26.I.. Combustion and Flame.. 323-354. ‘Influence of Temperature on the Products from Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass’. A. 47.22. and Leckner. Spain. Weissinger. 2216-2224. on Fluidized Bed Combustion. J-R. www.S Preto ed.. 31. New York. Fuel.. Palchonok. Richard..W.... M. C. Academic Dissertation. 33. ISSN 1562-479X. 25. Industrial Engineering in Chemical Research.. ‘Transport Processes in Wood’. Vole. 1997. May 2000.I. V. American Chemical Society... J. 23 . MacLean.V. Horttanainen. C. 288-300. Canada. of the 14th Int. E.K. ‘Kinetics of the Main Stages of Fluidized Bed Combustion of a wet biomass particle’. 1941. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology. ‘ Kinetic Study of the Pyrolysis of Waste’.. L.. 1996. 1999... Second Australasian Conference on Heat and Mass Transfer. 124.J.A... 29. 2001.

Appendix Page XII Eq (A48): “ .Errata list for the included Papers Paper I Page 871 col. mm” Page 875 caption to Figure 3 line 7: “the solid line … of 9.. Tampere University of Technology. char ( R ) dR * * ” 24 .4 mm …” Page 877. ” should be “ ..c. 73. + Ff . Plasma technology laboratory.... a notation is missing: max – largest diameter of a inert or active particle Page 873 Eq (1).. Moss. ‘The Contribution of Attrition and Fragmentation to Char Elutriation from Fluidized Beds’. ” Appendix Page XVII reference missed for Brown et al. 1 line 33: “and the inert (bed) particle of density ρb. B.vol ( y ) + . J. Christofides. P. 89.. “ 2 2 ” should be “ ” 1 + ma / mi 1 + mi / ma Page 873 col. in part (3) “ ( R + Rinert ) ” should be “ π ( R + Rinert ) ” 2 Page 12 2nd reference “Siciliano.C. 505-509..” Page 12 a reference is missing: Stubington. Combustion and Flame.. The expression 2/(1+mi/ma)” Page 873 col.. R) M * n R char char h (R )k * f . + F0.F.” should be “Salatino.. mm” should be “da. [1992]: should be “Brown R.c.char ( R ) = Rmax ∫ h ( R .char: should be “ Ff 2...95-102” Appendix Page XIX definition missed for Ff2.. L. for help with pyrometer measurements. Ahrens. Paper II Page 5 Eq (26): part (1) “ CD Aext ρ g v fuel v fuel ” should be “ CD Aext ρ g v fuel v fuel / 8 ”. 2 line 5: “U-V/ε” should be “U/ε-V” Page 871. The expression 2/(1+ma/mi)” should be “ and the suspension of density ρb.. an acknowledgment is missing: The authors would like to thank Timo Joutsenoja. Finland.vol ( y ) + . N. 1995. ‘On the Timing of Primary Fragmentation During Bituminous Coal Particle Devolatilisation in a Fluidized Bed Combustor’ The Canadian journal of chemical engineering. 1992. J.4 mm …” should be “The dashed line … of 9. 2 line 21: “ times an amount of heat absorbed” should be “times an amount of heat absorbed per unit temperature difference” Page 875 in Figure 2b: “di.

Avhandlingens innehåll Denna doktorsavhandling består av åtta arbeten där olika aspekter av omvandlingen eller fysikaliska storheter för att beskriva omvandlingen av fasta bränslen i en rost eller en fluidiserad bäddpanna undersöks. Avgasningen kan illustreras av de gaser som ger flammorna runt brinnande grillkol. För det senare är kol den idag. Det som utreds i avhandlingen är följande: • Bränslepartiklar med en mycket högre temperatur än omgivningen i en fluidiserad bädd • Bränslemängden i en fluidiserad bädd. Bränslet torkar. eller förgasas. Regionala problem är främst utsläpp av svaveloxider. torv och kol använts för uppvärmning och under de senaste seklerna för värme och kraftproduktion. Globala problem är främst utsläpp av växthusgasen koldioxid. • Transient beskrivning av omvandlingen av icke-sfäriska bränslebitar med hög fuktoch flykthalt.Populärvetenskaplig sammanfattning ( In Swedish ) Bakgrund Under alla tider har olika typer av fasta bränslen såsom ved. Under torkningen avgår fukten från bränslet vid en lokal temperatur omkring 100 °C. uppvärmning och avger sina flyktiga beståndsdelarna. Detta kan åskådliggöras med glödande grillkol. Den slutliga koksförbränningen eller förgasningen är när koksen reagerar med luftens syre eller med t. • Konstruktion och byggande av experimentanläggningar för undersökning av förbränningsförloppen i en fast bädd. Generella förlopp Oberoende om fasta bränslen förbränns i en liten eldstad eller i en stor panna för värmeoch kraftproduktion är förbränningsförloppet detsamma. avgasar och slutligen förbränns. • Värmeledning i trä under olika stadier av förbränningen. Förbränningen av kol skapar dock både regionala och globala problem. kväveoxider samt tungmetaller. den återstående koksen. Den efterföljande avgasningen är när bränslet bryts ner pga. vattenånga och koldioxid. För fasta bränslen består dessa i huvudsak av rester från skogs. Dessa förlopp sker antingen var för sig eller samtidigt inne i bränslet beroende på storlek och med vilken hastighet bränslet värms upp. Ett steg i denna riktning är att ersätta kol med förnyelsebara alternativ. • Modellering av en hel rostpanna. • Termokemiska data och sammansättningen av gaser som lämnar ett träbränsle under avgasning. • Fastställande av det generella förbränningsförloppet i en bränsle bädd på en rörlig rost. vilket sker i temperaturintervallet 300 till 600 °C. Målet med detta arbete och med all forskning inom detta område är att öka förståelsen för förbränningen i syfte att minimera påverkan på miljön och samtidigt producera el och värme till en så låg kostnad som möjligt. det enskilt viktigaste bränslet. 25 . och i alla fall under detta sekel. Under de senaste årtiondena har intresset för att skapa ett uthålligt energisystem och att reducera produktionen av växthusgaser ökat.och jordbruksindustrin.ex.

Resultat De huvudsakliga resultaten av arbetet är olika modeller. då detta arbete visar att de reflekterande ytorna ovanför bädden som är avsedda för att underlätta tändningen inte har denna funktion. Utöver de framtagna modellerna är det fastlagt att den allmänna uppfattningen om förbränningsförloppet i en rörlig rostpanna eldad med våta biobränslen inte stämmer. nära den rörliga rosten. Detta kan få en stor betydelse för konstruktionen av nya rostpannor. visar mätningar och en matematisk analys. Härledningen av modellerna baseras på olika fysikaliska modeller och kan inkluderas i övergripande modeller av förbränningen av fasta bränslen i fasta eller fluidiserade bäddar. Istället för att förbränningen av bädden tänds med hjälp av strålning från flammor ovanför bädden. att bädden istället tänds underifrån. samt för att öka förståelsen av förbränning av fasta bränslen. 26 . vilka är validerade mot genomförda mätningar.

Paper I .

.

(7) g gravity acceleration. Sc Schmidt number. m/s particle terminal or slip velocity.b. Ut. m E activation energy.3 and 3mm could have as high a temperature as the measured ones. - *UHHN 6\PEROV α heat transfer coefficient. r reaction rate kg O2/m2 s S larger-to-finer particle size ratio. kc/β. kg/m3 σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant.d stoichiometric coefficients in reaction (12). a model of heat and mass transfer between a burning char particle and its surrounding has been developed.5 times as high as in a singlephase flow. temperature. provided that there is a highly non-uniform oxygen distribution over the furnace cross-section. m/s2 kapp apparent combustion rate. May 11-14. β da/D. κ projected area of inert particles in a unit volume. 220072 Minsk. W/(m2 K) β mass transfer coefficient. ν/D. Sweden Phone:+46 31 772 1431. Fax:+46 31 772 3592 $%675$&7 High excess temperatures of burning coal particles. have been measured with a two.14th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion.a d/ν. 5. up to 600 K. W/(mK) ν gas kinematic viscosity. Vancouver. J/K q heat transferred during one particle collision.314 J/mole K Ret particle Reynolds number. J/(kg*K) D molecular gas diffusivity.V. 8. K time.&/( .Brovka 15. To understand this phenomenon. m2/s ρ density. α da/λ. The gas-convective and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer were found to dominate in the core of the transport zone of a CFB furnace. (4) N number of collisions. εr emissivity. p split factor in Eqs (13). 1997 . s superficial gas velocity. Academy of Sciences of Belarus P. m2/s Da Damköhler number. rad 6XEVFULSWV a active particle b bed c core region e end g gas gc gas-convective i inert particle minsmallest diameter of inert or active particle o initial pc particle-convective r radiative s solid t terminal or slip velocity 871 . The gasconvective transfer rate was 1.21 2) $ )8(/ 3$57. m oxygen mass fraction. 120(1&/$785( a. 1/m λ gas thermal conductivity. m/s particle velocity.67·10-8 W/(m2 K4) Θ angle of impact. φ split factor in Eqs (13). d particle diameter. Fax:+375 17 232 1325 2 Chalmers University of Technology. Belarus Phone:+375 17 268 4059. m/s δeff effective thickness of a gas lens. J R universal gas constant. Model calculations show that particles between 0. J/mol F function of particle size ratio in Eq. kg.c. Department of Energy Conversion S-412 96 Göteborg.color pyrometer in the transport zone of a CFB boiler at a rather low average oxygen concentration of about 6 %. m ε voidage. 3DOFKRQRN & %UHLWKROW] + 7KXQPDQDQG % /HFNQHU 1 A. m/s distance between particle and probe tip. Q heating value.Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute. 1/(m2 s) Nu active particle Nusselt number. m/s kc chemical reaction rate. and factor in Eqs (3). m/s ko frequency factor. U-V/ε. - Sh T t U Ut V x YO 2 Sherwood number.03$&7 2) +($7 $1' 0$66 75$16)(5 21 &20%867.1 &)% %2. based on measured heat transfer coefficients and the estimated slip velocity of a char particle./(56 * . cp specific heat. m/s m particle mass.

around 1 % by mass. based on measurements in quite a large scale CFB combustor. Two of the four water-cooled membrane walls are refractory-lined. A Froessling type of equation. An analogy can be made with the gas-convective heat transfer in the freeboard of a bubbling bed. combustion efficiency and agglomeration in a fluidized bed combustor. However. 8 and 11 m above the air distributor. The test holes used in the measurements are situated in the center of the cool walls at heights 3. used by Basu and Nag (1993).72 m by 1. The measurement volume was a diverging cone with an aperture of around 12 degrees. The temperature of a burning particle is the result of the relationship between the chemical reaction rate and the heat and mass transfer rates to or from the particle.2 m/s (Golriz and Leckner.35) calorimeters was used to evaluate the radiative component of the heat transfer coefficient. because of the added secondary air. The data available are limited to a few measurements with large fixed fuel particles in small-scale reactors. 1. The combustion chamber has a 1. A method of dark (oxidized steel sphere.17 and 0. in which strong gradients of the above parameters are observed. Numerous measurements. The probes were positioned outside the boundary layer whose thickness was around 0. The model assumptions used in the pyrometry were: (i) the inert solids are gray bodies of the same emissivity. The present paper aims at improving the knowledge of the heat and mass transfer and temperature of burning char particles in the core of a CFB.35 and 0.. (1995).21 Fluidized bed combustors of stationary (SFB) or circulating (CFB) type are usually regarded as isothermal systems. the turbulence of the external gas flow can significantly enhance the heat and mass transfer rate. 1992). εr =0. to some extent. respectively.8 to 4. e. but there are no reliable data on the heat and mass transfer to an active particle in the upper zone of a CFB combustor. The falling velocity of 0. was kept constant.. 1993). During the drying and. Leckner (1992). This makes the fluidized bed locally non-isothermal. to 300 K (Krobarth et al. have shown that the turbulence intensity in the gas phase is around 20 %. the fuel is colder than the inert matrix of particles. caused by bubble eruption in the bottom bed (Palchonok et al. during devolatilization. The bed material was silica sand of 2600 kg/m3 density and with a Sauter mean particle diameter of 0. 1123 K. εr=0. The heat and mass transfer coefficients of an active particle in a SFB combustor can be reasonably accurately calculated with models available in the literature. The superficial gas velocity was 4 m/s in the bottom bed and 6 m/s at the measurement level. e. These values are close to the terminal velocity of a bed particle.5 to 2. has not been experimentally proven under CFB conditions.g. ash and limestone. The cross-sectional average bed density 872 .g. 1996). by Palchonok et al. 1994).1 m on all the three measurement levels.8.0(17$/ Measurements were carried out in the 12 MWth CFB boiler at Chalmers University of Technology described. which implies that the gas velocity is small within the wall layer and that the combustion occurs mostly in the core of the bed. The time-average local bed temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple protected with a double radiation shield. whereas the distribution is rather uniform in the core of the bed.25 mm at the measurement level.. The gas velocity in the core is therefore higher than the superficial velocity and can be assumed to be uniform there.3(5. Heat transfer coefficients to fixed metal spheres of 5. the particle phase is a mixture of a few active fuel particles. and numerous inert ones: sand. this leads to an increase in the gasconvective heat and mass transfer rate with approximately 50 %.6 m/s during the measurements with the larger inert particles and from 1. have shown that the excess temperature of large char particles burning in an SFB at an oxygen concentration of 21%.26 mm bed particles (silica sand) was found to be. The superficial gas velocity varied from 1. Estimates of turbulence in the transport zone of a CFB combustor. High local temperatures have to be considered when analyzing formation of pollutants. e. were used as bottom bed materials.7 m/s with the smaller ones. Close to the walls.8 m with the tip placed close to the axis of the furnace. reaches up to 500 K and decreases nearly linearly with oxygen concentration. 1991) and 2. a layer of descending particles is formed. The cross-sectional average bed density at the measurement level varied from 1 to 35 kg/m3. The bottom bed temperature.. 1992). Borodulya et al. Two silica sand fractions with Sauter mean diameters of 0. and density 2600 kg/m3.3 m/s (Wu et al. (1995). Such a calculation is based on the slip velocity of an active particle which can be affected by the motion of the inert particles. There is also a lack of experimental data on the temperature of the burning particles in a CFB combustor. The transport zone of CFB combustors is characterized by a non-uniform lateral distribution of solids concentration and bed temperature (Leckner and Andersson. which has been found to be 50 to 70 % as high as in a non-disturbed single phase flow (Hassan and Palchonok. The temperature of burning particles of bituminous coal was measured with a two-color optical pyrometer developed by Hernberg et al. (1988). The instantaneous overall heat transfer coefficient was evaluated from the natural heating rate of the sphere measured by an embedded thermocouple.g. According to Kutateladze (1990).g. (. The same models can also be applied to the dense bottom bed of a CFB combustor. The temperatures of the bed and of the active particle were calculated from the measured ratio of the incident radiation intensities at two wavelengths. (iii) the wavelengths used are selected to avoid an influence of the flue gas. (1993). but during char combustion the fuel is warmer than the surrounding bed. The bed temperature is kept at about 1123 K to optimize sulfur removal.1752'8&7.. The optical pyrometer was contained in a water-cooled probe of 43 mm diameter positioned at a height of 3.5 m tall. The excess temperatures of the fuel particles have been found to vary from 150 to 200 K (Bis et al. 10 and 15 mm in diameter were measured with the transient technique described by Palchonok et al.22 mm. e. (ii) only one active particle is contained at the moment in the measurement volume. 1992).8) and light (ground silver sphere. Besides.44 m cross-section and is 13. to prevent oxidation of air nitrogen and ash melting.27 mm in the bottom bed and 0.

q. D − 8 W .L π (G D + G L )2 2 ρ E . Simultaneous measurements of the instantaneous oxygen concentration with a zirconia cell showed fluctuations between oxidizing and reducing conditions. It follows from Eq. Va<Vi) during the upward flow of a dilute.. low-density) one. A simplified situation. D 0. J 8 W .85 of char (Ross et al.4 ⋅10 − 6 (7 273)  1  (& + 7 )(& + 7 )  1 2   0. ρa and Va are surrounded by inert particles with the uniform parameters di. α = αgc + αpc + αr.. Equation (3) can be used for calculation of the mass transfer coefficient.(1) that the inert particles can either promote the movement of a slow (coarse) char particle or hinder a fast (fine.5 Pr 0. The expression 2/(1+ma/mi) is an effective drag coefficient of the solid phase. as a number of collisions per unit time per unit surface of the active particle.. J = 24 Re W . 1996) & '. (1996). The minimum effective thickness of the lens was estimated as d/6. The particle-convective component is estimated.D − 8 W . 1981). The gas. the radiative heat transfer coefficient is calculated as α U = σ 7D 2 + 7E 2 (7D + 7E ) ( ε U . is considered for application in the model of Nowak et al. N. The model assumes that the heat is transiently transferred through the gas lens between the relatively flat surface of the larger particle and the smaller spherical particle.i=0.6 of inert (sand) particles (Borodulya et al. consistent with the flow pattern described above. 1X JF = 2 + P Re W . the final expression for the particle-convective heat transfer coefficient reads The local bed density in the core.33 (3) The parameter m was evaluated from the measurements with the fixed metal spheres.F + 1 + P D PL 4 2 + & '. This results in a velocity difference between the active and the inert particles. D 0.E − 1) 1 ( ) (9) Emissivities εr. The overall heat transfer coefficient is assumed to be the sum of gas-convective. (4) are based on the molecular gas diffusivity of oxygen in the flue-gas. acting on the active particle having an effective collision diameter (da+di).term of Eq. ρi and Vi . D + 1 ε U . ρb (Zhang et al. the restitution coefficient is equal to 1. and calculated according to Pomerantsev et al. This diffusivity was approximated with the one for a binary mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. an arbitrary active-to-inert particle size ratio is assumed. (1996) ( ) 1 = (3 2)8 W .a=0. According to Nowak et al.5 6F 0. & 2. (1986).i).33 (4) The Sherwood and Schmidt numbers in Eq.(1) can be interpreted as a drag force. An analogous estimate for two contacting spheres of an arbitrary size ratio. a derivation is given in Appendix A. As a result of the additional momentum transfer.L (1 − ε )(G D + G L )2 (1) (πG D 2 GL3 ) (6) The first . Because of the higher velocity. where the drag coefficient is calculated as (Kovensky. 1994). the velocity of the active particle increases compared to the case of a single-size particle flow.L 8 W .e. and the prediction from this equation should be considered as a rough estimate. uniform suspension of gas and inert particles. 6KJF = 2 + P Re W .5 (5) where C1=138 and C2=107. provided that the analogy holds between the gas-convective heat transfer and mass transfer. The latter was evaluated from pressure drop measurements. which results in a modified equation for the slip velocity.7 % at the measurement level.5  (& + 273)( 2 + 273)   ' = 18. the inert particles collide with the stern of the active one. 1982) were used in the 873 .was 25 kg/m3 and the oxygen concentration was 5. S = dmax/dmin. 8 W . This correlation is in agreement with the Chapman-Enskog theory (Bird et al.44 ε F 4. times an amount of heat absorbed by a single inert particle during a short impact. D πG D ρJ − JPD = 0 4 2 2 component is calculated with a Froessling-type equation based on the slip velocity. D − 8 W .D + 0.D 8 W .. In the present analysis. A quasi-steady temperature profile in the film is assumed. caused by the difference in velocity between the active particle (fuel) and the inert (bed) particle of density ρb. The second term describes the drag of the gas.collision . (1996).c. The collisions are assumed to be elastic. and εr. where spherical active particles with the parameters da. 02'(/ +HDW DQG PDVV WUDQVIHU The transfer rate is closely related to the flow pattern around the burning particle. Equation (1) was obtained under a number of simplifying assumptions. which can be estimated as t=di/(Ut.75 The model of Zabrodsky (1966) for an elementary act of heat transfer between a surface and a single particle is used to calculate q. An active char particle generally has different size and density from that of inert bed material. analogous to that of Nowak et al.a-Ut. is approximately two times as low as the cross-sectional average bed density.convective α SF = (3 8)(λ δ HII )( − ε F )(G D + G L )2 G D 2 1 (8) If the temperature of the inert particles does not change significantly during the short impact time. This model describes a quasi-steady state motion of a coarse active particle (da>>di. i. ρb. particle-convective and radiative components. The fuel was a bituminous coal. reads δ HII G min = 1 6 + 1 2 6) 1 − 6 2 ) ( − ) 3) +1 / 2π 1 ( ) (7) ( ) (2) ) = 1− cos(arcsin (1 6 )) Provided a short duration of impact.c. 1960).

5 to 1. (1967) 200 400 600 1000 2000 Reynolds number.NJ 22 . (1986) was also used.05 ⋅10 −3 < G S < 1 ⋅10 −3 P −3 (S + 2 ) 0. which differs from recommendations of Pomerantsev et al.02. The particle-convective constituent was found to be negligibly small. 10 D& + E22 = F&2 + G &22 (12) The molar ratios of the reactants and the primary reaction products are assumed to depend on the particle size and temperature according to Arthur (1951) and Field et al.3*U/ε. The 874 . (1986).L 0.5 kg/m3. evaluated from the measurements as αgc = α .5 to 17. 5(68/76 $1' '. E. being 115 to 135 kJ/mole for bituminous coals. NF = N0 exp[− ( 57D ] (17) Equations (18) and (19) predict approximately 1. and silver (open) (Palchonok et al.05 ⋅10 −3 ( ) . GW = 4 . This agrees with the above mentioned recommendation of Kutateladze (1990) and implies that the turbulence intensity is higher than 10 %. Nusselt number.6&866.95 ⋅10 −3 φ = 1. 0.89 Re W . 4&2 = 6. The effective emissivity of the dilute isothermal suspension was calculated as (Borodulya and Kovensky.. The symbols are for measured values. with Ret based on the superficial velocity. the gas velocity is around 1.05 ⋅ 10 −3 P (13) φ= (2 S + 2)− S G S − 0. D 0. A least square fit yields a value of the factor m in Eqs. The heat release of the chemical reaction per kg O2 is. 1995). (1996).35 mm and the small ones with di=0. (1967).2 ⋅ 10 −4 ( the apparent activation energy. DSS <22 ρ J − α (7D − 7E ) (11) 20 The particle Biot number is assumed to be low enough to neglect the internal temperature gradient.G S ≤ 0.6) for single phase flow.89 Re W . (filled). in the same order of magnitude as estimates of Palchonok et al.21 The gas-convective heat transfer coefficients. (3) and (4) of 1.a Figure 1: Nusselt number for gas convection between a sphere and the bulk bed in the transport-zone.33 6KJF = 2 + 0. 1983) 60 40 15 10 5 Fe Ag ε U .84 0. derivation in Appendix B. The Reynolds number of the particle is based on the local gas velocity. 1. 10 and 15 mm spheres of steel.1 m thick wall layer. An alternative kinetics of Pomerantsev et al. Nu gc calculations.5 times higher transfer rate than the Froessling equation (m=0.20 mm. D 0.7 % of the total heat transfer coefficient.(αpc + αr). The large symbols are measured with di=0. The line is calculated from Eq. 0. log[N0 ] = 2 + 0. with 5.33 (18) (19) S ≡ F G = 2500 exp[− 6240 / 7D ] φ ≡ D E = (2 S + 2 ) (S + 2 ). but can be accepted for the dilute conditions in the CFB transport zone.G S ≥ 1 ⋅ 10 P The above kinetics are questionable under SFB conditions (Prins. (18). are presented in non-dimensional form in Fig. (Zhang et al. Provided that no gas flows through the 0.NJ 22 The apparent combustion rate constant (related to the consumption of oxygen) is N DSS = 1 ( N F + 1 β ) 1 (15) (14) The chemical reaction rate constant (related to oxygen consumption) is assumed to follow the kinetics of Field et al.E = ε U .0. N F = (1 φ )(32 12)2247D exp[− 149200 57D ] (16) Equation (16) implies the same reactivity for different coals.Gas conv. which leads to the following expressions 1X JF = 2 + 0. at the actual bed densities in the core region.34 0. Re t. A first-order chemical reaction is assumed to occur on the external surface of the particle. 1996).5 6F 0..31 7HPSHUDWXUH RI WKH EXUQLQJ SDUWLFOHV (10) A simplified heat balance of a burning spherical char particle yields (F S D ρ D G D 6)G7D . 4 = 4&22 (2 − φ ) + 4&2 (φ − 1) 4&22 = 12. 1995). The radiative constituent was 20 to 30 % for the silver probes and 40 to 60 % for the steel ones. 1987) and (Hayhurst. and this predicts a somewhat lower reaction rate at high temperatures.5 Pr 0.

κ. Estimates of the X-factor versus the distance form the probe tip for different active particle diameters are plotted in Fig. a fine particle. the highest values corresponding to low X-factors. The field of view increases proportionally to the distance from the probe tip.15 3 mm and a density of 2300 kg/m . The solid line is for a char particle with an initial diameter of 13 mm in a bed with a temperature of 805 to 825 K consisting of fire-clay particles with a diameter of 2.800 1500 Excess temperature. This problem can hardly be solved.83 mm and a temperature of 990 to 1015 K. 2a that excess temperatures up to around 600 K have been observed. It is seen from Fig. (18) in Fig. reference temperature in Eqs. The configuration factor was estimated as the ratio of the projected area of the active particle and the area of the field of view. The particle temperature is measuerd at a fixed location in the furnace (an Eularian approach). x. and the emissivites of the active particle and the bed. because of the variety of the motion patterns of the particles and of combustion conditions. m Figure 2: a) Temperature measured with two-color pyrometry as a function of the X-factor. 10 di. 2a.4 mm in a bed of fire-clay particles having a diameter of 0. Lyngfelt et al. but for the calculation of the particle temperature from Eq(11) the particle is assumed to follow its environment (a Lagrangian approch). for different particle diameters. A low X-factor corresponds to either a small particle close to the probe tip or a larger particle further away. (1996).2b. 2a.2 0. The extinction depends on the distance between the particle and the probe tip. The dependence of the measured excess temperature on the active particle diameter can be evaluated with a statistical routine. The standard deviation from Eq. - 10 -2 0. but excess temperatures up to 600K were recorded. the extiction of the 875 . Assuming the emissivities to be close to unity. mm 5 2 Time. The results of the particle temperature measurements are presented in Fig.1 10 -3 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 Distance from the probe tip.5(Ta+Tb). easily carried away with the gas.5 X-factor. but when no high temperatures are observed at higher X-values the conclusion is that only small particles have high excess temperatures. whereas the transmission decreases exponentially. radiation from the fuel particle due to inert particles. The majority of the measured particle excess temperatures were below 200K. (18) and (19) is defined as T=0. b) The Xfactor as a function of the distance from the probe-tip. the X-factor can be represented simply as a function of the configuration factor and the extinction. The solid line is for a char particle with an initial diameter of 9. K 600 400 Particle temperature. The X-factor is an expression of the configuration factor for radiative exchange between the active particle and the probe. the excess temperature versus an X-factor dependence is plotted directly in Fig. s Figure 3: Experimentally determined temperature histories of burning char particles from bituminous coal in an oxygen concentration of 21 %. K 1000 500 200 0 -4 10 0 0 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 X-factor. This statistical routine demands a higher measurement accuracy than that obtained and therefore. 1 is around 30 %. can follow either oxygen-rich or 10 -1 1 0. and on the projected area of inert particles in a unit volume. and so the transmission becomes exp[-κx]. For instance. in a situation with strongly non-uniform oxygen distribution.

4.216 A model of heat and mass transfer to and from a burning char particle in a CFB furnace is presented.1 Y .03 0 0 200 400 600 800 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 Excess temperature. the intermediate one in the last case being unstable.3 to 3 mm in diameter. The Damköhler number is defined as the ratio of the reaction rate coefficient. This agrees with the conclusion drawn from the comparison of Figs. 2a shows that the high measured excess-temperatures Particle diameter. (11). while a coarse particle most likely will face a fluctuating oxygen concentration. the first one corresponding to a quasi. based on the difference between the velocities of fuel particles. provided that oxygen is non-uniformly distributed over the furnace cross-section. No char particle larger than around 4 mm has been found at the measurement level. The gas-convective transfer rate is 50 % as high as in a single-phase flow. α·(Ta2 Tb) (dashed line).steady state. implying a significant turbulence intensity in the gas phase. W/m² 10·10 5 Excess temperature. where the heat release. a diffusion-controlled regime. 5. (11) should look like Fig.600 12·10 5 Da=5 10 Heat release/transport. This agrees with theoretical predictions. Some stationary solutions of Eq. The complete solution of Eq. Other reasons for the detected high temperatures. and that fine char particles follow the gas flow and may burn in regions of high oxygen concentrations.g. Therefore the measurements have been compared with the quasi-stationary form of Eq. on the average. 2a can be attributed to relatively large char particles. but still consistent with the experiment.15 O 2 400 1 6·105 4·10 2·10 5 0. 3.7%. the highest temperatures can be attributed to fine char particles. showing some coarse char particle temperature histories measured at 21 % O2 in a laboratory-scale stationary fluidized bed. and Damköhler numbers (dashed lines).5 16 14 0. which did not follow the gas and which therefore. the combustion is controlled by kinetics. 2a and 2b. the maximum excess temperature of 500 to 600 K is reached by particles of 0.2 0. If Da < 1. products of secondary fragmentation.% 10 O2 9 8 7 6 4 5 0. K 500 2 8·10 5 Y =0. The experimental curves have two plateaus. such as homogeneous volatile combustion.5 mm char particle are shown graphically in Fig. β. and this size was chosen as the maximum diameter of the char particles in the calculations. meet rather low effective oxygen concentrations. bed particles and gas. Depending on the oxygen concentration. a kinetically controlled combustion regime. which was observed during the measurements. were obtained with the kinetics of Pomerantsev et al. can not be excluded. The bulk of the excess temperatures lower than 200 K in Fig. were measured at a rather low average oxygen concentration. Da. (11) for a 0. Assuming local plug-flow conditions. could not be reached at the measured average oxygen concentration YO =5. oxygen-poor gas streams. A small permanent increase of the bed temperature.07 200 100 0 12 0. 876 . All the solutions in the field of interest are presented in Fig. K Figure 4: Heat supply by combustion (solid lines) for different oxygen concentrationsYO2 and heat removal by heat transfer (dashed line) for a 0. interrupted the thermal equilibrium and the second plateau was reached. (1967) were used. e. Extremely high maximum excess temperatures of the burning particles.11 300 0. are plotted versus the excess temperature. corresponding to a quasi-steady state. up to 600 K. A comparison between Fig. m Figure 5: Excess temperature versus particle diameter for different oxygen concentrations (solid lines). and the mass transfer coeffcient. (solid lines)and heat loss from the particle.5 mm char particle as a function of the excess temperature. &21&/86. and if Da>1 it is diffusion-controlled. one or three steady state solutions can be found. 5 and Fig. The kinetics of Field et al. kc. which shows the excess temperature versus particle diameter for different oxygen concentrations and Damköhler numbers. when dTa/dt = 0. following oxygen-rich gas streams. as can be shown in terms of the Semenov (1935) ignition theory. QkappYO ρg. The gas-convective and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer are the dominant ones under the conditions prevailing in the core region of the transport zone. Provided that the measurements and 2 the evaluation are correct. (1986). Somewhat lower excess temperatures.

2nd Int. Galerstein. ed V. V. B. Matsuda. S. P. Leckner.. Int. J. Hawksley. Energoatomizdat. B. Lim. 59.. H. J.-E.B..Conf. V. 34..... I.Estimates of Turbulence Effects in CFB Boilers. 6. Leckner. CFB Combustion and Hydrodynamic Modelling. 277. Davidson.H. (1996).. 177.M. Progress of Combustion in the Furnace of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler. Kutateladze. Borodulya.. (1991). Spanish and Swedish Sections of the Combustion Institute. Palchonok. 83.M. Beijing. Characteristics of the Lateral Particle Distribution in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers..J. Advances in Coal Combustion.R.. Int. V. Vasiljev G. Eds Rubow L.. Z. Zabrodsky assumed a quasi-steady temperature profile in the 877 .. 12th Int. Yan. MSD7. New York. The Temperature of Burning Carbon Particle in Fluidized Beds. Powder Technology. Oxford University Press. Energoatomizdat.. Hidden Valley.L. on Fluidization. Morgan. G.. Account for the Constraining of Particle Motion in the Freeboard. (1990). (1987). M. M. Andersson. Nauka I Tehnica. 1st Int.-Å. L.Pomerantsev. P. Grace. B. α SF = T 1 (7D − 7E ) T = & S . C. 70. John Wiley and Sons. and Commonwealth G. (1996).. Basu.L ρ L πG L 3 6 7L.V.G. (1960). BCURA. Engineering Foundation. Patel. P. G. W. W.I.(17 +($7 75$16)(5 The particle convective heat transfer coefficient is calculated as the product of the heat transfered during one collision.. Nowak. W. (1996). 266.H − 7L . C.. 95.M. Andersson. Experimental Studies of Heat Transfer in a Circulatig Fluidized Bed Boiler.M. Gill.. 47. A. The Combustion Institute Madeira. London. G. on CFB Technology.. Conf. Turku.. Heat and Mass Transfer and Combustion Kinetics of Solid Fuel in Fluidized Bed..V. Combustion of Pulverized Coal. R. 26th Symp. Palchonok. Naples. P. K.. on CFB. B.e-Ti.$&. Beijing..A. Gothenburg..0=∆T.F.&. F. divided by the temperature difference between the active particle and the bulk.S. Instantaneous Local Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics in a Circulating Fluidized Bed.I. Steward. Hofbauer. Tours.V.(Int. Leckner. Dryabin. W. Ross. B. F. ASME. Lyngfelt. Nowak. AIChE. Gajewski. Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamic Resistance: a Reference Book.A.. H. Hasatani. B..W. Johnsson. on FBC. Winter. Pomerantsev..) on Combustion. W.I.. Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in Fluidized Beds.IChemE.. 141.. Heat Transfer in the Boundary Layer of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler. British. Leckner.. Characteristic Features of Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers. J. Trans. Joint Meeting of the Portuguese. Engineering Application of Mechanics.. J.. Field. W.. P.E. Ahmedov. D. P.S.F... D. Kovensky. Simultaneous In Situ Measurements of Temperature and Particle Size of Burning Char Particles in a Fluidized Bed Furnace by Means of Fibreoptic Pyrometry. Mass. (1966). V. Brereton.. B. (1988). (1992).B. Semenov. Arefjev. Leckner. Borodulya. J. 3 (in Russian). Leatherhead. Izvestija Vuzov: Energetika. (1994). 191-205 (1993) Kovensky. 0 (20) ( )( ) (21) Ti. C. Bird. Palchonok. Netherlands. Interfluid Symp..N. 4th Int.. (1994).. Reactions between Carbon and Oxygen.I.I. Ph.N.&/( &219(&7. Krobarth. Tehran. Wu. Conf.Conf. 283. 5()(5(1&(6 Arthur. B.. (1982) (in Russian). Heat Transfer in the Freeboard of Fluidized Bed. Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg.. R. 13... Minsk. Breitholtz.4. and the number of collisions. Heat Mass Transfer.School-Seminar Heat and Mass Transfer Problems in Advanced Solid Fuel Combustion and Gasification Technologies. W.. Preprints of the 5th Int. Ganzha. B.A.A. Proc. N. A.I. Leckner.0 = Tb is the temperature of the inert particles before impact and Ti. Andersson. V. B. Representation of Heat and Mass Transfer of Active Particles. (1986). 303.. Nordic Seminar on Solid Fuel Reactivity. Trans.B. Fundamentals of Practical Combustion Theory. Press... Preprints of the 7th Int. Z. Combustion Institute. 2119. 2. Fluidized Bed Combustion of a Single Carbon Particle.N. Int. Hernberg. A. Moscow. q... Workshop on the INTAS project No.I.94-4313. on CFB.. (1993).. G. D. (1995). (1991) (in Russian).12:/('*(0(17 The work was financed by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK) and by the INTAS grant No. F.J.. Nagoya. (1992). Leningrad..-A. (1983). Bis. (1996). G. Characterization of the Fine Char Particle Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Beds.Faraday Soc.S. Ed A. V. M. Radiative Heat Transfer between a Fluidized Bed and a Surface. Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Pressurized Fluidized Bed. V. 26..R. 73-81. Presented at the Int.. Borodulya. V.B. Transport Phenomena.Thesis.Conf. Hassan.. (1935).. Golriz. Carryover of Coarse Particles from a Dense Bed in a Multy-Solid Fluidized Bed. Bis. Lightfoot. International Energy Agency. Åmand. Johnsson.G.I..D... M. (1992).L... on Fluidized Bed Combustion. 164. Cambridge.B. Minsk.-Å. DGS11. No. Palchonok. Twente University. N. Presented at IEA Mathematical Modelling Meeting.1. R.. Stenberg.. $ 3$57. (1967). (1981).R. Zhang.. B.A. E. Palchonok. Gajevski. $33(1'. (1996).Heat Mass Transfer. Preprints of the 5th Int. (1993). 94-4313. Zabrodsky.I. Combustion and Flame. A.T. P. S. (1951).. Kovensky.e is the end temperature after the impact and Ti.. Reactivity of Large Coal Particles under Fast Fluidized Bed Conditions. Conf... Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions. Hayhurst. Prins.. and Zethræus.. V. J.Avidan. Leckner.9( &2()).

dmin is the smallest of the diameters of the inert and active particle. the heat production becomes 4 = 4max (2 − φ ) + 4min (φ − 1) . is δeff. the particles are in relative motion during the impact. % 5($&7.effective gas lens. dimensions are optional: either (mole O2) or (kgO2/m2s). U1 (32) ( ) ( )( ) (22) (φ − 1) + U2 (φ − 2) = 0 U1 + U2 = N F & V (33) ( ) (23) ( ) (24) where Cs is the concentration at the surface and the reaction rate coefficient.L ρ L πG L 3 6 G7L = λ δ HII πG L 2 4 (7D − 7L )GW Integrating from t=0 to the end of impact gives 7L . φ.min =(dmin/6).H = 7D − 7L . δeff. carbon-dioxide is formed with the reaction rate r1. is related to the consumption of oxygen. Moreover. but also carbon-monoxide with the reaction rate r2. (35) 1= Finally. between coal and oxygen consumption is then. ρ L (1 − ε F )(9L − 9 D ) π (G D + G L )2 4 ρ L πG L 3 6 πG D 2 (26) α SF = (3 8)(λ δ HII )(1 − ε F )(G min G L )(G D + G L )2 G D 2 (27) The minimum effective thickness of the lens formed during a perfect contact between an inert particle and an infinitely large particle (a flat surface). which should further increase the time average thickness of the lens.. kc. [1-exp(-k·t)]≈k·t. Finally. 878 . The solution for the reaction rates is: For a short impact time (k·t<0. For a direct (θ = 0) elastic collision. Averaging over θ = 0 to π/2 leads to δ HII = δ SHUIHFW + G min 2π $33(1'. The number of impacts In the last equation.03) the exponential expression. which is considered as a flat disc of δeff thickness. such an estimate implies the time average lens thickness to be δ HII = δ SHUIHFW + G min 4 (28) For an arbitrary angle. The real curvature of the larger particle adds something to the minimum thickness dmin/6. & + 22 → &22 . Actually. this leads to: & S .0 − 7L . (30) (31) The split factor. the present estimate of the collision time t is a twice the time for the smaller particle to pass a distance dmin/2 to and from the surface. which leads to 4 = πG L 2 4 λ δ HII (7D − 7E )W U1 = (2 − φ )N F & V U2 = (φ − 1)N F & V (34) ( )( ) (25) The impact duration can be estimated as t=dmin/(Vi-Va). δeff=δperfect+dmincos(θ)/4. 2& + 22 → 2&2 .21 5$7(6 (29) When carbon is oxidized. related to the projected area of the inert particle.L G L . φ = (U1 + 2U2 ) (U1 + U2 ) which leads to the following set of equations. 0 [ − exp(− N W )] 1 where N = 3 2 λ δ HII ρ L & S.

Paper II .

.

since most fuel is still in the bottom part of the furnace. and the devolatilization can be assumed to be immediate e. that the fuel loading of the bed reacts with a certain delay depending on its size and time of combustion. The fuel loading depends on type of fuel. The time-delay may cause additional difficulties for a control system. The reason is. fuel loading. the mass loss due to fragmentation and attrition are treated like a surface reaction rate constant. The particles have a known • • • • . The char combustion follows a shrinking sphere model. the variation of fuel concentration along the riser is mainly affected by the superficial velocity. This has not a great effect on the fuel loading. Similar time-delays occur for other changes in conditions. For this purpose a model has been developed including the most important parameters and having a short calculation time. it depends on a number of factors in a certain boiler: type of fuel. A bed combustor fired with solid fuels. especially biofuels.g. During char combustion. air supply (secondary/primary) etc. of course. such as in air supply or bed temperature. but it can be of interest for formation and destruction of pollutants. The loss of efficiency from the combustor is due to small char particles carried away by the flue gases. The fuel load has additional effects: the fuel distribution in the furnace and the surface temperatures of the fuel particles are important parameters needed for 2. For CFBC. The purpose of this work is to investigate how different operation conditions influence fuel loading and size distribution of fuel. parametric study 1 Introduction The heat release of a flame combustor responds instantaneously upon a change in the fuel feed rate. and especially a fluidized bed combustor (FBC). where material is transported up through the furnace and a certain amount of the fuel is above the inlet of the secondary air.FUEL LOADING OF A FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTOR Henrik Thunman and Bo Leckner Department of Energy Conversion Chalmers University of Technology Abstract This is a study of the influence of operating conditions on the loading and size distribution of fuel in a fluidized bed combustor and on the vertical fuel concentration in a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). fuel size distribution. Arena et al. fragmentation. since the fuel loading of a bed is not necessarily constant. [1995].1 General models for the FBC The assumptions made in the present model are: • • The bed is fed with a fuel having a known Rosin-Ramler size distribution. and it depends on type of boiler: fluidization velocity and pressure. Devolatilization and fragmentation start immediately when the particles enter the combustor. especially NO and N2 O. A special case of the FBC is the circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). all these parameters have a great influence on the combustion. an understanding of formation and destruction of emissions. bed temperature.. and also the fuel loading. A rise of pressure and/or superficial velocity increases the power output from the combustor. is a large part of the total combustion time. shows a certain time-delay between a change in the fuel feed rate and the corresponding change in the heat release rate. The size distribution of fuel in the bed is mostly dependent on the fragmentation behavior of the fuel. because the devolatilization time for many fuels. fragmentation and pressure. The devolatilization follows a shrinking core model and the fragmentation is proportional to the mass of the fuel particles. where the time of devolatilization is short compared with the time of char combustion. Keywords Fluidized bed. 2 Theory Most models for fuel loading in FBCs are developed for coal combustion. 30 sec on a Sun Ultra. The model developed for this purpose shall have a short calculation time and shall include the most important influencing parameters. This assumption is not suitable for a general model.

e. is the time passed from the beginning of devolatilization. 0 0 0 0 (4) kf. . where the fragmentation is related to models of the internal stress. Pf. td . that a particle of certain size R fragments during devolatilization is.0 (R)(1 Vdev (1 x(.dev  ) 2. under steady state condition.  ) = Fchar. Chirone et al. A principle calculation scheme for the mass balance is shown in Fig.0 is the initial mass flow of the char in the fuel having the particle size R. R))) exp( kf. The probability. During devolatilization the particles fragment into smaller particle sizes with a certain size distribution. is proportional to the mass flow. Principle scheme of the transformation of fuel in a fluidized bed combustor. Zhang [1987].dev .Feed Fuel Fragmentation Volatiles Char Devilatilization Char FragmentaFlyCombustion ash tion Feed Char Particle size Fuel transformation Figure 1.g. [1991] The fuel load of the bed is calculated from a mass balance over the combustion of the fuel. which. Fash size distribution taken from Chirone et al. the boxes represent models for devolatilization and char combustion and the arrows represent mass flow from feed fuel entering the system to char leaving the system with the flue gases. [1991].dev  (x0 ))(1 Vdev )exp(kf. Winter [1995]. Under steady state conditions if there were no fragmentation the mass flow of the devolatilizing fuel particles at time is. is represented by the empirical relationship. Stubington and Moss [1995]. 1.dev is the fragmentation rate constant and x0 is initial relative volatile content. the mass flow of the fuel particles at time becomes for a certain size element around R. (1) where R is the particle’s radius and a and b are constants related to the fuel. Vdev is the fraction of volatiles in the fuel. (3) F is the mass flow of fuel at a time and Fchar. (2) and x is the ratio of mass of volatiles at time initial mass of volatiles. The bars represent the mass of char or volatiles entering a particle size fraction. By introducing the assumption of a shrinking core. F (R.g. the part of the volatiles remaining in the fuel particle becomes.1 Devolatilization The time of devolatilization.1. Assuming fragmentation of fuel particles to be proportional to the mass. (5) This expression for the probability has the same form and gives nearly the same result as more complicated models. e.

[1989]. The shrinking rate is. Char entering or exiting the interval due to char combustion 4. (6) Ff1. The rate of fragmentation is treated as a surface reaction rate constant. particle size element less than the volatile content of the initial fuel.char is the mass flow of the char in the fragments. kc surface reaction rate constant. F0 (R). related to the total mass of solid fuel accumulated during devolatilization is (10) The fuel leaving the devolatilization stage for char combustion is. Mass reduction in the size interval due to combustion 5. (7) By integrating Eq. x0 . fragmentation and attrition are not treated separately. the total mass of solid fuel during devolatilization. 12 correspond to 1. makes the average volatile content of the total mass flow of fuel. (12) with the boundary condition.char mass flow of the fragments from larger particle sizes. The terms in Eq. Chirone [1991].and volatiles and char are considered separately (Fig. with the boundary conditions. split factor for CO and CO2 and is mass transfer coefficient. (9) Rmax is the largest particle size in the size distribution of the particles fed. similar to the attrition models in the literature.2 Char Combustion The model expressing the total mass during char combustion and the size distribution related to the mass of char particles during char combustion is in principle the same as the one presented by Salatino et al. hchar size distribution of the char. and kf. here the different size distributions of the fragments from attrition and secondary fragmentation are represented by a single size distribution. e. The split factor is calculated according to Arthur [1951] and the mass transfer coefficient from Sherwood number. which is an extension of the mass balance presented by Kunii and Levenspiel [1969]. Mass leaving the interval due to fragmentation The char combustion is assumed to follow a shrinking sphere model. (14) Mc is molecular mass of carbon. Mass entering the interval from previous fragmentation 6. (13) (8) Fash is char leaving with the flue gases. is that secondary .g. The initial mass flow of char with a certain size is. Char leaving with the flue gases 3. 4 over all radii and over devolatilization time. Mchar total mass of char during char combustion. Arena [1991]. (11) 2. Feed char from devolatilization 2. CO2 average oxygen concentration in the bulk. c density of the carbon in the char. hdev . The mass balance during char combustion is.1. The size distribution.dev is the mass flow of the volatiles in the fragments and Ff1. Instead. The difference between the model presented here and the one of Salatino et al.char is fragmentation rate constant. Ff2. The contribution of fragments to a certain particle size element centred at R of the initial mass flow. Mdev is obtained. 1).

[1990] Chirone et al. Chirone et al. which means that the attrition rate constants found in the literature. e.3 Distribution of fragments The fragments are assumed to be spherical. but some work has been carried out. (17) During devolatilization the particles fall apart into a few large particles.(15) DO2 is molecular diffusivity of O2 . because of the overlapping of the size distributions of fragments. a narrow size distribution gives a larger error than a wide size distribution. fragmentation is caused by irregular effects of combustion on the surface of the particle or by collision with other solid particles.char is assumed to be much larger than the secondary fragmentation and analogous to the attrition rate constant found in the literature. the relative radius is small ( <0.05). Sherwood’s number is calculated according Halder et al. The timing of fragmentation is not well known.. Af. Chirone et al. [1991]. related to the true size distribution. depends on the size distribution of the fuel fed. The relative radius is therefore be large during devolatilization.g. for all initial particle sizes. (21) Af. Arena et al.e.dev is the fragmentation constant during devolatilization. The size distribution on a number basis. Such data are found in the literature. (22) 2. Values of the fragmentation constant can be estimated from data on the probability to fragment. hf. [1991].5). can be used for the fragmentation constant during char combustion.n and on a mass basis. fragmentation is caused by thermal shock and gas expansion inside the particle. (19) y mean is the mean size of the fourth order gamma distribution (not normalized). If the relative radius is large (>40) the normalized distributions can be simplified. . tot total heat transfer coefficient. If attrition is dominant. The mean size of the fragments is assumed to have the same relative radius.1. (20) * The fragmentation constant during char combustion. which shows a great variety of timing depending on type of coal. and the mean diameter of fragments. and c convective heat transfer coefficient. T particle temperature. and the distribution follows Eq. i. 2. [1991] and Chern and Hayhurst [1996]. Re Reynolds number based on slip velocity and Sc is Schmidt number. During char combustion. which relates the fragmentation rate constant during char combustion to the particle surface. (20). This relates the fragmentation rate constant to the volume of the particle. The fragments must be smaller than the mother particle. [1991]. .4 Fragmentation rate constant The fragmentation behavior during devolatilization and char combustion differs. The particle temperature is obtained from the heat balance. Chirone et al. Hc is heating value for carbon oxidation. e.g. During char combustion. and if secondary fragmentation is dominant. During devolatilization. is (18) y is the radius of the fragments and is a scale factor controlling the shape of the distribution. r radiative. [1991]. a requirement that makes it necessary to normalize the distribution. the relative radius is large ( >0. their number is distributed according to a first order gamma distribution and their masses according to a fourth order gamma distribution. Tb bulk bed temperature. the fragments come from the fines produced by attrition and secondary fragmentation. Stubington [1996]. The error caused by the size distribution chosen.g. e. the number of fragments produced from a mother particle. hf . [1985] (16) b is bed voidage.1. Chirone et al. Eq(18).

2.2.2 Average oxygen concentration and bed voidage The mass balance of char combustion is solved for an average oxygen concentration. If the vertical distribution of the oxygen concentration is not known. Ug . it can be represented by the average oxygen concentration below the secondary air inlet. having a lower slip velocity than the inert particles. an assumption which is based on the kinetic energy of a single particle in vacuum. mfuel mass of the fuel particle. The slip-velocity is calculated from a model of Nowak et al. (25) K is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the riser and the core. vinert or vfuel and the gas velocity. The size distribution and the concentration of fuel along the riser in CFBC is modeled here. since nearly all fuel is located in the bottom . the ratio of the mass distribution of fuel and inert material is proportional to the ratio of the velocity distribution to the power of two. hinert is the vertical distribution of the inert material. The gas velocity in the boundary layer is assumed to be zero. Ufuel is the velocity of the fuel particles. (26) Aext is external surface area of fuel particles.1 Distribution of fuel along the riser The ratio of the mass of fuel and inert material. (23) hfuel is the vertical distribution of the fuel. In this case the collision force decreases with larger bed voidage. but in a CFBC fuel and bed material are distributed in the entire combustion chamber. b . Large fuel particles are carried upwards by collision with small inert particles. These quatities have only a minor effect on the fuel loading. The velocity ratio of fuel and inert particles behaves like the mass ratio. 2. (28) (24) CO2m is cross-sectional time-averaged oxygen concentration and bm voidage in the core. When the bed voidage becomes larger. Both concentration and bed voidage are averaged over the mass of fuel. they are held down by collisions with the inert particles. the fuel concentration. and Uinert is the velocity of the inert particles at the height z in the combustor. The slip velocity of the inert particles is calculated for freely moving particles. The small fuel particles. [1996]. The inert material is assumed be mono-sized and uniformly distributed over the cross-section of the riser’s core. b . the solids concentration in the furnace is assumed to be that of the inert material. The vertical solids concentration can be estimated using a correlation by Johnsson and Leckner [1995]. minert mass of an inert particle and inert density of an inert particle. and an average bed voidage. 2.2 Special models for CFB In a stationary FBC all the fuel is in the bed in the bottom part of the combustion chamber. along the riser. The gas velocity in the core is calculated from the superficial gas velocity.2. g gravity force. decreases with height in the CFBC for large particles and increases for small particles. U and the bed voidage. experience the opposite situation. The drag coefficient CD is calculated according to Kovensky [1996] (27) The Reynolds number is based on the slip velocity of the fuel particle. Rinert radius of an inert particle. which is modified to be valid for all particle sizes and not just for large particles. and the velocity of the small particles increases. Assuming that. The velocity of the inert material and of the fuel is calculated from the slip-velocity. CO2 . and so does the velocity of the large particles. g gas density. the force acting on the large particles decreases. but they affect formation and destruction of emissions. and since the concentration of fuel in the particle suspension is low.

an increase of the fragmentation constant decreases the number of large particles in the bed. and also the fuel concentration.25•10-6 and a relative radius char =0. The ratio K of the crosssectional area and the core area is approximately 1.11. is shown in Fig. size distribution of char following the flue gases. size distribution of feed fuel. Fragmentation during devolatilization and char combustion leads to lower fuel concentration in the bed. 2 yielding a fragmentation constant during devolatilization Af. The smallest particles can be attached to larger particles. The analyzes of the samples taken with the suction probes were rough for the large fuel particles. [1995]. This underestimates the shrinking rate with approximately 15% for the small particle sizes. However. 2. were sieved and the combustible content was determind on the entire sample and on every size fraction sieved. The best fit between measured and calculated fuel size distributions at 0. 1. 1 and corresponding for char combustion) from empirical data. 5.5 m2 . samples were taken from the secondary cyclone and the bag-house filter and analysed by sieving. and for the smallest particle sizes. The great increase of the number of particles below 1 mm can only be explained by fragmentation during char combustion. and they can be produced during the sieving procedure. because some of the small fuel particles is in the oxygen richer areas above the secondary air inlet.b in Eq. but affects the size distribution of the fuel in different ways. 3. in a CFBC with a superficial velocity of 6 m/s.char =3. If no fragmentation took place during devolatilization. The mass of fuel particles of the same size as the inert material was very small compared to that of the inert particles and close to what the equipment can analyze.2 Measurement compared with model calculation The fragmentation constants and the relative size of the char fragments can be obtained by fitting to measurements. [1991]. [1990]. 4. solids vertical distribution. The number of particles following with the flue gases is much larger than the number of particles fed to the furnace. a fragmentation constant during char combustion Af.9m. this underestimation has only a small effect on the fuel loading. and between 2•10-6 and 7•10-6 [m/s] during char combustion. 3 Experimental The measurements were carried out in Chalmers 12MWth . there would be a much higher concentration of large particles than shown by the measurement. for the fuel particles of the size of the inert material. with the corresponding calculated ones if no fragmentation had occured. Arena et al. controlled in the model by the relative radius. since the large particles include nearly all the mass.5m and 7. CFBC. cross-sectional time-average oxygen concentration profile. The measured parameters were: 1. These values can be compared with fragmentation data for bituminous coal from Chirone et al. The number of small particles also gives an indication on the size distribution of the fragments produced during the char combustion.13. Fragmentation during devolatilization controls the size distribution of the large particles. and it was difficult to collect a representative amount of particles. 3.5 m high and has a cross-section area of 2.56m.dev =0. but also much larger than the number of particles which could be produced from fragmentation during devolatilization. samples were taken with a suction probe at the center position of the furnace at several heights. This leads to the conclusion that there must have been fragmentation during the devolatilization. Zhang et al. The validity of the fragmentation constants obtained can be discussed comparing the measured size distributions and concentration of fuel. There were only a few large particles present. size distribution and concentration of fuel in the furnace.part. . samples taken from the fuel feeder were analyzed by sieving. knowing devolatilization and char combustion constants (a. by suction probe measurements at several positions in the cross-section and at several heights.1 Measurement The fuel was bituminous coal with a known composition. This leads to the conclusion that the particles undergo fragmentation also during char combustion.15 [1/s] during devolatilization. by pressure difference measurement.3. 3. which can be converted to fragmentation constants varying between no fragmentation and 0. which is 13.

Fuel mass p.d.f. [1/mm]

250

Fuel mass p.d.f. [1/mm] 0.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm] Fuel concentration [−]

500

500

250

0 0.01 500

0 0.01

0.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm]

Fuel mass p.d.f. [1/mm]

0.06

0.04

250

0.02

0 0.01

0.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm]

0 0

5 Height [m]

10

Figure 2. Comparison between model (solid lines) and measurement (circles and stars) of the fuel mass probability density functions at 0.56m (top-left fig.), at 3.7m (top-right fig.) and at 7.9m (bottom-left fig.) in the riser, and the fuel concentration along the riser (bottom-right fig.).

4 Result
Fuel loading and overall size distribution in an FBC, and distribution at different heights in a CFBC are affected by the operating conditions.The following parameters have been investigated: 1. type of fuel 2. size distribution of fuel fed and fragmentation behavior 3. bed temperature 4. superficial velocity 5. air to fuel ratio 6. pressure To compare different operating conditions a number of parameters has to be held constant. If nothing else is said, the following parameters are held constant: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. cross-sectional area power output average oxygen concentration average bed voidage superficial velocity

6. fragmentation constants and the relative radius are those determined above 7. rate constants for devolatilization and char combustion 8. size distribution of the fuel fed 9. size distribution and amount of fuel, entrained by the flue gases The input data are the same as in the case analyzed above. The fuel loading is related to this case. The fuel loading is the sum of the mass during devolatilization and tha mass during char combustion calculated from Eq 8 and the mass balans Eq 12.

4.1 Influence of different fuels
The fuels considered are bituminous coal, woodchips and peat. Fuel specific data are time of devolatilization, kinetics during char combustion, fuel composition and fragmentation constants. The mass of fuel fed to the combustor has to be adjusted according to the different heating values of the fuels. Fragmentation rate constants of peat and woodchips has been estimated from visual observation

Mass p.d.f. [1/m] Coal Wood Peat

Fuel Loading [−]

1

200 100 0

0.5

0

0.1 1 10 Particle diameter [mm]

Figure 3. Fuel loading relative the fuel loading of coal (left fig.) Size distribution of fuel in the bed (right fig.), bituminous coal solid line, wood chips dashed line and peat dashed dotted line. N.B. the logarithmic scale. of the combustion in a CFBC and investigation of bed samples. The fragmentation constant during devolatilization is highest for peat and lowest for wood chips, the fragmentation constant during char combustion is lowest for coal and highest for peat and wood-chips. The relative radius is assumed to be the same for all fuels. The fuel loading and the size distribution of fuel in the boiler are shown in Fig. 3. The fuel loading is much higher for coal than for biofuels and lowest for peat. assumed to change proportional to bed temperature, since the driving force for fragmentation, the heating rate, increases with temperature. In Fig. 5 the influence of bed temperature on loading and size distribution of fuel can be seen. An increase of the bed temperature decreases the fuel loading rapidly, and the number of small particles becomes smaller, a concequence of the constant fragmentation constant during char combustion. The reduction of fuel loading with increasing bed temperature is mainly due to the increase of the surface temperature of the particles, which is strongly connected to the bed temperature.

4.2 Influence of size distribution of fuel fed to the combustor and fragmentation
The size distribution of the inlet coal in the case analysed above is a mean value of several samples. To show the influence the size distribution of the inlet fuel and the fragmentation parameters on the fuel loading, the fuel loading has been calculated for the average, the largest and the smallest particle size distributions of the fuel fed, Fig. 4. Fig. 4 also shows the influence of different fragmentation parameters on the size distribution of fuel in the combustor. The fuel loading decreases rapidly with an increase in fragmentation constant during devolatilization, and this mitigates the influence of the size distribution of the feed fuel. The fragmentation constant during char combustion has a more moderate influence on the fuel loading, and it does not have the same stabilizing effect for changes in the feed size distribution as that during devolatilization. The relative radius has nearly no infuence on the fuel loading but controls the distribution of the small particles (<1mm).

4.4 Influence of superficial velocity
The amount of air supplied to the combustor is proportional to the superficial velocity. If the average oxygen concentration is held constant, also the fuel feed to the combustor and the power output become proportional to the superficial velocity. The combustion rate is only slightly affected by the superficial velocity in the special case of the CFBC, where the mass of fuel reaching the oxygen richer area above the secondary inlet increases with velocity. The fragmentation rate constant during char combustion is usually considered proportional to the velocity difference between the superficial velocity and the minimum fluidization velocity. Then, the shrinking rate of fuel particles during char combustion increases with the superficial velocity, but the reduction of fuel loading created is much lower than the increase of the fuel loading caused by the higher input of fuel to the combustor. Fig. 6 shows the influence of the superficial velocity on the fuel loading and the fuel concentration vs height in a CFB.

4.3 Influence of bed temperature
The time of devolatilization is approximately inversly proportional to the bed temperature, Winter [1995]. The fragmentation constant during devolatilization is

Devolatilization 4 Fuel Loading [−] Fuel Loading [−] 3 2 1
Smallest size of fuel fed Largest size of fuel fed

Char Combustion 4 3 2
Largest size of fuel fed

Char Combustion 4 Fuel Loading [−] 3 2
Largest size of fuel fed

1
Smallest size of fuel fed

1
Smallest size of fuel fed

0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 Fragmentation Constant [1/s] 300 Mass p.d.f. [1/mm] Mass p.d.f. [1/mm]

0 0 0 3 6 9 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 Fragmentation Constant [µm/s] Relative Radius [−] 300 Mass p.d.f. [1/mm] 300

200

200
kfchar=9

200

100

kfdev=0.15

100

100

γ=0.02

0 0.01

kfdev=0

0 100 0.01

kfchar=0

0 100 0.01

γ=1

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

100

Figure 4. The top figures show the fuel loading for the three size distributions of the fuel fed and the influence of the fragmentation constant during devolatilization (left fig.), fragmentation constant during char combustion (middle fig.) and relative radius (right fig.). The bottom figures show the influence of the fragmentation constant during devolatilization (left fig.), the fragmentation constant during char combustion (middle fig.) and the relative radius (right fig.). on the size distribution of the fuel in the combustor.

1.5 Mass p.d.f. [1/m] Fuel Loading [−] 200
T=1023K

1 0.5 0 1000

100 0 0.01

T=1223K

1100 1200 Temperature [K]

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

100

Figure 5. Fuel loading vs bed temperature (left fig.) Size distribution of fuel in the bed for different bed temperatures (right fig.)

4.5 Influence of the air to fuel ratio
The average oxygen concentration is proportional to the air to fuel ratio. The influence of the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio on the fuel loading and

the fuel size distribution is shown in Fig. 7. A rise in this ratio increases the shrinking rate during char combustion somewhat more than the proportional increase of the average oxygen concentration. The amount of small particles will be reduced accordingly

1.5 Fuel Loading [−] 1 0.5 0 0

Fuel Concentration [−]

0.04

10 m/s 6 m/s

0.02 3.5 m/s 0 0 5 Height [m] 10

5 10 Superficial Velocity [m/s]

Figure 6. Fuel loading vs superficial velocity (left fig.). Fuel concentration along the combustor (right fig.).

2 Mass p.d.f. [1/m] Fuel Loading [−] 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 1.2 1.4 Air to Fuel Ratio [−] 200

100

Air/Fuel 1.05

0 0.01

Air/Fuel 1.5

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

100

Figure 7. Fuel loading vs air to fuel ratio (left fig.). Size distribution of fuel in the bed for different air to fuel ratios (right fig.) and for the same reason as during an increase of bed temperature. The attrition rate constant increases with a rise in the oxygen concentration to some extent, Chirone et al. [1991], but here it is kept constant. Most significant is that no attrition occurs if the oxygen concentration is close to zero. particles and inversely proportional to the square root of the pressure for large particles. If the air to fuel ratio and the superficial velocity are kept constant, then the mass of the fuel fed to the combustor, the power output and the average oxygen concentration are proportional to the total pressure. For kinetially controlled combustion, Eq. (14) shows that the shrinking rate (dR/dt) increases linearly with pressure. When diffusion dominates, the shrinking rate becomes independent of pressure. Only for large particles there is a square root dependence caused by the Reynold’s number. For the size distribution considered these relationships give an increase of the shrinking rate, but due to the condition of constant air to fuel ratio and superficial velocity, the fuel loading increases as a consequence of the fuel feed rate being proportional to pressure. The resulting fuel loading and size distribution of fuel at different pressures are shown in Fig. 8. With the present size distribution the fuel loading increases with pressure to the power of 0.7, and the overall shrinking rate becomes proportional to the pressure to the power of 0.3, the shrinking rate being controlled by diffusion. The number of small particles becomes smaller with the rise of pressure, a consequence of the constant fragmentation constant.

4.6 Influence of pressure
If a first order reaction is assumed, the surface reaction rate constant, kc , is independent of pressure. This assumption can be questioned, and in recent works of Essenhigh [1996] and Croiset et al. [1996] there is some pressure dependence on the surface reaction rate constant. The pressure dependence on the mass transfer coefficient is different for small and large particles, caused by the correlation of Sherwood’s number, Eq. (15). For small particles Sherwood’s number is nearly constant, and for large particles it is proportional to the square root of Reynold’s number. The kinematic viscosity and the molecular diffusivity are inversely proportional to pressure, and the slip velocity is only slightly affected by the pressure, due to a change in the drag force. This makes the mass transfer coefficient, , inversely proportional to pressure for small

10 Mass p.d.f. [1/m] Fuel Loading [−] 200

5

100

1 bar 20 bar

0 0

10 Pressure [bar]

20

0 0.01

0.1 1 10 Diameter [mm]

100

Figure 8. Fuel loading vs pressure (left fig.) Size distribution of fuel in the bed at different pressures (right fig.)

5 Conclusions
A general model of fuel loading and size distribution of fuel in an FBC has been developed. For CFBC the fuel concentration and the size distribution along the riser are also modeled. The fragmentation is to some extent treated in a new way, and the fragmentation rate constants obtained from evaluation of experimental data show a good agreement with rate constants estimated from literature data. The model includes the most important influencing parameters and has a short calculation time. (30 sec on a SUN Ultra). The fuel loading depends on type and size of fuel, fragmentation and pressure; all these parameters have a great influence on the combustion. A rise of pressure and/or superficial velocity increases the power output from the combustor, and also the fuel loading. Bed temperature and air to fuel ratio have also an influence on the fuel loading, but not as great as the other parameters investigated. The size distribution of fuel in the bed is mostly dependent on the fragmentation behavior of the fuel. For CFBC, the variation of fuel concentration along the riser is mainly affected by the superficial velocity.

Aext a,b CO2 CD DO2 F g Hc h K k M Mc m P R Re Sc Sh td U x Vdev v y

[m2 ] [mol/m3 ] [m2 /s] [kg/s] [m/s2 ] [J/kg]

[m/s] or [1/s] [kg] [kg/mol] [kg] [m]

Surface area of a fuel particle Fuel dependent constants Oxygen concentration Drag force coefficient Molecular diffusivity of O2 Mass flow Gravity Heat value Size distribution Area ratio of cross-section and core rate constant Total mass Molecular mass of carbon Mass of a single particle Fragmentation probability Particle radius Reynolds number Schmidt number Sherwood number Time for devolatilization Superficial velocity or velocity Relative volatile content Initial volatile content Slip velocity Radius of fragment

[s] [m/s]

[m/s] [m]

Greek letters [W/m2 K] [m/s]
b

Heat transfer coefficient Mass transfer coefficient Relative fragment size Bed voidage Density Scale factor Time for which a particle been subjected to devolatilization Split factor of CO and CO2

Acknowledgments
This work was supported by a scholarship from the Nordic Energy Research Program for Combustion of Solid Fuels and the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK).

[kg/m3 ] [s]

7 Nomenclature
Af,dev Af,char [1/s] [m/s] Fragmentation constant during devolatilization Fragmentation constant during char combastion

Index ash c char Char leaving with flue gases Carbon Char or during char combustion

Thesis. 266. 4th Int. Stubington. L.. Massimilla. Nowak..Conf. A.. K. (1969) Kovensky. Powder Technology. (1989). U. Fluidization Engineering.. ASME. Some Issues in Modelling Bubbling and Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustors. Z.87. A. (1994)... Matsuda. (1995)... on CFB. Richard.. 8 References Arena.H. R. A.... Winter.. L. Stanmore B. V. Siciliano. Science. (1996). 51. H. A. Cammarota..D. Heinschel. 164. Miccio M. 301-316.. Beijing.Q. Halder P.. J... Vertical Distribution of Solids in a CFB Furnace. U.2. 82. The Influence of Pressure on Char Combustion Kinetics. Characteristics of the Lateral Particle Distribution in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers. L. Gilot. R. Sci.. Salatino. Comminution of Carbons in Fluidized Bed Combustion. Combustion Institute.. Chirone. W..A. 47. Vol... 297-326 (1991). Combustion Institute. Influence of Pressure on the Combustion Rate of Carbon. Vienna.K. 58-64. Account for the Constraining of Particle Motion in the Freeboard. (1996). Presented at the Int.N. W.. Chantal.. (1996). 262. Preprints of the 5th Int. J-S. DGS11. The Extent of Fragmentation of Various Coals during their Pyrolysis in a Hot Fluidized Bed.. J-R. Energy Combust. on CFB Technology. L.) on Combustion. Leckner.) on Combustion.R. AIChE. J. Hidden Valley. Pittsburgh (1996)....94-4313. Bis. Basu. Chem. Chem. (1995) Arthur. Levenspiel O. R. New York... and Tech. P.I. Single Fuel Particle and NOx/N2OEmission Characteristics under (Circulating) Fluidized Bed Combustor Conditions. Ed. P. (1990). non Swelling Coals in Fluidized Bed Combustion. University of Technology.. 26th Symp. (1988) Johnsson F.E. Symp. (1996).R. Pittsburgh. Joint Meeting of the Portuguese. Sasongko. pp 671-679. F.. J..J. Siciliano.. Zhang. Brillard. Significant Factors Affecting Decolatilization of non Fragmenting.. Salatino.. R. Hayhurst.(Int. Carryover of Coarse Particles from a Dense Bed in a Multy-Solid Fluidized Bed. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conferance on Fluidized Bed Combustion. (1987). Carbon Attrition During the Combustion of a Char in a Circulating Fluidized Bed. 3909-3918. (1951). New York. pp. J.Ch.(Int. Croiset. F. Trans. L. Queen’s Fluidized Bed Combustion Laboratory.. Eng. M. Combust. Leckner B.I.Conf. 44.. April.Avidan. Pittsburgh. Combustion Institute. 26th Symp..TR. Hasatani.. Arena.F. Sci. Gajewski.. Massimilla. Zhang.. Fragmentation of Small Particles under Fluidized Bed Combustor Conditions. Chirone. W. B. Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg. (1996).) on Combustion. Madeira.dev f fuel g inert max n r tot 0 1 2 Volatiles or during devolatilization Fragments Fuel Gas Inert material Largest Number bases Radiation Total Initial During devolatilization During char combustion Kunii D.. D’Amore . M.. Johnsson. 26th Symp. Devolatilization an Combustion of Large Coal Particles in Fluidized Sand Beds.P. Chirone.. Essenhigh. British and Swedish Sections of the The Combustion Institute. D.Faraday Soc. Rouan. A. Ser No. 383-394. Ph. P.. P. M. 73. Chern. P. (1996). 84. A Predictive Model of Carbon Attrition in Fluidized Bed Combustion and Gasification of a Graphite.(Int. Workshop on the INTAS project No. Mass Transfer from a Coarse Particle to a Fast Bed of Fine Solids. Massimilla. Funchal. Technical Report QFBC.. Reactions between Carbon and Oxygen. 17. Prog. E. Basu P. 1091-1099.. L. (1995) . Delfosse.. John Wiley & Sons. Eng. Sci. Ed...

The same example as in Fig. If the number of particles of a single size is large. In this figure the mass loss due to the volatile release is not considered. Assuming steady state conditions. and the mass loss can be described as: dM (t) dt = f (t) M (t) f (t) = ( dM (t)=dt)=M (t) (A 4) M is the mass of a feed particle size. The fragmentation appears at different times for the feed particles. and the total mass of the particle size drops again. A2 for a continuous mass instead of single particles. I . After a time t1 one of the particles fragments. F: F = M=t (A 5) Rewriting Eq.Appendix A: Fragmentation A.1 Fragmentation during devolatilization of particles of a single size During devolatilization fuel particles fall apart due to fragmentation. A number of particles of a certain size is feed to the devolatilization process. and the total mass decreases with the mass of one particle. A1 is shown in Fig. the mass of the particle size can be treated as a continuous mass. A4 for the mass flow of a single particle size: M 0 t1 t2 t3 td t 0 t1 t2 t3 td t Figure A 1. the mass during devolatilization is given by the mass flow. M is total mass of the particle size. Principle fragmentation behavior of a group of particles having during devolatilization a certain size. A1. t is the time which a particle has been subjected to devolatilization and f(t) is a fragmentation rate function. t is time and td is time of devolatilization. at t2 another particle fragments. the principle behavior is shown in Fig. and so on.

or it can be estimated from assumptions of the fragmentation behavior. t) = kf.t) can be estimated from measurements. but dependent of size. a raise of temperature increases the pressure inside the dome and increases the stresses in the dome walls. The stresses in the wall of a gas dome is proportional to the ratio of the volume and the surface area.dF (R. Assuming that the pressure built up inside the particle can be modeled by a gas dome. t) dt = f (R. For instance. In this figure the mass loss due to the volatile release is not considered. which means that the stresses in the dome wall is proportional M(0) M(t) M (t) frag M(t ) d 0 M 0>t>t f(t) d t d t 0 t d t 0 t d t Figur A 2. Principle fragmentation behavior of the mass of a single particle size during devolatilization. t) F (R. t)F (R. t) = F 0 (R) exp( f (R.dev (A 7) The fragmentation on a number basis is then proportional to the particle volume. II . The fragmentation rate function f(R. for a spherical particle of the size R1 the probability to fragment at a given time compared with a smaller particle of size R2 becomes equal to (R1/R2)3 . Another simple assumption is that the fragmentation rate is independent of time. t)dt) (A 6) F0 is the initial mass flow. The simplest assumption is that the fragmentation rate is independent of particle size and time: f (R.

Fig. t) = kf. for example: it may take some time before the fragmentation starts. A3. t)dt (A 10) A.t). The latter type is called secondary fragmentation.2 Fragmentation during char combustion Fragmentation during char combustion differs fundamentally from fragmentation during devolatilization. and the coarser fragments are caused by irregular combustion on the fuel particle’s surface.dev 1 f (R) 0 < t t1 kf. In the literature there are data on the probability to fragment for different fuels and particle sizes. In this work the mass loss due to fragmentation is treated with III .dev n f (R) tn < t td (A 9) The model assumes that a separation of devolatilization and char combustion is possible. The fine fragments caused by the collisions between bed particles and fuel particles are produced by attrition. due to shrinking or swelling.to the dome radius. and after a certain time the fragmentation stops. t) = kf. These data can be used to estimate the fragmentation rate function f(R. The particle size is related to the feed particle size and not to the actual size during devolatilization. This can be modelled by spliting up the fragmentation rate function in steps: f (R.dev (R) = F0 (R)exp F0 (R)exp(0) d 0 f (R.dev 2 f (R) t1 < t t2 kf. which makes it possible to model fuels which change size during devolatilization. Other suggestions are also present in the literature. The different sizes of the fragments during char combustion make it convenient to split up the fragments into different categories and relate them to the origin. but during char combustion the fragmentation is caused mainly by particle collision and irregular combustion on the particle’s surface. t)dt = 1 t d exp 0 f (R. during devolatilization the fragmentation is caused mainly by gas expansion and thermal decomposition inside the fuel particle. The fragmentation rate assumed to be proportional to the surface stresses: f (R. making the particle fall apart into larger pieces. The probability to fragment is the ratio of the mass of the fragments and the mass of fuel after devolatilization if no fragmentation had occurred: t F0 (R)exp(0) Pf.dev R (A 8) The fragmentation rate can also be assumed to be time dependent.

and the slip velocity between bed particles and fuel particle. ymax . but the maximum size of the fragments is limited to the size of the fragmenting particle. The primary distribution of fragments on a number basis is assumed to follow a first order gamma distribution: g (y ) = exp ( y= )  y 0 (A 12) where y is the radius of the fragments and  is a scale factor. Here the size distribution of a single fragmentation step is treated. but experimental results on the size distribution after devolatilization and during char combustion are available in the literature for some fuels.a single reaction rate. Us : dM dt = M kf. Fragmentation during char combustion IV . which describes the size distribution after devolatilization and during char combustion. A. If there is a large number of particles with different sizes. the primary fragmentation. The boundary condition of a gamma distribution is that g(y) has a value between zero and infinity. This makes it necessary to normalize the gamma distribution: Bed Particles Secondary Fragmentation Fuel Particle Bed Particle Attrition products Irregular combustion Figur A 3. Us ) (A 11) The fragment sizes are estimated by an size distribution.char (Aext . the primary distribution can be modelled by a fictitious distribution. related to the surface area. The primary distribution of fragments is not known. Aext .3 Distribution of fragments It is assumed that the fragment of a particle also can fragment. and the distribution of particle sizes can have been formed during several steps of fragmentation.

It is based on the mass of a large number of particles and the distribution on a mass basis is more interesting than the distribution on a number basis. the mass distribution is given by the mass multiplied with the number of fragments of a given size: V . the distribution gn (y) is changed. which can be shown by an expansion of the first order gamma distribution to a power series exp ( y=)  = 1  1 + ( y= ) + ( y=)2 2! + ( y=)3 3! + + ( y=)n n! + (A 15) The ratio y/ is much smaller than 1. and this make the distribution uniform: y max 1 Const 0  dy = Const ymax  (A 16) This gives Const =  ymax g (y ) = 1 ymax (A 17) The model is not based on single particles. ymean . for all particle sizes. A small relative radius produces many small fragments and few large fragments. A4. If the relative radius is large the distribution becomes uniform. Defining the relative radius as the ratio of the mean radius of the non-normalized distribution. and the fragmenting particle size. see Fig. . If the fragments are assumed to be spherical.gn (y ) = exp( y=) y max = 0 exp( y=)dy 1 = (1 exp( y=) exp( ymax = )) (A 13) The scale factor gives the shape of the distribution and the location of the mean radius. if the relative radius is large. and different fragmentation behaviors can be modelled. It is assumed that the relative location of the mean radius is at the same relative radius. yields: = ymean=ymax ymean =   = ymax (A 14) By changing the value of the relative radius. the mass can be related to a particle radius: m= 4 y 3% 3 (A 18) If all fragments have the same density.

which makes it necessary to normalize also the mass distribution: gn Small γ γ Large γ ymax Figur A 4. p.d. on the distribution of the fragments VI y .d. . For the probability density function.f of the mass of fragments into a fourth order gamma distribution: h(y ) = y 3 exp ( y= ) 4 6 (A 22) In the same way as the distribution of the number of fragments the mass distribution is limited for particle sizes between zero and ymax .hm (y ) = m N g (y ) = 4 y 3% 3 N exp( y=)  = Const y 3exp( y=)  (A 19) N is the average number of fragments produced from a fragmenting particle. A19 converts the p.f. of the mass distribution of fragments the constant Const becomes: 1 Const 0 y 3 exp ( y=) dy = Const  = 6 3 6 2y 3 y 2 y3 exp ( y=) 0 1 = Const 6 3 = 1 (A 20) This gives Const = 1 6 3 (A 21) The Const inserted into Eq. The influence of the relative radius.

A6. see Fig. A5 Appendix B: Devolatilization The devolatilization is modeled by the assumption of a shrinking core.hn Small γ Large ymax y Figur A 5. The influence of the relative radius on the mass distribution of fragments hn (y ) = y 3 exp( y= ) y max (A 23) 0 y 3exp( y=)dy the scale factor of the mass distribution is: ymean = 4  = ymax=4 and for large relative radii the mass distribution becomes: (A 24) hn (y ) = 4 4 ymax y3 (A 25) The influence of the relative radius on the mass distribution can be seen in Fig. and the time of devolatilization is modeled by the correlation: td = aRb (A 26) Assume that the remaining devolatilization time t for a particle with the core radius r can be modeled with the same correlation: t = arb (A 27) VII .

Appendix C: Simultaneous fragmentation and volatile release during devolatilization VIII . feed to the devolatilization process the mass flow at a given time  is: F = F0 (1 Vdev (1 x( ))) (A 32) This expresses the mass flow of a fuel which does not fragment during devolatilization. Shrinking core assumption A relative volatile content x is defined as the ratio of the mass of the remaining volatiles and the initial volatiles: Remaining mass of volatiles x= m m0 (1 m0 Vdev Vdev ) = r R 3 = t td 3=b r (A 28) Initial mass of volatiles The time during which a particle has been subjected to devolatilization.  . is:  = td t R (A 29) and the relative volatile content expressed as a function of the time  is: x= td td  3=b = 1  td 3=b (A 30) The mass of a single particle mass at time  is: m = m0 (1 Vdev ) + m0 Vdev x( ) = m0 (1 V olatiles Vdev (1 x( ))) (A 31) Char For a steady state flow of fuel particles.Char residue Devolatilization front Figur A 6.

 )d ) h(R. The change of the mass flow is due to the mass reduction due to fragmentation and volatile release. When a derivation of Eq.  ))) exp( f (R.  )) f (R. A33 is done. but during the devolatilization the mass decreases also due to the reduction of fuel density caused by the volatile release. A6 in Appendix A for the density reduction Eq.  )d The mass of volatiles in the fragments is the difference between the volatiles fed to the devolatilization process and the volatiles leaving due to volatile release.  )h0 (R.char (R) = F0 (R)(1 F0 (R)(1 Vdev ) F0 (R)(1 Vdev ) exp Vdev )exp td 0 f (R.C. A32 in Appendix B: F (R.  ) d (A 34) The mass of char of the fragments is the difference between the char feed to the devolatilization process and the char of size R leaving the devolatilization for char combustion: td 0 Ff p.  ) g (R.  ) = F0 (R) g (R.  )h(R.  ) = F0 (R) (1 Vdev (1 x(R.  )d (A 35) F eed char Char af ter devlotilization = 1 f (R.  ) V olatile release F ragmentation (A 37) IX .  ) = 1 Vdev (1 x(R.  ) = F0 (R) g 0 (R. This makes it necessary to compensate the “initial” mass flow in Eq.  )h(R.1 A single particle size Fragmentation means that particles fall apart into smaller particles. the fragmentation and the volatile release are separated from each-other: F (R.  ) + g (R.  )d ) (A 33) V olatile release F ragmentation The total mass of a particle size is given by integration of the mass flow over the time of devolatilization: td Mdev (R) = 0 F (R.  ) = exp( and the derivative becomes: (A 36) F 0 (R.

the mass of volatile and char fed to a particle size y from a larger particle size R becomes: X . then the reduction of the devolatilization time will be small. The time t1 represents the time for a particle of size R1 to release volatiles corresponding to the relative volatile decrease 1–x1. As shown above the total mass of volatiles and char in the fragments from one particle size are calculated in a rather simple way.where the primes denote derivatives. t2 is the time during which a particle of size R2 releases volatiles corresponding to the relative volatile decrease x1–x2. This is possible.vol (R) = F0 (R) Vdev + g 0(R. the devolatilization process will be faster for a particle which fragments compared with a particle which does not fragment. one of the size R2 and one of the size R5. where the mass of the fragments is a function of relative volatile content and particle size. the mass flow of volatiles in the fragments is achieved: Ff p. the fragments enter the corresponding particle size element having different relative volatile contents. which is continuously fed with particles of different relative volatile content.  )h(R. Both pieces are assumed to be spherical and have the same relative volatile content x1.g. and both are assumed to have the same relative volatile content x2. and so on. After a time t1 the particle disintegrates into two pieces.2 The size distribution of fuel particles In a size distribution of fuel particles the model formulated for a single particle size corresponds to the largest particle size in the distribution. This time reduction is strongly connected to the fragmentation behavior. A7. To calculate the mass of a particle size. the time reduction will be significant.R) is known. it is necessary to build up a two-dimensional distribution of fragments.  )d 0 td (A 38) The plus sign is caused by the integration of the volatile release over time which turns out to be negative. the mass flow of volatiles leaving the particle size can be calculated. all other particle sizes will get a contribution of particles in form of fragments. A faster way is to average the relative volatile content of all particles fed to one particle size. C. but the calculation becomes both memory and time consuming. If the initial mass flow of volatiles is subtracted from the mass flow of volatiles leaving the particle size during devolatilization. in Fig. but if the particles fall apart in one large particle and a few small particles in the beginning of the devolatilization or in a large number of particles in the end of the devolatilization. With the assumption made above. and if the distribution of the fragments hn (y. After a time t2 the particle of size R2 falls into two pieces of the sizes R3 and R4. a particle of size R1 starts being devolatiles. By integration of the volatile release over the time for devolatilization. e. If all fragments have the same relative volatile content as the fragmented particle. For example. if the particle falls apart into a large number of particles of approximately the same size in the beginning of the devolatilization.

 ))) exp( f (y. A33 must be done.Ff.char (R)hn (y.vol (y ) = y+ Ff p.char (y ) 1 Vdev Vdev (A 41) Initial volatile mass related to the mass of char f ed to a particle size When the average relative volatile content in the fuel fed to a particle size is less than one.vol (R)hn (y. R) dR The average relative volatile content in the fuel fed to a particle size. R) Ff. This compensation is done by the introduction of a fictitious initial mass flow based on the initial mass flow of char fed to a particle size.char (y ) = F0. A33–A35 and A38. Eq.vol (R)hn (y.char (y ) = y+ Ff p.char .  ) = F0 (y ) (1 Vdev (1 x(y.char (y ) = F0 (y )(1 Vdev ) + Ff. is then the corresponding mass flow at time zero: 3 F0.char (y )=(1 Vdev ) (A 44) The equations for a single particle size. y) = Ff p. y)d (A 43) and the fictitious initial mass flow.  )d ) (A 45) V olatile release F ragmentation XI .char (R)hn (y.vol (R.char (y ) (A 42) The mass of char is only affected by fragmentation.char (R. can then be rewritten for a size distribution and the mass flow becomes: 3 F (y. is then: M ass of volatiles f ed to a particle size x0 (y ) = F0 (y )Vdev + Ff. F* 0. x0 . R) and the mass of volatiles and char from all larger particle sizes R>y are: Rmax (A 39) Ff. F0. The fictitious char mass flow.vol (y ) F0 (y )(1 Vdev ) + Ff.char (y )=exp  (x0 (y )) 0 f (. F0 * of fuel at time zero is: 3 3 F0 (y ) = F0. y) = Ff p. and at  (x0 ) the mass flow of char is the same as the initial mass flow of char.char : F0. R) dR Rmax (A 40) Ff. a compensation of the initial mass in Eq.

one for the relative volatile content between 1 and x1.char (y ) 1 exp td  (x0 ) f (y. e. Time for devolatilization of a fragmenting particle XII . A7. which is small (0–5 %) in most cases. this error can become unacceptably large. when the error can be around 30%. Eq.char (y ) = F0. if all fragmentation occurs between a relative volatile content of x1 and 0. A9. The worst case if the fragmentation is takes place only at the very end of the devolatilization period. the devolatilization can be split up into several steps related to the relative volatile content. To keep this error at an acceptable level.  )h(y. A7 the error is less than 2%. then the devolatilization can be split up into two steps. where all fragments have the same volatile content. 8.  )d (A 47) and the mass of volatiles in the fragments: 3 Ff p. A particle of size R1 starts devolatilization. The relative volatile content in the fragments can be modelled by two extreme cases: one is the one described above Fig. and the other is that the char layer falls of the shrinking core as illustrated in Fig. For example.The corresponding total mass is: 0 td Mdev = Rmax  (x0 ) F (y.vol (y ) = F0 (y )Vdev + F0.g. After a x R1 1 t1 R2 x1 t0 t2 R3 R4 R5 x2 0 R t1 t2 t0 t3 t4 t5 t5 t3 t4 τ Figur A 7.  ) ddy (A 46) The mass of char in the fragments: Ff p.vol (y ) + F0 (y )g 0 (y. When the fragmentation rate function is assumed to follow Eq. and one between x1 and 0.  )d 0 td (A 48) The averaging of the relative volatile content produces an error. When a time dependence is assumed on the fragmentation rate function.

one for the distribution of the cores. and the char leaving for char combustion compensated with the mass flow of char fragments. Time for devolatilization of a particle who the char layer falls of the core time t1 the particle disintegrates into two pieces. The mass of the fragments. with the initial mass flow compensated with the mass flow of the core fragments. hcore and a second for the distribution of the char fragments.char (y. To model this.vol (y.char (R)Ff p.char .char (y ) = y+ hf. including the core. R)dR y+ (A 49) and the mass of the fragments including the char of a particle of size R leaving the devolatilization for the char combustion is: Rmax Ff. In this extreme case the devolatilization time is independent of the fragmentation. hf. one piece of size R2 originates from the core and the other piece of size R5 originates from the char layer. XIII . After a time t2 the same procedure is repeated and the core forms a particle of size R3 and the char layer leaves with a particle of size R4. two mass distributions of the fragments have to be assumed. which is feed to a particle size can be calculated from the volatiles in the fragments: Fcore (y ) = 1 Rmax Vdev hcore (R)Ff p. The particle which consists of char goes directly to char combustion.x R1 R2 R3 1 t1 x1 t0 t2 t3 x2 0 R t1 t0 t2 t3 R4 R5 τ Figur A 8. R)dR Fcore (y )(1 Vdev ) (A 50) The devolatilization can then be calculated as for a single particle.

a mass transfer coefficient.Appendix D: Char burning as shrinking spheres The mass reduction of a single particle during char combustion can be expressed as a function of external surface area. Aext . .

. . an oxygen concentration CO2 and a split factor. kc . . the molar ratio of C and O2 : dmcarbon dt = f (Aext . a reaction rate constant.

the mass reduction is only caused by a change of the radius: dmcarbon dt dR3 /dt can be expressed as dR/dt: = 4%carbon 3 dR3 dt (A 55) dR3 dt where dR3 /dR is: = dR3 dR dR dt 3 (R + dR) (A 56) dR3 dR = lim dR 0 R3 ! R (R + dR) = 3R 2 (A 57) Putting Eq. kc . A56 and A57 into Eq. A55 yields: dmcarbon dt = 4%carbon R 2 dR dt (A 58) This corresponds to the mass loss of a single particle. but in a combustor there is a mass loss of a collection of particles of the same size: XIV . ) (A 51) Assuming spherical particles. CO2 . the mass of the particles can be related to particle radius mchar = 4%char R3 3 (A 52) By defining the density of the carbon in the char as %carbon = %char %ash (A 53) the mass of carbon in the particle can be expressed: mcarbon = 4%carbon R3 3 (A 54) If the density is constant during char combustion..

PO2inf or to the concentration. . A61 into Eq. This gives the reaction rate constant k* c the unit [m kgcarbon / mol(O2) s].dM dt = N dmchar dt = %char dmcarbon M %char 2 dR = 4%carbon R dt %carbon dt mchar %carbon M %char dR 3M dR 2 4%carbon R = 4%char R3 % dt R dt carbon 3 = N = (A 59) M is the mass and N is the number of char particles of a certain particle size. The mass reduction for a small particle is controlled by the kinetics of the surface reaction. kc . The most common and simple definition is that the reaction rate constant is related to the partial pressure. The reaction rate constant is defined in different ways in the literature. the reaction rate constant has to have the unit [m/s]. which can be calculated from a reaction rate constant. For a shrinking sphere model the mass decrease is related to surface area: dm dt = 3 3 3 Aext PO2inf kc1 = Aext CO2inf R3 T kc1 = Aext CO2inf kc (A 60) T is the surface temperature and R* is the gas constant. In order to relate the reaction rate to the mass transfer coefficient of oxygen into the particle. CO2inf . A60: dmcarbon dt = Aext MC CO2inf kc (A 62) The mass reduction of a large particle is controlled by the diffusion of oxygen into the particle’s surface which can be calculated from the mass transfer coefficient. This can achieved by separation of the relation between mass of carbon and mol of oxygen from the reaction rate: m kgcarbon molO2 s 3 kc = = molcarbon molO2  MC kgcarbon molcarbon kc m s (A 61) Putting Eq. of oxygen in the bulk and the reaction is assumed to be of first order.

When the combustion follows a shrinking sphere model and is controlled by diffusion. and the difference in the oxygen concentration between bulk and particle surface is approximately the same as the oxygen concentration in the bulk. . the oxygen concentration at the surface is much smaller than in the bulk. dmcarbon dt = Aext Mc CO2inf CO2s .

Aext Mc CO2 inf .

kapp : XV . is to treat them as two parallel oxygen resistances and call the resulting resistance apparent reaction rate. (A 63) The simplest and most usual way to relate the mass transfer and the reaction rate to each-other.

kapp = 01 0 .

to the measured probability to fragment. The fragmentation rate. kf. A25. Most experiments are carried out for coals. has to be assumed. The most common way is to estimate the average number of particles produced from a fragmenting particle of a given size. Common for nearly all coals is that they produce a countable amount of fragments.t). Eq. often together with a mean size of the fragments. In some rare cases an estimation on the timing of the fragmentation is made. This corresponds to a large value of the relative radius and makes the primary fragmentation follow Eq. A10. the mass reduction can be related to the shrinking rate of the particle. The number of particles produced from one particle of the original size R. A65. The reaction rate function.dev . A58 into Eq. which means that the particle falls apart in rather few large pieces. The fragmentation rate can also be estimated from the number of particles produced and the mean size of fragments after devolatilization. If there are data available on the timing of the fragmentation these data can support the choice of a fragmentation rate function f(R. Nf . which show large variety in fragmentation behavior. For some fuels these data are complemented with data on probability to fragment or/and size distribution of the fragments after devolatilization.1 Fragmentation during devolatilization Measurements of the fragmentation during devolatilization is presented in the literature in many different ways. dependent on the type of experiment performed. can be calculated: XVI . can be estimated by fitting the calculated. : Aext = 4R 2 2 dR 4%carbon R dt Mc CO2inf kapp dR dt = Mc CO2inf kapp %carbon (A 66) Appendix E: Determination of fragmentation rates from data in literature or from experiments E. + kc 1 The mass reduction expressed with the apparent reaction rate is: 1 (A 64) dmcarbon dt = Aext Mc CO2inf kapp (A 65) By inserting Eq. f(R.t).

[1992]. A7 and with a fragmentation rate. but the total number of particles given by Eq. A67 reveals the weakness in the use of the number of fragments.Nf = mo F0 1=Number R 0 3 4%char y 3 F (y. katt . td ) dy of particles feed to devolatilization per second mass per second of particles Mass of one leaving devolatilization char particle Number of particles per second leaving devolatilization (A 67) Eq. A67 is 25. For most fuels the average number of fragments after devolatilization was between 1 and 10. [1990].char . These 10 particles corresponds to 97% of the mass. Fig A9 shows the calculated cumulative distribution of mass and number of particles after devolatilization in the example above. the number of these particles can be in majority. For example: Chern et al. reported from experiments.2 Fragmentation during char combustion During char combustion fragmentation is caused by attrition and secondary fragmentation. The conclusion is that the number of particles produced from a particle of size R.5 mm. kf. Brown et al. [1996] reported that for coal particles of an initial mass of 2g. Attrition rates for BFBC conditions have been reported in several works. which gives the fragmentation rate during char combustion. This means that the average number of particles produced from a particle of a given size R presented in the literature must be related to the possibility to collect particles of the smallest particle sizes in the experiments performed. So 60% of the particles corresponds to 3% of the mass. gives 10 particles with a particle radius larger than 1. even if the mass of the small particles is negligible. equal to 0. corresponding to a particle radius of about 7. Chirone [1991]. All these works use a dimensionless attrition rate constant. less then 5% of the mass was found in fragments having a particle radius smaller than 1.035 1/s.g. does not give sufficient information. if it is not complemented with the mass loss and the smallest size of the collected particles.5mm. kf. Assume that the fuel does not swell and that an average of 10 particles with a particle radius larger than 1. e. A calculation with the fragmentation rate function following Eq.5mm.5mm is produced during devolatilization. Values on the attrition rate during char combustion in a CFBC are given by Arena et al. E.dev . according to: XVII .

which is an extension of the mass balance presented by Kunii and Levenspiel [1969].7•10. The value of the relative radius is small (0 < < 0.1•10. 0 0 3 6 9 12 Diameter [mm] 15 Figur A 9. which makes the particle go from one size to another.6 0.6 . Illustration of the cumulated mass and number of particle fraction of particles leaving the devolatilization for char combustion dMf (R) dt =k = att U kf.6 to 0. the size reduction.05) if only attrition occur and large (0. of part.5 < < 1) if only secondary fragmentation occur.char char 0 dM f =dt (A 69) If there is only attrition.4 mass 0.char (R) dR R dt f 2. The mass distribution of the fragments is controlled by the relative radius.8 0. For a CFBC katt is in the range of 0. In the mass balance given by Salatino [1989].2 num.char katt U 2R Umf Umf M (R) (A 68) 2R U is the superficial velocity and Umf is the minimum fluidization velocity. the fragments leaving a particle size element centered at R are only related to the secondary fragmentation: Mchar d 0 = F (R)dR dR dR (R)M h (R) dt h (R) 3 dR (R)dR + F (R)dR M char char char char Fash (R)dR hchar (R)kf. will be affected and the shrinking rate due to char combustion has to be complemented with a shrinking rate due to attrition: XVIII .1 Cumulative fraction 0.

which by definition are produced by secondary fragmentation. The size reduction due to attrition can be calculated from the fragmentation rate: dMf (R) dt = 3MR(R) dR = k dt dR =k R dt 3 f f f f.char Mf (R) (A 71) In order to handle the attrition and secondary fragmentation simultaneously. This assumption overestimates the total mass.char (R) dR f 2. the two extreme cases have to be combined in some way.char (R)dR R dt 0 dMf =dt (A 70) Index f indicates the size reduction due to attrition.0 = F (R)dR char d dR (R) + dRf (R) Mchar hchar (R) Fash(R)dR dR dt dt 3 dR (R)dR + F Mchar hchar (R) Mchar hchar (R)kf. In the calculation made. A better way is to connect a split factor. The relative radius can be related to the split factor = 1 2 0 < < 0:5 0 0:5 (A 73) XIX . In the cases calculated the overestimation was less than 5 %. which by definition are produced by attrition.char (R) dR f 2. and Eq. and a small relative radius gives fine fragments. . A69 was therefore used.char (R)dR R dt 0 dMf =dt (A 72) A large relative radius gives larger fragments. to the relative radius 0 = F (R)dR char d dR (R) +  dRf (R) Mchar hchar (R) Fash(R)dR dR dt dt 3 dR (R)dR + F Mchar hchar (R) Mchar hchar (R)kf.char f. the extra size reduction rate due to attrition was assumed to have only a minor effect on the total mass and on the mass distribution.

The estimation of the fragmentation rates during devolatilization and char combustion and of the relative radius during char combustion can be carried out as follows: 1. The necessary measurements for this estimation are mass flow and mass distribution of feed fuel and fly char. total mass of material in the combustor. Determine the devolatilization constants. and the total mass of the fuel will be reduced.char and relative radius. The measured mass distribution in the combustor is assumed to be representative for the true mass distribution in the combustor. .E. then the reaction rate and/or the time for devolatilization are underestimated. Comparison between the calculated mass if no fragmentation occurs and the measured mass of fuel in the combustor gives an estimation of the accuracy of the chosen reaction rate constant and the devolatilization constants. The devolatilization constants and the reaction rate constant for char combustion can be taken from the literature or can be determined by experiments. This reduction of mass of fuel is most likely larger than the measurement error. 2.3 Estimation of fragmentation rates from large scale experiments The fragmentation rates can be estimated from experiments in a large scale boiler. since nearly all fuel is located in this part. kc . kf. The mass distribution fuel concentration has only to be measured in the bottom part of the combustor. The range of the fragmentation data can then be estimated from the maximum and the minimum mass distributions of fuel in the combustor. together with the mass distribution and concentration of fuel particles in the bottom part of the boiler. A7-A9. because some fragmentation and attrition of the fuel particles takes place in a FBC. If the measured mass is smaller than the calculated one. The reaction rate constant. Assume the fragmentation rate function during devolatilization. Estimate the minimum and maximum fragmentation rates. has the greatest influence on the total mass of fuel in the combustor and is fuel specific. kf. e. Estimate the fragmentation rate. kc during char combustion (literature data). Eq. a and b in Eq. during char combustion.g. but the values are scattered and it is difficult to pick the correct reaction rate XX . 4. To make a reliable estimation of the fragmentation data the accuracy of the measurement should be evaluated.dev during devolatilization. A26 and the reaction rate constant. and a maximum and a minimum mass distribution of the fuel in the combustor had to be determined. Data on the reaction rate constant are available in the literature for different fuels. 3.

during devolatilization can be estimated by comparison between calculated and measured mass distribution of fuel in the combustor. The minimum and maximum fragmentation rate.dev =0 2. Suggestion on assumptions is given by Eq. Determination of the minimum fragmentation rate.dev .dev XXI .t) is not known and has therefore to be assumed. Assume that no fragmentation occurs and calculate the mass distribution of the fuel during devolatilization. kf. kf. The fragmentation rate function. A7-A9. Increase the fragmentation rate until the calculated mass distribution of the fuel during devolatilization coincides with the measured mass distribution Mass distribution [kg/m] kf. Full line is measured mass distribution of fuel in the combustor. kf. Estimation of the minimum fragmentation during devolatilization is illustrated in Fig. A10: 1. The dashed lines are calculated mass distributions of fuel during devolatilization in the combustor for different fragmentation rates.dev Particle radius [m] Figur A 10. Only a range of possible values can be determined.constant for the fuel used in a particular experiment. Compare the mass distribution with the measured one in the combustor 3. f(R.

The particles produced during devolatilization are limited and even if the largest possible fragmentation rate during devolatilization is used.char =0.dev . kf. Fragmentation during char combustion is then the only possible explanation for this dramatic increase of particles of smaller Mass distribution [kg/m] kf. kf. and calculate the mass distribution 2. if no fragmentation occurs during the char combustion. which fulfils the condition that the mass distribution of the fuel during devolatilization coincides with the measured mass distribution. which fulfils the condition that the calculated mass distribution of the fuel. XXII . the number of particles after devolatilization is nowhere near the number of particles which are leaving with the fly char.The minimum fragmentation rate is then the smallest fragmentation rate. Assume that no fragmentation occurs during char combustion. kf. It can be concluded that there had been fragmentation during the char combustion. Full line is measured and dashed lines are calculated mass distributions of fuel in the combustor. with different fragmentation rates. Estimation of the maximum fragmentation rate during devolatilization is illustrated in fig A11: 1. and which coincides with the measured mass distribution. The fragmentation rate and the relative radius during char combustion are estimated from the measured normalized mass distribution. Increase the fragmentation rate.dev until the calculated mass distribution coincides with the measured mass distribution The maximum fragmentation rate is then the largest fragmentation rate.dev Particle radius [m] Figur A 11. since the number of char particles leaving with the fly char is much larger than the number of particles feed. Compare the mass distribution with the measured one in the combustor 3. Determination of the maximum fragmentation rate.

Other parameters which have an influence and have to be investigated in a full analysis is time for devolatilization. The relative radius is adjusted so that the small sizes are fitted. A12: 1. fragmentation rate function during devolatilization and primary distributions of fragments during devolatilization and char combustion. Mass distribution [1/m] kf. An assumed value is used for the relative radius.sizes. The fragmentation rate and the relative radius during char combustion can be estimated as follow. Full line is measured and dashed lines are calculated normalized mass distributions of fuel in the combustor. and the value on the fragmentation rate during char combustion. Finer adjustment of the fragmentation rates during devolatilization and char combustion can be necessary. from Fig. with different fragmentation rates kf. The calculated and the measured normalized mass distributions of the large particles are fitted to each other. Compare the calculated total mass with the measured one and compare the data on the fragmentation rates with data from the literature.dev and relative radius XXIII . The fragmentation rates and the relative radius are then taken for the case of the best fit between the model and the measured normalized mass distribution. 2. If the calculated total mass is outside the possible range of the measured total mass in can this in most cases it can be adjusted by changing the reaction rate constant. Determination of the fragmentation rates and the relative radius.char γchar Particle radius [m] Figur A 12. by changing the value of the fragmentation rate during devolatilization between its minimum and maximum.

This makes the movement of the fuel particles in the bottom region controlled by collisions and in the top controlled by the drag force from the gas. When a single particle of a different size and density is moving in a suspension it will be affected by collisions with bed particles. the collision force acts in the opposite direction and instead caring the particles upwards it holds them down. When the movement of the fuel particle is controlled by collisions. particles with a larger slip velocity than the bed particles have a smaller possibility to be transported up through the riser than the bed particles. and large and small fuel particles. where a high density corresponds to a large collision force and a low density corresponds to a small collision force. but because the mass of the fuel particles only corresponds to some percent of the total mass the fuel particles can be treated as individual particles in a suspension of bed particles. The collision force makes it possible for large particles to be transported up through the furnace. In a CFBC the suspension density is high in the bottom and low in the top. The collision force is a direct function of the density of the suspension. Fig. even if the drag force from the gas is not large enough. 2. making it possible to handle the bed particles as a single size. particles with a smaller slip velocity than the bed particles have a greater possibility than the bed particles to be ε 1 U Gas Small fuel particle Bed particle Large fuel particle 0 0 zmax z 0 0 zmax z Figur A 13. the slip velocity increases with particle size. Particle and gas velocity versus height in the riser. Also the small particles are affected by this collision force but in an opposite way. From knowledge of the action of the collision force on different particles sizes the following behavior can be expected: 1. At a certain particle size the slip velocity will be larger than the gas velocity. and consequentially the particle will not be further transported up through the riser. have a wide size distribution. the bed particles. all fuel particles attain approximately the same velocity as the bed particles.Appendix F: Fuel distribution along the riser In an FBC the bed particles have a rather narrow size distribution. When the movement of the fuel particle is controlled by the drag force. The change of suspension density with height in a CFBC makes it necessary to assume how this influences the vertical distribution of a single fuel particle size. A13 shows the velocity of the gas up through the furnace. XXIV . The fuel particles on the other hand.

The small particles experience the opposite. The conclusion is that particle velocity and mass ratio of fuel particles of a given size and bed particles behave in the same way. Relative bed density vs. z ) hbed(z ) 2g U 2 (R. z ) = K 2g U 2 (z) = K f uel bed Uf uel (R. The fuel and bed particles can be correlated with each other: Mf uel (R. z ) Mbed(z ) =K Uf uel (R. it changes successively with the bed density. ρ/ρmax 1 0 M(R)/Mb Small particles 0 zmax 1 z 00 Large particles zmax z Figur A 14. height in the riser and relative mass ratio between fuel particles of a given size and bed particles related to the ratio in the bottom of the riser. z ) Ubed(z ) n (A 74) Assuming that the mass ratio is proportional to the possible height. z ) Mbed(z ) =K hf uel (R. But the decrease of the mass ratio between large fuel particles and bed particles is not immediate.transported up through the riser. according to the theory of kinetic energy a particle attain the height: mgh = and mU 2 2 h= U2 2g (A 75) Mf uel (R. Fig. XXV . The bed density decreases very fast in the riser. the mass ratio of bed particles and fuel particles increases with decreasing bed density. z )=Ubed(z ) (A 77) dz H is the height of the combustor. and also the suspension density. A14 shows the mass ratio of bed and fuel particles of different sizes. z ) Ubed(z ) 2 2 2 (A 76) The vertical mass distribution of a fuel particle size can then be calculated: hf uel (R. For a large particle the density is too low at a certain position to carry the particle any further. z )=Ubed(z ) H 0 hbed (z ) Uf uel (R. z ) = hbed(z ) Uf uel (R.

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Paper III .

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are treated by an empirical consideration. the models often only treat one-dimensional particles. infinite cylinders and spheres. The model treats the particle in one dimension. The conversion of single solid fuel particles is usually described by two categories of models. [8]. is derived. Comparison with the experiments shows that the simplifications made do not significantly influence the overall accuracy of the model. it can handle the conversion of a solid phase in a computational cell. The model shows satisfactory agreement with measurements performed on more than 60 samples of particles of different sizes.se (Submitted for publication) Abstract A simplified thermochemical particle conversion model. Subsequently. release of volatiles. shrinkage and swelling. [2] [3]. for example.chalmers. Filip Johnsson Department of Energy Conversion. drying. In fact. occur in sequence as the temperature of the particle raises. The development of these layers is computed as function of time. finite cylinders and parallelepipeds). Bo Leckner. dry wood. devolatilisation and char combustion while these processes move from the surface to the centre of the particle. The model operates with a small number of variables and treats the most essential features of conversion of solid fuel particles. exposed to a well-defined surrounding. The model also demonstrates the great influence of shrinkage on the time of devolatilisation and char combustion. the residual char layer is oxidised. [9].1 Combustion of wood particles – a particle model for Eulerian calculations Henrik Thunman. where the conversion is related to surface area per unit volume instead of surface area of a single particle. The other category of models deals with modelling of the single particle. [4]. and in the end only ash remains. as the combustion. or even simultaneously if the particle is large enough. The model divides the particle into four layers: moist (virgin) wood. [5].conversion@entek. especially of large particles. email energy.S-412 96 Göteborg. Sweden +46 31 7721430. such as temperature gradients inside the particle. as the model does not have to be limited to just a single particle. Fredrik Niklasson. as a result of heat and mass transport to the surface of the particle. [10]. Introduction A fuel particle entering a combustor dries and devolatalises. The weakness of the first category of models is obvious. such as infinite plates. and the conversion can be described by the heat and mass transport to the surface of the particle.Chalmers University of Technology. [11]. independent of particle size and shape. [12] and [13]. When modelling a large combustion system this is a great advantage. Even with this large number of cells. char residue and ash. During all these processes the particle shrinks. considering also typical shapes (spheres. Alternatively. where the principal assumption is that a single particle in the combustor can be treated as thermally thin and that the stages of conversion. in order to catch drying. the stages of conversion. is simplified so much that the combustion behaviour of the particle is missed. The first concerns combustion in a boiler containing a great number of particles. wood species and moisture contents. The second category of models becomes computationally too heavy and cannot be included in a large computational system describing a large number of particles . for example. often more than hundred. +46 31 7723592 (fax). [6] and [8]. devolatilisation and char combustion. In this type of models the particle is divided into a great number of computational cells. starting at the surface of the particle and moving towards the centre. [1].

4 b. followed by burnout of the remaining char in a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere. and a more general formulation of the shape factor is needed. solid matter will leave layer j and enter layer j+1. finite cylinders and parallelepipeds). the conversion phenomena that are to be studied here take place to a large extent inside the particle. The dashed line indicates the initial shape of the particle before shrinkage.. devolatilising fuel (2). There have been attempts to model different shapes by relating a shape factor. shrinkage and swelling of the particle during conversion.4 solid layers and b. The layers inside the particle are denoted by p. temperature gradient inside the particle. Fuel particle consisting of p. In order to validate the model. small number of variables and that is suitable for all particle sizes and shapes. The boundaries between these layers are denoted by b followed by an index specifying the stage of combustion related to the boundary: drying (1).3 p.4 Figure 1.4 boundaries between the layers. for example in a bed of particles. . cannot be treated. devolatilisation and char combustion fronts moving from the surface to the centre of the particle coincide with the boundaries between the layers. a generalised description of such a particle model will be derived and compared with measurements. and furthermore. and the particle changes in size during the conversion. b. such as parallelepipeds and finite cylinders. Here.. The amount of fuel at a certain stage of combustion inside a particle determines the size of the layer. followed by an index that specifies the layer. the particle is divided into four layers: moist (virgin) wood (1).1. devolatilisation (2). Therefore such shape factors are not suitable.3 b. typical particle shapes.1. For this purpose a computationally efficient model should be formulated that operates with a constant.1 p. dry. for example in [14]. The outline of the discretisation of the particle in such a model is shown for a generalised particle in Figure 1. char combustion (3) and particle surface (4).2 converted at the same time.1 p. Here. However. The particle is divided into n layers from the centre to the surface. The drying. to heat and mass transfer to the surface of the differently shaped particles.2 b.2 p. As the conversion of the fuel particle proceeds. The model should treat essential features of the fuel particle: shape (spheres. more than 60 wood samples were dried and devolatalised in an inert atmosphere. char residue (3) and ash (4). based on the initial particle shape.

The shape factor can be derived for a finite fuel particle of any shape. Hence. l l l/2 l/2 r0=(d-l)/2 d d/2 d/2 r0=0 d l l r d r r r d Figure 2. In the one-dimensional model the effects of anisotropic material and corners (finite cylinders and parallelepipeds) are averaged over the surface Γ. for a finite cylinder of initial length l and initial diameter d we obtain Γ = 2π 3r 2 + r ( l − d ) ( ) (2) and for a parallelepiped with the initial dimensions l1 × l2 × l3. becomes a line for a long cylinder (l>d) or a plate for a short cylinder (l<d) and a parallelepiped. all heat and gas produced pass a control surface. For all shapes. . such as in Figure 1. the shape factor. except for a short cylinder. The derivation based on Eq (1) assumes that the position of the control surface is determined by the requirement of equal distance from the surface of the particle. where l1 represents the shortest end Γ = 24r 2 + 8r ( ( l2 − l1 ) + ( l3 − l1 ) ) + 2 ( l2 − l1 )( l3 − l1 ) (3) With this definition the starting location of the radius (r0). that is. and for the well-known cases of infinite cylinder and infinite plate the shape factor Γ is 2πr and 1. respectively. which for a sphere is r0 =0. becomes Γ=4πr2.3 Theory In a generalised particle. where the starting location is r0=(d-l)/2. implicitly assuming an isotropic behaviour of the particle or that representative mean values over the surface Γ can be formulated. longer or shorter than the diameter d. as expressed in the conservation equations. This is illustrated for a finite cylinder in Figure 2. This control surface Γ is related to a control volume V as dr Γ = dV (1) Applied to a spherical volume the control surface. Definition of the starting position of the radius r0 and the control surface Γ (solid) at radius r inside a finite cylinder (dashed) having a length l. whose position depends on the radius r. and therefore it is important to also give physical and thermo-chemical data in the form of surface averaged values. the starting location of the radius is r0 =0.

immediate release to the surrounding of gases produced. shrinkage and the two particle shapes treated above. The heat capacity flow per unit area. δ delta function. j ) Rb . physical and thermo-chemical data across each layer. . j cg . By doing so. T temperature. j Rb′′. finite cylinder and parallelepiped. is given by  r δ ( r * − rb . originating from the conversion of the solid fuel to gas. B is heat capacity flow per unit area. When the boundary moves during conversion of the particle. no gas phase reactions inside the particle. Section of fuel particle. the conversion of the single particle can be described by the following energy conservation equation in one dimension. according to Eq. i specific enthalpy and index s indicates a component in the solid. The continuous formulation of conversion of a particle. (4). Instead they will appear in the boundary conditions. j   + ( ) (4) Here I is enthalpy. Centre line dashed-dotted.4 δ r * − rb. ∂I ′′′ p ∂t Γ  ∂T  1 ∂ 1  ( ΓBpTp ) = Γ ∂∂r  Γk p ∂rp  + ∑  Γb. The boundaries of the layers inside the particle coincide with the combustion stages and are given the same index (b) as shown in Figure 1.4 ∑  ∫ dr * ∑  X i . mass leaves layer j for layer j+1. the source terms can be removed from the energy equation (Eq. B) Same as A) but with the heat source/sink located at the boundary b. (4)) for the single layer. The model [15] was derived under the assumptions of thermal equilibrium between gas and solid phases inside the particle. j  ′′ B p = Γb . q. located in a layer. is discretisized into four layers by averaging temperature. R reaction rate. A) A heat source/sink. homogeneous heating of the particle’s surface. as indicated by an arrow. an infinite cylinder or an infinite plate.j. The source terms are now placed in the boundaries between the layers.j q j q j+1 A) B) Figure 3.i     Γ  j  r0 i   (5) where c is specific heat and X is molar stoichiometric coefficient for species i in reaction j. as seen in Figure 3. Eq (4). j  Γ ∂r    j  b.4 In [15] a one-dimensional model is presented for simultaneous drying and devolatilisation of a single particle having the shape of a sphere. and an additional convective flow is introduced (the third term in Eq. (6)) to b. j is. and evaporation of water in an infinitely narrow region inside the fuel particle. This model is expanded here to include char combustion. By adding the assumption that also devolatilisation and char combustion take place in infinitly narrow regions inside the particle (covered by the ash layer).

5 represent the solids that leave layer j for layer j+1 when the boundaries move toward the centre of the particle. of the virgin fuel. j − Tb. k   k= j  ′′ ′′ Γb.j−1)/2. j = rb . k ∑  X k . rb . j −1 (Tp . Y mass fraction related to initial fuel properties.k {T }   k= j 4 ∑ ξ  k= j 4 0. j −1  − Tb . (6) is simplified by using enthalpy of each layer instead of enthalpy per unit volume and by expressing the integration over the heat capacity with an enthalpy difference. The specific enthalpy of solids in a layer at a given temperature inside the particle results from the specific enthalpies of the remaining solid components and the initial mean molar fractions in the layer as. The initial mean molar fraction of components i in the fuel is ξ 0. j = ∑ ξ 0. i p .   ′′ Γb . k   (9) The volume of a single layer j is obtained from the definition of the shape factor. j −1 ) ( Γ (T b. j {Tb . j −1 ) Vp. The amount of the components is expressed by a mean molar fraction in the particle. 2 (volatiles).4 ∑  Rb. j }  ξ 0. j ∂t j −1  cg .j is the mean temperature of layer j. j {Tb. j −1i p . The energy conservation equation of a single layer j then becomes. j b. is equal to Ym/(1-Ym). j (6) (r 2k p . and M is molar mass. The mass fraction of moisture Y1 related to dry solid. related to the molar concentration C0. j  p  + Vp. j −1 ∫ Γdr (10) Eq. j Vp. .k  Σ ξ0.i k =1  i  ∂I ′′′. j −1} − k = j Rb. j − Tp . j − rb . j 4  4      Σ ξ 0. j b.j+rb. (rb. j −1 ξ0. j    = − Vp. assumed to be equal to the temperature at the centre of the layer at.k is . j ) − Γb . 3 (char) and 4 (ash).i = ρ d Yi / M i C0 (8) where subscript i is 1 (moisture).  Y / (1 − Ym ) Yv Y Y  C0 = ρ d  m + + c + a  Mm Mv Mc Ma   (7) where ρ is density. ξ. j ) Tp.4  Rb . Eq (1). j i p .i dT   ∫  Tb .

j b.6 ∂I p .  ξj ξ j −1  Λ p.i {Tb . j {Tp .1 I p 0.k i p . the volume ratio of a layer inside the particle.2 = I p 0. V p . rb 0. This is done by means of the volume of each particle layer.1 = V p 0Cs 0i p . The boundary conditions of the entire particle are: At the calculation centre (r = r0) . whose enthalpy is. j j −1   ′′ + Γb. which is given by the initial volume of the particle. θp. j } − ig .4 ∑  Rb . (11) the shrinkage of the particle can be easily handled.3 = I p 0.i {Tb . j =  −  ξ   0. is related to a non-shrinking particle and is expressed by the present and initial molar fractions of the compounds in the solid phase. and an empirical shrinkage factor of the particle layer. j −1    2k p . j p. Λp. j = V p 0 Λ p . j −1 p. j −1} − Rb . Vp0. The mean temperature in a layer is given by the enthalpy of the layer. j −1i p .j. j (12) The initial volume is defined as. and therefore the minimum volume of a layer is restricted to a volume corresponding to ξi/ξ0.4 = 0 (16) (17) For calculation purposes the layers need to have some extension in space. j = Vp 0 Λ p . j {Tb . j −1  (14) The empirical shrinkage factor of the volume element is defined as the ratio of the volume at combustion stage j to the initial volume. j b. j b. j Γ (T − T ) − Γ (T − T ) ( rb.j. I p 0. j −1 ( ) (11) ( ) In Eq.i ig . j }  = − Γb . j ξ0.j. j i p . Λp. j  ξ0. as only position and area of the boundaries have to be calculated.k      k= j  k= j  ′′ ′′ Rb.i=10-4.k  Σ ξ0. j Cs 0 ∑ ξ0. j {Tb. j − rb.k ∑  X k . j −1 ) b.4 Vp0 = r0 ∫ Γdr (13) The volume ratio of a layer inside the particle. j } k= j 4 (15) Initially the particle consists of moist virgin wood. I p . jθ p . j −1}   −   ∂t k =1  i 4  4  Σ ξ0.4  ξ 0.

0 = Tp .1 rb .4 ∂T ′′ ′′ ′′ = qrad + qconv + qcond ∂r (19) Subscript conv indicates external convection and cond external conduction. h.v (24) At the char combustion boundary (r = rb. are: At the calculation centre (r = r0).3 − Tb .4 * ′′ * − Tp .2 ) − 2k p .2 (T p .4 ) (20) In the present calculation convective and conductive heat transfer to the surface of the particle are treated together.3 ′′ − Tp .1 (T b .1 ) = Rb .4 ( ig .2).3 (T p .2 (T b . ′′ ′′ qconv + qcond = h (T∞ − Tb .1 Hm M s .1).2 Hv M s .3).O2 − ig .2 − rb .4 ) (21) The boundary conditions for the individual layers inside the particle. ′′ ′′ ′′ qrad + qconv + qcond − 2k p .4 − rb .2 ) = Rb .4 rb .1 (22) At the drying boundary (r = rb.3 ) − 2k p . 2k p .1 ′′ − Tp .2 ′′ − Tp . estimated by a single heat transfer coefficient. H 2O ) 2 (26) .3 Hc MC (25) At the surface of the particle (r = rb.2 rb . 2k p .4 ) = Rb .m (23) At the devolatilisation boundary (r = rb. Tb .4 − Tb .4 − rb .2 rb . The radiative heat transfer to the surface of the particle is.4 rb .4) − k p .3 − rb .3 rb .1 (T b .2 − Tb . 2k p .3 (T b .3 − rb .1 (T p . which give the temperatures at the boundaries. ′′ qrad = ε rad σ (T∞4 − Tb4.2 − rb .1 ) − 2k p . H 2 + 1 ig .4).3 rb .3 ) = Rb .7 ∂T =0 ∂r (18) and at the surface of the particle (r = rb.

3 ) = 0 (27) and the ash boundary condition. (26). conduction and especially radiation are very sensitive to the surface temperature. This source term includes the source terms at the boundaries of the char and ash layers.3 − rp . Tb. Also heat generation at the boundary of the char layer can cause a stability problem if there is a rapid change in the oxygen concentration.4 ( ig .4. Therefore it is sufficient to know that the water is vaporised close to the saturation temperature. If the heating rate is high. H 2O ) − Γ p .3 p p 2 Hc MC (28) Phase change reactions The phase change reactions are related to vaporization of water. Despite this assumption there is a reaction rate given in Eq (26).3 ) − 2k p . the saturation temperature for vaporisation is 100°C.4 − rp . the vaporisation mostly depends on internal heat transfer and the influence of the mass transfer on vaporisation is neglected. the char boundary condition. becomes.4 = qrad + qconv + qcond − Γ p . a rate of vaporisation at ambient pressure has been derived for these conditions  C0V p 0 ∂ξ1  Γb .4. Eq (25). * ′′ ′′ ′′ q p . In the model. The vaporisation of water at low heating rates is caused by a combination of heat and mass transfer inside the particle. Instead.1   ′′ Rb . This formulation of the surface temperature.3 rp .4 R′′. By doing so. the combustion of the volatile gases flowing out is limited to combustion of hydrogen.4) and the heat sources at the char and ash boundaries are placed inside the ash layer. since convection. causes a severe instability in numerical computations. This is the rate of combustion of the volatile gases flowing out. Hence.3 (T p . disappears. No re-condensation of water is considered in the model. qp. 2k p . The temperature gradient in the particle is steep.1 =  − Cs 0ξ110 27 exp [ −25000 / T ] =  Γb. but inside the particle it becomes somewhat higher due to the pressure increase caused by the volume expansion during gasification of water.O2 − ig .4   (29) The rate of devolatilisation is expressed by three competing reactions in a one-step mechanism according to [9]. .4 − Tb . which meet the oxygen transported by diffusion from the bulk gas to the surface of the particle. At ambient pressure.3 R′′. is added to Eq (11) to represent the ash layer. and the exact temperature of vaporisation is of little interest.3 − Tp . This can be expressed by modelling the rate of vaporisation by an Arrhenius expression with a steep gradient around the saturation temperature.8 The ash layer is assumed to be inert and fixed on the surface of the particle during the entire conversion process.4 rp . Eq. H 2 + 1 ig . devolatilisation of volatiles and gasification of char. To overcome these problems.4=Tp. a source term.4 ∂t  Γb. the surface temperature is assumed to be equal to the temperature of the ash layer (Tb.2 (T b .

(1-Yv). (rb. light hydrocarbons and of small quantities of heavy organic compounds. Devolatilisation is a thermal decomposition of the fuel.9 A1 = 1. and divided by the boundary area of this layer.1⋅10 7 E1 = 16875 E2 = 16009 E3 = 14602 (30)  C0V p 0 ∂ξ 2  C0ξ 2   ′′ Rb . is expressed as the rate of devolatilisation integrated from the centre of the particle (r0) to the boundary of the dry fuel layer (rb. [17]. There are a great number of other reaction mechanisms for devolatilisation of wood. [16]. the temperature is assumed to be piecewise linear from the mean temperature of the wet (virgin) layer to the boundary of the wet layer. this reaction mechanism gives approximately the correct level of the char yield. The reactions at the char boundary are modelled as a sum of four reactions Ωc C+O 2 ⇒ 2 ( Ωc -1) CO+ ( 2-Ω c ) CO 2 C+CO 2 ⇒ 2CO C+H 2 O ⇒ CO+H 2 C+2H 2 ⇒ CH 4 whose rate is I II III IV .2 =  − =  Γb. To compensate for the volatiles that are released before the arrival of the devolatilisation front.4 ∂t  Γb . but due to the steep temperature gradient inside the particle most of the volatiles are released close to the char layer where the temperature is highest. CO2. given for example in [10]. The composition of the volatile gases can be determined as a result of energy and species balances. given by the last term in the mechanism multiplied by 0.9 ⋅ A3 exp [ − E3 / T ] dr 0 V p 0 r0 ∂t (1 − Yv ) = χ + Ya . H2. [18]. and volatiles are released in the entire region between the centre of the particle and the char layer. The gases produced during devolatilisation of biofuel consist of CO. related to its initial mass.3 ⋅108 A2 = 2 ⋅108 A3 = 1. the reaction rate in Eq (30) and (31).2 ∂χ = ∫ Γ0. Between the centre of the particle and the boundary of the dry layer.2). to the mean temperature of the dry layer and to the boundary of the dry layer. t → ∞ (31) where χ is the mass fraction of the combustible part of the fuel.4   rb0.1). is not known.9. and if the char yield. The choice of the reaction mechanism in [9] is made only to get a reaction rate that releases volatiles at approximately the right temperature level. H2O. The char yield calculated from [9] is obtained from an iterative solution of 0 rb . This justifies the assumption that the volatiles are released in a front that moves from the surface to the centre of the particle. [19].2 0 ∫ Γ∑  Ai exp [ − Ei T ] dr   i =1 3 r0 where superscript 0 indicate coordinates for the case of no shrinking.

βd.i ) + β d−1 −1 ( ) −1 (34) where i represents the reaction. Ωc. I = (1 − α ) Ωc CO2 (ηβ r . ψc in the particle. βr. There are other reaction rates of the gasification reactions available . [21]. (33) and (34). ′′ Rb . as seen from a comparison between the oxidation rate of charcoal from biomass [20] and char from lignite [3]. III = 103 β r . The oxidation rate of char by oxygen is [20]. II = β r . at the reactive surface. Eq (33) is similar to reaction rates used for biomass char in Russian literature. [3].II + Rb′′.3exp [ −3390 / T ] (37) The reaction rate chosen for charcoal from biomass.I + Rb′′. III. water vapour and/or hydrogen (reaction II. The rates of gasification. ′′ Rb .3exp [ −3390 / T ]) 2 + 4. The char is predominantly gasified by a reaction between char and oxygen (reaction I).10  C0V p 0 ∂ξ3  Γb .III + Rb′′. Ωc = 2 (1 + 4. β r .i = Ci (ηβ r .3 + ψ c (35) The efficiency factor takes into account the extension of the reaction front. IV). and the reaction rate. In the model ψc is assumed to be 0. β r .42T exp [ −15600 / T ] (38) Even if char from lignite is not a charcoal from wood.715T exp [ −9000 / T ] (36) A correlation for the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. IV = 3. I = 1.4   (32) Char from wood produced under rapid devolatilisation always contains small fractions of oxygen and hydrogen as illustrated by the fuel used in the present experiments. are functions of the rate of the diffusion of the reactant from the bulk into the reactive surface. If the oxygen is consumed. η= ξ3 / ξ 0. carbon dioxide and hydrogen are those of lignite. the reaction rate is close to that of charcoal. η.3 = − ( Rb′′. compensated by an efficiency factor. see Table 1. is given by the following expression [20] obtained in conjunction with Eq (36).3   ′′ Rb .IV ) =  Γb . I ) + β d−1 −1 ( ) −1 (33) where α is the fraction of oxygen consumed by volatile gases to be explained below. Gasification rates for water vapour. For simplicity the fractions of oxygen and hydrogen are not included in the reaction scheme represented by reactions I to IV. the char can be gasified by carbon dioxide.3 ξ3 / ξ0.4 ∂t  Γb .01. Eq.

2(b) Elemental Analysis(c) C 49. α1 = ′′ Γ s . dry) 0. ash free.8/33.23 S <0.5/6. In [23] other proposed rates are validated. for example in. H 2 . On the other hand. and also by the fact that the conversion of char is controlled by diffusion of oxygen from the bulk to the surface of the particle.7 6. which are assumed not to gasify the char on its way out of the particle. at the ash boundary ′′ Rb .2/92.1 43.2/93.4 2CO2 β d α . modelling of gasification as taking place on reaction surfaces is a great simplification. α1 ≤ 1 α = 1  1 . the oxygen that is transported to the surface of the particle by diffusion not only oxidises the char but also the volatiles.6 O (by difference) 44.3/0. Hence. but the resulting reaction rates are complex.16/0.4/33. with the reaction rate expressions selected in the present formulation the model is mainly intended for situations when char is converted by fast oxidation reactions. which has a much higher reaction rate than char.6 18.6 50. that also the char conversion takes place in an infinitely narrow region. flowing out from the interior of the particle. and the intrinsic surface area of the fuel particle becomes of most interest.2 X 2. [22] and [23]. which creates a steep temperature gradient inside the particle. where the char is converted by oxygen. carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The hydrogen flowing out as a part of the volatiles is assumed to consume the oxygen before the char.8 N 0.4 = 2α CO2 β d (39) The fraction of the oxygen that is consumed by the hydrogen is α. they are not included.01/ (a) (b) (c) calculated. α1 > 1 (40) Table 1. dry ash free fuel . Then there is an outflow from the interior of the particle of the oxidants water vapour.2 Rb .45 0.10/0.01/ <0. Properties of fuel used in the measurements Birch/Char Spruce/Char Ash (% mass. The consideration that diffusion of the oxidant from the bulk is the rate-determining step of char combustion is also a simplification during simultaneous devolatilisation and vaporisation.0(a) 0.11 in the literature.3/5. by comparing model calculations of single particles with measurements.3/0. The assumption made here. The conversion of char is controlled by external diffusion in nearly all combustion situations in fixed or fluidised beds. Furthermore. Γ s .3/2.0(a) 3 Density (kg/m ) 540±40/420±40/(b) H (MJ/kg) 18. For some gasification situations the reaction rate totally controls the conversion of the char.4/2. This is taken into account only for hydrogen.4 H 6. can be motivated by the high heating rate of the particle during combustion. and since the gasification process is of secondary interest here. % mass.

12 Measurements In order to validate the model. Table 2. devolatilisation and burnout of char.094/-0. followed by burnout of the remaining char in air. Γb.47 1480 1000 1950 2.52 / 0. In this reactor more than 60 wood particles. 60 to 65% moisture) and after drying for 24 hours in an oven at 377 K.11⋅10-3 1. S is initial specific area.73 0. with material properties as shown in Table 1. 35 to 45% and spruce.03⋅10-10 a2 1. Physical properties. The sizes were chosen to cover the range of specific areas (surface-area to volume ratios). The Biot number was above 6 for all particle sizes. To simplify the validation of the different combustion stages.092 .194 a2 (×10-3) -0. To a large extent the fuel particles were floating on the surface of the fluidised bed during the thermochemical conversion.1⋅10-3 2 Dg [m2/s] = a1T ^a2 Property Y3+Y4 [-] spruce/birch = a1+a2S a1 0. experiments were carried out in a laboratory fluidised bed reactor. Parallelepipeds of eight sizes were tested. as received (birch. Hence.245/0. Further details on the experimental conditions and set-up are reported in [19]. Especially larger birch particles fell apart at the end of the devolatilisation phase.278 1. that is expected to occur in a batch of forest waste wood as fired in utility boilers. The particles were cut with the long side (varied between 10 and 40 mm) along the fibre direction of the wood and with the shortest end (varied between 3 and 10 mm) always in the perpendicular direction.4/Vp0 Property k [W/mK] ^ / || kw [W/mK] kc [W/mK] ρsd [kg/m ] ρw [kg/m3] ρc [kg/m3] 3 = a1+a2T a1 0. Each wood-particle size was tested for birch and for spruce. drying. The composition of gas components was continuously measured. followed by burnout of the remaining char. the particles were pyrolysed in an inert atmosphere. having sizes as used in utility boilers. were dried and pyrolysed in an inert atmosphere. 320-800 m-1. internal heat transfer controls the heating of the particles and the choice of reactor for the experiments does not affect the results. The fuel particles were prepared from raw wood of birch (hardwood) and of spruce (softwood).

The thermal conductivities of wood and char are estimated according to Appendix B. and wet (∗) and dry (+) birch. and this makes the error small for release of mass. the second reason is the discretisation of the particle in only four layers. by assuming a binary gas consisting of CO2-O2 at ambient pressure. with an overestimation. more or less starting from the time of introduction of the fuel particle into the reactor. especially for the larger particle sizes. and the theoretical error is largest for spherical particles. which causes an underestimation. The error is small in the outermost position and then grows with the distance from the surface of the particle. most of the mass of a spherical particle is located in the outer part of the particle. The model predicts the time of devolatilisation within 20%. wet (o) and dry ( ) spruce. because the corner effect of the heat transport into the interior of the particle is not exactly represented. The specific enthalpies at reference temperature and the temperature dependent specific heat for gas and solid species are taken from [19]. wet (∗) and dry (+) birch. [26]. The diffusivity in the gas mixture is given in Table 2. where the effective conductivity for a surface element is given perpendicular or parallel to the fibre direction. is defined to last until 95% of the volatiles are released. The thermal conductivity. kp. but it may be non-negligible for time of mass release.i. wet (o) and dry ( ) spruce. and the mass transfer coefficient is compensated for the out-flowing gases [25]. Comparison between calculated and measured time of devolatilisation for 61 samples of. according to which the composition of the volatile gases is calculated. 200 Measured time [s] 400 20% Measured time [s] 150 -20% 300 200 100 0 20% -20% 100 50 0 0 100 200 Calculated time [s] 0 200 Calculated time [s] 400 Figure 4. This is a result of the assumption of a linear temperature distribution inside the layer. The devolatilisation time. Comparison between model and measurement Measured and calculated devolatilisation times are compared in Figure 4. . However. The overestimation caused by the discretisation increases with particle size and decreases with a growing difference between the surrounding temperature and the temperature of devolatilisation. is an averaged value over the surface Γ. and Figure 5. For simplicity. since the ash content is small. For parallelepipeds and finite cylinders this effect to some extent is compensated for by the shape factor. There are mainly two reasons for the discrepancy: larger particles form cracks or fall apart during devolatilisation which enhances the area for heat transfer from the surrounding and lowers the thermal distance inside the particle. the ash is assumed to have the same specific enthalpy and conductivity as the solid part of the char. [27].13 Physical data used in the model The mass and heat transfer coefficients are estimated Appendix A [24]. Comparison between calculated and measured time of char combustion for 61 samples of.

and other shapes are accounted for by an equivalent diameter based on the surface area of the particle. The largest underestimation caused by the shape factor is for cubic particles and cylinders. defined as the time between the introduction of air into the reactor. that the particles were exposed to a much lower final temperature and heating rate than particles in the experiments.55). since it strongly depends on size. the accuracy of the mass transfer coefficient is plus minus 20%. This may have some limitations. since the char particles produced are fragile and large cracks are formed inside the particles. in order to separate drying from devolatilisation. The mass transfer coefficients are related to spheres. Times of devolatilisation (o) and char combustion (∗). and can be the reason for the large scatter for the thinnest particles.14 x 10 -3 400 5 Measured time [s] Particle radius [m] 4 3 2 1 3 4 1 2 200 0 0 200 500 0 400 Time [s] 700 600 0 200 400 Calculated time [s] T[K] 300 900 1100 Figure 6. The measured shrinkage during drying for both wood species was between 10 and 15%. for birch. During devolatilisation the measured shrinkage. The difficulties in measurement of shrinkage during drying are. and to 39%. In the calculation the shrinkage was assigned to 10% during drying. Although the shrinkage is difficult to measure. attempts were made to do so. As the particle shape approaches an infinite plate or infinite cylinder the error disappears. It is difficult to quantify this error. Furthermore. devolatilisation (2). Especially large birch particles may fall apart. char combustion (3) and particle surface (4) inside a wet spruce particle as a function of time. Other reasons are that some fuel particles fall apart in the end of devolatilisation. The only parameter that has a great effect on the conversion. heating rate and final temperature. Example of simulated temperature and positions of drying (1). and 39% for wet spruce during devolatilisation. particle shape. However. One of the main reasons for the larger scatter during char burnout than during devolatilisation is the accuracy of the correlation for char yield (Table 2). but the agreement is still good.65) for dry spruce. 28% (θ2=0. Figure 7. especially large birch particles. (θ2=0. for example wood logs. was between 35 and 50% for birch. the model is not suitable for very large particles. devolatalised at low temperature (less than 873K). which is plus minus 10%. and 95% burnout. which thermally more or less can be represented as infinite plates. but the influence of the discrepancy on the result is not great for the most common particle sizes used in boilers as seen in Figure 4. but cannot be satisfactory measured. is the shrinkage of the particles. or in the calculation. and finally. Here the scatter is much larger than for devolatilisation. Figure 5 compares measured and calculated times of final char burnout. Dry and . for example. measurement of shrinkage during devolatilisation becomes complicated. having the same length as diameter. and for spruce more than 20%. Arrows indicate the influence of increasing shrinkage. related to a dry particle.

25 0 500 x 10 1 0 x 10 100 -6 200 300 Time [s] 400 0 x 10 100 -6 x 10 1 -1 200 300 Time [s] 400 Measured (Nornalised) c.5 0. the only variable that can cause this difference is a smaller surface area of the particles.5 0. In contrast.25 0 500 1 Measured (Nornalised) -1 a.).65 and 0. (water in volatiles + moisture. Measured (Nornalised) 8 8 Measured (Nornalised) . The conclusion is that wet particles shrink more than dry particles. Measured normalised (solid line) and simulated (dashed line) mass release of water.5 0.5 0.5 0.75 0.75 0.) and char (c) as a function of time for a spruce particle of the size of 10×25×40 mm.5 0. and this results in a higher thermal conductivity and consequently in an increased heat transport inside the particle. a.75 0.) and char (c) as a function of time for a birch particle of the size of 10×25×40 mm. with a moisture content of around 40%.25 0 0.75 0. The figure shows that the time of devolatilisation decreases with increasing shrinkage. volatiles (b.15 wet spruce is given different shrinkages. because the time of char combustion is shorter for initially dry particles than for initially wet particles of the same size.25 0 500 Simulated [kg/s] b. 0. b.25 0 0 x 10 100 -4 200 300 Time [s] 400 0 x 10 100 -4 200 300 Time [s] 400 Measured (Nornalised) 1 Simulated [kg/s] 1 0.5 0. a.55) during devolatilisation. 0. x 10 1 Simulated [kg/s] -4 x 10 1 Measured (Nornalised) -4 1 Simulated [kg/s] 1 0.85. 0.5 0.75 0. 28 and 39% (θ2=0.25 0 500 1 a. Figure 9. because the remaining wood becomes compact.75 0. the time of char burnout increases with increased shrinkage as a result of smaller surface area. Simulated [kg/s] 6 4 2 0 0. In Figure 6 times of devolatilisation and char combustion are calculated for three wet spruce particles of the size of 10×25×40mm.).5 0. Since char combustion is controlled by diffusion of oxygen from the bulk of the surrounding gas to the surface of the particle. (water in volatiles + moisture. Measured normalised (solid line) and simulated (dashed line) mass release of water. 0. Simulated [kg/s] c.75 0. with a moisture content of around 60%.75 0.25 0 400 500 600 700 Time [s] 800 400 500 600 700 Time [s] 800 Figure 8. volatiles (b.25 0 0.75 0. The shrinkage was assumed to be 10% during drying and 6.25 0 0.25 0 6 4 2 0 0.75 0.5 0.

which results in an almost instantaneous peak of water (Figure 8a. However. in the case of spruce. agreement between measured and simulated times for char burnout is not as good as the predicted times of devolatilisation. which cannot be properly modelled with the one-dimensional model. volatiles and char are observed as gas concentrations. followed by a peak of volatiles (Figure 8b. probably a result of cracks formed in the particle. After the second peak the levels of water and volatiles decline once more until the devolatilisation is finished. such as fuel shapes (spheres. For comparison with the simulated releases. water and volatiles decline until all moisture is released. The model is independent of size and shape of the particle and operates with a low number of variables. After 350 seconds air is turned on and the final burnout of the char starts (as seen in Figures 8c. It includes the most essential features of conversion of a solid fuel particle. The instantaneous peak of water. 9a) as the particle enters the reactor. as already mentioned. temperature . whereas it is shorter for birch. However. 9b). Conclusions A simplified thermochemical particle conversion model is derived. For spruce there is an almost perfect agreement between measured and simulated time for the nearly linear decrease in char combustion. and are not directly measured as mass release. released from the surface of the particle. For a fair comparison only the main part of the simulated water release is shown in Figure 8a and 9a. 9c). After the initial peaks. both of the size of 10×25×40 mm. the surface rate of the char conversion decreases nearly linearly until complete char burnout. The trends in release of water and volatiles of both spruce and birch particles are reasonably well described by the model. The measured time of burnout of spruce is much longer than simulated. whereas measured char burnout ends slowly. volatiles and burnout of char are shown. The much shorter time for the birch. The measured and simulated release of water. This results in a second peak of water and volatiles. but could not be captured by the gas analyser (the FTIR) because its response time was not sufficiently short.16 Figure 7 shows a simulation of a 10×25×40 mm moist spruce particle: temperatures and widths of the four layers change with time. because the reaction surface diminishes when the combustion front approaches the centre of the particle. results from the disintegration of the birch particles. finite cylinders and parallelepipeds). they are therefore normalised to the highest measured concentration of water. the temperature in the centre of the particle rises rapidly. Figures 8 and 9 give representative examples of comparisons between measurements and simulations for spruce (Figure 8) with a moisture content around 60% and for birch (Figure 9) with a moisture content of around 40%. The char is predominantly converted to CO2. For the birch the agreement is very good. The volatiles are assumed to have a constant composition during the whole devolatilisation. As the char burns out. As already stated above. as the reaction fronts move from the surface to the centre of the particle. which can be seen both from measurements and simulations. was correctly obtained by the simulation (as confirmed by visual observations during measurements). The simulations show a sudden end of the char burnout. The releases of water. the second peak of the measured volatile release is more extended in time than that obtained from the simulations. and the measured release of char is related to the measured CO2 concentration. as seen from Figure 8 and 9. because the heat sink caused by evaporation disappears. and the measured rate of the devolatilisation is related to the measured CO concentration. as a consequence of enhancement of devolatilisation. This is probably a result of tree-dimensional effects. for use in a comprehensive model of a fuel bed. The measured concentration of water originates from the moisture in the fuel and to a small extent from the volatile gases. this value is not exactly represented by the simulation. Then.

4/Vp0 Schmidt number Sc = νg/Dg Temperature Volume Molar stoichiometric coefficient for species i in reaction j Mass fraction. it can handle the conversion of a solid phase in a computational cell. since it extends the validity of the model beyond the treatment of just a single particle. as shown by the model. Acknowledgment The project was financed by grant from the Swedish National Energy Board Nomenclature A Ar B C D E H I M N P Pr R Re S Sc T V X Y b c d h i k l [1/s] [-] [W/m2K] [mole/m3] [m2/s] [K] [J/kg] [J] [kg/mole] [mole] [Pa] [-] [mole/s] [-] [m2/m3] [-] [K] [m3] [-] [-] [-] [J/kgK] [m] [W/m2K] [J/mole] [W/mK] [m] Pre-exponential factor Archimedes number Ar = gd3(ρs-ρg)/( νg2ρg ) Heat capacity flow per unit area Molar concentration. Larger shrinkage results in a more compact char layer. The model treats the particle in one dimension independent of shape. and consequently higher thermal conductivity and a shorter time for devolatilisation. On the other hand. and it agrees well with measurements performed on more than 60 samples of particles of different sizes. shrinkage and swelling. The model is validated numerically by a heat and mass balance. for char combustion the trends are the opposite: increased shrinkage means a smaller external surface. or particle dispersion Activation energy divided by gas constant Lower heating value Enthalpy Molar mass Mole Pressure Prandtl number Pr = νgcgρg/kg Global reaction rate Reynolds number Re = ugdeq/νg Specific area. related to dry fuel properties Reduction factor. In fact. related respective phase Molecular diffusion. When modelling a large combustion system this is a great advantage.17 gradient inside the particles. where the conversion is related to surface area per unit volume instead of surface area of a single particle. compensating for gas outflow Specific heat Particle diameter Heat transfer coefficient gas-particle Specific enthalpy Heat conductivity Initial length of particles . A comparison with the experiments shows that the simplifications made do not significantly influence the overall agreement of the model. The model calculations predict the great influence from shrinkage on time of devolatilisation and char combustion in agreement with experiments. Γb. wood species and moisture contents. and the conversion of the particle can be described by the heat and mass transport to the surface of the particle.

combustion stage (b. Hydrogen. particle surface) Counter . … a b c conv cond d eq g i in j k Auxiliary variable Oxygen. devolatilization. ash). . H2O.) Inert particles Fuel component (s. B O2. N2. related to its initial mass Delta function Bed voidage at minimum fluidisation Emissivity Efficiency factor Kinematic viscosity Shrinkage coefficient.67⋅10-8 W/m2K4 Dimensionless length Molar ratio related to initial molar concentration Dimensionless width of the char reaction front Coordinates for the case of no shrinking Integration variable.j) (moisture. volatiles.j) (wet fuel. 5.. or if combined with the specific enthalpy i at the surface of the particle Per unit area. ash)..18 q r t u Greek Γ Λ Ω α β χ δ εmf εrad η ν θ [W/m2] [m] [s] [m/s] [m2] [-] [-] [-] [m/s] [-] [1/m] [-] [-] [-] [m2/s] [-] Heat flow Particle radius Time Local velocity Shape factor. or reaction rate Mass fraction of the combustible part in the fuel. char residue. layer in particle (p. or dry fuel Equivalent Gas Gas species (O2.. cross-sectional area for two-phase system and particle surface area for discrete particles Per unit volume ρ [kg/m3] σ [W/m2K4] ω [-] ξ [-] ψ [-] superscript 0 * // /// subscript A. volume of a finite volume related to its initial volume Density Stefan-Boltzmann constant. equal to area at particle radius r Volume fraction Stoichiometric ratio or molar fraction between two species Fraction of oxygen consumed by volatile gases inside particle Mass transfer coefficient.j) (drying. dry fuel. H2. char combustion. … Ash Boundary Char Convection Conduction Diffusion. char.

M. Pyle. 1997. Chem. Thesis for the degree of licentiate of engineering. 8. 4. Combust. Richard.. Hansson. Fuel. Eng. Flame. T. Flame. 16.. Sci. 44:2861 (1989).... Chalmers University of Technology. 18. Roberts... March 2001. Thunman. Kanury..L. Kamiya. Ragland. W-C. Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion. W. Combust. Ind. K.. Reina. 2. 14. 38:681 (1992). K.. L. Eng. Heat Transfer. 7. M. 29:331 (1996). J. D. B.. J.. C.. 10. 9.. Puigjaner... R.. 64:1505 (1985). B. Portugal. S. F. Aerts. 1025. AICHE Journal. 19. M. Energy & Fuel.. 92:120 (1996).. L. A. Num. H. 106:288 (1996). Zaror. Di Blasi. (W. Eng.19 m p r rad s sc sd v w 0 Moisture Particle Reaction Radiation Solid solid in fibre wall inside the char solid in fibre wall inside the wood Volatiles Water Initial condition. . Alves. Collin. Flame.C. Krieger-Brocket B. 39:225 (1980). 10:269 (1996). H. Pittsburgh. Sci. J-R. Niklasson. Saastamoinen. K. P. Johnsson. J. Eng. J. T.). Sugiyama. 1990. Submitted for publication. N. Combust.. Adams. K-M. 37:4290 (1998). Choi. 15.. Figueiredo. ‘Composition of volatile gases and thermochemical properties of wood for models of combustion and high temperature gasification’.. Kita. Leckner. Kelbon.. Ward.. Melaaen. Leuckel. M. Chem. Chem. p.. Flame... 14:261 (1970). Pyrolysis of Large Particles of Biomass – Experiments and Modelling. M. Chem.. 13. 51:1121 (1996). Bryden. Purnomo.A. 6. 5. Combust. 55:2931 (2000). F. AIChE Symposium Series No... H. T. R. Smoot. J.. S. Sci. Radulovic. Chem.. 121:167 (2000). C.. E. D.. H. and A Reis Eds. Shin. Department of Energy Conversion. F. Di Blasi. Eng. D. 3. or starting position Literature 1. 17.. The Combustion Institute. 39:147 (1984). M. Sci. Horio... Combust. W.. Thunman. 12. Flame. 2001. J. 303. Res. 11. Fuel loading of a fluidised bed combustor. L. Leckner. D. C... Hobbs. Chan. INFUB.. S. Ragland. 18:75 (1972). Vole. A. L.

Energatomizdat Publishing House. Leckner. van Swaaij. Ind. Academic dissertation... Submitted for publication. Kanury.. Bangalore India. Heat and Mass Transfer to a Single Particle in Flidized Bed. Nu.. N. D. Emmons. R.. B d =  in d  eq         0... The Nusselt number. Evans. 1998. p. A. (In Russian). New York. H. ISBN 917197-712. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. A − Nu in . E.. Stewart. Dasappa. B. Thunman. Incropera. Nu in − Nu in . W. P. Appendix A The mass and heat transfer coefficients are estimated from the maximum values obtained in a fluidised bed [24]. H.. Res. which is valid over a large range of particle sizes. Parts of the work are published in the proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth and Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion. Chem. DeWitt. Experimental and modeling studies on the gasification of wood-char. 1986. Prins. Department of Energy Conversion. 22. de Jonge. Lightfoot. H. B Nu in . A − Sh in ..1996. P. p. July 1999. P.. Pomerantsev. Janse. Indian Institute of Science. Transport Phenomena. D. 28. 1:57 (1977). are related to the inert spherical particles in a fluidised bed (index in) and are expressed for two extreme cases: the size of the fuel particles is equal to the inert particle (index A) or they are much larger than the inert particles (index B). M. The mass and heat transfer coefficients are then calculated as h = Nu k g / d in (43) (44) β d. 1994.. Fire Research. Ed. 1960. Sh. Chalmers University of Technology. Academic dissertation. Pittsburgh. G. E. John Wiley & Sons Inc.67 (42) where index eq stands for equivalent. ‘Thermal conductivity of wood during different stages of combustion’. John Wiley & Sons Inc. V. Gordon and Breach Science Publisher. M. based on measurement data and empirical correlations from various authors. New York. Bird. 21. 26. In [24] a correlation is developed. W. Introduction to Combustion Phenomena. 27.. The Combustion Institute. Fourth edition. Göteborg Sweden.67 (41) d =  in d  eq 0. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Palchonok. F. M. S. D..20 20.. V. 1335. B Sh in − Sh in . 23. New York... J.0 = Sh Dg / din Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for fuel particles of the same size as the inert particles are.. B Sh in . W. February 2001. A. Moscow. G. B. 24. 1619 and 1998.. and the Sherwood number. 1977. Fundamentals of applied theory of combustion. 25. . 37:3909 (1998).

Empirical correlations. Ar. A = 2ε mf + 0. which are based on table values from [28]. the heat transfer coefficient is reduced by a factor because the particles tend to float on the surface of the bed during the experiments.33 0. Γb. for gas flowing out from the particles during drying and devolatilisation. Thus. Appendix B The thermal conductivity. and Sc Schmidt number. fibre wall.39 Sh in . is given by the surface area of the particle.21 0. B = 0.33 0. d eq = ( Γb.314 (Ts + Tg )   ∑  Rb′′. is based on the inert particles as Arin = 3 gdin ( ρin − ρ g ) 2 ν g ρg (49) The equivalent diameter of the fuel particles deq. infinite cylinders and plates. are given in Table 2. The reduction of the mass transfer coefficient is derived for spheres. is calculated according to [26]. according to [25].85Arin + 0.33 (45) (46) and for fuel particles much larger than the inert particles 0.009Arin Sc0. of the gas are assumed to be the same as for air. In [24] a reduction factor for this combustion situation of 0.39 Nu in . The physical properties. A = 6 + 0. k.33 (47) (48) where Pr is Prandtl number. as the major part of the heat transfer depends on particle convection (and radiation). ν.117Arin Sc0. thermal conductivity. it is assumed that this reduction factor can be used also for finite cylinders and parallelepipeds.006Arin Pr 0.117Arin Pr 0.19 0. No corresponding reduction of the heat transfer coefficient is made. a / π ) 1/ 2 (50) The mass transfer coefficients are compensated by a reduction factor. bd. perpendicular and parallel to the fibre direction. bd = ug = ug / β d 0 βd = β d 0 exp ( ug / β d 0 ) − 1 (51) 8. However. Here.i     P 2 k  i  (52) where ug is the velocity of the gas flowing out from the surface of the particle.85 is recommended.a. εmf bed voidage at minimum fluidisation. . Ar Archimedes number. liquid water.5 Sh in . The Archimedes number.5 Nu in .k ∑  X k . B = 0. from the conductivities and densities of dry fuel. and kinematic viscosity.

ωw. Bn +1 = ( 1 / keff .1 ) − (θ p . the serial and parallel conduction paths. (n=1). j + ω w. 4). Quadratic tubes with normalised wall thickness and a moisture layer represent the fibres.1 ) ( ρ d / ρ 2 ) ( ) 0. A∞ = keff .1 = (1 − ω s . and gas layer are defined as. An +1 = 1 keff . j ω s .5 (54) (55) where the second index on the normalized thickness indicates the combustion stage (virgin fuel. ω s . j   + ω g . j .  ω s . j ( ) 0. B1 =   ks . j =0 for { j > 1} ω g . The effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibre direction is calculated from the minimum effective thermal conductivity for each conversion stage derived for an equivalent fibre. index d on the density. keff . are combined in serial and parallel paths. Knowing these properties. An + 1 keff . B∞ (59) Along the fibre the thermal conductivity is simpler to estimate. Bn ) 2 2 −1 (58) which gives the effective thermal conductivity at n=2 after combination of those of n=1. j .5 for { j > 1} (53) ω w. j = keff . j  + + keff .2 / θ p . j = 1 − ω s . j . j )  ω ω ωg. respectively. j kw + ω g . j  ω w. The normalised thicknesses of wall fibre. ωs. the effective thermal conductivity can be calculated from an equivalent fibre structure in the wood and the char. ρ. j ks .2 / θ p . j + w. and pipes placed next to each other represent the fibres. j ωg. j . char. j =1 − 1 − (θ p . 2. j ks . j . j )( ρd / ρ j ) Σ Yn    n= j   0. j − ω w. j   ks. An + 1 / keff . using information regarding composition of the fuel. 2 dry wood fibre. j +  + keff .22 and the solid part of the char. The effective thermal conductivity. j   ks .5 4 ω s . 1. j  s . j ) kw ω s . j + (1 − ω s . j . j . moisture layer. j . the difference between the two conductivities decreases.1 ) − (1 − ω s . As n increases. Bn 2 2 keff .1 = 1 − 1 − (θ p . indicates dry fuel and index 1 moisture. 3 and ash. can be modelled by a parallel path . where n is a counter. n → ∞ . j kw kw ( k g + krad )      and the maximum effective thermal conductivity −1 −1 (56)  ωs. keff . conversion stage and shrinkage. j (1 − ω s .2 / θ p . j + ω w. The values obtained by Eq (58) over. 3 char and 4 ash. j ( k g + krad )    −1 (57) The minimum Eq (56) and maximum Eq (57) thermal conductivities. dry fuel. j k s .and underestimate. A1 = ω s . When n approaches infinity the two values become equal and a resulting effective thermal conductivity is obtained. j .1 ) ( ρ d / ρ 2 ) Y1 2 ω w. j .

Paper VI .

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since in this case an error made regarding the composition may have a significant impact. 8. 13. 16. CO2. The model consists of a heat and mass balance complemented by empirical data. H2O. and remaining hydrocarbons. 11. Relevant number of species means species for the thermal process and for related computations. 3. A characterization can be formulated in a general way. Most of the works * Corresponding author . Similar investigations could produce the empirical input for other fuels. light hydrocarbons. 9. 7. For example. Here. data for trunk wood will be employed here and the empirical parts of the model will be specialized for this fuel. 4 (the composition in 2. 10. 3 was estimated from measurements 5). H2O. The present model aims at characterizing composition and quantities of the volatile gases leaving the surface of non-isothermal fuel particles by means of a relevant number of gas species. The volatile gases from the moisture-free part of wood have already been represented in various ways in models. and heavy hydrocarbons. In addition. CO. Characterization of the volatile gases is most essential for fuels having a high volatile content. The data are taken from the literature and from measurements carried out in the present work. Much work has been published on releases of volatiles. but a general model of the composition of volatile gases and a comprehensive presentation of the related thermo-chemical properties of the fuel are still missing. a comprehensive set of data is presented for such properties of wood that are needed for modeling of conversion in fixed and fluidized beds. such as fixed and fluidized beds. The species in the volatile gases are represented by the time mean mass fractions of CO2. Filip Johnsson. light (non-condensable) hydrocarbons. +46 31 7723592 (fax) email energy. by a number of gases given by measurements 2. These components are readily outlined according to experience: CO. The problem to be solved then consists in the determination of the quantities of these gases. H2. 12. Introduction Models of solid fuel combustion devices. but it needs some empirical correlations and fuel data.se (Submitted for publication) Abstract Modeling of conversion of solid fuel in combustion or gasification systems needs a description of the composition of the volatile gases that leave a fuel particle of typical size in a fixed or fluidized bed during devolatilisation.chalmers. tend to be extremely complex and time consuming. As an example. H2. There are numerous publications describing the rate of devolatilization. The empirical coefficients have to be specified for certain classes of fuel: the fuels treated in this paper are one type of hardwood and one of softwood. Bo Leckner* Department of Energy Conversion Chalmers University of Technology S-412 96 Göteborg. here called lumped hydrocarbons. Therefore simplifications have to be found. 14 15.1 Composition of volatile gases and thermo-chemical properties of wood for modeling of fixed or fluidized beds Henrik Thunman. Sweden +46 31 7721430. having particle sizes in the range used in utility boilers. Fredrik Niklasson. a simplified model is presented whose structure is valid for any solid fuel. they are assumed to consist of a single equivalent gas 1. the char yield and the composition of volatile gases 6.conversion@entek.

h. and the devolatilization takes place in a temperature gradient inside the particle. used as fuel. char and ash in the moisture-free wood. These data are collected from literature sources and completed for wood particles of the sizes used in utility boilers by results from measurements carried out in the present work. This is what is done in present work. wood 0 0 0 hwood = H wood +  C . the main focus is on the gases released during devolatilisation. given as the mass fraction. here the interest is on “combustion-like” conditions. where heat and mass balances are used to formulate a model for evaluating the quantities of the gases leaving a devolatilizing fuel particle. as well as the energy balance over the system. wood  0 −  C . tar.2 cited focus on devolatilisation. the heat of reactions at temperatures that differ from the reference temperature. hydrogen and oxygen. Wood. There are exceptions. By doing so. and attempts have only been made in some work. and all considerations below concern the moisture-free part of the wood. which means that devolatilization is controlled by internal heat transfer and the medium surrounding the particle has a higher temperature than that needed for devolatilisation. In contrast. lower than the temperature in a combustor. Besides. The volatile gases may be transformed on their way out of the fuel particle. e. The other major part consists of volatiles released during devolatilization. wood M CO2 hCO2 + M H 2O hH 2O  (1 − Yash ) −  MC  M H2   X X H 2 . H. etc) as input. Here. Due to measurement complications it is difficult to close the elemental species balance. usually has high moisture content. The model requires thermochemical data of the fuel (virgin fuel. The specific enthalpy. Theory The specific enthalpies of the fuel particle and of the gases leaving the particle. one belonging . X. as well as the composition of the gas. 10 where the closure of both the elemental species balance and the energy balance has been tried. wood X O2 . However. wood + −  M O2 hO2 (1 − Yash )  MC  2M H 2 M O2   (1) M is molar mass and Y denotes mass fraction of volatiles.g. char. superscript 0. Wood consists mainly of carbon. The lower heating value of the dry wood can be divided into two parts. can be calculated from the lower heating value. The experiments have a main focus on the production of charcoals and/or pyrolysis oils. A closure model has to be established that is valid during all conversion stages of the fuel. For this propose it is convenient to express the energy conservation equation in terms of specific enthalpy. X  X H 2 . and consequently a major part of the gases released from the wood is evaporated moisture. where the fuel is isothermally heated to a rather low final temperature. similar to typical fuels. of respective species and related to the moisture and ash-free wood as. of the moisturefree wood and the elemental analysis. the closure was not complete. are needed in each step of the conversion to conserve the energy according to the first law of thermodynamics (applied to chemical reacting systems). Efforts in closing the energy balance have been made in even fewer cases. Other species can be neglected when the global system is considered. When modeling a combustion or a gasification system the balance of the elemental species and the energy must be fulfilled in order to satisfy the conservation equations that describe the system. probably due to the difficulty in closing the species balance. if the particles are thermally thick. of the wood at a reference temperature. are easy to obtain.

char + − +  M O2 hO2  MC M O2  Ychar + Yash 2M H 2    X  Ychar X H 2 . and the heating value of char can be calculated from Eq. The specific heat. 0 0 0 0 H dev = (Ychar + Yash ) hchar + Yvol hvol − hwood (5) but the literature values are usually given at the devolatilization temperature. The heating value. XH2. specific enthalpy at the reference temperature and the specific heat of the volatile gases are estimated from the composition of the volatile gases as. since the ash content is small. The heat of devolatilization is defined by. wood − (Ychar + Yash ) c p .char − c p .C dT = hchar − hC + hC Tref T (3) where the specific enthalpy at the reference temperature can be calculated from the lower heating value and the elemental analysis of the char. is that the ash-free char consists of pure carbon (that is. This is a common assumption 4.char  Ychar 0 0 H char = hchar +  C . With these assumptions the specific enthalpy of the char at temperature T becomes.char X O2 . Then the specific enthalpy of char becomes equal to that of graphite. 0 H dev = H dev − ∫ Tdev Tref (c p .char≈0). cp. as 0 H wood = Ychar H char + (Yvol H vol − H dev ) (2) Under combustion-like conditions the ash-free content of char consists of nearly pure carbon. 0 0 0 hchar = hchar + ∫ c p .char and XO2. of char is therefore assumed to be equal to that of graphite (given in Table 4). and the heat of devolatilization reported in the literature has to be recalculated to the reference temperature as. the ash is assumed to have the same specific heat and specific enthalpy as the char. X X H 2 . 17.vol ) dT (6) The specific heat of wood has been measured.char 0 0 M H 2O hH 2O  +  − C . To further simplify the calculations.char M CO2 hCO2 −  MC  Ychar + Yash M H2   (4) A common assumption.3 to the char and one to the volatiles including the heat of devolatilization (ash is considered inert). H vol = ∑ γ i H i 0 hvol = ∑ γ i hi0 i i (7) (8) . (4). if the lower heating value and elemental analysis of char are not known. The major part of the devolatilization occurs in the temperature range 700 to 900K 10.

(12) to (14) the conservation of energy. form a system of equations that gives the composition of the volatile gases γ. 16.char   (12)  γCH γH γH O m γ Cn H mOk = Yvol  2 i j + + 2 + 2  MC H 2 M Cn H mOk M H 2 M H 2O i j  X O2 . (15) and (16).char     M H 2 + Ychar X H 2 .vol + Ychar X O2 . wood (1 − Yash ) = Yvol X C . (7).vol + Ychar X C . The specific enthalpy of the lumped hydrocarbons at reference temperature can be estimated from the heating value.4 c p .vol + Ychar X H 2 . (1) to (11) than there are equations. H2O. All hydrocarbons except methane and ethylene are lumped together and referred to as lumped hydrocarbons in the following. wood (1 − Yash ) = Yvol X H 2 .vol = ∑ γ i c p . X C . The volatile gases was assumed to consist of CO. . 18. (6) inserted in Eq.char γ γCH γ CO2 γC H O = Yvol  CO + + i j +n n m k  M CO M CO M C H M Cn H mOk i j 2  X H 2 . H2 CiHj. Ω1 = γ CO / γ CO2 (15) (16) Ω 2 = γ Ci H j / γ CO2 The balances of the elemental species. The system of equations can be solved by a matrix operation as. and CnHmOk.char (13)  1 γ CO γ CO2 k γ Cn H mOk 1 γ H 2O = Yvol  + + +  2 M CO M CO 2 M C H O 2 M H O 2 2 n m k    M O2 + Ychar X O2 . mostly consist of methane and ethylene 10. The correlations are expressed as the ratios of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbons (obtained from the measurements of the total hydrocarbons) to carbon dioxide. and. carbon monoxide. γ CO + γ CO + γ C H + γ C H 2 i j n m Ok + γ H 2 + γ H 2O = 1 (10) The light hydrocarbons. CO2.char   (14) The final two equations needed are empirical correlations based on the most commonly measured species in combustion or gasification systems. CiHj. CnHmOk. Eq. can be roughly estimated from previous knowledge 19. wood (1 − Yash ) = Yvol X O2 . 15.i i (9) where γ is the mass fraction of species i in the volatile gases. The balances of the elemental species give three additional equations. Eq. The elemental composition. Eq. together with the empirical ratios. lower heating value and specific heat of the lumped hydrocarbons. (2)and put equal to Eq.char   M C + Ychar X C . carbon dioxide and total hydrocarbons. 0 0 hCn H mOk = H Cn H mOk + nM CO2 hCO2 + m m k  0 0 M H 2O hH 2O −  n + −  M O2 hO2 2 4 2  (11) There are five more unknowns in the system of equations formed by Eq.

as received (wet) and after drying for 24 hours in an oven at 377 K. The sizes were chosen to cover the range of specific areas (surface-area to volume ratios). The fuel particles to be analyzed were prepared from raw wood of birch (hardwood) and of spruce (softwood) with material properties as shown in Table 1. varied between 3 and 10 mm. always in the perpendicular direction. The particles were cut with the long side. wood  dT  / Yvol     T Tdev ref i   (19) Measurements In order to get the wanted properties of wood particles having sizes as used in utility boilers. The composition of gas components was continuously measured during the experiment. . controlled by mass flow regulators.char − c p .vol / M O  κ   0  0   2 2 2 2      (17)      where ζ and κ are equivalent heating values. The reactor consists of a vertical quartz tube with a height of 1400 mm and an inner diameter of 64 mm. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor.5 0  γ H 2O   0   γ   H 2  1/ M H O 1/ M H  γ CO   1 / M 0 H O   = 2 γ CO2   ζ ζH  H O  γCH   0  i j   0 γ Cn H mOk   0 0     2 2 2 2 1/ M CO 2 1/ M CO 0 1 2 2 i / MC H i j n / MC H n m Ok 0 1 2 j 2 / MC H i j m 2 k 2 / MC H n m Ok / M CO / M CO 2 0 / MC H n m Ok ζ CO 1 0 ζ CO 2 −Ω1 −Ω 2 ζC H i j ζC H n m Ok 0 1 0 0            −1  X C . dividing the reactor into three zones. placed nearly at half height of the quartz glass tube. single wood particles of these sizes were pyrolysed in an inert atmosphere. The fluidized bed material (silica sand) rests on a distributor plate made of a porous quarts filter. along the fiber direction of the wood and with the shortest end. Parallelepipeds of eight sizes were tested (the total number of samples was 57). The entering fluidizing gas flow. Each wood-particle size was tested for birch and for spruce. ζ is related to the lower heating value of the species in the volatile gases and is defined. Three separate electrical heaters control the reactor temperature. κ = ∑ γ iζ i =  H wood − Ychar H char + H dev − ∫ (Ychar + Yash ) c p . The reactor is designed for a maximum temperature of 1473 K. that is expected to occur in a batch of forest waste wood as fired in utility boilers.vol / M C X  H . as outlined in Figure 1. is preheated in Zone I before passing the gas-distributor plate to the fluidized bed in Zone II and the freeboard in Zone III.i dT (18) κ is related to the lower heating value of the volatile gases and is defined. 320-800 m-1.vol / M H  X O . followed by a burnout of the remaining char. The quarts glass tube extends 50 mm on each side of the insulated part of the reactor. varied between 10 and 40 mm. ζ i = Hi + ∫ Tdev Tref c p . as shown in Figure 1.

CO was preferred for the estimation of the dilution factor. Calibration of the analyzers was performed daily before the experiments. because the concentration of the diluted CO2 occasionally exceeded the lower range of the CO2 analyzer.5/6.6(b) 18. is shown in Figure 2.4 H 6.1 43.6 50.4/33. filtered the gas.3/5. dry) 0. The dilution factor was estimated by comparison with CO levels measured below maximum concentration. One of the CO/CO2 instruments was fed by sample gas diluted with nitrogen to avoid that the gas concentration of CO out from the reactor exceeded the instrument’s maximum. (c) % mass. passing a second filter and a heated pump into the test cell of the instrument. where two parallel fiberglass filters. When the pyrolysis had finished.8/33. During the heating of the particle. dry ash free fuel Table 2. .60 m/s 1.30 mm 80 mm 0.8 N 0. Properties of fuel used in the measurements Birch/Char Spruce/Char Ash (% mass. The fuel pieces were dropped down onto the fluidized bed from the top of the reactor tube. the fluidizing gas was changed to air in order to burn out the char residue in the bed. The residence time of the pyrolysis gases in the hot reactor was around 1 second.10/0. For the condition in the experiments the Biot number was above 6 for all particle sizes.01/ <0. kept at 423K. (b) ash free. The experimental set-up.7 6.6 Table 1.01/ (a) calculated.0(a) Density (kg/m3) 540±40/420±40/H (MJ/kg) 18.6 O (by difference) 44. The third line of sample gas was lead to a dryer and a pump before being distributed between two CO/CO2 instruments and one O2 instrument. which means that the heating of the particles is controlled by internal heat transfer and the choice of reactor for the experiments does not affect the results.45 0.3/0. The gas was sucked out close to the reactor outlet. the fluidizing gas in the reactor was pure nitrogen. Another part of the sample gas was lead by heated tubes to a total hydrocarbon instrument.0(a) 0.16/0. The levels of CO2 were then used to verify the dilution factor. The operating conditions are listed in Table 2.2/93. allowing the study of the composition of the pyrolysis gas. The mass flow controllers used allow any ratio of oxygen to nitrogen during combustion of the test samples.2(b) Elemental Analysis(c) C 49. Operating conditions of the fluidized bed reactor Parameter Reactor Temperature Density of bed material Mean diameter of bed material Bed height Superficial gas velocity Residence time of gas in reactor (bed to exit) Operating Condition 1123K 2600 kg/m3 0.3/2.3/0. About 4 liters per minute of the sample gas was lead to an FTIR instrument by heated tubing. including the gas-analysis system.23 S <0. measuring the hydrocarbons as methane equivalents by a flame ionization detector (FID).4/2.2/92. including drying and pyrolysis. The gasanalyzers are listed in Table 3.1 s At rest At 1123 K At 1123 K Remark Constant along reactor Silica sand The top and the bottom of the glass tube reactor are water-cooled to prevent the gas inlet and outlet connections to become overheated and to reduce the temperature of the exiting gas to around 460 K.

7 The integrated gas flow of each species is calculated to estimate the time average ratios of the different gaseous species during devolatilization. The flow of the single species is estimated from the measured concentration and the total gas leaving the reactor. The total gas is the sum of the gas flow of inert gas into the reactor, given by mass flow regulators, and the gas produced during drying and devolatilization. The gas produced in the reactor is estimated from the mass leaving the fuel particle and is correlated to the concentrations of the measured species. The fuel particles were to a large extent floating on the surface of the fluidized bed, and especially larger birch particles fell apart at the end of devolatilisation phase. There was a small amount of soot and tar on the outlet tube walls, but no condensed tar was observed to fall back into the reactor. No tar, but soot and small sand particles could be seen on the filters.

Property data for modeling
The empirical ratios of Ω1 = CO/CO2 and Ω2 = CiHj/CO2 in the volatile gases are estimated from the experiments and from literature data 3, 15, 16. Literature data 3 give a ratio of Ω1 between 0.4 and 0.95 at 1092 K, and a temperature dependent ratio 16 expressed as Ω1 = 1.94 ⋅10−6 T 1.87 which, in the temperature range of 665 to 990 K, is between 0.37 and 0.78. The present measurements, Figure 3, show a ratio that increases linearly from around 2.4 to 3.4, as the specific area of the fuel particle increases from 320 to 800. The difference is small between the tested hardwood and softwood or between dry and wet particles. The high ratio, around 3, of CO to CO2 agrees with what has been found for rapid pyrolysis (1000K/s) of small hardwood particles, (45-88µm) 10. In the literature the ratio of the light hydrocarbons to CO2 is stated to be between 0.29 and 0.46 3. A temperature dependent ratio has been expressed by 16, Ω 2 = 1.305 ⋅10−11T 3.39 + 3.007 ⋅10−14 T 4.07 (21) (20)

in which the first term represents the ratio of CH4 to CO2, and the second term the ratio of C2H4+C2H6 to CO2. This ratio of Ω2 is between 0.06 and 0.24 in the measured temperature range of 665 to 990 K. The present measurements give a ratio of THC to CO2 between 1.2 and 1.7 (the THC measured on a gas cooled to 423K), depending on the specific area of the fuel, as illustrated in Figure 3. The ratio increases linearly with the specific area, for small specific areas, but for larger the ratio tends to become constant. No significant difference between wet or dry fuel or between hardwood and softwood can be seen. THC is expressed as methane equivalents. The THC analyzer (FID-type) counts the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbons, related to the calibration gas. The actual concentration of the different hydrocarbons is calculated from effective carbon numbers. The number is unity for methane, 0.95 for ethylene and ethane, and 0.89 for benzene (information in the manual of the FID analyser). Assuming that the effective carbon number is the same for the lumped hydrocarbons as for benzene, the ratio of THC to CO2 can be expressed as,

8

(1) 50 (4) (3) III II 1400 (6) I 650 50 (2) III II (6) I

Stack

Nitrogen for dilution Filter Filter MFC
gas dryer

Fluidised Bed Reactor

CO/ CO2 CO/ CO2 Stack O2

(5)

Heated Tube

Heated Tube

THC FTIR

MFC

MFC

65

Figure 1. Outline of the reactor, (1) gas outlet, (2) gas inlet, (3) insulated casing, (4) quartz glass reactor tube, (5) distributor plate, (6) heaters in different zones I, II, III.

Nitrogen or air Oxygen

Filter

Figure 2. Experimental set-up and gasanalysis system, MFC stands for mass flow controller.

1.8
THC/CO2 (by mass)

4.0
CO/CO2 (by mass)

1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 300 1.8

3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 300

Table 4. Summary of thermo-chemical data for wood
Trunk wood Hwood (MJ/kg) CHiOj; I J cp,wood Range 17-1-20.8 (a) 1.32-1.61 (a) 0.56-0.64 Eq. (24) to (25) Reference
20 20 20 21, 22, 23, 24

600 900 Specific Area [1/m]

600 900 Specific Area [1/m]

H2O/CO2 (by mass)

Char Yield [%]

1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 300 600 900 Specific Area [1/m]

22 18 14 10 300 600 900 Specific Area [1/m]

Figure 3. Ratios of THC to CO2, CO to CO2 and H2O to CO2, and char yield, related to the specific area of the wood particles, birch (wet, +, dry, *, solid trend lines), spruce (wet, o, dry, ∇, dashed trend line). Table 3. Gas analyzers used
Analysed Gas Instrument CO CO2 THC O2 H2O Rosemount, BINOS® 100 J.U.M. Engineering, FID 3-300A Leybold-Heraeus AG, Oxynos-1 FTIR Bomem MB 100 Range 0 – 3.0 % 0 – 20 % 0 – 10% (CH4) 0 – 25 %

Char Range Reference 33 HChar (MJ/kg) Eq. (26) (b) (Birch Ychar=14%) 32.9 (b) (Spruce Ychar=20%) 32.5 (b) CHiOj; i 0.07-0.17 (b) J 0.004-0.055 4, 17 cp,char (kJ/kg·K) Graphite, Table 5 Devolatisation Range Reference 26 Hdev (MJ/kg) >623 K 0.20 to 0.25 Light hydrocarbons Range Reference (a) 37 HCiHj (MJ/kg) 49.2 - 49.4 (b) 2-3 γCH4 /γC2H4⇒ CiHj (b) cp,CiHj (kJ/kg·K) CH4, Table 5 Lumped hydrocarbons Range Reference (b) HCnHmOk (MJ/kg) 26-40 12, 3 CnHmOk; n 6 2 3 m 6.2 or 8 or 2 3 k 0.2 or 1 or cp,CnHmOk 38, (b) C6H6, Table 5 (kJ/kg·K) (a) (b) calculated from ref., obtained in present work

9
* THC X CH 4 ,vol + 1.90 X C2 H 4 ,vol M CH 4 / M C2 H 4 0.89n X Cn H mOk ,vol M CH 4 / M Cn H mOk ≈ + CO2 X CO2 ,vol X CO2 ,vol

(22)

where the non-condensable part of the lumped hydrocarbons at the temperature of the gas entering the analyzer is indicated with an asterisk. As stated above the light hydrocarbons in the ratio Ω2 are mainly methane and ethylene. This defines the ratio Ω2 as,
Ω 2 = X CH 4 + X C2 H 4 / X CO2

(

)

(23)

According to the definition Eq. (22) the ratio of THC to CO2 is always larger than the ratio of the light hydrocarbons to CO2, Eq. (23). To obtain the ratio of the light hydrocarbons to CO2 the mass fractions of methane and ethylene must be approximated from the ratio of THC to CO2, by Eq. (22). This is done by estimation of the ratios of methane to ethylene, and methane and ethylene to the non-condensable part lumped hydrocarbons in the THC. The mass ratio of methane to ethylene is estimated to be between 2 and 3, 10, 15, 16, 18. On a molar basis this corresponds to 78-84% methane. (If the mass ratio is 3, an equivalent hydrocarbon takes the form, C1.16H4). The ratio of methane and ethylene to lumped hydrocarbons in the measured THC is estimated to be between 4 and 9. This ratio is based a qualitative judgment of the concentrations of the non-condensable part of the lumped hydrocarbons at the temperature of the gas entering the THC-analyzer given by the FTIR-spectra that indicates that the concentration of these lumped hydrocarbons is much smaller than the one of methane and ethylene. With these estimates of the ratios of methane to ethylene and of methane and ethylene to lumped hydrocarbons in the THC, the ratio of the light hydrocarbons to CO2, can be approximated to be between 0.9 and 1.2 for the smallest specific areas and between 1.1 and 1.5 for the largest. The specific heat of the light hydrocarbons is assumed to be close to that of methane, given in Table 5. The ratios of CO to CO2 and of light hydrocarbons to CO2 obtained in the present measurements are much higher than those of the other results quoted. To get the same ratio of light hydrocarbons to CO2 as in the other quoted results, a major part of the hydrocarbons in the THC must be related to the lumped hydrocarbons. This can, however, be excluded judging from the qualitative measure given by the FTIR-spectra. The most likely reason for the discrepancies is the difference in residence time in the heated part of the reactor. In the measurements presented here, the residence time was around one second, whereas for the data 16 the residence time in the reactor was around six seconds. The residence time in the other set of measurements 3 cannot be estimated. Rapid pyrolysis of small particles 10, where the composition of the volatile gases was measured after a short residence time, shows on a ratio of CO to CO2 in the same region as the one reported here. For measurements where the light hydrocarbons is estimated by a FID-analyzer, in a system without FTIR, it would be better to cool the gases to ambient temperature before they enter the THC analyzer. In this way as much hydrocarbons as possible is condensed, and thereby a more defined composition of the THC is obtained. If a FTIR is used, and the major components are measured from the FTIR-spectra, then it is an advantage to measure the THC at the highest possible temperature, because then an additional control of the mass fractions given by Eq. (17) is achieved. This control involves the ratio of the THC to CO2 given by Eq. (22), using mass fraction of light and lumped hydrocarbons from Eq. (17), that must be larger than or equal to the measured ratio of the THC to CO2.

10 A ratio of the water vapor to carbon dioxide concentrations in the pyrolysis gases can be obtained from the FTIR measurements of water vapor formed during devolatilization of the dry wood particles. This ratio varied between 0.8 and 1.3, see Figure 3. The reliability of the measurements decreases with a decreasing particle size, due to the relatively slow exchange of gas in the measurement cell. The FTIR provided one measurement point every 7th second and, as the time of devolatilization for the smallest particles is around 30 seconds, only 4 to 5 measurement points were obtained for these particles. However, the ratio was rather constant, around 1.2 for spruce and 1.0 for birch. The property data of most interest are heating values, structure of the compounds CHiOj, and specific heats. These data are collected both from literature sources and from the present measurements. The results are summarized in Table 4. A database 20 of 25 types of wood allows determination of the heating value, Hwood and estimation of i and j in CHiOj, Table 4. For a particular kind of wood the range of variation of the heating value and the elemental composition is smaller than those given in Table 4. The specific heat of wood is temperature dependent and is represented by empirical correlations from the literature, e.g. for dry wood (i) 21, (ii) 22 (a mean value of six reported correlations), (iii) 23 (taken from 17), (iv) 24, c p , wood = 4.206T − 37.7 c p , wood = 4.607T − 132.8 c p , wood = 3.867T + 103.1 c p , wood = 2.45T + 531.2 (i ) (ii ) (iii ) (iv) (24)

The first three correlations (i) to (iii) are close to each other, whereas correlation (iv), results in same specific heat at ambient temperature, but has a temperature dependence which is about half of that of the others. Correlation (iv) is interesting, since data forming this correlation show a linear temperature dependence of the specific heat until devolatilization starts at 553K, whereas data forming the other correlation only do not exceed 450 K. Small differences between different woods can be expected, as they consist of different amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heat capacity of pure cellulose is similar to the specific heat of wood, according to the three first correlations in Eq. (24), but has slightly higher temperature dependence 25. Moist wood has a greater specific heat than what would be expected from the simple law of mixtures 22, 23, as a result of the energy absorbed by the wood-water bounds. This is represented by a correction term 23,

c p , wet = ( c p , wood + 4190Ymoist / (1 − Ymoist ) ) / (1 + Ymoist / (1 − Ymoist ) ) + A A = ( 23.55T − 1320Ymoist / (1 − Ymoist ) − 6191) Ymoist / (1 − Ymoist )

(25)

Under combustion conditions the char yield becomes 10-25% of initially dry mass 9, 14, 26, 27, 28. However, flash pyrolysis of small particles can give a char yield below 10% for temperatures above 800 K 10, 29. In the present measurements the char yield was estimated from of CO2 concentration, elemental carbon content in char, and airflow through the reactor during the burnout of the char. For large, dry birch particles, with a specific area of 320, the char yield is around 16%, Figure 3, which is similar to a value reported in a previous investigation 30, where a char yield of around 14% for birch is reported at the same temperature as in the

11 present measurements for particles of a size of 10x10x70mm. The char yield declines nearly linearly with particle size, and for birch particles with a specific area of 800 it becomes around 11%. For wet, large particles the char yield is somewhat higher, but for smaller particles the difference disappears. The same trends are observed for birch and spruce, but the spruce shows 30% higher char yield than the birch. According to the elemental analysis of the present measurements, Table 1, and from the literature 12, 28, the content of carbon in the ashfree char is higher than 90% on dry mass, hydrogen is in the range of 0.6-1.5% and oxygen, determined by difference, in the range of 0.5-6.4%. This yields an approximate elemental composition given in Table 4. Empirical correlations have been published 31, 32, 33 for heating values of char related to the amount of fuel released as volatiles. The difference between the correlations is small 34. One of the correlations 33, for the range of the conversion (1-Yvol) between 1 and 0.17, is H char = 16.7 ⋅106 + 2.93 ⋅106 /(1 − Yvol ) ; (26) (1 − Yvol ) > 0.17 For a char yield of 20%, (1-Yvol)=0.2, the resulting heating value becomes 31.3 MJ/kg. If (1-Yvol)≤0.17 the char is nearly pure carbon, and the heating value of the char is assumed to be the same as for (1-Yvol)=0.17, which gives 34.0 MJ/kg. These data can be compared with those in Table 4. The composition of the lumped hydrocarbons is difficult to generalize, as it depends strongly on temperature and residence time 19. Here, the primary product of devolatilisation inside the particle is assumed to have a composition close to pyrolysis oils, produced in the temperature range of 700 to 900 K, where most of the devolatilization occurs under combustion-like conditions. These pyrolysis oils have an elemental composition close to that of wood 10, 35, and a heating value between 22 and 26 MJ/kg 13, 36. As the gas passes out through the particle, it meets higher temperature and active char surfaces, which crack the pyrolysis oils. The remaining lumped hydrocarbons that leaves the surface of the fuel particle contain more stable hydrocarbons than they did originally, for example, benzene, naphthalene and toluene 19. These hydrocarbons have a heating value around 40MJ/kg 37. The conclusion is that lumped hydrocarbons leaving the fuel particle, produced during combustion-like conditions, have a heating value between 26 and 40MJ/kg. In Table 4 the composition is assumed to be roughly the same as the molecule of tar. Judging from the different hydrocarbons in the lumped hydrocarbons in Table 4, the heating value is most likely higher than 40 MJ/kg for one proposed composition 2, and little less than 40 MJ/kg for another one 3.
Table 5. Specific heat, cp,i=a1+a2T+a3T2+ a4T3+ a5T4, and enthalpy for gas species and graphite

Species
(a) (a)

h0
0 0 -13.4⋅106 0 -3.95⋅106 -8.94⋅106 -3.05⋅106 Eq. (11) Eq. (4)

a1
811 939 1612 14400 982 508 1086 -9.31 -334

a2 (×103) a3 (×106) a4 (×109) a5 (×1012)
411 302 740 -369 139 1390 3820 2290 4410 -175 -81.0 -8.24 1620 138 -899 159 -763 -3160 37.5 8.23 -38.5 -467 -96.1 274 -682 112 1010 -2.97 -0.150 4.84 41.3 15.9 -31.5 141.2 -4.01 -119

O2 N2 (a) H 2O (a) H2 (b) CO (b) CO2 (b) C1.16H4 (cp for CH4) (b) CnHmOk (cp for C6H6) (b) Char (cp for graphite)

Correlations valid in the range (a) 273-4000K, (b) 273-3000K, error less than ±2%

0 • • • • • • (b) D • • 2 • • • • E • • • 16 • • • F • • • • 6 • • G • • • • • 0.95 • (a) Calculates the ratio H2O/CO2 • • • • • Calculates heating value of CnHmOk The specific heat of the lumped hydrocarbons can be approximated with that of benzene. C6H6. dots indicate the same value as in reference case A. as the specific heat does not vary greatly for the hydrocarbons. Variable\Case A B C • 1.2. and the reference enthalpies of the gas species used in the model. which from experience are expected to be present in the lumped hydrocarbons. (17).5 CiHj/CO2 1. 37 ). . The amount of light hydrocarbons in the THC was only approximately known. C6H8O.12 Table 6. is rather stiff.2O0. The heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons was varied between 30 and 37 MJ/kg. having an elemental analysis and a heating value according to Table 1.75 • H • • • • • • 30 I • • • • • • • 0. case A. where the equation of conservation of energy is replaced by the ratio ΩH2O/CO2 = γH2O/γCO2. and as the resulting composition of volatile gases easily can take unrealistic values. Table 6. The measurements carried out here contain information on the ratio of H2O to CO2. The input data to the sensitivity analyzes. The temperature dependent specific heats. and an alternative system of equations can be established. The composition of the lumped hydrocarbons in the base case. were varied in the range of uncertainties in the measurements on the largest particles. (17). The alternative system of equations can be expressed in the same way as Eq. and therefore the ratio Ω2 was varied in a wider range than that resulting from the measurements of THC. and the variation of the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen follows another proposal 3. in the form of polynomial fits (based on literature data 39.4 2. are summarized in Table 5. This approximation has been made previously 38. Data for sensitivity analysis. specific area of 320. the influence of the uncertainty in the measurements on the resulting prediction of the composition was analyzed by a sensitivity analysis.2 • CH4/C2H4 3 • Char (%) 15 • n/k (CnHmOk) 30 • n/m (CnHmOk) 0.85 CO/CO2 2. solved by Eq. The sensitivity analyzes was carried out for birch. is equal to a proposed composition 2. and the approximately equivalent molecule is close to that of benzene. The ratio of methane to ethylene was varied between 3 and 2 in the lumped hydrocarbons.97 • (a) HCnHmOk 37 • (MJ/kg) (b) H2O/CO2 0. Sensitivity analysis of measurements As the system of equations. see Table 4. presented in Table 6.

(27). species distribution calculated by Eq. Figures 5 and 6. A reduction of this ratio raises the mass fraction of the light hydrocarbons and of the hydrogen and lowers the mass fraction of the lumped hydrocarbon. An increase of the amount of lumped hydrocarbons in the measured THC. (17).vol / M C X  H . The heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons is expected to become lower as the atomic ratio of carbon to oxygen decreases. (27). but it is mainly as expected due to the change of the ratio of CiHj to CO2. (Observe the different scaling factors) . The sensitivity analysis was performed with either the heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons given. according Table 6 and Eq. (17). when the composition of the volatiles is obtained from Eq. the sensitivity analysis shows that within the present measurement accuracy one obtains a stable solution both for the species concentrations in the volatile gases and for the heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons.vol / M O  0   0  0   2 2 2 2      (27)      The result of the sensitivity analysis is presented in Figure 4 to 6. which tends to lower the heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons. since in such a case there is relatively seen less carbon and hydrogen to oxidize. Even case C shows some deviation. In general the sensitivity of the heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons is greater than that of the mass fractions. x100 γH Ox100 γ x1000 20 20 20 γH 10 10 10 0 x100 0 20 γCOx50 0 20 γCO x100 x100 γC γH x1000 20 2O H2 2 2 10 0 20 x50 20 CO CO2 γ 10 10 10 γ 0 x100 0 γC H x100 0 20 2 10 0 20 x100 CnHmOk Ci Hj γ 10 10 10 γ 0 0 0 nHmOk 20 20 i j 10 0 A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G H A B C D E F G I A B C D E F G I Figure 4. Resulting species distribution in the volatile gases from the sensitivity analysis according to Table 6. and a higher amount of hydrogen and in the lumped hydrocarbons. In general. (27). case F. Figure 4. or with the ratio of H2O to CO2 given. is the atomic ratio of carbon to oxygen in the lumped hydrocarbon. (by a lower ratio of CiHj to CO2) shows a lower amount of light hydrocarbons (as expected). If instead the ratio of H2O to CO2 is given according to Table 6. species distribution calculated by Eq.13 0  γ H 2O   0  γ    H 2  1/ M H O 1/ M H  γ CO   1 / M 0 H O   = 2  γ CO2   1 0  γCH   0  i j   0 γ Cn H mOk   0 0    2 2 1/ M CO 2 1/ M CO 0 1 2 2 i / MC H i j n / MC H n m Ok 0 1 2 j 2 / MC H i j m 2 k 2 / MC H n m Ok / M CO 0 1 0 / M CO −Ω1 −Ω 2 2 0 0 0 1 / MC H n m Ok −Ω H 2O / CO2 0 0 0           −1  X C . according Table 6 and Eq. the heating value is lowered. (Observe the different scaling factors) Figure 5. The only parameter varied that leads to a pronounced deviation.vol / M H  X O . if the heating value is given according to Table 6. Resulting species distribution in the volatile gases from the sensitivity analysis according to Table 6.

Resulting heating value from species distribution given by Eq. Also. This resulting heating value is closer to the one expected from the other proposed elemental composition. C6H8O. The empirical ratios and char yields from Figure 3. The heating value of 37 MJ/kg for the lumped hydrocarbons is lower than that stated above for the given elemental composition (>40MJ/kg). (27)from input data for the sensitivity analysis according to Table 6. Estimated composition of volatile gases. The analyzes shows nearly identical results for birch and spruce. the mass fraction of the light hydrocarbons tends to decline as the specific area becomes larger. where the ratio was more or less constant. (Observe the different scaling factors) Analysis of measurements The measurements of the birch and spruce for specific fuel areas in the range of 320 to 780 were analyzed with Eq. (17). for birch (* solid line) and spruce (∇ and dashed line). similar to that was previously done in the sensitivity analysis. In order to get the most likely heating value and the elemental composition of the lumped hydrocarbons. The data on Figure 7 indicate that the ratio of H2O to CO2 should increase with increasing specific area. except for the difference in moisture content. versus specific area.2O0. The resulting quantities of in the volatile gases are presented in Figure 7 in the form of mass fractions of the volatile gases related to the specific area of the fuel. The most significant trend is the fall of the mass fraction of CO2 and the raise of that of the lumped hydrocarbons for increasing specific area of the fuel. Figure 7. this could be a reason for the low heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons. but if this elemental composition is inserted it would result in an unrealistically low heating value. The most likely result obtained for each specific area is chosen. nHmOk 2 2 . This is most probably due to the slow gas analyzer used for the measurement of H2O. expressed as mass fractions. This analysis results in a most likely heating value of the hydrocarbons of around 37 MJ/kg and a elemental composition of C6H6. but this contradicts the measurements. and the fuel properties according to Table 1 and 4 are input to Eq. If there would be an uncertainty in the measurement of H2O also for the larger particles.14 40 x100 20 10 0 γH x1000 γCO x100 x100 γC 20 10 0 20 10 0 20 10 0 300 600 900 Specific area [1/m] 2O HCnHmOk [MJ/kg] γCO x50 36 γH 38 20 10 0 34 γC H x100 20 10 i j 32 30 A B C D E F G I 0 300 600 900 Specific area [1/m] Figure 6.2. the measured data for birch and spruce were analyzed. making the measurement of H2O uncertain for the smallest particles. but the heating value cannot have a higher value without producing an unrealistic composition of the volatile gases. (17) to obtain the most likely mass fractions of the components in the volatile gases.

This parameter affects the heating value of the lumped hydrocarbons. chosen to cover the expected range occurring in a batch of forest waste as fired in utility boilers. and the energy balance can be used for validation.15 In the quoted case 10. pyrolysed and burned in a fluidized bed reactor operated at 1123 K under . which produced a high quantity of light hydrocarbons. H2. where the ratio of CO to CO2 was in the same order as the present one. Measurements were carried out with two types of wood. hydrocarbons and other gases are compiled. were dried. This indicates that cracking of the lumped hydrocarbons could have occurred in the present measurements. but is most likely smaller. The data are specialized to wood. Gases from devolatilization of the dry part of highvolatile fuel are assumed to consist of CO2. The model solves a system of six equations to obtain the six gas concentrations. Heating values and specific heats for wood. one energy balance and two empirical ratios. Nevertheless. This collection of data is especially selected to suit combustion and high temperature gasification. the energy balance can be replaced by an additional empirical ratio. The method proposed is for estimation of the quantities of these gas components in a case when no data are available. and lumped hydrocarbons (that is. Therefore. In some cases. although performed on thermally small particles. Conclusions The description of the volatile gases divided in a relevant number species. or for a measured set of data needed to be checked. Due to the complexity of the transformation of the fuel. H2O. thermo-chemical properties of the fuel during its various phases of conversion are needed. An estimate gives 37 MJ/kg in the most likely case. it becomes excessively time-consuming to model the gas leaving the thermally large particles by means of a set of reaction rates. The result shows that the most important parameter is the C/O ratio in the lumped hydrocarbons. In the cases investigated the empirical data given here should be considered the best available. The main condition for the model is that matter and energy are conserved. CO. and leaving fuel particles of such sizes that are found in fixed or fluidized beds. The system of equations is analyzed for influence of uncertainties in input data. cracking of gases that already have left the particles cannot be excluded. In addition to the empirical ratios. the amount of the lumped hydrocarbons was much higher and the amount light hydrocarbons much smaller. but similar collection of data can be established for other fuels as well. is essential for sub models in comprehensive models of combustion devices. The absence of hot surfaces (except the reactor walls) in the reactor after the sand bed also limits the cracking. since the residence time is significantly shorter than in the other quoted measurements on thermally large particles. char. The measurements concern softwood (spruce) and hardwood (birch). and they have to be specified for certain classes of fuel. since the longer hydrocarbons that crack form more stable hydrocarbons on their way through the hot char surfaces in the outer part of the fuel particles. The model includes empirical coefficients. a sub model is presented. the remaining hydrocarbons). measurements have been carried out to provide data that can be compared with data from literature. Here. 57 parallelepipeds of different size. light hydrocarbons (mainly methane and ethylene). The system of equations consists of three mass balances. whose structure is valid for any solid fuel. dependent on the available input data. The cracking is to a large extent expected to take place inside the particles as the volatile gases flow out. to be compared with around 40 MJ/kg for tar and 20 to 26 for pyrolysis oils. Because of time restrictions a more simplified description of volatile release is needed for comprehensive bed models.

and light hydrocarbon to CO2 can be seen. Lars-Erik Åmand at this department for helpful discussions and the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP). together with the two ratios mentioned. ratios of CO to CO2. (related to subscript) Specific enthalpy. Acknowledgment The Swedish National Energy Administration has supported this work financially. C. We thank Dr. Hydrogen. affects the composition of the volatile gases. Further work could involve other fuels and a more detailed investigation on the influence of temperature.k moist vol Carbon. The lower char yield is accompanied by an increasing amount of carbon relative to hydrogen and oxygen in the volatile gases. which.m. Nomenclature H M T X Y cp h h0 i j n. H.m.16 internal heat transfer control. These results show a clear correlation between the size of the fuel. In the present work the most relevant temperature for the application was studied. (related to subscript) Specific enthalpy. The two tested woods. Oxygen. and light hydrocarbon to CO2. H and O Mass ratio of two gas species in the volatile gases Mass fraction in volatile gas Equivalent heating value (auxiliary variable) Equivalent heating value (auxiliary variable) [-] [-] [J/kg] [J/kg] Subscript C. or index indicating specie Atoms of hydrogen in light hydrocarbons Atoms in equivalent lumped hydrocarbons. hardwood (birch) and softwood (spruce). since it favors the lumped hydrocarbons on the behalf of the carbon dioxide. for the use of their experimental equipment and their kind assistance. The only differences are in the level of char yield and in amount of H2O in the volatile gases.k Greek Ω γ ζ κ [J/kg] [kg/mole] [K] [-] [-] [J/kgK] [J/kg] [J/kg] Heating value (lower). O. etc. show the same trends. and several quantities such as char yield. at reference temperature 298 K and ambient pressure (related to subscript) Atoms of carbon in light hydrocarbons. etc ash char dev i n. As the specific area increases (size decreases) a nearly linear decrease of the char yield and linear rise of the ratios of CO to CO2. expressed as specific area. related to subscript Molar mass Temperature Mass fraction based on ash-free substance Mass fraction based on dry wood Specific heat. Ash Char Devolatilisation Species Atoms in equivalent lumped hydrocarbon Moisture (mass fraction on wet fuel) Volatiles .

14. E... Ferrer. K-M. J.. Roberts.. 1970.. 1969. Krahn. Flame. J. Nunn. R. 637-641. Bernalte. C. 2001.. Department of Energy Conversion... BIOBIB . Res. 2000. T. D.. Puigjaner. 62. Chalmers University of Technology. Scott. 1996. C. Piskorz.A. published by ASME. Di Blasi. 1051-1059.. Kanury. 1. S.B. 425-431. 75-83. Brenden.. Ind. Department of Energy conversion. E. W. L... E. 2931-2944.. Cerrella. W-C. J. M. 1505-1513. Della Rocca. Can. Bergougnou. 37... Figueiredo. 47.. Eng.. Schwob.17 wood Dry wood References (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Shin.. 261-272. Friedman.P. P. Technol. T. Stephenson. Springler-Verlag. T.ac.). Bioresour. 1988. Pyrolysis. Choi. Dev. J. 8-15. Roberts.. Fuel. J..tuwien. R. O. 2861-2869. S. G. Alves. Figueiredo. 75. 2000. Flame. G. 1985. Branca. Peters. TenWolde. Y. Chem. Aerts. S. 1989. Energy and Fuels. D. Chem. 18. L. Cukierman. 44. Combust. Santoro.R. L. 1996.. Combust. Flame. Sweden. O. S. 11. 64. L. 1988.J. 1991. W. Horne. Williams. Ragland. 27. F.. 124.. 4290-4295. 1999. Kelbon. Gonzalez Hernadez.. 437-439. 2001. 1999. Biomass & Energy. Process Des. Krieger-Brockett B. J. (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) . 2001.. Milne. Göteborg. G. 836-844 Scott. Eng. J. Combust. 23. 161-168. Adams. Harada. Evans. E. J. (P. L.A. A. Energy & Fuel. 165-177. A. Eng. 1998. M. C. J.. Flame.. K. Howord. A. University of technology Vienna. 10.. http://www. 1998. D. Sweden. A. D. 13-31. Process Des. Ishihara.. The Combustion Institute. Beamont. 247-256. K. 39. Vole. R. Kasier.. DOE/USDA-21697/1. 1985.. Ragland.D... Eng.. Bonelli. L-E. Reina. Ind. Hansson. 68. Eng. Oak Ridge. Di Russo. R. A. A... 269-275... 2001. M. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Signorelli. O. J. Res. P. 1998. 1989. Sci. Pittsburgh. 37. Rea. 1. B. Chem. Koch. M. P. C. Eng. Baker.. Personal communication. 38. New York. P. 1971. Anal. Chem. 24. Graham. C.. 79-88. 13th Symposium (International) on Combustion. 1980.vt. 55. C. 121. Eng. J. Piskorz. Skaar. Chem. Chalmers University of Technology. Appl.. Boutin. Dev. Wood Sci. Ind. E. Wood Sci. Fuel. T. Chem. Åmand. R.. Combust. Veley Eds. pp 893-903. J. 44. McNatt. 404-412..A. Austria. K. T.. J. 1987. Eng. Flame. Combust. 16. 167-180.. 1967. Wood-Water Relations.A Database for biofuels. Chem. A.. T. F. M.. in Incinerator and Solid Waste Technology. Ind. 1972. Ind. Di Blasi. and C. Hata. Di Blasi. Combust. Encinar. Flame. Kaiser. M. Longwell. Chem. Fuel. A..at/biobib. Berlin.. Valenzuela. 1975.. J. 123-137. Thesis for the degree of Licentiate of Engineering. Sci. E. 1984. forthcoming. Res. TN.S. 203-214. 10121016. 225-239. Pyrolysis of large particles of biomass-Experiments and modelling. Bryden. Lédé. A. R.. R. 1984. N.S. C. K. W. Hampton. J. S. J. P.. Chan. 2216-2224. 1988. Thermal properties of wood and panel products for use in buildings. A. J.

Soltes and T.18 (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) Allan. Flame.A. R. 1999. Barin. Combust. 2000.Hydrocarbons. Lambie. Roberts. 11. 1987. M. ISBN 82-471-0009-6.F. 8. M.F. 17. 73-84. F. Piskorz.. 1966.. 394-396. D. Thermochemical data of pure substances. 245-246. Zailani. 1964. (Frankel. Nasir Ani. Washington.).. Academic Dissertation. NSRDS-NIST 75-120. Roberts. Hong. (39) . Platzki. A.. Weinheim. U..S. G.C. 10. Milne Eds. F.). Government printing office. Cameron. 1995. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Flame. Nurul Islam. Grønli. (J... Combust. TRC Thermodynamic tables . I. J. M.A. Wilhoit. 1996. Combust. A. Pyrolysis Oils From Biomass. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Thermal Degradation of Biomass. ACS symposium series 376. R. VCH. Renewable Energy. D. Flame.E. Radlein..J. Scott. Eds. 439-441.S. D. D. 1967.. X.

Paper V .

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and this model is applied here to wood.1 Thermal conductivity of wood during different stages of combustion Henrik Thunman. It changes both with temperature and with conversion of the wood. Lee et al. For example. for example in pellets or chipboard. S-412 96 Göteborg. email energy. Here. materials with random fibre orientation. for example. There have been suggestions on modelling of this problem.conversion@entek.se (Submitted for publication) Abstract The effective thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameters for modelling of thermo-chemical conversion of wood. the thermal conductivity along the fibres is also of interest in some cases. +46 31 7723592 (fax). and it is therefore of importance to describe this behaviour for modelling of the progress of combustion. Along the fibres measurement data are available. As previously shown by Siau [6] and Saastamoinen [7]. Much measurement data. Wood. together with measurements. the general model expresses the effective thermal conductivity of char. Sweden +46 31 7721430 (tel). in earlier works. Along the fibre the thermal conductivity is much simpler to estimate. two principle models of effective thermal conductivity on the basis of the pore structure in wood are validated by a comparison with direct numerical simulation of the fibre structure. Chalmers University of Technology. It can also be applied to pellets and chipboards. the work of MacLean [1]. both for conductivity in the perpendicular and in the parallel direction relative to the fibres in the wood. . In addition. especially for wet and dry wood. Modelling Introduction The effective thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameters for modelling of thermal conversion of wood. This makes the thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibres most important. from measurement data on effective thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivity of chars from biofuels has been measured by. for example. Alves and Figueiredo [5]. can be found in the literature.chalmers. Bo Leckner Department of Energy Conversion. especially on conductivities of wet and dry wood. in a review carried out by Grønli [2]. The validation leads to a more general model. A secondary result is that the thermal conductivity of the solid phase in the fibre wall of the wood can be evaluated for dry and wet fuel. gives a good agreement with effective thermal conductivities measured perpendicular to the fibres of wood. [3]. a model consisting of quadratic cells. Keywords: Thermal conductivity. since the wood material maintains its fibre structure during conversion. Evans and Emmons [4]. A model is derived to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in parallel and perpendicular to the fibres in a fibrous material. is probably the largest single study ever made of thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibres of different woods. The effective thermal conductivity changes both with temperature and with conversion of the wood. density and moisture content of the wood. where the conduction is evaluated along various paths in relation to the orientation of the cells. However. but for char the knowledge is poor. The effective thermal conductivity can be estimated from given values of temperature. Wood particles have their largest surface area parallel to the fibres in the wood structure.

Additional simulations were q (T1) y1 Plate ωg y2 ωw/2 ωs y1 Plate T2 Figure 1. The boundary conditions of the simulation are: constant surface temperature. The effective conductivity. Siau [6]. Model of fibre structure of wet wood. was then evaluated from the temperature difference and the heat flow according to the definition: q = ( 2 y1 + y2 ) ( 2 y1 / k1 + y2 / keff ) ( ) −1 (T1 − T2 ) (2) where y1 is the height of a bounding plate and y2 height of the matrix. Figure 1 shows the principle set-up. on one end of the matrix and constant heat flow. ∇ ( ki ∇T ) = 0 (1) where index i indicates the conductivities of solid (i=s). a numerical simulation was made. The energy equation for this case. The boundaries perpendicular to the matrix and to the plates were perfectly insulated. in which the energy equation was solved for a large number of quadratic cells located in a matrix between two thin plates having a very high conductivity. The temperature was calculated at the surface of the plate having the constant heat flow. keff. A quadratic computational grid with a smaller size than the width of the wall of the solid phase was applied. . For numerical validation the heat flux was calculated between boundaries having temperature T1 and T2. ωw width of moisture layer and ωg width of gas. but a large number of cells were placed in the matrix. assumed to be large (500W/mK). on the other end. T2. moisture (i=w) and gas (i=g) constituting the porous body.2 pipes placed next to each other can represent the fibres. Theory As the derivation of the conduction paths perpendicular to the fibres differs to some extent between the models of Siau [6] and Saastamoinen [7]. and the effect of the solids that cut off the gas path in the ends of the fibres can be neglected. In the calculation not nine. q(T1). ωs is width of solid. k1 is the thermal conductivity of the plates.

w R2. Fibre structure of softwood. Howard [9]. index 1. and s. derived by Siau [6]. The paths perpendicular to the fibre as derived of Siau [6] (A) and Saastamoinen and Richards [7] (B).s R2.g Figure 4. indicate solid.2 Rg. a) 1 2 s 3s w 2 s 1 Flux s w g w s s w s s b) Flux c) Flux Ai+2 Bi+2 Bi s s w s 1 2 s w g w s 3 s w s s 2 1 s w g w s Bi+1 Bi 1 2 3 2 1 Ai+1 Ai Ai+1 Ai Bi Ai R1.g.s R2. water and gas. a) and b) paths perpendicular to the fibre derived by Siau [6] and by Saastamoinen and Richards[7] respectively.1 Rw. Fibre structure of hardwood.3 Figure 2. Maclean [8].w R3.w R3.w R3. Figure 5.2.w. combined in parallel and serial paths .g Rs.s R3.s R2. Paths of heat flux through the fibre represented by electrical circuits. R stands for resistance.s R1.3 indicate the different paths. Figure 3. c) paths parallel to the fibre.s R3.3 Bi Ai Bi+1 R3.

1 ) − (θ 2 / θ1 )( ρ d / ρ 2 ) Y1 2 ω w. and therefore underestimated the conductivity. moisture (w) and gas (g). j +  (6) + keff . for conversion stage j. The shrinkage θ is the ratio of a volume element to its dry volume element. j = 1 − ω s . The relative thickness of fibre walls and the thickness of the water layer are calculated from the volume occupied by the solid and the water. ω. the effective conductivity could vary between two extremes. the elements of the wood structure could either be modelled as placed parallel or serial to each other in the direction of the heat flux. This was simulated with a matrix divided into sub-matrices. of each layer in the pore can be calculated from the densities. Knowing the volume occupied by each component and assuming the type of fibre structure. solid fibre wall in the char (3) and solid fibre wall in the ash (4).1 = 1 − (1 − (θ 2 / θ1 )( ρ d / ρ 2 ) )  0. Figure 4a. differs in size. of the fuel and the fibre walls and from the shrinkage of the particle. the thickness of each layer will be (the details of the derivation are given in Appendix A). j + ω w. hardwood [8] Figure 2 and softwood [9] Figure 3. as long as there is no systematic arrangement of non-quadratic crosssection of fibres in the wood. For the density j represents: water (1). shape and wall thickness varied between the sub-matrices. j . ρ. A1 = ω s .5 ω s . A number of simulations were made and the result showed that the calculated effective thermal conductivities nearly coincided with the one obtained from the simulations using uniform quadratic cross-sections placed in straight rows and columns. The relative volume is estimated by the apparent density of the wood divided by the real density of the solid and the moisture. ω s . Rectangular shapes represented the cross-section of the fibres with different height to length ratios and different wall thicknesses. For a quadratic cell structure. The perpendicular fibre structure of wood. j (  { j > 1} (3) ) 0. This concludes that a uniform structure of quadratic fibres can represent a more complex one. dry fuel (2). j + w. were placed in straight rows and columns in a matrix. the normalised thickness. In the derivation of conduction paths both Siau [6] and Saastamoinen and Richard [7] assumed that the water remains on the surfaces of the fibre wall in an even layer. j ks .5 (4) (5) where the first index is related to the solid (s). When uniform cross-sections of fibres with various height to length ratios and wall thicknesses. j (1 − ω s .  ω s . shape and relative position of the perpendicular crosssection of the fibre. solid fibre wall in the dry and the virgin wood (2).5 ω w. the second index j is related to the different stages of combustion: virgin fuel (1). j − ω w. but shape and wall thickness is rather constant. j =1 − 1 − (θ 2 / θ j )( ρ d / ρ j ) Σ Yn  for   4 n= j 0. where each sub-matrix consisted of uniformed sized cross-sections of the simulated fibres. j  s . j   ks . but the size.1 = (1 − ω s . j kw k w ( k g + krad )      −1 −1 .1 ) − (1 − ω s . j   + ω g .4 made to consider the effects of size. j )  ω ω ωg. j =0 for { j > 1} ω g . char residue (3) and ash (4). Siau [6] derived the effective conductivity of the cell by three layers in parallel. The result supports the modelling of thermal conductivity of wood as a system of serial and parallel conduction paths. j   ks .

together with the external heat transfer. krad = 16 ε rad σ T 3 d pore 3 (11) where εrad is the emissivity in the pores. pipes placed next to each other represent the fibres. since diffusion of oxygen into the particle and reaction rate determine combustion of char and. The values obtained by Eq (8) over. as illustrated in Figure 5. As n increases. the temperature of the particle. j k w + ω g . j  ω w. An + 1 / keff . j . j + (1 − ω s . A∞ = keff . j ( k g + krad ) 2 2 ( ) ( ) (10) The effective thermal conductivity in the different layers in the particle is of most interest during drying and devolatilisation. j ω s . such as shrinkage. Bn ) 2 2 −1 (8) which gives the effective thermal conductivity at n=2 after combination of those of n=1. when drying and devolatilisation are ended. When modelling the intermediate stage it is important to consider all input parameters. The temperatures during this period are moderate and the pore diameter is small. j . j ) − ω g . Bn 2 2 keff . the serial and parallel conduction paths. are combined in serial and parallel paths. j . j . since the heat transfer in the particle drives both these phenomena. j + ω w. This resulting conductivity is nearly the same as the one obtained from the simulation. for conversion stage j. j . An + 1 keff . keff . which makes the radiative contribution to the effective thermal conductivity negligible. Figure 4b. j . j . During char combustion. j ( k g + krad )    −1 The results from Eq (6) and (7). An +1 = 1 keff . j . The radiative thermal conductivity can be approximated by. j = keff . When n goes towards infinity the two values become equal to each other and a resulting effective thermal conductivity is obtained. B1 =   k s . j  (7) + + keff . A partially converted solid should have an effective thermal conductivity somewhere between the values of the present (j) and the next (j+1) conversion stage. Figure 4c. the difference between the two conductivities decreases. a high temperature (above 1400°C) can be attained. Bn +1 = ( 1 / keff .  ωs. j k w + ω g . j . Hottel and Sarofim [10]. can be modelled by a parallel path. j k s . However. j . (n=1). j + (1 − ω s . respectively. as suggested by Siau [6]. keff . j ) k w ω s . n → ∞ . = 1 − (1 − ω s . B∞ (9) Along the fibre the thermal conductivity is simpler to estimate. 2 2 keff . density .5 Saastamoinen [7] derived the cell in three layers in series. n is a counter. j ωg. σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant and dpore is an equivalent pore diameter in the wood. and then the radiative contribution has to be included.and underestimate. j k s . j ) k s . during this combustion stage the effective thermal conductivity is of minor interest. and therefore overestimated the conductivity. The effective thermal conductivity.

j (12) where Xj is the mass ratio of the component being converted and the initial mass.6 and thermal conductivity of the solid fibre wall. If the values mentioned are inserted into their respective equations. is chosen to 1480kg/m3. When char is produced at a high heating rate and with a high final temperature. Della Rocca et al. The density of the solid in dry wood.73 W/mK from Eq (10) and measurements reviewed by Grønli [2]. From geometrical consideration. the thermal conductivity can be calculated from an empirical correlation based on table values. [14].43W/mK. Parallel to the fibre the corresponding thermal conductivity. These gases have a much higher conductivity and stronger temperature dependence than the other gases. the difference between Eqs (6) to (7) can be more than 15 %.52 W/mK for the solid material in the dry wood by a least-square fit of Eq (9) to measurement data from MacLean [1] and other authors. Figure 6. Figure 7. The conductivity and density of the solid in dry wood are assumed to be independent of temperature. 2/3 of the fibres are perpendicular and 1/3 parallel to the direction of the heat flux. to estimate the heat conductivity of pellets.487+5.202 ⋅10−10 T 3 − 9. Kanury [12]. ks. and the effective thermal conductivity can be estimated by. given in the temperature range 250 to 3000K. In pellets and chipboards the fibres are nearly randomly oriented and the effective thermal conductivity becomes the same in all directions.581 ⋅10−17 T 5 (13) There is good agreement between Eq (6) to (10) and the measurement data for dry wood. the resulting porous structure is nearly pure carbon. Incropera and DeWitt [11].2. Siau [6]. Siau [6] has suggested this heat conductivity to be 0. keff = (1 − X i ) keff . For air.r = 2 keff + 1 keff . j +1 + X i keff . and the effective thermal conductivity will be somewhat underestimated. represented by Eq (6) to (7). reviewed by Grønli [2]. If these values are used. O2 and N2. and for wet wood.2.377 ⋅10−7 T 2 + + 2. but Saastamoinen and Richard [7] chose 0. The difference becomes clear if one regards the heat conductivity of the solid in the fibre. CO.709 ⋅10 −4 T − 2. Incropera and DeWitt [11]. for example. ks. It is assumed that carbon in the porous structure has the same thermal conductivity and density as . which have a high density (1000-1300 kg/m3). as the volatile gases pass through. The simplest approach is a linear approximation of the thermal conductivity between the two conversion stages j and j+1 as. The thermal conductivity of gas is assumed to be the same as for air. as follows. kw−0.6W/mK. However. k g = −7. during devolatilisation CH4 and especially H2 will be present in rather large quantities. Figueiredo et al. which is motivated by the small difference between the major components produced during drying and devolatilisation: water vapour. there is an even better agreement than the one shown in Figure 6. [13].39⋅106 2 T W/mK are used for the moisture in the wood. according to data for water.494 ⋅10−3 + 1.463 ⋅10−14 T 4 + 1. is estimated to 0. CO2. The largest error occurs in the char layer formed during devolatilisation. is estimated to 0. keff . 3 3 Results The thermal conductivity perpendicular to the dry fibre.887⋅10-3T−7. ρ1=1000 kg/m3 and conductivity. The difference between the models. The density. is rather small. but for high density fuels the error becomes noticeable. ρ2.

for which the conductivity. For char it is not possible to estimate the thermal conductivity of the solid material in the cell wall from available measurement data.4 0. (7) (dashed line). as the data of Lee et al. perhaps because the samples used for the measurements were not completely carbonised. Grønli [2] (rhombs). Knowing from Grønli [2] that the wood maintains its fibre structure after devolatilisation the effective thermal conductivities for char can be calculated from the same models.7 amorphous carbon.1 0. Figure 7.0011⋅T W/mK and density. Incropera and DeWitt [11].2 0. motivated by the high carbon content in the char. Conductivity parallel to fibre. Comparison of measured. Evans and Emmons [4] and Alves and Figueiredo [5] are given without sufficient information on the experimental conditions.6 0.2 0.3=1. Eq. to the fibres. Eq. with a moisture content of 7-45% (based on wet wood).47+0. Conductivity perpendical to fibre. . The solid in the small quantity of ash is given the same density and conductivity as the carbon in the char.3 0. Eq (10). Grønli [2] (stars). ks. For char there is no comprehensive work available in the literature on measurements of effective thermal conductivity. Eq. and parallel. ρ3= 1950 kg/m3.3 0. The thermal conductivity of the carbon in the porous structure is assumed to be the same in the perpendicular and parallel directions relative to the fibre.5 Measured thermal conductivity [W/mK] 0. due to small pore diameters and moderate temperatures during drying and devolatilization. as it is for wet and dry wood. (10) (solid line with dots). perpendicular to the fibres in wood.7 Heat conductivity [W/mK] 0. [3]. 0. (6) (dotted line). parameters that can be measured easily. Measured.5 0. MacLean [1].1 0 0 0.1 0 0 500 1000 Dry density [kg/m3] 1500 0. moisture content and shrinkage. Eq (14). can be used to calculate the effective thermal conductivity for all kind of wood species from density.4 0. The radiative contribution to the effective thermal conductivity can be neglected for calculation of the thermal phases of conversion of wood. Heat conductivity of dry wood as a function of density. and this makes it necessary to assume the density and the corresponding thermal conductivity of the solid material in the char.8 0. Eq. but the reported values indicate that Eq (8) overestimates the conductivity. and calculated effective thermal conductivity. Eq (16). measured data. Conclusions Comparison with measurements show that the model of effective thermal conductivity perpendicular. (15) (solid line). Figure 6 and 7.4 0.2 0.5 Calculated thermal conductivity [W/mK] Figure 6. MacLean [1] (circles). which are the phases of conversion when the effective thermal conductivity is most important.3 0. In present work the solid in char is modelled by amorphous carbon.

8 Acknowledgment The Swedish National Energy Administration has supported this work financially. becomes equal to the volume ratio of the solid in the fibre wall. conversion stage j=1. Chalmers Technical University. ω w = (1− ω s ) − (1− ω s ) − (θ 2 / θ1 )( ρ d / ρ1 ) Y1 2 ( ) 0. to the area of the perpendicular crosssection of the fibre (solid + gas). the solid wall in the fibre is divided into a solid and a liquid part. and the apparent density of the fibre is then given by.1 = (θ 2 / θ1 ) ρ d Y1 + (θ 2 / θ1 ) ρ d ∑ Yn = (θ 2 / θ1 ) ρ d Y1 + (θ 2 / θ1 ) ρ d n=2 4 In the virgin wood. Appendix A Derivation of the thickness of the solid walls and the water layer in a fibre is made from geometrical considerations. As. Department of Energy Conversion. Vs and the fibre.5 = 1− 1− ( ρ f / ρ s ) ( ) 0. for valuable discussions. ρs (assuming that the density related to the gas is negligible).5 and for the gas volume.5 − (( A ) f − As ) / Af = 1− ω s ) 0. ρf.5 For the virgin fuel (j=1). the moisture is assumed to stay on the surface of the solid in an even layer.1 = 1− (1− (θ 2 / θ1 )( ρ d / ρ 2 ) ) 0. ρ f . and the thickness of the solid layer then becomes. which in its turn. If the fibres are represented as quadratic tubes. ω s = ( Af / Af ) ωg = 0. . ρ f .5 the thickness of the moisture layer. The authors would like to thank Gennadij Palchonok. the ratio of the area of the solid in the perpendicular cross-section. Vf. ω s . is equal to the ratio between the apparent density of the fibre. (( A f − As ) / Af 0. conversion stage j=2. By normalizing the area of perpendicular crosssection. ω w = 1− ω s − ω w . and the density of the solid in the fibre wall. Af. j = (θ 2 / θ j ) ρ d ∑ Yn n= j 4 where the shrinkage is the ratio of the volume of the fibre during conversion stage j to the volume of the dry fibre. As Vs ρ f = = Af V f ρs The density of the dry fuel together with the shrinkage coefficient and the stage of conversion give the apparent density of the fibre. the normalized thickness of the solid wall becomes.5 and the gas volume.

1984. Lee. H. J. ‘Transport Processes in Wood’. ‘A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Thermal Degradation of Biomass’.dry fuel. ISBN 82-471-0009-6.. 1941. water (1). as in pellets or chipboard rad Radiation s Solid w Water  Parallel to fibre Emissivity Shrinkage coefficient Density Stefan-Boltzmann constant Dimensionless length References 1. in dry and virgin wood (2). in char (3) and in ash (4) n Counter pore Pore r Randomly oriented fibres. Springler-Verlag. ‘Charring Pyrolysis of Wood in Fires by Laser Simulation’. special for density. ‘A Model for Pyrolysis of Wet Wood’. pp 1459-1470. 44. F. Siau. solid.] θ [-] ρ [kg m-3] σ [W m-2 K-4] ω [-] Subscripts A B d eff f g i j Conductive paths. 3. Chemical Engineering Science.. 4.char. M. Evans. 323-354. C. Pittsburgh. J. water. ‘Thermal Conductivity of Wood’. 1996.. J. gas 1.. 1. Saastamoinen dry Effective Fibre Gas Component. D.. ‘Combustion of Wood Charcoal’. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology. L. K.. F. ISBN 3-540-12574-4.9 Nomenclature A T V X Y k q y [m2] [K] [m3] [-] [-] [W m-1 K-1] [W m-2] [-] Area Temperature Volume Mass ratio mass Fuel composition related to dry fuel Thermal conductivity Heat flow Height Greek εrad [ . . Siau Conductive paths. S.virgin fuel. 57-66. 2861-2869.ash. 2. 5. 1976. D.. Fire Research. J. Emmons. R. Grønli. M. Singer. The Combustion Institute. 47. W. D.. Transactions American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers. MacLean. solid fibre wall. 4.. 3. 1977. The Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion. Academic Dissertation. 2. Alves. 1989. Figueiredo. Chaiken. 6. Berlin. S.

1996.. 288-300. Valenzuela. F.. Fuel. Figueiredo. J.. 160 pp. A. J. A. 8. F. Wood Science. ‘Pyrolysis of Hardwoods Residue: On Kinetics and Chars Characterization’.. ‘Introduction to Combustion Phenomena’..D. D. ‘Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer’. J-R. McGraw-Hill Book Company. E. ‘Pyrolysis of Holm-Oak Wood: Influence of Temperature and Particle Size’. 77-86. P.. 1952 9. ISBN 0-471-30460-3. Bonelli. Cerrella. ‘Simultaneous Drying and Pyrolysis of Solid Fuel Particles’. 13. L. L. 10.. Fourth edition. 12. A. P. Hottel. 2. J.. ‘Anatomical characteristics of southern pine steamwood’. ‘Radiative Transfer’. . 1977. Combustion and Flame. Incropera.. 68. G. 1989.. M.. H.. A. Gordon and Breach Science Publisher. Howord. F. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 11. 16. Maclean. C. DeWitt. 1969. J.. R. J.G..10 7.. A. 1996.. 14. M. C. 1999. Sarofim. E.. ‘Preservative treatment of wood pressure mothods’. New York. Saastamoinen. P. 79-88. New York. Cukierman. Biomass & Energy.. Richard. Kanury. ISBN 0-677-02690-0. 1967. P. Manwiller. Della Rocca.T. Bernalte. US Dep Agr Handbook 40. Encinar.. 106. 1012-1016.

Paper VI .

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Final report May 1999 Page 1 of 79 Activity 3. Sweden March 1999 EU-contract: JOR 3CT96 0059 . L-E. Leckner Department of Energy Conversion Chalmers University of Technology S-412 96 Göteborg.Thunman. B.1. F.3 Modelling and verifying experiments on the whole furnace H. Ghirelli. Åmand.

Final report May 1999 Page 2 of 79 .

The modelling of the whole furnace gives acceptable results for the gas flow and the reactions of the main species. in co-operation with Kvaerner Pulping Power Division. The work has not looked at the formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides by detailed chemistry. Special attention has been paid to formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides. such as oxygen. The nitrogen chemistry in the fuel layer model shows that the region of devolatilization is the most interesting and that the biofuels have a great potential in themselves to reduce the nitrogen oxides to low levels. carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons. due to practical measurement problems at the test facility. . especially at the low temperature levels that are present in a grate furnace operating with biofuels. This is a problem of determining the empirical data needed in the fuel layer model. The modelling of the nitrogen chemistry showed a limitation in the use of reduced mechanisms available for the CFD-calculation. which could not be established by the measurements. In the lower part of the furnace the agreement with measurements is not as good as in the upper part.Final report May 1999 Page 3 of 79 Summary A model has been developed for combustion of a fuel layer on a moving grate. which can be connected to a CFD-calculation for combustion and gas flow in the free-room of the furnace. carbon monoxide. Especially good is the agreement in the upper part of the furnace. To verify the calculations extensive measurements have been performed at a 31MW th industrial moving grate furnace burning wood chips. From these conditions the nitrogen chemistry has been modelled in a simplified way. but on the conditions in the fuel layer and in the free-room. which is a result of the difficulty to define the fuel layer on the grate.

Final report May 1999 Page 4 of 79 .

Analytic solution for reactions controlled by mixing 77 78 7 9 11 15 38 42 43 73 76 . Composition of the volatile B. The boiler and the conditions for modelling and measurements 3 Measurement preparation 4.Final report May 1999 Page 5 of 79 Table of content Page 1. Discussion and conclusion 9. References Appendix A. Introduction 2. Modelling 5. Experimental 7. Results 8. The NOx modelling 6.

Final report May 1999 Page 6 of 79 .

thus allowing to control the speed of the fuel layer's movement along the sloping grate. Introduction Grate-firing has been used to burn bio-fuels for many decades. The original design was the plane grate. In the first place a fuel layer model should be developed to give input data at the lower boundary to a computerised fluid dynamic calculation of the processes in the gas space. movement of the grate (speed of the fuel layer along the grate). just as in other combustion devices. the emission limits have been lowered and a complete combustion is not a sufficient criterion of acceptable operation: now a low emission of nitrogen oxides also has to be achieved at the same time as the desire for complete combustion remains. such as bark. In the present case FLUENT is used. During recent years.Final report May 1999 Page 7 of 79 1. solves this problem and allows a rather controlled movement of the fuel along the grate by means of mechanically controlled rods. The most modern development. it happens that too much fuel slides down the grate and ends up only partly burned in the lower end. The latter approach is followed here. secondary air jets. including various reactions and heat transfer. since the behaviour can be improved by simply adjusting the existing grate for a certain fuel. the reciprocating sloping grate. available commercial programmes can be applied with advantage. however. If the fuel does not fit properly. Moreover. In order to validate the computational procedures and to obtain . special attention is paid to formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides. This is the type of grate treated in the present work. This is. This item can be treated either by detailed nitrogen chemistry or by assuming that the conditions in the fuel layer and free-room control the nitrogen chemistry. where the fuel is supplied together with the raw material for pulp production or from wastes. Later it also became used in the furnaces of the district heating systems. Several parameters of adjustment are available: initial bed height. indeed. In this part of the furnace. however. Much is also gained simply by an increased qualitative understanding of the processes taking place. Figure 1. flue gas re-circulation etc. These grates are quite sensitive to the adaptation of the inclination of the grate to the type of fuel. moving back and forth according to an adjustable scheme. the free-room with its secondary air jets and combustion in the gaseous phase.1. Tools to evaluate the operation of the grate and to predict the behaviour of combustion and pollutant formation and destruction are needed. particularly in the pulp and paper industry. Previous development work has been directed to achieving a complete and reliable combustion on the grate. The present work uses existing knowledge elements to develop a model of the combustion behaviour of the fuel layer on a grate and its connection to the gas space above the grate. These requirements have made it necessary to improve the understanding of the combustion processes in grate-fired furnaces. that the existing knowledge on the behaviour of the fuel layer is not sufficient and that a considerable model development is needed. air distribution along the grate. in contrast to the fuel layer. quite a complex situation that has to be assessed in addition to the design information needed for design of the unit. It is quite obvious. but later sloping grates of various shapes and inclinations were employed. constituting the surface of the grate.

Measurements are performed in several positions in the free-room and in the gas flow entering and leaving the furnace.Final report May 1999 Page 8 of 79 additional information about the combustion process. Figure 1. These measurements together with the boiler design data give the input to the modelling and a base for validation of the simulation. the present work consists of three parts: modelling of the fuel layer. freeroom modelling and measurements predominantly carried out in the free-room and in the furnace exit. measurements have been carried out. The measurements intend to describe the overall combustion behaviour inside the furnace. In summary.1 Reciprocating sloping grate (Kvearner) . The purpose of the work is to provide tools that could be used for design predictions related to fuel layer and free-room. For the fuel layer only the velocity of the fuel layer along the grate and the surface temperature of the grate were measured.

The high moisture content of the fuel requires refractory lined walls and roofs below the neck in the furnace. The fuel is supplied to the grate through two fuel chutes. the flue gases are cooled down to a temperature of 170 °C in the boiler back passes by the heat recovery surfaces. The fuel used is wood waste from the pulping industry. The wide fuel and load range of operation requires a number of special design considerations. Power division. The primary air supply is divided into 2 times 5 air zones (P). Raising or lowering ceramic beams in front of the first section of the grate controls the height of the fuel layer.1. capable of withstanding high operation temperatures. independent of the moisture content. Technical data of the boiler are given in Table 2. see Figure 2.1. The fly ashes are separated from the gas flow by an electrofilter.1) supplied in three rows. All castings exposed to radiant heat from the furnace are composed of a chrome/nickel alloy. Of the 31MW produced 6MW are delivered by this flue gas condensation unit. The grate is a reciprocating one consisting of a steel support with intermediate rollers on which the grate sections are placed.Final report May 1999 Page 9 of 79 2. The combustion and pyrolysis gases evolving from the fuel layer are mixed by the recirculation gas jets (R in Figure 2. The boiler is operated in the load range of 25 to 100% and with fuel having moisture content of 35 to 55% on mass basis. The grate is built up of movable grate bars. the plant is equipped with a flue gas condensation unit to recover the latent heat of the water vapour. Each row of secondary air has a separate air-box with control valves. A flue-gas recirculation system is installed to improve the mixing in the lower part of the furnace and to better control the combustion temperature. 17MW by the convection area of the flue gas pass and 8MW by the tube walls of the furnace. Details of the grate are shown on Figure 2. The velocity of the fuel layer along the grate is reduced significantly half way on the grate in order to burn out the char. Downstream of the furnace.1) and the mixture passes through the narrow section of the combustion chamber (the neck) where it is mixed with the secondary air (S in Figure 2. A relatively high pressure-drop across the grate has been chosen to avoid blowing of holes through the fuel layer. The sections are put into operation by means of hydraulic pistons in the boiler front. which makes low NOx operation of the boiler possible. Condensation equipment humidifies the air to further increase the heat production. A row of grate bars is alternating between fixed and moving every second. covering the total boiler width. . The boiler and the conditions for modelling and measurements The simulation concerns an existing 31MW grate-fired boiler that produces hot water for the district heating network of Trollhättan.2. consisting of splinters. bark and sawdust. Due to the highly moist fuel. The primary air-flow is preheated to 150 °C and optimised for the combustion of the fuel layer above each wind-box. designed and built by Kvaerner Pulping.

1 Scheme of test plant. . Kvaerner Pulping. Power Division. The reciprocating sloping grate of the test boiler in Trollhättan. Figure 2.Final report May 1999 Page 10 of 79 Figure 2.2.

In order to get access to the boiler furnace with probes. in order to reduce the costs and to install more holes. The positions of the measurement holes are presented in Figure 3. . The measurement holes had to be designed in different ways. signal cables were drawn from each of the measurement levels to the control room were the data collection took place. Narrow rectangular holes were made in the fin between the tubes in the upper part of the furnace. The tube walls in the lower part of the furnace were prepared with large round holes. termocouples and pressure transducers were installed as well as cooling-water and sewage systems in connection to the measurement holes. A great number of other practical arrangements were also necessary for the measurements. Banisters were moved or taken away. depending on the tube walls. The rectangular holes restrict the measurement to probes having a simple cooling system.Final report May 1999 Page 11 of 79 Table 2. Technical data for the test facility in Trollhättan.3. Figure 3. For collection of measurement data.1.2. Figure 3.8 295 25 170 72 90 35 MW th MW th % °C °C °C m2 m3 % °C mg/MJ mg/MJ mg/Nm3 3 Measurement preparation It was necessary to prepare the test facility in Trollhättan for the measurements in the present project.1. 29 measurement holes were taken up. Maximum capacity Maximum condensation capacity Moisture content of the fuel Boiler water temperatures Inlet district heating temperature Outlet district heating temperature Grate surface area Free-room volume Excess air Flue gas temperature NOx CO Dust (13% CO2 dry gas) 25 6 35-55 200-140 72 120 39.

Figure 3.probe. .2. View of rectangular holes and equipment for guiding and fixing the with probe. .Final report May 1999 Page 12 of 79 Figure 3.1. Four kind of probes were specially designed and built for the measurements: • A cold suction probe for local gas concentration and temperature measurements in the rectangular holes. The measurement holes in the test boiler in Trollhättan.3.5. View of the round holes equipment for guiding and fixing the Figure 3. With a cold probe is meant that the gas is cooled down to the temperature of the cooling water. Figure 3.

to be used in the upper part of the furnace. a hot suction probe must be used to prevent absorption of ammonia in the condensate. The arrangement to keep a rather high gas temperature is space consuming. together with the same gas species as those measured with the cold suction probe.4. for examination of the direction of the gas flow. O2.7 ppm NO 899 ppm CH4 chemiluminiscent Eco Physics THC* FID FID-analyzer 0-30 000 ppm NH3 FTIR Bomem MB 100 *) When the concentration of CO and THC exceeded the range of the analyser.Final report May 1999 Page 13 of 79 • A hot suction probe for local gas concentration measurements in the round holes. Figure 3. Figure 3. Table 3. and this restricts the ammonia measurement to the round holes in the furnace. the gas concentrations were analysed by the FTIR. CO2. THC (for analysis equipment.7 ppm NOx 90. Figure 3. . Gas analysers Analyser O2 CO* CO2 NOx Principal of measurement Paramagnetic NDIR Manufacturer M&C PMA 10 Binos 100 Measurement range 0-30 % 0-30000 ppm 0-5000 ppm 0-20 % 0-1000 ppm Calibration gas 9.1). The hot suction probe measures NH3 with a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) analyser.97 % 4040 ppm 12.6. For the ammonia measurements. see Table 3. With a hot probe is meant that the gas is cooled down to a temperature of 200°C.1. • • The cold suction probe measures the concentration of CO. A zirconia cell probe for local oxygen fluctuation and temperature measurements to be used in the round holes. A flow direction probe.4 The zirconia cell probe.0 % 91. NOx and total hydrocarbon concentration.

ceramic filter thermostated shell heated sampling tube Figure 3. Rear part of the hot gas extraction probe.Final report May 1999 Page 14 of 79 Figure 3.6b.6a. The front part of the hot gas extraction probe. backflush tubes Teflon electric insulator low voltage high current transformer heated sampling tube 220 VAC Figure 3.5. . The cold suction probe for gas concentration and temperature measurements.

In the fuel layer the solid fuel is converted to gas. both formation and destruction of nitrogen pollutants can take place in it. the fuel-layer model represents one of the boundary conditions for the free-room model and vice versa. and it is therefore important that already from the beginning a realistic accuracy level is defined on what should be required from the overall solution. precursors of the nitrogen oxidation will be released. in contrast to that related to the fuel layer model. The latter approach is chosen here. available commercial programmes can be applied with advantage. because a modern boiler is designed to prevent the formation of thermal NOx. This requires an iterative calculation procedure to reach a converged result for the combustion inside the entire furnace. In the first place a fuel layer model should be developed that gives input at the lower boundary to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation of the gas space. Special efforts have been made to model the parts that are important for the NOx chemistry. Convergence is attained when the heat flux to the fuel layer. is used. The fuel layer is exposed to a rather complex combustion situation. Since the detailed knowledge of the combustion of the fuel layer is not previously available. Moreover. chemical species mixing and reaction. depending on the oxygen level. This item can be treated either by detailed nitrogen chemistry or as controlled by the conditions in the fuel layer and free-room. In the present case FLUENT/UNS 4. the free-room with its secondary air jets and combustion in the gaseous phase. For the nitrogen chemistry the position where the fuel-bound nitrogen leaves. The complexity of modelling of a whole furnace is obvious. and the precursors of the pollutants are formed and transported up to the free-room. the present modelling has been focused on the combustion of this fuel layer. Since a commercial programme is . convective and radiant heat transfer). In this part of the work.5. Dependent on the oxygen level. In the present work the knowledge on the combustion of a moving fuel layer sets the limit. both the primary airflow and the velocity of the fuel layer along the grate change several times while the fuel is transported along the grate. In the reaction front passing through the fuel layer. Modelling The present work uses existing knowledge to develop a model of the combustion behaviour of the fuel layer on the grate and its connection to the gas space above the grate. given by the free-room calculation. these precursors will form or reduce nitrogen oxides as they pass through the char layer. the main source of NOx is from the combustion of the fuel. agrees with the heat flux to the fuel layer given in the fuel layer model. the local oxygen concentration and the height of the char layer are the main parameters. If there is a char layer. This software package has built in the necessary physical models to simulate gas phase combustion (turbulent fluid flow. The package includes software for domain definition and discretization and has an integrated nitrogen oxide reaction module. The models of the fuel layer and the free-room run independently of each-other. conductive. including various reactions and heat transfer.2. special attention is paid to formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides. The understanding of the combustion of the fuel layer is the key for the nitrogen chemistry. If the nitrogen is released at or close to the surface of the fuel layer.Final report May 1999 Page 15 of 79 4. formation and destruction of the nitrogen pollutants will take place in the free-room above the fuel layer. but it is quite obvious that the existing knowledge is not sufficient and that a considerable model development is needed.

Therefore the model of the fuel layer is simplified as much as possible. a narrow layer where the fuel is dried and devolatilized simultaneously. For this purpose the fuel layer is split up in four characteristic layers. for instance. This representation of the fuel layer is supported by experiments in pot furnaces. The trace chemistry is neglected in this part. In this layer the heat and mass transport is complex and a detailed model is required. calculate the balance equations of the main variables: temperature. the fuel layer model has to be described in such a way that the output from the fuel layer and free-room model easily can be used for the iteration. and the balance equations for the trace chemistry are solved. during the second part of the calculation. and the unreacted fuel layer consists of the fuel not yet reached by the reaction front. reaction front and unreacted fuel layer. as illustrated in Figure 4. Illustration of the four layers. The heat and mass transfer components in the Unreac ted fue l layer Su rfa ce lay er ion fro nt xU Time or Length of grate Ch ar la ye r Primary air . in contrast to the char layer. The chemistry of combustion is divided into two parts called “main chemistry” and “trace chemistry”.Final report May 1999 Page 16 of 79 used for the free-room. The difference between them is that the surface layer. and saves considerable computational time and power. Saastamoinen [1998]. surface. The most complex part of a fuel layer model is the representation of the reaction front. The calculation time of the fuel layer on the grate is important to limit the calculation effort. which makes it possible to test several cases with different emphasis on the trace chemistry on the same calculation.1. The first part. requiring most computational time and power. e. Saastamoinen 1999.1 surface layer. but in the present work a more simplified approach is made. Gort 1995. Subsequently. average velocity and concentrations of non-trace species. char reaction front and unreacted fuel.g. Therefore the post processing will not influence the main fields. The main chemistry includes the reactions and species relevant for the determination of velocity and temperature fields. the solution from the first part is fixed. the post processing. H eatFl ux xs Bed height xc xr Re act Figure 4. char layer. while the trace chemistry includes species present at concentrations that may be neglected in the heat and mass balances. The surface and the char layers consist of char. This separation of the chemistry is useful. is influenced by the conditions in the free-room above the fuel layer. The reaction front is the layer where drying and devolatilization take place. models the behaviour of a single particle through the reaction front.

The incident heat flux from the free-room is given to the fuel layer model as an equivalent temperature distribution of the radiation. Figure 4. the behaviour of the bed can be described by the velocity of the . mixing rate of gas inside the fuel layer and minimum voidage in the fuel layer. Due to the fitting parameters of the reaction front some knowledge is needed about the combustion behaviour of the fuel layer on the grate. fuel feed rate. In the Trollhättan boiler measurements of the temperature on the metal surface of the reciprocating grate were made and these measurement has been used to choose the fitting parameters in the fuel layer model. the unreacted fuel layer. The reaction front is located as the area where devolatilization takes place. composition and temperature of the gas leaving the fuel layer. It is assumed that the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion of oxygen from the gas between the particles through the ash layer that builds up on the particle surface into the char core. initial height of the fuel layer. which produces the necessary input to the free-room model at a sufficiently short calculation time. The char layer is modelled in more detail. Fitting parameters are: relation between the actual heat flux and the heat flux given by radiation over the reaction front. The fuel layer is divided into a number of sublayers where the char particles are assumed to burn with a shrinking core. The height of the fuel layer decreases due to particle shrinking during the conversion of the fuel particles and rises due to the reduction of the velocity of the fuel layer along the grate. The simplifications mentioned make it possible to describe a model. The char reaction layer is the layer downstream of the reaction front. the char and surface layers characterise the bed. maximum heat flux into single particles. Input data to the fuel layer model are given by the operation of the boiler. The fitting parameters give a qualitative description of the heat flow through the reaction front. especially estimation on the time when the reaction front reaches the surface of the grate. 4. primary airflow and velocity distribution of the fuel layer along the grate. mass loss.Final report May 1999 Page 17 of 79 reaction layer are qualitatively modelled by the radiation across the reaction layer and adjusted by fitting parameters. by the incident heat flux from the free-room above the fuel layer and of the fitting parameters in the fuel layer model itself. Data given by the operating condition are: type of fuel. The fuel layer model is validated numerically by a molar and an enthalpy balance over the fuel layer. and temperatures inside and on the surface of the fuel layer and the position of the reaction front inside the fuel layer. The fuel layer model gives the flow rate. This layer is not influenced by the conditions above the bed surface.1. The unreacted fuel layer consists of the fuel between the grate and the reaction front. It also gives the height. given by the free-room calculation. the heat flow through single fuel particles in the reaction front and the consumption of oxygen and gaseous fuel constituents. The surface layer is the layer downstream of the reaction front and the char layer. By assuming that no heat transfer takes place in the unreacted fuel layer and that the reaction front is thin.1 Description of fuel layer model Four layers. The height of the fuel layer is modelled by the continuity equation in one dimension. the reaction front. and gives the local condition for the nitrogen chemistry. and this surface layer is influenced by the conditions above the bed surface.

xU = x' U xb (4. and in the initial stage. qr. is the dimensionless height of the reaction front and the bed height under the condition that the fuel maintains its size but nots its packing. qr. the velocity of the reaction front is calculated for a dimensionless height of the reaction front. x’U. qc. To simplify the calculation.4) T is temperature. q0. char combustion. If the fuel maintains its size and the bed keeps its initial packing the solution of the continuity equation in one dimension gives that the height of the bed change proportionally to the ratio of the initial and actual velocity along the grate ub0/ub. and the bed height under the condition that the fuel keeps its size and that the packing is given by the initial bed height xb0 and the ratio between the initial and current velocity of the bed along the grate ub0/ub. This height is unity at the surface of the bed and zero at the grate. given by the fuel density ρF. xb.3) The energy balance over the char layer consists of two heat sources. surface plus char layer xs+xc. xrad.5) . ρ density. heat from the reaction front. when the char layer is not developed. heat from the reaction front. qsg. 01 − ν 5ρ c s ps ∂Ts q0 . is thinner than the penetration depth of the radiation from above the bed into the bed.1) The actual position of the reaction front xu. This initial stage is modelled by a Heaviside step function δ.2) The solution of the continuity equation in one dimension for the bed height under the condition that the fuel keeps its size but not its packing is.rad. no char layer is defined. ∂mr/∂t.Final report May 1999 Page 18 of 79 reaction front and by the heat balance over the char and the surface layers. The velocity of the reaction front is obtained by dividing the mass release per unit area in the reaction front. In the initial stage when the layer downstream the reaction front. and heat from the char combustion. and initial packing of the bed 1-ν0. heat convection from the gas.rad + qs + qsg + qr δ x rad − x s + x c = ∂t xs 1 6 (4. The change in bed height becomes ∂ x' U 1 ub ∂ mr =− ∂t ρ F 1 − ν 0 x b 0ub 0 ∂t 1 6 (4. qs. cp heat. xb = x b 0 ub 0 1 − ν 0 ub 1 − ν 1 6 0 5 (4. with the amount of fuel per unit area. 01 − ν 5ρ c c pc ∂Tc qc + qr = δ x s + xc − xrad ∂t xc (4. The amount of fuel per unit area is calculated from initial mass of fuel per unit area. The energy balance over the surface of the bed consists of: radiation from the surrounding.

In this case the gas flow out from the particles is high and the convective heat transfer is small like in the second zone. and the surface temperature of the particles can reach a higher temperature than the temperature in the char layer.1 Reaction front The temperature in the reaction layer is in the model defined by the temperature in the char layer and therefore is the heat produced or consumed in the thin reaction front in he reaction front is immediately transported to the char layer. qUeff. Heat is transported to the particle surfaces in this zone by radiation and conduction from the warmer zones downstream and heat is transported away from the particle surfaces by convection to the gas. divided by the heat per unit mass needed for heating up the fuel to the devolatilization temperature and to evaporate the moisture. and the temperature of the gas and the particles converge to the same temperature. .Final report May 1999 Page 19 of 79 4. The gas and the char are assumed to leave the reaction front at the temperature of the char layer (in the beginning when the layer downstream the reaction front is thinner than the penetration depth. the temperature of the gas becomes higher than that of the char layer. The first zone is where the surface of the particles is heated up to the evaporation temperature. In this third zone ignition of the gas takes place and the gas temperature rises fast. In this zone the gas flow from the particles is low. The second zone is dominated by drying.6) The reaction front can be divided into four zones see Figure 4. The fourth zone is at the very end of devolatilization.1. The convective heat transfer coefficient is high and the gas temperature rises to approximately the same temperature as that of the particle surface. The third zone is defined by the devolatilization. If there is a substoichiometric condition in the reaction front. The mass release per unit area in the reaction front is equal to the heat flux per unit area to the unreacted fuel layer. char combustion will start. there will be a period of simultaneous drying and devolatilization. In this zone the gas flow out from the particle reduces the influence of the convective flow and the radiative and the conductive heat flow transfer the heat. The radiative heat flux of the gas can increase the heat flux to the particle surfaces in all zones. of the radiation this temperature is equal to the surface temperature). Dependent on particle size. and if there is oxygen left.2. The convection is once more important. QU: ∂ mr qUeff = ∂t QU (4.

qU = %q &0 ' U qU > 0 qU ≤ 0 (4. The model does not calculate the temperature profile of the gas and the solid in the reaction front and the maximum heat flux is not calculated. and a fitting coefficient k1 is introduced. λ heat conductivity and ∆x is the distance between the position of the highest temperature in the reaction front and the unreacted fuel layer.9) . to the evaporation temperature.Final report May 1999 Page 20 of 79 Water Volatiles zone 1 Mass loss zone 2 zone 3 zone 4 Length along reaction front Figure 4. The true heat flow for evaporation and devolatilization is smaller.8) Due to the low heat capacity of the gas and the high convective heat transfer coefficient in the bed the gas attains the same temperature as the fuel. qU = k εσ max Tr  4 1 6  4 4 − TFs + 9 λ eff max Tr − TFs ∆x 2 1 6 7 − q Ug 4 = k1εσ Tc 4 − TFs − qUg 2 7 (4.7) ε is emissivity. The heat flux is therefore related to the radiative heat flux between the char layer and the unreacted fuel layer. σ Stefan-Bolzmann’s constant. Tr. Tdry . and the temperature in the unreacted fuel layer. qUg. The mass loss of moisture and volatiles in the reaction front. The figure is reproduced from figure of Saastamoinen [1998] The maximum radiative and conductive heat flux which evaporates moisture and devolatilizes the particles is proportional to the difference between the highest temperature in the reaction front. TFs. minus the heat needed to heat up the primary gas. and the heat needed to heat up the gas from this temperature to evaporation temperature is qUg = ∑ Ji Ii Tdry − Ii TFs i 4 9 (4.2. The reaction front can only go in one direction and therefore has the heat flux be restricted to a positive value. It is assumed to be equal to the maximum heat flux reduced by a coefficient k.

R gas constant and k2 is an empirical constant which determines the position of the temperature range of devolatilization. subscript i indicates the different species. The effective heat flux for drying and devolatilization is restricted by the heat flux from Equation (4. So. The heat per unit mass needed is: .Final report May 1999 Page 21 of 79 J is molar flow per unit surface area. The maximum internal heat transfer can be calculated using the Biot module. M molar mass and subscript vol stands for volatiles.11) The limiting maximum heat flow is at present adjusted as a fitting coefficient. but when it is controlled by heat transfer fr→1.10) E is activation energy. In the reaction front the solid and the gas leaving the particles are heated up further to the temperature of the char layer. At high temperatures internal heat transfer in the bed particles controls the mass release. the rate is low and fr →0.. qU fr Tc < qU max Bi qU fr Tc ≥ qU max Bi U max Bi . It is also assumed that there exists a heat source by the oxidation of the volatiles leaving the particles. The estimation of the composition and enthalpy of the volatiles are presented in Appendix A. the fitting constant k1 in Equation (4. U r (4.6) assumes heat transfer control of devolatilization. and dry stands for drying. The heat per unit mass needed to evaporate the moisture and to heat up the fuel to the devolatilization temperature is QU = YH2 O I H2O( g ) Tdry − I H2O( l ) TUs / M H2O + Yvol Ivol ( s ) Tvol − Ivol ( s ) TUs / Mvol ( s ) + Ychar Ichar Tvol − Ichar TUs / Mchar + Yash ash 2 4 2 2I Tvol − Iash TUs / Mash 7 7 7 9 (4.7) qUeff = %q &q ' f Tc . The mass release per unit area given by Equation (4.7) can be optimised for the temperature range between the extremes. qmax. An empirical function is therefore introduced to describe the transition between kinetic and heat transfer controlled devolatilization. I enthalpy. but if the temperature decreases the devolatilization will be controlled by kinetics.12) Y is mass fraction of fuel. there is only a reaction front if the temperature is high enough for devolatilization. By limiting the maximum heat flow for the drying and devolatilization. Bi. The empirical function is based on the kinetics of devolatilization: fr Tc = exp − E / RTc k2 + exp − E / RTc 1 1 6 6 (4. When the devolatilization is controlled by kinetics.

are already ongoing during the devolatilization process. the quantity and the composition of the gas leaving the particles are assumed to be constant along the entire reaction front. The Magnussen and Hjertager concept is described by the mixing rate.14) The major heat source in the reaction front is oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. carbon dioxide and water. both in quantity and in composition.13) The assumption that no heat transfer takes place in the unreacted layer gives the energy needed to rise the temperature of the primary air to the temperature of the char layer: qrg = ∑ Ji Ii Tc − Ii TUg i 4 9 (4. II m is the number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom in the hydrocarbons. The total molar flow out from the particles.15) j is gas flow per unit time from the particles and k3 is a coefficient to be determined. . The gas leaving the particles changes in the reaction front. jtr. and the products never restrict the reaction rate. b = jk3 (4. tr is the residence for the gas in the reaction front is given by the mass loss in the reaction front per unit area. The local mixing is therefore not created by the turbulence but of the impulse force of the gas flowing out from the particles. To simplify the descriptions of gas flow and composition in the reaction layer.Final report May 1999 Page 22 of 79 Qr = YH2O I H2O( g ) Tc − I H2O( g ) Tdry / M H2O + Yvol Ivol ( g ) Tc − Ivol ( s ) Tvol / Mvol ( g) + Ychar Ichar Tc − Ichar Tvol Yash ash 2 4 2 2I Tc − Iash Tvol / Mash 7 7 7 9 / Mchar + (4. Reactions that produce the products. For this reason the local mixing rate is assumed to be proportional to the gas flow out from the particles. from water rich to volatile rich. The entire set of reactions of the major species in the bed is modeled as follows: CHm + 1 1 + m O2 ⇒ CO + m H2 O 2 2 CO + 1 O2 ⇒ CO2 2 0 5 4. The reaction rate is therefore controlled by the minimum concentration of oxygen or fuel. It is assumed that the local mixing controls the reaction rate according to the concept of Magnussen and Hjertager (1977). and the minimum of the oxygen or the fuel. which states that the reaction rate is controlled by the minimum concentration of oxidant. The mixing rate is assumed to be proportional to the turbulent kinetic energy divided by the dissipation of turbulence. I 4. Inside the bed the flow can not be turbulent due to the narrow channels between the particles. b. reactant or product.

Final report May 1999
Page 23 of 79

jtr =

∂ mr Yvap / MH2O + Yvol / Mvol ( g ) ∂t

3

8

(4.16)

The residence time in the reaction front can be estimated by assuming the width of the reaction front xr, where the J0+1/2jtr is the mean molar flow in the reaction front. tr = x rν P 1 J 0 + 2 jtr RT (4.17)

The change of the molar flow of oxygen, JO2, and fuel, JCH4, JCO, is the difference between the total molar flow out from the particles and what is consumed by reactions. ∂ JCH m ∂t ′ = jXCH m − b min( JCH m , JO2 ) J0 + jt ′

∂ JCO b min( JCO , JO2 ) − min( J CHm , JO2 ) = jXCO − ∂t ′ J0 + jt ′ ∂ JO2 ∂t ′ =− b J0 + jt ′

3

8 8

(4.18)

3 01 + m5 min( J
1 2

CH m

, JO2 ) + 1 min( JCO , JO2 ) 2

t´ is the local residence time in the reaction front, t’=0 when the primary air enters the reaction front and t’=tr when the gas leaves the reaction front, J0+jt’ is the total molar flow at time t’ and X is molar fraction. An analytical solution of the system of differential equations, Equation (4.18) is favourable in order to speed up the calculation. Such a solution can be found under the following conditions,

43 J 43 J 43 J

CH n

≤ JO2 & JCO ≤ JO2 > JO2 > JO2
CO

CH n

CH n

8 3 8& 3 J 8& 3 J

≤ JO2 > JO2

CO

89 89 89

(4.19)

These conditions are fulfilled in all situations of interest for combustion of volatile gases from wood. The only case when condition (4.19) is not fulfilled is when the fraction of carbon monoxide in the volatile gases is not much smaller than the fraction of hydrocarbons. The analytical solution is presented in Appendix B. The production of reaction products is: ∆J H2O = ∆J CO2 =
m 2 2 m

3J

CH m

0 + XCH m jtr − JCH m tr

8

∆J H2O + JCO 0 + XCO jtr − J CO tr

(4.20)

The energy release of reaction is: q R = ∑ ∆Ji Ii Tc
i

(4.21)

Final report May 1999
Page 24 of 79

Subscript R stands for reaction. The heat flux from the reaction layer to the char layer is then obtained from the Equations (4.6),(4.12), (4.13), (4.14) and (4.21) qr = q R − qrg − QU + Qr

1

6 ∂∂mt

r

(4.22)

4.1.2 Char and surface layer During the drying, devolatilization and char combustion, the size of the particle changes; wood chips shrink by volume with 10 to 20% of the initial fuel size during drying, with 40 to 60% of the dry fuel during devolatilization and with 95 to 99% of the devolatilized fuel during char combustion. The shrinkage factors of drying, Sdry, devolatilization, Sdev, and char combustion, Schar, describe the shrinkage. They are defined Sdry = 1 − Vdry / V0 Sdev Schar
dev ash

2 = 21 − V = 11 − V

/ Vdry

7 /V 6
dev

7

(4.23)

Vdry is the volume of the dry fuel, Vdev volume of devolatilized fuel and Vash volume of ash-For spherical particles with the same shrinkage in all directions, the char particle diameter is a function of the moles of char divided by the initial moles of char Xc. d = d0 1 − Sdry 1 − Sdev 1 − Schar 1 − Xc

42

71

62

1

679

1/ 3

(4.24)

The thickness of the surface layer, xs, is the minimum of the penetration depth of the radiation coming from downstream the bed surface, xrad, and the thickness of the bed layer downstream the reaction front, xs+xc: xs = min xrad , x s + xc

1

6 71 6 I 21 − S 11 − X 67dx
xb char char xU

(4.25)

The thickness of the bed layer downstream the reaction front is: xs + xc = xb − xU 1 − Sdry 1 − Sdev

1

62

(4.26)

Equations (4.4) and (4.5) re not defined initially when xs and/or xc are equal to zero. Therefore it is necessary to limit these quantities in the calculation to a small value. The penetration depth of the radiation flux, qrad, is defined as the length xrad where 95% of the radiation is attenuated,

Final report May 1999
Page 25 of 79

qrad = exp − q0,rad 



x rad

I
0

1 dx = 1 − 0.95 lm 

0 

5

(4.27)

q0,rad is the radiation fluxes incident on the bed surface, x=0, from above and lm is the mean path-length of radiation. The mean path of radiation is defined as lm = 1 n p Ap (4.28)

np is the number of particles per unit volume and Ap is the mean projected area of the particles. For spheres with the diameter d, the mean path-length is, Hernberg et al. [1993]: lm = 2 d 3 1− ν (4.29)

Downstream of the reaction front the char combustion starts. The char combustion is modelled by a single reaction: C + nO2 ⇒ 2 − 2n CO + 2n − 1 CO2

0

5

0

5

4.III

n are the moles of oxygen consumed for one mole of carbon. If the reaction is controlled by the diffusion of oxygen to the particle, the reaction rate becomes, ∂CO2 ∂t = ∂CO2 ∂ x ∂CO2 = ug = CO2 β eff Asδ x − xU ∂t ∂ x ∂x (4.30)

C is concentration, β mass transfer coefficient to the external surface of the particle, As specific surface area of bed particles, ug gas velocity. The step function restricts the char combustion to downstream of the reaction front. Since the char combustion is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the model can not describe the extinction of the char combustion at a high flow of primary air. The introduction of a reaction rate for the char combustion does not solve this problem, because the temperature in the reaction front is not modelled. Setting a limiting temperature for the char combustion can make the error smaller. The effective mass transfer coefficient, βeff, is the external mass transfer coefficient including also mass transfer trough the ash layer built up on the particle surface during char combustion,

β eff CO2 = β CO2 − CO2 ,sur =

3

8

DO2eff ∆x ash

3C

O2 , sur

− 0 ⇒ β eff =

8

β

DO eff 2 ∆x ash

DO2eff ∆x ash

(4.31)

DO2,eff is the effective diffusivity in the ash layer. Because the porosity in the ash layer is close to unity, the effective diffusivity is about the same as the diffusivity of the gas. The thickness of the ash layer ∆xash is:

Final report May 1999
Page 26 of 79

∆x ash =

1 2 

d − d 421 − S 711 − S 6X 9 
1/ 3 0 dry dev c 1 3

(4.32)

The Nusselt number, Nu, for the channels between the particles inside the with a hydraulic diameter, dh, and a channel length l becomes 

Pe  Nu = 1.615   
l dh

(4.33)

The Peclet number, Pe, is Pe = ug ρ g dh c pg (4.34)

λg

and the hydraulic diameter and channel length is dh = l= 2 ν d 3 1−ν (4.35) (4.36)

π d 2

The mass transfer coefficient is calculated by assuming that Nusselt´s number is equal to Sherwood´s number,
3 3 DO2 c pg ug ρ g 1 − ν βd Nu = Sh = h ⇒ β = DO2 πλ g d 2ν 



0 5 

1/ 3

(4.37)

The specific surface area of bed particles is: 6ν 1 − ν As = d

0 5d  d
c

2

(4.38)

dc is the char core diameter. dc = d0 1 − Sdry 1 − Sdev Xc

42

71

6 9

1/ 3

(4.39)

The gas velocity in each bed layer is given by the molar flow of each species: RT ∑ Ji
i

ug =

(4.40)

P is pressure. By dividing the bed layer into z sub-layers and assuming that gas velocity, mass transfer coefficient and specific area are constant in each layer, Equation (4.30) can solved for a height element ∆xi,

Final report May 1999
Page 27 of 79

CO2 ,i = CO2 ,i −1 exp − 



β eff i Asi ∆xi f1 i ugi 



(4.41)

f1[i] is the step function, δ, integrated over the element ∆xi. f1=0 if the element is located upstream of the reaction front and f1=1 if the element is located downstream the reaction front, see Figure 3.
Reaction front 1

f, 1
0 ∆x1 ∆x2 ∆x3 ∆x4 ∆x5 ∆x6

Figure 4.3 delta function integrated over element ∆xi If the reaction front is inside the element, f1 gives the relative position of the reaction front in the element. The position of the element i is given by the summation of the elements j=1 to j=i, where i≤z, this can be expressed

f1

% 0 K K    K i = &  ∑ ∆x  − x  / ∆x K    K 1 K '
i j U j =1

δ

∑ ∆x
j =1 i −1 i j =1

i

j

< xU
i

∑ ∆x j ≤ xU ≤ ∑ ∆x j
j =1

(4.42)

xU < ∑ ∆x j
j =1

i −1

The thickness of the active char layer elements ∆xi is f1 i > 0 ∆xi =

xb 1 − f1 i Sdry 1 − f1 i Svol 1 − Schar 1 − Xchar ,i − 1 − f1 i z f1 i = 0

2

71

64

3 2

1

67 / f i 89
1

(4.43)

∆xi = 0

i = JO2 .i ∂t n ∂ Xchar .42) .45) 0 5 (4.46) The bed temperature in the sublayer Ti is the same as for the char layer when x is smaller than xs and Ts when x is larger than xs. with the difference that f2 is 1 below the surface layer and 0 above. For the bed sub-layer that includes the border between the char and the surface layers an integrated mean temperature is used.47) f2 is a step function integrated over an element in the same way as Equation (4.i IC Ti − nIO2 Ti − 2 − 2n ICO Ti − 2n − 1 ICO2 Ti ∂t 3 0 5 0 5 8 (4.i 1 ∆JO2 .44) (4.49) The heat release in the char and the surface layers is: .i 0 The initial moles of char in the active char layer element is: nC . f2 % 1 K K    K i = &1 −   ∑ ∆x  − x  / ∆x K    K 0 K ' i j s j =1 j < xs ≤ x s ≤ ∑ ∆x j j =1 i ∑ ∆x j =1 i −1 j (4.i 0 = xb Ychar ρ F 1 − ν f1 i z Mchar     β i Asi ∆x i − 1 ugi     (4.i 1 = ∆JO2 .Final report May 1999 Page 28 of 79 The consumption of oxygen in the active char layer element is: ∆JO2 . Ti = Tc f2 i + Tc 1 − f2 i 1 6 ∑ ∆x j =1 i i (4.i −1 exp − and of char: ∂nC .i = ∂t n nC .48) x s < ∑ ∆x j j =1 i −1 The heat release during the char combustion is: qi = ∂nC .

i Ychar + Yash Xchar .i Ychar ρ char + Yash ρ ash 1−ν Xc. and the initial and minimum bed voidage are known.1.Final report May 1999 Page 29 of 79 qc = ∑ qi f2 i i =1 z z qs = ∑ qi 1 − f2 i i =1 1 6 7 0 5 (4.2.5. .i Ychar + Yash (4.52) (4.3 Packing of bed The packing of the bed changes with time. These pressure forces decrease the bed voidage and increase the height of the bed according to the continuity equation.51) The density and heat capacity of the fuel in the char and in the surface layer are: ρi = c pi = Xc . the bed voidage at a certain position on the grate becomes: v = ν min + ν 0 − ν min 1 6 11uu −−uu 66 b b min b0 b min (4. If it is assumed that the bed voidage is proportional to the change in velocity of the bed along the grate. and may be integrated with a nitrogen oxide reaction module.54) ubmin is lowest velocity of the bed along the grate.2 Description on free-room calculation and CFD Software used The software used for the calculations of the free-room is Fluent/UNS 4. and the minimum bed voidage is reached at this velocity. which will be discussed later in this report. 4.53) Subscript i indicates the char and the surface layer. While the velocity of the bed decrease along the grate and the pressure forces inside the bed is built up. conductive. This software package has built in the necessary physical models to simulate gas phase combustion (turbulent fluid flow.50) The heat corresponding to the temperature change of the gas between the char layer and the surface layer is: qsg = ∑ Ji Ii Ts − Ii Tc i 2 (4. convective and radiant heat transfer). For wood chips the bed voidage is highest in the beginning and decreases during the combustion process. 4.i Ychar c pchar Ti + Yash c pash Ti Xchar . It also contains some bugs. A major reason for a change in the bed voidage is a change of velocity of the bed along the grate. chemical species mixing and reaction. The package includes software for domain definition and discretization.

choice of the physical models to be applied.55) After integration over a control volume (cell) and discretization the equation is written as: J e φe − J w φw = ( Γe φE − φ P φP − φW − Γw ) A + S φ ∆V ∆x e ∆x w (4. The steps in the problem set-up and solution procedure are the following: • • • • • • • • • • definition of the geometry of the volume (domain) where the equations will be solved. The differential equation is written: ∂ ∂ ∂φ ( ρ uφ ) = Γ + Sφ ∂x ∂x ∂x (4. iteration. The equations are: • The continuity equation. as shown in Figure 4.4. discretization of the domain in a number of control volumes (cells). post processing. • The transport equations for turbulent variables (k and ε).1 Numerical scheme To illustrate the discretization of an equation a simple one-dimensional diffusion equation is used. choice of the numerical methods and parameters. solution analysis. Sφ is a source term and ∆x is the distance between two cells.2. . iteration. 4. A is the cross-sectional area. Je is the mass flow through surface e. φP and φW are the values of the variable in the centroids of the cells. definition of the boundary conditions. which is solved not inverting the set but using an iterative tool called “Algebraic Multigrid Linear Equation Solver”.56) Where φE. refinement (adaption) of the cells structure (grid) in the critical areas. • The transport equations for the various chemical species. φe and φw are the values on the surfaces of the cell. • The Navier-Stokes time averaged equations. and ∆V is the volume of the cell.Final report May 1999 Page 30 of 79 The software uses a finite volume discretization scheme for solving the equations that define the problem. • The discretization transforms each partial differential equation in a set of linear equations (one for each cell).

The equations are solved separately. not even slowly. (second order upwind discretization scheme) • solving the Peclet equation. The interpolation can be performed in three ways: • assigning to the variable φ on the surface the value of in the upstream cell (first order upwind discretization scheme) • computing the value as a second order Taylor expansion from the centroid of the upstream cell. The pressure-velocity-coupling algorithm is the one suggested for transient flows (SIMPLEC). The choice of the discretization scheme affects the solution in terms of the precision obtained. beginning from the momentum equations. The normalised residual of a variable is defined as the sum over the entire domain of the modulus of the residuals of the linearized equation. Even with the first order discretization scheme. and then the other scalar equations. and it takes approximately 7 min to perform one iteration in the complete case (about 300000 cells. though. 4.2 Domain discretization The discretization of the domain is performed using the P-Cube software. For non-reacting flows the second order discretization scheme may be applied successfully. and interpolates the surface values. and the radiation model). The computer used has a Sun Ultra processor and 500MB of RAM memory. divided by the total flow of the variable through the domain. reacting flows cause convergence problems. which is accomplished when a further refinement of the . but it also affects the convergence speed of the iterative process. 12 independent variables. but in the present case. When it is possible. the algorithm is not stable enough to converge. following with the continuity equation.2. which are quite strict.4 One-dimensional discretization of equation The UNS code stores the value of the variables at centroids. when fast chemical reactions such as combustion are included in the flow. The value of the gradient is computed satisfying the divergence theorem. The criteria are satisfied when the normalised residual for a variable has decreased to a fixed percentage of the initial normalised residual. The convergence criteria used are the default ones of the code. which is an interpolation between the cell’s centroids based on the features of the flow.Final report May 1999 Page 31 of 79 ∆xw W w P ∆xe E e Figure 4. it computes a linear interpolation if the flow is dominated by diffusion and uses an intermediate value otherwise (power law discretization scheme). it is suggested to use the second order discretization scheme. trying to achieve “grid independence”. It assigns to the surface the value of the upstream cell centroid if the flow is dominated by convection. but they can be overcome using a stronger underrlaxation than the default.

The gradients that that controls the reacting flow are the ones of velocity and of oxygen concentration. Refining the grid in the reaction front area could increase significantly the quality of the description of combustion where NOx reactions take place.4. Alignment of the grid to the flow can be obtained only where the flow field has a simple and obvious direction. Section of the grid is shown in Figure 4. By refining the grid in the volumes occupied by the jets.5 Section of grid An excessive refinement of the grid must be avoided in order to limit the computation time. therefore improving the estimation of the NOx production. The grid used is the hexahedral one. The correct approach is therefore to refine the grid only in the areas where strong gradients of important variables are present (adaption). Figure 4. for reasons discussed further on. otherwise it may be better to use a tetrahedral mesh. Other criteria to be observed in the production of the grid are the alignment of the grid to the flow and the minimisation of cells skewness. due to a bug described in paragraph 4. Adaption of the grid is also useful to obtain a grid that matches the size of the boundary layer. i.5.e.Final report May 1999 Page 32 of 79 grid does not cause any significant change in the solution. those have very high values on jets and on reaction fronts. The adaption tool unfortunately doesn’t work in simulations where the Discrete Transfer Radiation Model is used.2. A typical procedure to obtain grid independence is to refine the grid in the jet area until the penetration of the jet does not change with a further refinement. where the air and gas jets are located. since the geometry of the boiler can be easily represented as a set of rectangular prisms and pyramids.2. a more accurate description of the velocity field increases the penetration of the jet and improves the description of the flow around them. Extreme cell skewness can be avoided if the geometry is not too complex. .

In one case the dimension of the cells is such that the condition 30<y*<60 is satisfied almost everywhere. and to represent the boundary layer it would be necessary to decrease the size of the cells at the walls. the third option is a model that solves a modified set of equations inside the boundary layer. since also the temperature field is not solved but determined by an empirical function.4 Physical models for fluid flow The program solves the momentum equations and the continuity equation for time averaged variables. The size of the cells that would fit in the boundary layer is much smaller these of the rest of the domain. Producing a grid that satisfies this condition on all walls is possible only for simple flows such as one in a duct. The velocity function is valid in the boundary layer (y*<60). therefore introducing an error.Final report May 1999 Page 33 of 79 4. This approach assumes that the production of turbulent kinetic energy is equal to its dissipation rate (local equilibrium hypothesis). The first two are functions that describe the profile of the variables on an empirical basis instead of solving a set of equations. Two more balance equations are solved for the turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation rate ε. which is at the basis of the model. the “Non Equilibrium Wall Function” and the “Two Layers Zonal Model”. The temperature may be underestimated (if the cell is larger than the boundary layer) because in the laminar sublayer and in the transition zone the heat transfer is lower than in the turbulent region. Since the boundary layer is considered to be of secondary importance. To verify whether the error affects significantly the solution. while in the other case these cells . the so-called k-ε closure of the turbulent problem. so the error would exist even if the grid was built with a thickness of y*=60. because the hypothesis of homogeneity and anisotropy of the turbulence. Therefore the simpler “Standard Wall Function” is employed. The velocity function is linear in the viscous sublayer (y*<11) and logarithmic outside (y*>11). due to the high temperature difference between the flame and the tube walls. The error involves not only the velocity in the walladjacent cell. a pair of two-dimensional case was studied where all conditions are identical with the exception of the grid in the vicinity of the walls. since the most important mechanism of heat transfer is radiation. so if this cell is larger than the layer. but also the temperature. At the wall boundaries. This last model requires many cell layers inside the near wall area and has to be excluded because of the large computation time requirements. the thermal boundary layer thickness is in general different from the velocity boundary layer. but it is practically impossible in a complex flow like the one in the furnace analysed. an error is introduced in the calculation of the velocity in this cell. but it is applied to the whole adjacent-wall cell. which is a function of turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. the set of equations is not valid. Therefore. In the present case the description of the flow in the vicinity of the walls is a matter of secondary importance. The code offers three options for modelling the flow near walls. this requirement is not fulfilled. while ε is computed using an empirical function. is no longer valid. and the production of k and ε at the walls is negligible compared to the production in the secondary air and the recirculation jets.2. empirical functions are used to describe the variables in the cells adjacent to the wall. which is not the case in the boiler studied. However. For this reason the computational resources are not used to obtain a correct representation of the boundary layer. the “Standard Wall Function”. The “Non Equilibrium Wall Function” is a model intended for flows with strong pressure gradients. The Reynolds stress tensor is considered proportional to the laminar stress tensor through a multiplying factor. The transport equation for k is solved.

• 4. the turbulent energy and the dissipation rate of the jets entering the combustion chamber are computed using the formulas available in the Fluent manual for flows in a duct.2. which is much larger. the outlet is defined as a surface at the constant pressure of 1 bar (the rest of the boiler has a slightly higher pressure). The results from the two cases show that the difference between the heat powers transmitted to the walls is negligible. (The function is an output of the bed model) the turbulence exiting the bed is quite difficult to estimate. since the turbulence of the recirculation jets reaches the upper surface of the bed. at the walls the boundary condition is set by the wall function. is limited. and no important differences appear. confirming that the main heat transfer mechanism is radiation. . The importance of this boundary condition.Final report May 1999 Page 34 of 79 have a dimension similar to that of the neighbouring cells.5 Physical models for heat transfer The conservation of energy is satisfied solving the thermal energy equation: ∂ui ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂T ∂ Dp − + (τ ik ) eff + Sh ( ρ h) + ( ρui h) = (k + kt ) h j Ji j + ∂t ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂x k Dt (4. with particular attention to the velocities and turbulent quantities.57) Where h is the specific enthalpy and the terms on the right hand side of the equation represent: • • • • • conduction (kt is the conductivity due to turbulence) enthalpy transfer due to diffusion of species (Jij is the diffusive flux of species j in direction i) the reversible work irreversible dissipation of kinetic energy due to friction (probably negligible if compared to the turbulent dissipation rate) a source term that contains the effect of radiation. but it is reasonable to say that the fuel layer has an effect similar to a porous medium. Therefore the flow should have the characteristics of weak grid turbulence. so that the contribution from the bed itself would be negligible. The boundary conditions are set as follows: • • • • • the secondary air and recirculation gas inlets are defined as surfaces with constant velocity over the area. on the upper surface of the bed (the inlet to the combustion chamber) the velocity is a function of the distance from the fuel inlet. For the final tri-dimensional case it was therefore decided not to refine the grid near the walls. All the fields were compared in a qualitative way. however. and that the thickness of the cell layer does not affect the heat power significantly.

The contribution of soot to the emissivity of the fluid cannot be included in Fluent/UNS. The variation of power along a ray is expressed by the following equation: ∂I aσT 4 + aI = ∂s π (4. together with the rays. This function is a polynomial of temperature fitted to experimental values. because it should be possible to perform the grid adaption in order to obtain a solution that has a sufficient .58) where I is the power flowing along the ray. The role of soot in radiation is quite important and the neglecting of soot may produce an underestimation of the radiant power transmitted to the bed. This bug causes the rays to cross the boundaries of the domain. The result is that the DTRM cannot be used on refined grids. which are called Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) and P1 model. ending in a not defined space. Furthermore. Both models use a weighted sum of grey gases to determine the emissivity of a layer of fluid as a function of the concentrations of CO2 and H2O and of the thickness of the layer. see. This error is limited to a few rays in the case of a “basic grid” but increases highly for “adapted grids”.Final report May 1999 Page 35 of 79 The Fluent/UNS code includes two options to model radiation. The clusters are defined before the iterative process starts. The DTRM describes the radiation exiting from a surface as a finite set of rays that transport the energy to the cells that they cross. A problem that arises during the preparation of the rays and clusters is the lack of an instrument capable of evaluating the effectiveness of the representation.Boltzmann constant. This problem strongly limits the usefulness the code. Figure 4. Figure 4.6. when defining the rays (ray tracing phase) a bug appears. and therefore whether it can actually exchange radiant heat with the neighbouring cells. as used in the DTRM mosel.6 Rays and clusters. One single DTRM cell (called a cluster) is actually a group of 30 cells of the grid. a is the absorption coefficient per unit length of the fluid and σ is the Stefan. The volume discretization of the DTRM is coarser than the discretization for the solution of the other equations. For example it is not possible to verify whether each cluster is actually crossed by at least one ray.

Using the P1 model some information can be obtained on the effect of grid adaption. and the variation of temperature along the tubes. In the case treated the optical thickness of the medium is small.6 Physical models for reaction kinetics In the studied case the reactants enter the combustion chamber separately. The main difference that appears when adapting the grid in the jet zones is a slight increase of the penetration of the jet. To perform this estimation. However. An effort was made to produce a structured grid already refined in the critical areas. The quantity of fuel that may react per unit time is therefore a function of the flow of reactants that enters the fine structures.7 (using this value. where radiation travels small distances. The mixing rate can be the limiting factor of the combustion process. The boundary conditions are set as follows: • • • • • Temperature of the refractory walls: 900K Temperature of the tube walls: 500K Emissivity of all walls: 0. the computed heat power transmitted to the walls equals the measured one) Emissivity of the bed: 0. the result is not satisfactory because the algorithm needs a very high number of iterations to reach convergence. since the DTRM does not work properly.59) where G is the incident radiation flux and Γ is a function of the absorption coefficient. and therefore it is necessary to estimate this rate in the various cells. the values of temperatures are taken from measurements in another plant.2. due to heating of the water is neglected.9 Emissivity of the other boundaries: 1 Reflection and emission are considered to be diffuse for all surfaces. The equation has the shape of a diffusion equation and therefore this kind of model works well for optically thick media. the code uses a model built on the Eddy Dissipation Theory of Magnussen and Hiertager [1989]. 4. but it is interesting to apply the model anyway. making it possible for the various species to react. but the skewness increased. drastically slowing down the convergence. This model assumes that the last step of the turbulent energy cascade (the dissipation of kinetic to thermal energy) takes place in fine structures where the mixing occurs at a molecular scale. so that a mixing is required before the reaction can take place. since it depends on temperature to the power of four. Adaption on the reaction front was not performed. Anyway the lower temperature plays a minor role in the determination of the radiant flux. In the P1 model the radiant heat transfer is expressed by the following balance equation of incident radiation: ∇(Γ∇G ) − aG + 4aσT 4 = 0 (4. The model of Magnussen and Hjertager produces two expressions for the generic reaction B+C->D+F : . For this reason it is not practical to use this model for tridimensional cases.Final report May 1999 Page 36 of 79 precision.

and some computational resources may be spared. which appears contradictory at a first look. preventing it from being the limiting factor. Hydrogen . The concept cannot be applied to calculations were products of reaction are provided by other sources. that produce the numerical “ignition” of the flow. Then the radical diffusion is modelled together with that of the reactants. It includes the following reactions: CH4+3/2O2->CO+2H2O CO+½O2->CO2 4. In the present case for example.IV 4. The main chemistry has been modelled by two different reaction schemes.Final report May 1999 Page 37 of 79 ε k ε r ( B) = const 2 ([ D] + [ F ]) k r ( B) = const 1 ([ B] + [ C ]) These expressions are compared to the Arrhenius rate: β1 γ1 δ1 ϕ1 r ( B) = β A[ B] [C ] [ D] [ F ] exp( − (4. though.5 Simplified combustion schemes In the processes of combustion and pyrolysis is involved a large number of chemical species that interact in a complex system of reactions. The first scheme is the one available in the database of the Fluent code for methane combustion. In cases where the chemical kinetics are very fast. Therefore it is not possible to describe the complete mechanism in a fluid dynamic simulation of a complex flow and simplified combustion schemes are used which include a limited number of species and reactions. 4. In the numerical method anyway the residuals always provide a minimum presence of reactants. The resulting production or consumption of chemical species is introduced in the transport equations of the various species as a source term.2.V In the database the carbon dioxide dissociation reaction was also included. In the present case. Therefore radicals which are necessary for the activation of further reaction are not available. and the results were compared. The second expression. It may also be argued that such expression has a value of zero where there are no products of reaction. it is not necessary to calculate the value of the Arrhenius expression. both the reaction rates of CO and CH4 are not fast enough. is derived from a consideration that may be briefly summarised saying that the absence of products of reaction implies that a reaction has not occurred recently.61) E ) RT (4. and hinders combustion even if there are reactants at a high temperature. so the expression always assumes high values. but the rate of dissociation is negligible at the temperatures present in the furnace.60) (4.62) and the lower (limiting) one of the three is used by the code. the products of reaction (H2O and CO2) are present in high concentrations already in the combustion air and in the recirculated flue gas entering the chamber.

VII 4. so it has to be included. being the product of both methane and carbon monoxide partial oxidation. 5.VI 4. the NO x modelling is calculated separately for the fuel layer and for the free-room. On the other hand the add-in model includes well known reaction rates for formation of thermal NOx and for the formation or destruction of NOx by NH3. and HCN is used as a NOx precursor and not NH3. proved to be inadequate to the conditions existing in this boiler. Both combustion schemes lack the soot formation reaction.Final report May 1999 Page 38 of 79 is not included because this pyrolysis gas is not measured in the boiler. its concentration does not appear in the reaction rate expressions). This model is developed for coal combustion. such as: • • HCN and NH3 forms NO at high oxygen concentration and temperature HCN and NH3 reduce NO at low oxygen concentration and high temperature .VIII 4. Using this scheme causes all the methane and the carbon monoxide to be split by the water just above the grate. The inclusion of soot modelling in the combustion simulation would probably modify significantly the solution for two reasons. where the fuel layer also in this case acts as a boundary condition for the free-room. but the implementation and validation of such a model element into Fluent is too large a work for this project. second it affects the rate of oxidation of the carbon (the soot oxidation is different from that of CO or CH4). The NOx add-in model available from Fluent describes the NOx processes in the free-room. First the presence of soot increases the emissivity (and absorption coefficient) of the gases. however. making the flame more luminous and therefore increasing the radiant heat transfer.IX In this case hydrogen obviously plays an important role. In the present case NH3 is assumed to be formed instantaneously from the HCN. displacing the flame to another position in the furnace. The NOx modelling Like the modelling of the main chemistry. This reaction scheme. producing a high hydrogen concentration and a complete absence of other combustible gases in the combustion chamber. The nitrogen chemistry inside the fuel layer is qualitatively modelled on the basis of a general knowledge of the nitrogen chemistry under different conditions. A reduced mechanism developed for biofuel would be preferred. i. furthermore it is not very relevant to any of the reactions involving nitrogen compounds (in fact. This clearly contradicts the measurements that instead show the presence of both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons below the secondary air injection.e. which would be more appropriate for biofuel. It includes the following reactions: CH4+1/2O2->CO+2H2 CH4+H2O->CO+3H2 H2+1/2O2->H2O CO+H2O->CO2+H2 4. The second reaction scheme for the main chemistry is the one formulated by Jones and Lindstedt [1988] for methane combustion. very high moisture content at all stages of combustion (the fuel has a very high water content and the combustion air is moisturised).

Reaction kinetics can be found for NO reduction over char surfaces for different biofuels. where the split factor is based on the lowest concentrations of NO and the sum of the concentrations of HCN and NH3. In the oxygen-rich region HCN and NH3 most likely form NO. is defined as an oxygen-rich region and the subsequent region of the reaction front. where the oxygen more or less is consumed. and for coal char. Leppälahti 1995. Johnsson (1990). Saastamoinen 1997. NH3 + O2 → NO 5. I and in the second region. and in the oxygen-lean region this NO to some extent is reduced by the HCN and NH3 leaving the particles. is defined as an oxygen-lean region. is defined as reduction of NO by HCN and NH3. The first part of the reaction front. the oxygen lean region HCN and NH3 are assumed to reduce NO: HCN .1 Description of nitrogen chemistry model in fuel layer The model for the nitrogen chemistry in the fuel layer assumes that all NOx is fuel nitrogen. the last of the split factors. This gas mixture leaves the surface of the particle into a gas stream.Final report May 1999 Page 39 of 79 • • CO reduces NO in presence of char if the oxygen concentration is very low the char acts as a catalyst for the reduction of NO by HCN and NH3 From experiments on single particles following can be assumed • fuel nitrogen bound to the volatiles forms HCN and NH3 • fuel nitrogen bound to the char residue forms NO • around half of the fuel nitrogen is bound in the char residue. The fourth split factor. The third split factor defines the degree of conversion of HCN and NH3 to NO in the oxygen-rich region. The reaction front is also separated in to two regions dependent on the oxygen concentration. which has an oxygen concentration between 0 and 21% and a temperature between 600 and 1500K. where the oxygen still not is consumed. The reaction front is not modelled in detail and therefore a model based on kinetic data of various reactions can not be established. Zevenhoven (1998). the volatiles are released inside the particles. The situation inside the reaction front is very complex. II . What enters the char layer from the reaction front is unknown. The first split factor gives the part of the fuel nitrogen that is released together with the volatiles. the oxygen rich region HCN and NH3 are assumed to produce NO: HCN . probably as HCN and NH3 and already inside the particles some of it is converted to NO or N2. The second split factor defines the fraction of fuel nitrogen that leaves the particles in the oxygen-rich region. In the first region. The nitrogen chemistry in the fuel can be separated into the reaction front and the char layer. which makes it possible to model the NOx formation and destruction in the char layer. NH3 + NO → N2 + H2O + CO 5. Instead a model based on split factors is developed. 5.

1) 1 6 11 − x 6J 1 J2 . NH 3 + HCN 1 1 J2 . NH3 + HCN J2 . N 2 + θ 2 J1.dev = 1 − x1 J 0 . NH 3 + HCN 8 0 . NH3 + HCN = 1 − θ 1 x1 J0 . NH3 + NO char → N 2 + H2 O + CO  NO + CO  → N2 + CO2 char 5. NO + J 0 . N2 = x1 J 0.V ∂t ∂CNH3 + HCN − = k R. NH3 + HCN + 1 − θ 1 1 − x1 J 0. 2 oxygen lean region and 3 char layer. NO 1. This assumption give that in this area of the grate no NH3 or HCN are present and the only mechanism for the reduction of NO is reaction 5. . NO = x1 J 0.dev = x1 J0 . The nitrogen chemistry in the reaction front is modelled in three steps and the reactions are modelled by split factors that are put manually. NH3 + HCN J1. The oxygen lean region is modelled: 3 8 (5. NH3 + HCN 1 6 = 11 − x 6 J +J = 11 − θ 63 J 2 N F . N 2 = J1. NH3 + HCN J1.V ∂t − (5. θ is used for the split factors and subscript 0 indicates particle surface. IV If the oxygen not is consumed oxidation of NH3 and HCN to NO and N2 will take place. After the drying and devolatilization is completed and only char combustion take place. N2 + J 0.Final report May 1999 Page 40 of 79 If all oxygen is consumed in the reaction front the reduction of the nitrogen oxides continues in the char layer above the reaction front and is catalysed by the char surfaces: HCN .3) where the reaction rate are assumed to be similar to the ones of coal given by Johnsson [1990].IV. NO 2 1. N 2 + 1 − x1 J0 . NH3 + HCN 1 63 1.1 oxygen rich region. N2 J1. NH 3 + HCN 8 8 (5. NO 1 0 . The oxygen rich region is: x1 J N F . N 2 + J 0 .VI + k R. NO + J 0 . NH3 + HCN x is the fraction of volatile gases entering the oxygen rich region. III 5.2) The char layer is modelled: ∂CNO = k R. NO + θ 1 x1 J 0 . NH3 + HCN 1 61 6 − θ 3J + 11 − θ 611 − x 6 J + 11 − θ 611 − x 6 J 8 3 1 1 0 . During the char combustion all fuel-bound nitrogen is assumed to form NO.

Another contribution comes from the “prompt” mechanism. which usually plays a minor role.char tcc = x mean tcc = tc = dx = 0.Final report May 1999 Page 41 of 79 k R. As for the main chemistry.char N F . x mean  ∂J I  J 0 i N F . NO + J F .V k C k C +k = 1410 1 NO 2 CO 3 k1CNO + k2CCO + k3 1 6 0 .64 k R. but simplified mechanisms are required. NH3 . and represent all the NOx intermediates .VI = 2. N 2 + 1 J2.char − J3. The main contribution to NOx production is therefore the nitrogen contained in the fuel and an important fraction of the total NOx emission is produced inside the fuel layer itself. HCN 0 = J 2.char Nitrogen species leaving fuel bed J3.64 0 . 0 ≤ x ≤ x + x  ∑ J R1 x T + x T 6 / 1 x + x 6 /∂x mean s i s s c c s c i c (5. NO + J2 . The models do not include the HCN->NH3 step. Description of nitrogen chemistry in free-room calculation The thermal oxidation of molecular nitrogen and the reburning reaction can be neglected in the plants where temperatures do not reach 1800K. NH3 + HCN 2 42 7 3 89 5.6) ∑ J R1 x T + x T 6 i s s c c P (5. tcr.4) Boundary condition J NO 0 = J 2.5.4 ⋅10 exp0−20400 / T 5K & K k = 8. HCN (5.2. where the maximum computed temperatures don’t exceed 1620K and the measured ones are even lower. NH3 + HCN + J3.7) (5. NO = J NO tc J3.10) J3.char J NH3 .36 ⋅ 10 6 CNO CNH3 + HCN % k = 67 exp0−6070 / T 5 ( Kk = 2.8) (5. it is not possible to implement all the reactions in the calculation together with fluid dynamics.dev tcr + J N F .dev + J N F .5) The residence time tc in for the nitrogen compounds in the char layer is calculated from the integrated mean time for the nitrogen leaving the char tcc and the time for the gas leaving the reaction front. and this condition is always verified in the furnace in exam. NH3 + HCN = J NH3 + HCN tc (5. N2 = J2 .9 ⋅10 exp0−31700 / T 5 ) K ' * exp0 −10000 / T 5 1 5 2 5 3 (5. NO + J N F .9) P J N F .char tcc J N F .

Final report May 1999 Page 42 of 79 as HCN. because a small fluctuation of the reaction conditions may cause an important increase of the reaction rates. because of very high cost required to run the boiler independent of the heat demand from the district heating system. The NOx formation and destruction mechanisms are summarised as in Figure 5.4. Such fluctuations are present throughout the furnace. + CH i (prompt) +NO N2 + NH i HCN NH3 + O (thermal) +OH + CH i (reburning) NO : Figure 5. The temperature probability density function is a beta function. To optimise the activities. the main value is the one computed by the averaged equations. and cannot be modelled in detail. considering the funding given. . By doing so the quality of the comparison between the simulations and the measurements was maintained in a satisfactory way. To take into account the effect of the turbulent fluctuations a probabilistic approach is used. Experimental The measurements described in the contract was planned before the plant was built. impeding an exact estimation of the total NOx formation. characteristic operation conditions were defined and much more detailed measurements were performed during these test conditions than what was originally planed.4 Description of the model for the nitrogen chemistry in FLUENT. Nitrogen chemistry is not yet completely known. and some reaction rates are highly non-linear functions of temperature and of the reactant concentrations. and the variance is expressed as a function of the turbulent variables. weighing the reaction rate function with the probability density function of the temperature. This estimation turned out to be too optimistic both concerning time and expenses. This consists of evaluating the mean production inside each cell. NO and N2 are used as in and out-put data. For this reason it is difficult to predict exactly the production of nitrogen oxides. 6. HCN. and the estimated cost and time for the measurements were based on experience from a boiler of the same scale as the one in Trollhättan. due both to turbulence and to small discontinuities in the fuel and air feed.

Dependent on the reduction of the content of char in the fuel layer. Ten water-cooled probes were inserted simultaneously in the upper part of the combustion chamber above the “neck” to achieve data on temperatures and gas concentrations of O2. for which 40 values per second were collected. and a comparison between modelling and measurements 7. 7. fuel samples were taken continuously and analysed. The measurement period was 75 hours for the permanent positions.1 Result of Bed model In Figure 7. The direction of the gas flow along one horizontal position above the neck was also measured. Some disturbances did occur however. Apart from the survey measurements some additional measurements were carried out using the normal fuel. which gave two mean values during a 10 minutes period. The major gas components in the part of the fuel layer where the . During these periods the measurements were paused. CO2. but this is a result of the reduction of the velocity of the fuel layer along the grate and is emphasised by the vertical scale of the diagram. and 10 minutes per position for the hot suction probe. oxygen and water vapour is kept on a low level in the first part of the grate allowing the combustion to start. This was possible in almost all tests. special. and the zirconia cell. The primary gas flow of nitrogen. the gas flow and the velocity of the fuel layer along the grate are decreased to allow the char layer to build up and to increase the residence time of the gas. This survey included 49 permanent measurement positions and 81 positions for probe.Final report May 1999 Page 43 of 79 The first measurement campaign in Trollhättan the survey measurements. When the reaction front reaches the surface of the grate. In this the profile of the equivalent radiation temperature from the free-room is assumed. most probably due to a temporary change of the fuel size and moisture content. except for the FTIR. consisting of 40% bark. NO and THC for validation of the modelling. An additional cooled suction probe that allowed a much higher suction flow verified previous temperature measurements.1 an example of a simulation of the fuel layer can be seen. In all positions 10 seconds mean values were logged continuously. the height of the fuel layer rises. For the survey measurements. The output from the fuel layer model is the position of the reaction front and the height of the fuel layer. 40% wood chips and 20% sawdust. well prepared fuel (pure wood chips) was ordered and the test furnace had to be specially trimmed. 5 minutes per position for the cold suction probe and zirconia cell probe. was the main measurement in this project. CO. At half way along the grate. In Figure 7. Since the probe measurements only took place during short periods it was important to have stable operating conditions for the whole test period in order to achieve a representative picture of the combustion chamber. a further reduction of the primary air is necessary before the end of the grate to keep up the temperature and for the final burn out. During the test.1 this rise looks rather dramatic and unrealistic. The primary gas flow is then raised in order to increase the combustion intensity in the fuel layer. Results The results consist of two parts: the results from the fuel layer. the free-room calculations and the measurements.

In the part where only char combustion takes place. while the char is gradually consumed. Then it rises.4 0. Result of the nitrogen chemistry simulation. Right figure. Otherwise the model behaves as expected. HCN or NH 3 1 0. The gas is assumed to leave the fuel layer at the temperature of the surface of the fuel layer. When the reaction front is not present.2 Result of the free-room model The aim of the simulation was to find a steady state solution. a non-decaying oscillation could be observed. Such instability is quite realistic in flows with gas jets.Final report May 1999 Page 44 of 79 reaction front develops are water vapour and nitrogen.8 NO and NH 3 +HCN [ppm] 450 NO NH3 300 0. When the primary gas flow once more is reduced the oxygen concentration again falls and then rises slowly as the char combustion continues. The algorithm. somewhere between 0 and 20% dependent on the char layer surface and gas flow through the layer. With the reaction rates of the model.2. Instead of a trend towards a single value. the reduction of NO is related to the residence time in the char layer and the temperature. Obviously. It is reasonable to say that this is an instability of the turbulent type. and that hinder the convergence to a steady state solution. In order to eliminate the fluctuations. In Figure 7. and oscillations of the flow can actually be observed by looking into the boiler. many different options of the numerical solver were tried. . which may not be accounted for by the k and ε model. the reduction of NO in the char layer is small. which does not evolve to the exact equilibrium. fraction of fuel nitrogen converted to nitrogen oxides or NH3+HCN 7. the oxygen concentration first falls as a consequence of the increased height of the fuel layer and the decreased primary gas flow. An increased residence time and temperature increases the reduction of NO. and given by the assumed split factors. Left figure. The simulation shows that the surface temperature of the fuel layer is lower and in some parts much lower than the temperature inside the fuel layer. since it includes vortexes which are much larger than the control volumes. Fuel-N converted to NOx. and NH3+HCN. especially during char combustion.2 0 0 150 0 0 2 4 6 Length along grate [m] 8 2 4 6 Length along grate [m] 8 Figure 7. but without success. but oscillates around it. did not converge. whereas oxygen is consumed. the reduction is neiglible due to the low temperature. the nitrogen compounds leaving the fuel layer are already determined in the reaction front. though. This behaviour is due to the instability of the physical flow.2 the result of the post-processing of the nitrogen chemistry presented. concentration of nitrogen oxides.6 0.

3 0.1 Input data and result of modelling.4 0.5 Bed height [m] 1 Bed surface Reaction front Mass loss 0.5 4 3 2 1.2 0 7.8 0. (Input) 4.6 0.2 0. The grey areas indicate the given changes in the primary airflow and velocity of the fuel layer along the grate.4 0.5 0 0 1 2 3 4 Bed length [m] 5 6 7 8 0 Velocity change bed Velocity change gas Figure 7. .1 0 10 Ingoing Molar Flow [moles/s] (Input) 8 6 6 Bed vel.Final report May 1999 Page 45 of 79 2000 Temperature [K] 1600 1200 800 400 0 10 Outgoing Molar Flow [moles/s] Char layer Surface layer Surrounding (Input) CH 8 4 6 4 CO O2 CO 2 H2O N2 2 0 Relative mass loss [−] Bed velocity [mm/s] (Input) 0.5 N2 O2 H2O (Input) (Input) (Input) 0.

.3. are used for displaying the result from the free-room calculation. but this is not a significant limitation because it would be practically impossible to analyse such amount of data. that grows to a size n times larger than a steady state solution. By placing the images for each time step in a sequence. which provides an easily interpretable representation of the unsteady combustion process. so it is possible to make relevant considerations on the flow looking at a single frame of the animation even if it does not represent the whole solution. The alternative is to monitor (i. see Figure 7. The presence of a downward flow inside the combustion chamber is seen.e. Schuster 1994. Figure 7.3 Sections used to display result. concentrations) does not vary very much with time.4. it become possible to animate the result. in order to obtain convergence. Two vertical sections of the boiler. In order to understand the nature of the fluctuations it is also possible to store the values of a variable on a whole surface. Such a vortex causes an internal recirculation of a part of the flue gases. shown in the Figure 7. This complicates dramatically the solution of the problem. Grey planes illustrate the sections The overall look of the various fields (velocity. that therefore have a longer residence time inside the combustion chamber than the flue gas which goes straight to the exit. store the value at every time step) some variable in a finite set of points.Final report May 1999 Page 46 of 79 The time variable must therefore be introduced in the calculation. A solution of this size is not practically storable in memory. and visualise it as a contour diagram. The velocity vectors on the vertical section parallel to the jets show the presence of a large vortex in the upper part of the furnace. and has been reported from a similar furnace in Mjölby. temperature. where n is the number of time steps necessary to describe the full evolution of the flow in time.

The probe is a 4.39e+02 7. water cooled to resist the furnace temperatures. Extracting the probe a little at a time the flame follows irregular directions first and it goes upwards later. which is approximately 0. due to the high temperature and follows the flow of the flue gas. Such difference in residence should be avoided if possible. The experiment was carried out twice. which emits a small acetylene jet from the tip. see Figure 7.10e+03 9.5. The section is shown in Figure 7. or to decrease the size of the downward flow a rise of the flow from the front secondary air inlet and a decrease of the one from the rear wall secondary air inlet should be a sufficient remedy that would not imply any modifications of the plant itself. if this is strong enough to overcome the buoyant effect of the hot flame.10e+02 5. The velocity and temperature fields on the vertical section perpendicular to the jets show another feature of the flow that causes different residence times. as it is much more luminous than the surroundings. even if in this particular case it does not seem to have important consequences.69e+02 8.50e+02 3. even if sometimes it extinguishes due to a lack of oxygen.36e+03 1. in different operating conditions.23e+03 1.80e+02 4.7m long steel tube.Final report May 1999 Page 47 of 79 1. It appears to be a quite strong flow and it is located in a layer.49e+03 1. .3 The difference in residence times is also shown by the temperature field which includes a colder area in the middle of the vortex see Figure 7.5 meters thick in the vicinity of the rear wall of the furnace.62e+03 1. and both times it supported the calculation result of a downward flow.20e+02 Y Z X Figure 7.4. The flame is clearly visible from the window above the hole. The jet ignites when introduced into the flue gas flow. where the gas has a longer time to radiate its energy to the tube walls.4 Velocity vectors and temperature field on a vertical section parallel to the jets. In order to avoid this vortex. The result of the experiment is therefore completely in agreement with the calculation. In order to verify the existence of this downward flow a special hole in the furnace wall was opened and an appropriate probe was built to detect the direction of the flow.

Further down along the grate the char residue burns (burn-out zone) and the gas phase above the grate always show oxidising conditions. where the main part of fuel volatiles burns. The CO2.8-10.6.Final report May 1999 Page 48 of 79 Figure 7. in relation to what was measured in the flame zone.6 corresponds well to a relatively low O2 concentration.5 Velocity vectors and temperature field on a vertical section perpendicular to the jets.b. The displacement of the combustibles to the sides of the furnace is clearly observed in the concentration measurements. and the temperature to be higher when the flow meets the secondary combustion air. The temperature contours on the section parallel to the jets also show the presence of a high temperature area around the first part of the front recirculation jets. that is blown in the hot pyrolysis gas flow. . and reacts quickly thanks to the high turbulence. 7. Figures 7. Figure 7.1. Figure 7. Figure 7.c. Reducing conditions measured by the zirconia cell probe in holes 1 and 2 position a. Figure 1. CO THC concentrations are low. In this area the O2 concentration is high.7. An improvement of the homogeneity of combustion could be obtained using a more rational spacing of the jets. Figures 7.3 Result measurement The results from the survey measurement can be summarised as follows: 1. Figure 7.7 and high concentrations of CO2. CO and THC.3 The pyrolysis gases are passing through the front recirculation jets along the symmetry plane of the boiler and beside the walls.8-10. This may be due to the high oxygen concentration coming from the evaporation zone. The measurement in holes 1 and 2 are in the flame zone above the grate. This causes the combustibles to be more concentrated in these zones. The section is shown in Figure 7.

17. 6.1-0. This should be possible to study separately in a laboratory scale reactor. B and C. Normalising these levels of NO to a fictitious CO2 concentration of 15%. The temperature is still high at this level. 3.1 % by weight measured on the combustibles matter) a theoretical level of 280 ppm NH3 and/or NO can be achieved at an excess air ratio of 1. Figure 7. Figure 7. The combustion gases have different content depending on their “history” whether they originate from the drying zone in the beginning of the grate. As a contrast to these low temperatures was the highest temperature measured in hole 8.14. Figure 7.76 % respectively. the flame zone or the burn-out zone.8.16 and a comparison of the CO-levels at level 3. When the gases pass the “neck” an intensive combustion takes place leading to a large decrease of the levels of CO and total hydrocarbons (THC).15 is it possible to follow the burnout of the gas phase in the upper part of the combustion chamber. hole 7. This was also obtained with some exception. The highest level of the sum of NO and NH3 was measured to 100 to 200 ppm. see Figure 3. 85. An important question is what happened with rest of the fuel nitrogen. The calculated average of NO and CO2 in hole 3 and 4 is 40ppm and 3. These positions form a core of the cross-section. see Figure 7. position D (835 °C). Figure 7. Figure 7. Figure 7. a concentration of 160 ppm NO is calculated for the measurement above the burnout zone to be compared to only 91 ppm NO above the flame zone. B and hole 2. mixed and burned up along the wall. It seems likely that oxygen and volatiles are pressed to the sides by the flue-gas re-circulation. 4. At the same time the CO2 level was measured to only 2. and with various extent of burnout) from the lower part of the combustion chamber is mixed with re-circulated flue gas and secondary air in the restriction (the “neck”.11. especially in the 10 measurement locations.2 is taken into account (despite the flow of re-circulated flue gas) then the sum of NO and NH3 in hole 1 and 2 ought to be in the range of 400 to 600 ppm.2. Higher temperatures were expected in the flame zone in comparison with the results obtained above the burn-out zone. At the same time the CO2 concentration increases from levels between 11-14% up to 15-17% despite the fact that the total volume of combustion gas increases as a result of the secondary air injection. The temperatures at level 1 are shown in Figure 7. Above the burnout zone NO levels between 26-58 ppm were found. If the fact that the gas flow through the grate is lower than that required for an excess air ratio of 1. With the nitrogen content measured in the fuel (0. hole 1 and 2. Combustion gases (of various mix between oxygen and unburned species.15 to only 40-500 ppm at level 4.4%. One hypothesis is that NH3 and/or NO decomposes already when the gas passes through the fuel layer on the grate. 5.Final report May 1999 Page 49 of 79 2. The levels of CO and THC also decrease from a concentration of 1000-4000 ppm at level 3. This difference is interpreted as an effect of a higher degree of oxidation to NO of the fuel nitrogen during the char .6-5.1).18. position B. where the temperature was measured to 839-909 °C.1 ppm NO and 14% CO2 is obtained. position A. hole 1.12 where a temperature level between 190-300 °C was found.12. down to levels between 0. position A. Figure 7.19. Figure 7. Figure 7. By the measurement of the gas concentrations at level 4. Figure 7. The effect of the flue-gas re-circulation can also be seen in the temperature measurement carried out at level 2.13 and 7.3 %. If one calculates the corresponding average in the flame zone. positions A and B. The reason for the low temperatures in these positions is that flue gas is re-circulated from a nozzle located above the grate.16. Figures 7. holes 16-20.11.

In the flame zone the fuel concentration is much higher. Most of the fuel layer in the burnout zone of the grate consists of ash. since this lowers the fuel nitrogen conversion to NO. and this increases the probability that the NO being formed in the gas phase between the fuel particles is reduced on the passage through the bed. dry. Since the concentration of NH3 is low. During the char burnout different conditions prevail on the grate in comparison with the situation in the flame zone. it is likely that some thermal NO formation occurs in the flame zone. 8. The passage of combustion gases through the “neck” has already been commented on.Final report May 1999 Page 50 of 79 burnout compared to the case when the volatile part of the fuel is oxidised in the flame zone. it can be concluded that the flue gas re-circulation plays an important role in order to prevent too high temperatures of the gas phase during its passage through the “neck”. The highest temperatures were measured along the rear wall downstream of the “neck”. This means that the temperature levels in the flame zone are of importance for the formation of NO. From this. which is equal to 129 mg NO2/nm3 at 15% CO2. This interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that NH3 and/or NO are decomposed already when the combustion gases pass the fuel bed. . This corresponds to an emission of NO of 84 mg NO2/MJ fuel supplied. In these positions also the highest levels of NO were obtained. The average concentration of NO measured on dry flue gas for the whole test period is calculated to 119 ppm. 7.

B=1.6 Time fraction with reducing conditions at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2. B=1.1 m from w a ll 0 .9 m from w a ll 1 . B=1. C=1.8m.4 8 2 .9 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2. C=1.2m fro m w a ll 0 . 12 C a rb o n d io xid e c o n c .8m.1m and D=0.Final report May 1999 Page 51 of 79 1 .1m fro m w all 0 .2 1 .0 20 2 .7 Oxygen concentrations at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.2m fro m w all 0 0 2 4 6 8 <_ fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ > < fu e l in _ x (m ) ash out _ > Figure 7.2 m from w a ll 0 0 2 4 6 8 2 . c on d ition s O x yg e n c o n c e n tra tio n (vo l-% .1m fro m w a ll 0 .8 m from w a ll 0 .1m and D=0.8m.8 m from w a ll 1 .2m.8m fro m w all 4 1 .9m fro m w all 1 .9m.1 m from w a ll 0 . C=1. C=1. Figure 7.0 0 2 4 6 8 4 0 0 <_ fuel in x (m ) as h out _> < fu e l in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) ash out _ 8 > Figure 7. (vo l-% .8m fro m w a ll 1 .1m and D= 0.9 m from w a ll 1 .8 Carbon dioxide concentrations at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.9m. (vo l-% . 20 Figure 7.9m.8 16 1 .2m.6 12 0 .2m.9m fro m w a ll T im e fra c tion w ith re d.d r y) 16 C a rb o n m o n o xid e co n c. B=1.1m and D=0.9m.d ry) 0 .d ry ) 8 12 8 4 2 .2m .8m.2 m from w a ll 0 .

8m. .2m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 . B=1.2 m from w all 40000 0 0 _ 2 4 6 _ 8 0 < fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t > <_ fue l in 2 4 6 x (m ) ash o ut _> 8 Figure 7.1m and D=0.8 m fro m w a ll 1 .2m.2 m fro m w a ll 4 00 < _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) ash o ut _ 8 > 0 < fu e l in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 8 > Figure 7.8m.1 m fr o m w a ll 0 .10 Total hydrocarbon concentrations at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.9 m fr o m w a ll 1 .8m.d ry ) 8 00 3 7 00 2 6 00 2 . C=1.1 m from w all 2 00 0 .dry) T em p era ture of th e com bustion g as (°C) 8 00 1 .2m.1m and D=0.2m.9m. Figure 7.1 m fro m w a ll 0 .8 m fro m w a ll 5 00 1 . C=1.1 m fro m w a ll 0 .1m and D=0. B=1.9m. C=1. 120000 2 . (vo l-% .2 m fr o m w a ll 0 0 2 .9m.8m.8 m from w all 1 .11 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.2 m fro m w a ll 80000 6 00 4 00 2 .9 m from w all 1 .12 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 2 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.9m. Figure 7.1m and D=0. (v ol-pp m .13 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 2 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2.9 m fro m w a ll C a rb on m o no xide co nc.Final report May 1999 Page 52 of 79 5 9 00 4 T e m p e ra tu re of th e c o m b u stio n g a s (°C ) To ta l h yd roca rb o n co nc .8 m fr o m w a ll 1 1 . B=1. C=1. B=1.

1m. B=1.9m.4 m fro m w a ll 5 000 2 .1 m fro m w a ll 0 <_ fue l in 1 2 3 x (m ) ash o ut _> 4 5 0 < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > Figure 7. 1 000 2 . d ry)) 4 000 0 .1 m fro m w a ll C a rbo n m o n ox ide co n c. (v ol-pp m . and C=0.9 m fro m w a ll 1 . B=1. Figure 7.4m and C=0.9m.1 m fro m w a ll 9 00 3 000 2 000 8 00 1 000 7 00 0 0 0 < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) as h ou t _ 5 < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) as h ou t _ 5 > > Figure 7.1 m fro m w a ll C a rb o n m o n o x id e co n c.4 m fro m w a ll 0 0 0 .9 m fro m w a ll 1 .Final report May 1999 Page 53 of 79 5 00 0 120000 2 .9 m fro m w a ll 1 . B=1.1m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 . .4m. (v o l-p p m .15 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. (vo l-p p m .9m.16 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.4 m fro m w a ll 0 .dry) 4 00 0 80000 3 00 0 2 00 0 40000 1 00 0 2 .17 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m Figure 7.9m.d ry) C a rb on m o no xide co nc.4m and C=0. B=1.14 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.4 m fro m w a ll T em p e ra ture o f th e co m bu stio n g a s (°C ) 0 .1m.4m and C=0.

dry) 1 60 1 60 N itric o xid e con c. C=1. Figure 7.1 m fro m w a ll 0 .3.19 Normalised concentration of nitric oxide for the measurement positions at level 1.20-41 and in Tables 7.d ry) 1 20 1 20 80 80 2. Despite the much higher fuel nitrogen content the NOx emission did not increase proportionally for the fuel mix.1 m fro m w a ll 0.8 m fro m w a ll 40 1 . See Table 7.21. 4.9m. see Table 7. 5.1-3 below. The results from the additional measurements are compared with the survey measurements in Figures 7.35. This is interpreted as somewhat earlier combustion during the second test.23 measured at the same level.20 and 7.18 Nitric oxide concentrations at level 1 measured at four positions from the right wall: A=2. 2.28 and 7. At the level above the "neck". of nitric oxid e (vol-ppm . Figures 7. Following observations can be made: 1. (vo l-pp m .9 m fro m w a ll 1 . The nitrogen content in the fuel was much higher for the fuel mix compared to the wood chips fraction only.2m.1.Final report May 1999 Page 54 of 79 2 00 2 00 N orm alised conc.8m. an observation also supported by the profiles of total hydrocarbon concentration in Figures 7.34 and 7.22 and 7. B=1.2.2 m fro m w a ll 0 0 2 4 6 8 < _ fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ > < _ fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ > Figure 7.9 m fro m w a ll 1. The oxygen profiles in Figures 7. This result in less “spikes” of CO in the stack during the additional measurements. Figures 7.2 m fro m w a ll 0 0 2 4 6 8 2 . see Table 7.8 m fro m w all 40 1 . The combustion gas temperatures below the "neck" at level 3 show different trends and levels in the two test cases. The operating conditions were much more stable during the additional measurements compared to the survey measurements despite the higher quality of the fuel (only wood chips) used the first time.29.1m and D=0. level 4 the difference in oxygen concentration between the two test cases is even more pronounced. (level 3) are more similar but somewhat lower during the additional measurements with the fuel mix. 3. .

f.2-1.2. Table 7.dry) 269 mg NO2/ m3n (@15% CO2. in fuel 0.Final report May 1999 Page 55 of 79 Table 7.2 Primary air/ total 0.10 0. Emissions of CO. 40% bark and 20% chips saw dust N-cont. Survey test Additional test Fuel High quality wood Mix of 40% wood chips. dry) 55 mg NO/MJ 84 mg NO2/MJ 146 mg NO/m3n (@15% CO2.a.1.f.dry) Fuel-N conv. Survey test 112 ppm (@ 6% O2.dry) Fuel-N conv.21 total air Table 7. Load 100% 100% Excess air ratio 1. dry) 69 mg NO/MJ 106 mg NO2/MJ 175 mg NO/ m3n (@15% CO2.dry) 224 mg NO2/ m3n (@15% CO2. 0. Operating conditions during the measurements.3 1.4% on m. Emissions of NO.1% on m. Conclusion: Much more stable operating conditions.54 air Flue gas recirc/ 0. to NO: 14% .a.52 0. Survey measurement 16% of the time was the CO levlel above 500 ppm. Additional measurement No "spikes" of CO above 500 ppm. Conclusion: Large variations in the CO level obtained during the measurement.3. to NO: 46% Additional test 131 ppm (@ 6%O2.

and C=0.9m fro m w a ll 1. and C=0.9m.d ry) 8 8 0.22 Oxygen concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.4m.9m. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.4m. B=1.23 Oxygen concentrations at level 3 measured at different positions from the right wall: A=2.9 m fro m w a ll 1 .4 m from w all 0 . First measurement with wood chips.1m fro m w a ll 0 1 2 3 4 5 900 900 800 700 700 < fu e l in _ x (m ) ash out _ 0 > < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) ash out _ 5 > Figure 7.20 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m fro m w all 6 6 4 4 2 2.1m.1m. and C=0.Final report May 1999 Page 56 of 79 10 0 0 1 00 0 2 .d ry) O x yg e n co n ce n tra tio n (vo l-% . B=1.4 m fro m w a ll 0 .9m from w all 1 .9m fro m w all 1. First measurement with wood chips 10 Figure 7.1 m fro m w a ll T e m p e ra tu re (° C ) 800 T e m p e ra tu re (° C ) 2 . and C=0. B=1.1m from w a ll 2 0 0 0 < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 0 > < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > Figure 7.21 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m.9m. Figure 7.4m.4 m fro m w a ll 0 . B=1. 10 2. . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.4m.9m.4 m from w a ll O x yg e n co n ce n tra tio n (vo l-% .1m.

(vol-% .4 m fro m w a ll 0 . 50 0 0 Figure 7.9m fro m w all 1 . First measurement with wood chips.4 m from w all 0.1m.d ry) 12 C arb o n d io xid e co n c. and C=0.1m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 .4m fro m w all 0.9m fro m w a ll 1.1m.dry ) 4 000 30 0 0 3 000 20 0 0 2 000 10 0 0 2 . and C=0. .25 Carbon dioxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.4m from w all 0 . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.1m.4m. B=1. Figure 7. First measurement with wood chips. (vo l-% . B=1. 5 000 C a rb o n m o n o xid e c o n c.4m. (v ol-p p m .d ry ) 40 0 0 C a rb o n m o n o xid e co n c .4m.27 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m fro m w all 4 2. and C=0. and C=0. B=1.Final report May 1999 Page 57 of 79 20 20 C arbo n dio xide co nc.24 Carbon dioxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m fro m w a ll 1 000 2. B=1.d ry) 16 16 12 8 8 4 2. (v o l-p p m .9m.4m.26 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.9m fro m w all 1.1m from w a ll 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 4 fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ 5 0 > < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > Figure 7.9m.9m.1m fro m w a ll 0 0 < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) ash out _ 5 0 0 > < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh ou t _ 5 > Figure 7.9m.

9 m fro m w a ll 1 .9m. B=1.9m fro m w a ll 1 .1 m fro m w a ll 1 2 3 4 5 < fue l in _ x (m ) a sh ou t _ < _ fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ > > Figure 7.4m. First measurement with wood chips.1m. B=1.1 m fro m w a ll 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 2000 0 0 < _ fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ > < _ 1 2 3 4 fu e l in x (m ) ash out _ 5 > Figure 7. (vol-ppm . and C=0. First measurement with wood chips.4m. and C=0.4m fro m w a ll 0 .9m.9 m fro m w a ll T o ta l h y d ro c a rb o n c o n c .4m.dry) Nitric oxide conc. B=1. (vol-ppm .dry ) 6000 1 . and C=0. .1m.28 Total hydrocarbon concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.Final report May 1999 Page 58 of 79 2 .4 m fro m w a ll 0 .4m. and C=0. Figure 7. 2 00 Nitric oxide conc.dry) 1 60 1 60 1 20 1 20 80 80 40 40 2 . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.4 m fro m w a ll 0 .1 m fro m w a ll 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 2.1m. (vo l-pp m .30 Nitric oxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. 2 00 Figure 7.9m.1 m fro m w a ll 4000 4000 2000 2.29 Total hydrocarbon concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.d ry ) 6000 T o ta l h yd ro ca rb on co n c.1m.9 m from w a ll 1 . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.4m from w all 0.31 Nitric oxide concentrations at level 3 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. (vo l-p p m .9m. B=1.

9 m fro m w a ll 1 . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel. Figure 7.d r y) O x yg e n co n ce n tra tio n (vo l-% .33 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.9m.1m.1m.4 m from w all 0 .9m.34 Oxygen concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1 m fro m w a ll 6 6 4 4 2 2.9m.Final report May 1999 Page 59 of 79 1 00 0 2. B=1.32 Temperatures of the combustion gas at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.d ry) 8 8 0 .4m. and C=0. B=1.4m fro m w a ll 0.1 m fro m w a ll 100 0 2 .9m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 .9m fro m w all 1.35 Oxygen concentrations at level 4 measured at three different from the right wall: A=2. .4m.1m. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.1m from w a ll 2 0 0 0 < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > 0 < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > Figure 7.9 m fro m w a ll 1.4m.4 m fro m w a ll O xy g e n c o n ce n tra tio n (v o l-% .1 m fro m w a ll T e m p e ra tu re (° C ) T e m p e ra tu re (°C ) 900 900 800 800 700 0 700 _ 1 2 3 4 _ 5 0 < fu e l in x (m ) ash out > < _ 1 2 3 4 fu e l in x (m ) as h o ut _ 5 > Figure 7.4m. First measurement with wood chips. B=1. and C=0. 10 2 . and C=0. 10 Figure 7.1m. B=1.4 m fro m w a ll 0 . and C=0. First measurement with wood chips.

B=1. B=1. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel . B=1.38 Carbon dioxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. (vo l-% .4 m fro m w a ll 5 0 00 2 .1m from w a ll 4 2.9m fro m w all 1. and C=0.1m.4 m from w all 0 .1 m fro m w a ll 4 0 00 C a rb o n m o n o x id e co n c . First measurement with wood chips.9m. (vo l-% .4m. (v o l-p p m .d ry) 12 C arb o n d io xid e co n c.9m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 .4m. (v o l-p p m .Final report May 1999 Page 60 of 79 20 20 C arb o n d io xid e co n c.1m.4m. and C=0.1 m fro m w a ll 3 0 00 30 0 0 2 0 00 20 0 0 1 0 00 10 0 0 0 0 0 _ 1 2 3 4 _ 5 0 < fu e l in x (m ) a sh o ut > < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) ash out _ 5 > Figure 7. Figure 7.1m. and C=0.9m.40 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. and C=0. First measurement with wood chips. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel 50 0 0 2 . B=1.d ry) 16 16 12 8 8 4 2.1m.1m from w a ll 0 0 0 < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 0 > < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) a sh o u t _ 5 > Figure 7.d ry ) 0 .9m fro m w a ll 1.4m.4m fro m w a ll C a rb o n m o n o x id e c o n c .39 Carbon monoxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.4m from w all 0 .36 Carbon dioxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.d ry ) 40 0 0 0.9m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 . Figure 7.

.4 m fro m w a ll 0 . 200 N itric ox id e co nc. B=1.1m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 .43 Nitric oxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. B=1. (vol-p pm .41 Total hydrocarbon concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.d ry ) 1 60 0 0 .9 m fro m w a ll 1 .d ry ) 1 6 00 0 .d ry) 2 .4 m fro m w a ll T o ta l h y d ro c a rb o n c o n c . and C=0.40 Total hydrocarbon concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2. and C=0.1m.42 Nitric oxide concentrations at level 4 measured at three positions from the right wall: A=2.1m fro m w a ll T o ta l h y d ro c a rb o n c o n c . B=1.4m. First measurement with wood chips.1m.1 m fro m w a ll 0 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 < fu el in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) ash o ut _ > < fu el in _ x (m ) a sh ou t _ > Figure 7. and C=0.9m. and C=0.9m. (v o l-p p m .4m.4m.9 m fro m w a ll 1 . 200 Figure 7.dry) N itric o xide co nc. B=1. First measurement with wood chips.Final report May 1999 Page 61 of 79 2 0 00 2 .1m.1 m fro m w a ll 1 2 00 1 20 0 8 00 800 4 00 400 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 4 fu e l in x (m ) a sh o ut _ 5 0 > < fu e l in _ 1 2 3 4 x (m ) ash o ut _ 5 > Figure 7. Second measurement with a mix of biofuel. (v o l-p p m . Figure 7.4m.1 m fro m w a ll 160 160 120 120 80 80 40 40 2 .9 m fro m w a ll 1 .4 m fro m w a ll 0 .4 m fro m w a ll 2 00 0 2 .9m. (vol-pp m . Second measurement with a mix of biofuel.9m.

In the main part of the fuel layer the agreement between the simulation and the measurements is good except at the wall. but at level 4 the measurements shows twice as much oxygen as the calculation.45. see Figure 7.49. Figure 7. The reason for the measurement error is most certainly air leakage into the measurement system. The burn-out along the furnace is the same both. A large reduction is obtained between level 2 and 3. Figure 7. In this case the measurements are probably wrong.50. the rate of oxidation seems to be too high. where there probably is a by-pass of the primary gas that can not be described by the present fuel layer model. the calculation and the measurement predict the same trend: the temperature decreases towards the ash outlet see Figure 7. This indicates that the fuel layer model predicts the char combustion to be extended further along the grate than it was during the measurements. CO. • The simulation predicts much lower concentrations of carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons than what are measured. NO and total hydrocarbons at all measurement levels and NH3 at level 1 and 2.4 Comparison between model calculation and measurements Comparison between the survey measurements during operation with pure wood chips and the simulation is seen in Figures 7. At level 3 and 4 the temperature measurements were made at stable operating condition and the agreement of between the measurement and calculation is good •The oxygen concentration is lower in the simulation than in the measurements. The air leakage flow is estimated to 30% of the flue gas flow out from the probes. . The concentration of unburnt is high in the low levels. This is seen both from the simulation and the calculation.47 and 7.Final report May 1999 Page 62 of 79 7. CO2. This is due to unstable operation of the boiler during the time for these measurements. Compared with the carbon dioxide.44 to 7. • As can be expected the carbon dioxide behaves opposite to the oxygen. A good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained for the ammonia concentration. The following observations can be made: • The simulation predicts the temperature to be approximately 300°C higher than the measured temperature at level 1 and 2. for the temperature and gas species O2. especially towards the ash outlet.1. Between level 3 and 4 the concentration of unburnt is further reduced to very low levels • The nitrogen oxides in the simulation are much higher than the measured values. Figure 7. for in calculation and in the measurements. At level 3 the agreement between measurement and calculation is good. A good agreement between calculation and measurement is achieved at level 3 and 4. In the simulation are carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons released closer to the fuel chutes then the measurements show.46. The measurement levels are presented in Figure 3. but both give the same trend along the grate. However.48.44. because all fuel is finished and the oxygen level in the stack is just half of the level at the outlet from the furnace. if the measured concentrations on level 4 are compensated for the air leakage in the measurement system.

1m (green. diamonds). The over prediction of the simulated nitrogen oxides is a result of the assumed high conversion of fuel bound-nitrogen to nitrogen oxides in the fuel layer model. Either the measured concentration is too low in the lower part of the furnace or nitrogen oxides are formed in the area between level 2 and 3. The measurement does not show any dilution effect between level 2 and 3. squares) and 2.2m (red. triangulars) from the side-wall . at 0.8m (black.44. diamonds) 1.Final report May 1999 Page 63 of 79 Figure 7.50.4m (blue. which is very clear in the simulation. 1. triangulars) from the side-wall.1m (red.9m (blue. at 0. star) 1.9m (green. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) temperature profiles at level 1 (upper left figure) and level 2 (upper right figure). squares) and 2. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure). 1500 1 50 0 1200 1 20 0 T e m p e ra tu r e (° C ) 900 T e m p e ra tu re ( °C ) 9 00 600 6 00 300 3 00 0 0 0 < 1500 _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) a sh ou t _ 8 0 > 1500 < _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) a sh o ut _ 8 > 1200 1200 T e m p e ra tu r e (° C ) 900 T e m p e ra tu r e (° C ) 900 600 600 300 300 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh ou t _ 4 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh ou t _ 4 > Figure 7.

dry ) 0 2 4 6 8 16 12 12 8 8 4 4 0 0 < fue l in 20 _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 20 > < fue l in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) as h out _ 8 > O x yg en c onc entration (vol-% . squares) and 2.dry ) 16 O x yg en c onc entration (vol-% .Final report May 1999 Page 64 of 79 20 20 O x yg en c onc entration (vol-% .8m (black. triangulars) from the side-wall.9m (green.1m (green. diamonds).4m (blue.dry ) 0 1 2 3 4 16 12 12 8 8 4 4 0 0 < fue l in _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 > < fue l in _ 1 2 3 x (m ) as h out _ 4 > Figure 7.9m (blue. diamonds) 1. squares) and 2. 1. at 0. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) oxygen profiles at level 1 (upper left figure) and level 2 (upper right figure). at 0. triangulars) from the side-wall .dry ) 16 O x yg en c onc entration (vol-% .45.2m (red. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure). star) 1.1m (red.

squares) and 2. (v ol-% .Final report May 1999 Page 65 of 79 20 24 C arb on diox ide conc . squares) and 2. triangulars) from the side-wall. (vo l-% . at 0.dry) 12 C arb on diox ide conc .4m (blue. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure). Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) carbon dioxide profiles at level 1 (upper left figure) and level 2 (upper right figure).dry) 0 1 2 3 4 16 16 12 8 8 4 4 0 0 < fue l in _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 > < fue l in _ 1 2 3 x (m ) as h out _ 4 > Figure 7.1m (red.9m (green. (vo l-% . triangulars) from the side-wall . 1.2m (red.9m (blue.46.dry) 0 2 4 6 8 16 20 16 8 12 4 8 0 4 < fue l in 20 _ x (m ) a sh out _ 0 20 > < fue l in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) a sh out _ 8 > C arbon d iox id e c onc .d ry ) 12 C arb on diox ide conc .1m (green.8m (black. diamonds). diamonds) 1. (vo l-% . star) 1. at 0.

at 0.47. diamonds) 1. squares) and 2. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure).9m (blue.1m (red. star) 1. squares) and 2. at 0.8m (black.9m (green. 1.4m (blue.d r y ) 8000 800 6000 600 4000 400 2000 200 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh out _ 4 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh ou t _ 4 > Figure 7.1m (green.2m (red. (v o l. ( v o l-p p m . diamonds).p p m .d ry ) 12 00 0 0 90 00 0 90 00 0 60 00 0 60 00 0 30 00 0 30 00 0 0 0 0 < 10000 _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) ash o ut _ 8 0 > 1000 < _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) ash o ut _ 8 > C a rb o n m o n o x id e c o n c . triangulars) from the side-wall . triangulars) from the side-wall.Final report May 1999 Page 66 of 79 15 00 0 0 15 00 0 0 C a rb o n m o n o x id e co n c. (p p m . Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) carbon monoxide profiles at level 1 (left figure) and level 2 (right figure).d r y) C a rb o n m o n o x id e c o n c .d ry ) 12 00 0 0 C a rb o n m o n o x id e co n c. (p p m .

diamonds) 1. (v o l-p p m . (v o l-p p m . 1.1m (green. at 0. d ry ) 40000 T o ta l h yd ro ca rb o n c o n c e n tra tio n s ( p p m .d ry ) T o ta l h y d ro c a rb o n c o n c . star) 1.9m (green.8m (black.1m (red. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure). squares) and 2.9m (blue. diamonds). triangulars) from the side-wall . triangulars) from the side-wall.Final report May 1999 Page 67 of 79 50000 50000 T o ta l h yd ro ca rb o n c o n c e n tra tio n s ( p p m .2m (red. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) total hydro carbon profiles at level 1 (left figure) and level 2 (right figure).d ry ) 2500 8000 2000 6000 1500 4000 1000 2000 500 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh out _ 4 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh ou t _ 4 > Figure 7. d ry ) 40000 30000 30000 20000 20000 10000 10000 0 0 0 < 10000 _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) ash o ut _ 8 0 > 3000 < _ 2 4 6 fu e l in x (m ) ash o ut _ 8 > T o ta l h y d ro c a rb o n c o n c .48. squares) and 2. at 0.4m (blue.

1m (green. diamonds). Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) nitrogen oxides profiles at level 1 (left figure) and level 2 (right figure).2m (red. (vol-ppm .dry ) 0 1 2 3 4 20 0 15 0 15 0 10 0 10 0 50 50 0 0 < fuel in _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 > < fuel in _ 1 2 3 x (m ) as h out _ 4 > Figure 7.1m (red. triangulars) from the side-wall. (vol-ppm . squares) and 2.9m (blue. at 0. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure). dry) 0 2 4 6 8 30 0 20 0 20 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 < fuel in 30 0 _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 30 0 > < fuel in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) as h out _ 8 > 25 0 25 0 N itric oxide c onc . at 0. (ppm . diamonds) 1.4m (blue.49. (ppm .9m (green.8m (black. 1.Final report May 1999 Page 68 of 79 50 0 50 0 40 0 40 0 N itric oxide c onc.dry ) 20 0 N itric oxide c onc . dry) 30 0 N itric oxide c onc. triangulars) from the side-wall . squares) and 2. star) 1.

1m (green. at 0. triangulars) from the side-wall . Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) ammonia profiles at level 1 (left figure) and level 2 (right figure).Final report May 1999 Page 69 of 79 50 50 A m m onia/hy drogen cy anide c onc . triangulars) from the side-wall. (p pm . (v ol-ppm . dry ) 40 A m m onia/hy drogen cy anide c onc .50. dry ) 0 2 4 6 8 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 < fue l in 50 _ x (m ) as h out _ 0 50 > A m m onia /hyd rog en c yan ide con c.8m (black.9m (blue. squares) and 2. at 0.4m (blue. star) 1. and at level 3 (lower left figure) and level 4 (lower right figure).dry ) 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 < fue l in _ 1 2 3 x (m ) as h out _ 4 0 > < fue l in _ 1 2 3 x (m ) as h out _ 4 > Figure 7. (p pm .2m (red. (v ol-ppm .9m (green. squares) and 2. diamonds).1m (red.dry ) < fue l in _ 2 4 6 x (m ) as h out _ 8 > A m m onia /hyd rog en c yan ide con c. diamonds) 1. 1.

. At level 4.9 meter from the wall. NO and total hydrocarbons at level 3 and 4. • The predicted NO concentrations at level 3 and 4. Figure 7. the calculated temperatures are always slightly lower than the measured ones.51. except for the locations close to the wall. Modelled hydrocarbon concentrations are lower than measured. are in the same range as the measured ones. For the positions located 1. Figure 7.54.51 • At level 3 the calculated oxygen concentrations generally become higher in the model calculations in comparison with the measurements. The calculated and measured profiles of hydrocarbons can be seen in 7. Figure 7.4 meter from the wall). as CH4 seem to follow the temperature predictions at level 3.Final report May 1999 Page 70 of 79 A comparison between the measurements during operation with a mix of biofuels and simulation is seen in Figures 7.9 meters from the wall) as well as lower (1. Figure 7.52. for the temperature and gas species O2.9 meters from the wall.53 and the temperature profiles is Figure 7. where the higher temperatures were predicted. The following observations can be made: • At level 3.51 to 7. This good agreement is obtained by assuming lower conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to nitrogen oxides in the fuel layer model. the predicted temperatures are slightly higher than the measured ones (2.4 meter from the wall an opposite result is obtained for both temperature and hydrocarbons. CO2. The opposite is then expected for CO2 as confirmed. To a great extent this difference has disappeared at level 4. • The model predicts also in this case a much lower CO concentrations then the measurements at both levels. • The total hydrocarbons. The shape of the temperature profile with the highest temperature in the third hole is correctly modelled in the positions located 2. in the positions 2. which is modelled. At level 4. CO. the hydrocarbon concentrations are low in measurements as well as in the model calculations.55.55.

Final report May 1999 Page 71 of 79 1200 1200 1000 1000 T e m pe ra tu re (°C ) 600 T e m pe ra tu re (°C ) 800 800 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu el in x (m ) ash o ut _ 4 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu el in x (m ) ash o ut _ 4 > Figure 7.51. at 0. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) temperature profiles at level 3 (left figure) and level 4 (right figure). diamonds) 1.9m (green. (v o l-% . squares) and 2.9m (green. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) concentration profiles of oxygen (upper figures) and carbon dioxide (lower figures) at level 3 (left figures) and level 4 (right figures). triangulars) from the side-wall .52.4m (blue.d ry) 0 1 2 3 4 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 < 20 _ fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ > 0 20 < _ fu e l in 1 2 3 x (m ) a sh o u t _ > 4 C a rb o n d io x id e c o n c. squares) and 2. diamonds) 1. triangulars) from the side-wall 10 10 O xyge n con cen tra tion (vo l-% .1m (red.4m (blue.d ry) O xyg en co ncen tra tio n (vol-% .1m (red. at 0.d ry ) 16 C a rb o n d io x id e c o n c. (v o l-% .d ry ) 0 1 2 3 4 18 18 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 < _ fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ 4 > Figure 7.

(vo l-p pm . at 0.dry) 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 1000 1000 0 0 0 < _ fu el in 1 2 3 x (m ) ash o ut _ > 4 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu el in x (m ) ash o ut _ 4 > Figure 7.dry) 1600 1200 1200 800 800 400 400 0 0 0 < _ 1 2 3 fu el in x (m ) ash o ut _ 4 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu el in x (m ) ash o ut _ 4 > Figure 7.Final report May 1999 Page 72 of 79 2000 2000 T ota l hyd roca rb o n co nc.9m (green. at 0. triangulars) from the side-wall .dry) 1600 T ota l hyd roca rb o n co nc.1m (red.9m (green.1m (red. squares) and 2. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) concentrations profiles of carbon monoxide at level 3 (left figure) and level 4 (right figure).dry) C arbo n m o no xide co nc. diamonds) 1. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) concentrations profiles of total hydro-carbons at level 3 (left figure) and level 4 (right figure).4m (blue. (vol-pp m .53. triangulars) from the side-wall 5000 5000 C a rb on m on oxide con c. (vol-pp m .54. (v ol-pp m . diamonds) 1. squares) and 2.4m (blue.

4m (blue. (v o l-p p m . The model calculation in the upper part of the furnace agrees very well with the measurements in both cases examined. Both the turbulence and the chemistry is treated in a simplified way in the CFD-calculation. triangulars) from the side-wall 8. at 0.55. Discussion and conclusion The conclusion from present result is that the upper part of the furnace above the secondary air inlet is much easier to model than the lower part of the furnace. with high accuracy. and time mean values have to be calculated for comparison with measurements.d ry ) 0 1 2 3 4 16 0 16 0 12 0 80 80 40 40 0 0 < 40 _ fu e l in x (m ) as h o ut _ 0 > 40 < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) as h o ut _ 4 > H y d ro g e n c ya n id e c o n c. The . which is a reflection of the mixing process going on. which makes a time dependent solution necessary. squares) and 2.Final report May 1999 Page 73 of 79 20 0 20 0 N itric o xid e co n c. (v o l-p p m . The secondary air jets determine the gas flow up to the upper part of the furnace. This creates a suitable situation for the CFD-calculation and this is also reflected in the modelling result. and the gas entering this part is well mixed. The jets also create an unstable situation. The lower part of the furnace is much more chaotic. flames are not treated at all.1m (red. dissipating into a slow gas flow in connection with complex chemical reactions and flames. In the lower part of the furnace there are jets with a high velocity and turbulence intensity. This part of the furnace is much more difficult to model.d ry) 30 H y d ro g e n c ya n id e c o n c. Calculated (dotted) and measured (solid) concentration profiles of nitrogen oxide (upper figures) and hydrogen cyanide (lower figures) at level 3 (left figures) and level 4 (right figures). diamonds) 1.9m (green. (vo l-pp m .d ry ) 12 0 N itric o xid e co n c.d ry) 0 1 2 3 4 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 < _ fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ 0 > < _ 1 2 3 fu e l in x (m ) a sh o u t _ 4 > Figure 7. (vo l-pp m .

Some information can be gained from measurements in an experimental pot. This is probably the reason. and the oxygen concentration is close to that of the primary gas. The reciprocating grate may cause local mixing of the solid fuel that may course the temperature on the surface of the grate to rise before the reaction front. It is therefore quite reasonable that the agreement between measurements and model calculations in this part of the boiler is not as good as in the upper part. while the moving grate in Trollhättan operates with fuel having moisture content between 40 and 60%. It can be seen from the analysis of the ash that the fuel is burned out. Despite all simplifications. The fuel layer has the greatest importance for the behaviour in the lower part of the boiler and the condition in the free-room above the fuel layer is a reflection of the fuel layer. This together with a low oxygen concentration indicates that much of the oxygen is consumed by the char combustion. The calculated NO concentrations below the “neck” show that there is no active nitrogen chemistry modelled by the free-room model. reaches the grate surface. Close to the ash removal the levels of carbon monoxide. On the other hand gives the fuel layer model that the char combustion continues nearly up to the ash removal. carbon dioxide are low. why the drying and the devolatilization are too fast in the model calculation. devolatilization and char combustion must take place in the fuel layer than what is predicted by the model. These kinds of measurements were not possible to perform in this project.Final report May 1999 Page 74 of 79 lower part of the furnace includes also the description of the fuel layer. Experiences show that a pot furnace can operate with fuel having moisture content of up to 40%. but it is not known how to implement this experimental result to a moving fuel layer model at present. gives the CFD calculation a great deal of information. This means that the char combustion has already ended long before the ash falls into the ash removal pit. To validate the fuel layer model measurements close to the surface along the grate surface would have been preferred. which in itself is a simplified model. as defined in the model. There is a great difference between an industrial grate and a laboratory bed as is most clearly seen from the moisture content of the fuel that can be burned in the different facilities. The general conclusions of the modelling in the lower part of the furnace are that: • • • • the fuel layer model predicts a too early completion of the drying and devolatilization the overlap between drying devolatilization and char combustion is underestimated the oxidation of carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons is to fast the reactions related to nitrogen oxides are too slow in the free-room model The too rapid drying and devolatilization of the model is reflected by the much wider distribution of measured total hydrocarbons compared to the simulation. This is confirmed by the . The fitting parameters that are estimated from the temperature profile on the metal surface of the grate could be misleading. In the central part of the grate the concentrations of carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons are high. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide that a greater overlap between drying. Also the distribution of the carbon monoxide indicates this. It can be seen from the distribution of oxygen. due to the large surface and the limited possibility to enter the furnace with probes.

The conclusion from the NOx modelling inside the fuel layer is that the remaining 60% of the nitrogen oxides formed. This is further discussed by Kilpinen et al. As a result nearly 40% of the nitrogen oxides is formed between measurement level 2 and 3. do not undergo any further reactions in the free-room. and which are not possible to model with the present CFD code or measured by thermocouples. if the conditions are favourable. This can theoretically decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides with up to 40%. The nitrogen compounds in the present model calculation are merely diluted by the flue gas recirculation and by the secondary air. modelled as NO and HCN. The remaining 60% of the nitrogen oxides are formed in the fuel layer. . The conclusion is that the nitrogen oxides can be reduced further by an improvement of the arrangement of the jets of flue gas recirculation and air for final combustion in connection with the design of the furnace. because nearly no ammonia was found close to the fuel layer. such as selective not catalytic reduction (SNCR). During the devolatilization ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are formed and these species can contribute to the reduction of nitrogen oxides. much lower than is normally obtained in modelling of flame combustion. can be reduced. (1997) where (MS20 of this EU-project) two common nitrogen mechanisms used in CFD calculations were compared with a detailed elementary reaction mechanism at 850 and 1100°C. could be that fuel-bound nitrogen leaving the fuel layer as ammonia or in entrained char particles is oxidised to NO when meeting the secondary air between measurement level 2 and 3. Also the formation of a char layer above the reaction front could improve the NOx reduction performance but this needs to be studied in more detail in the future both by theoretically and experimental works. Another reasons for the formation of NOx. Theoretically a fuel layer of biofuel offers an excellent opportunity to reduce the nitrogen oxides to extremely low levels. the temperature in the flames that are visually observed. if the dilution is the same in the real case as in the calculation. NH3 and HCN. Special effort has to be made to understand the reaction front. in the area for the secondary air injection. while the detailed nitrogen mechanism does predict a conversion of NH3 into NO. This means that the nitrogen species evolving from the grate in the form of NO. The reason for this could be the relatively low temperatures given by the simulation. Both the calculation and the measurement just above the secondary air inlet show that the temperatures in the region of the secondary air inlet is lower than the ones where formation of thermal NOx may take place.Final report May 1999 Page 75 of 79 calculated concentration profiles of HCN. can lead to the formation of thermal NOx. The measurement can not support any of these hypotheses. one should be able to create the same situation in the fuel layer and in the lower free-room as recommended for secondary measures. and char particles in the free-room was only indicated by visual observations (video film). Nevertheless. an application where the nitrogen chemistry model probably works better. By arranging the combustion of the fuel layer in an optimal way. The dilution caused by the secondary air and flue gas recirculation in the calculation is not seen in the measurements. but better understanding on the formation of the nitrogen oxides and its precursors is needed. The study shows that the simplified nitrogen mechanisms do not work at the low temperature. On the other hand the nitrogen chemistry linked to CFD-codes is generally of a low quality.

W. B.. Saastamoinen J. peat and wood towards NO... Johnsson. J. The Combustion Institute. and Kilpinen P. Schuster.. R. T. with and without CO. C. Formation of NH3 and HCN in slow-heating-rate inert pyrolysis of peat.J. Horttanainen.. vol. Hämäläinen J.P. A. 1995. The reactivity of chars from coal.. Release of nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis. pp. On the propagation of a reaction front in a packed bed. Lindstedt.. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. P. Boström.P. Taipale.. Pittsburgh..F. R. On mathematical modeling of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on soot formation and combustion. References Fluent Inc. Mueller. Hupa. Proceedings of the 11th International Drying Symposium (IDS ´98). ISBN 90-9008751-6. 719-743. 1988. Combustion Chemistry Research Group. Saastamoinen J. P.1975-1982.J.. Global reaction schemes for hydrocarbon combustion. Norwegian Institute of Technology. pp. Report 97-5. pp 1169-1176.. S. pp. Fluent/UNS 4. The Eddy dissipation concept. J.1:1-11. 1995. Magnussen. Department of Chemical Engineering.. B. Kilpinen.77.F. Stiftelsen för Värmeteknisk Forskning. 1994.E.1997 Gort R. 1990. Division of Thermodynamics.74. Nordström.Final report May 1999 Page 76 of 79 9. 1998.J. vol. pp. Simultaneous drying and pyrolysis in fixed bed combustion of wet biofuel. 3. Int. B.2. Jones. 16th Symp. Åbo Akademi. ISSN 0282-3772. Report no. M.H. R.P. . Lisbon. 1998... coal and bark. Hjertager.. Combustion and Flame. Propagation of ignition front in fuel beds of wood particles. on Combustion. 1363-1368. Hupa. 516. Sarkomaa. P.. pp. Faculty of Chemical Engineering. VTT Energy. Technical University of Denmark. Fuel vol. Brink. A new NOx module for the IEA-model.. J. M. Clean Air IV. Leppälahti. Fuel. 1997. Portugal. Magnussen. Greece August 19-22. 21th IEA-AFBC Meeting Beograd. 73. R. 1989 Saastamoinen. 1977. 1997.. 233-249. PhD thesis University of Twente. Halkidki.5 users guide. Simplified ammonia oxidation mechanism for modelling NOx emission from wood firing – tests at ideal plug flow conditions. Zevenhoven. M. CFD. Matematisk modellering. 1999. Haukka.

Final report May 1999
Page 77 of 79

Appendix A Composition of the volatile The composition of the volatile gases released from the fuel is unknown. By assuming that the hydrocarbon in the volatile gases is methane and that the char is pure carbon, the composition of the volatile gases can be estimated. The molar balance is based on dry and ash-free substance. The ash-free char content of the fuel is: Ychar = ′ Ychar 1 − Yash

The volatile gases are assumed to include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and water. CHn Om ⇒ n1CO2 + n2 CO + n3CH4 + n4 H2O n and m is n= 12YH YC − Ychar ′ m= 0.75YO YC − Ychar ′

h1 and h2 are normalised heating values of carbon monoxide and methane. The heating value of the volatile part of the fuel and the normalised heat of devolatilization is h3 and h4. Normalisation is made so that all values in the matrix are in the same order of magnitude,

3 8 h = 3I − I − 2I 8 / I h = 4 H M − Y ′ 3 I − I 89 / I h = H M 11 − Y ′ 6 / I
h1 = ICO − ICO2 / ICO2
2 CH 4 CO2 H2 O CO2 3 u C char C CO2 4 dev C char CO2

CO2

Hu is the lower heating value of the fuel and Hdev is the heat of devolatilization. The composition of the volatile gases is obtained by solving the following system of equations: 

1 !

1 0 0 2 1 0 h1

1 4 0 h2

0 2 1 0 

1Y − Y ′ "#n "# ## n ## = Y −1Y ′ 012YY n 6 .75 #$!n #$ 1 ! h −h
1 2 C H 3 4 C char 3

char

O 4

6"# ## #$

The enthalpy, heat capacity and molar mass of the volatile gases are:

Final report May 1999
Page 78 of 79

Ivol g = 
#

n1 ICO2 + n2 ICO + n3 ICH 4 + n4 I H2O n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 n1c pCO2 + n2 c pCO + n3c pCH4 + n4 c pH2O n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 n1 MCO2 + n2 MCO + n3 MCH4 + n4 MH2 O n1 + n2 + n3 + n4

c pvol g = 
#

Mvol g = 
#

The enthalpy, and molar mass of the volatile solid are: Ivol s = Ivol g Tref 
#  #  #

1

H n1 + n2 + n3 + n4 + dev + c pvol s dT Mvol s Tref 
#  #

6

I
T

Mvol s = MC + nM H + mMO Appendix B Analytic solution for reactions controlled by mixing The analytic solution of the system of differential equations: ∂ JCH m ∂t = jXCH m − b min( JCHm , J O2 ) J0 + jt

∂ JCO b min( JCO , JO2 ) − min( JCH m , JO2 ) = jXCO − ∂t J0 + jt ∂ JO2 ∂t =− b J0 + jt

3

8 8

3 01 + m5 min( J
1 2

CH m

, JO2 ) + 1 min( J CO , JO2 ) 2

for the condition
=

43 J

CH n

≤ JO2 & JCO ≤ JO2 ,
−b/ j

8 3

89

JCHm JCO

jXCHm 1 J 0 + jt 6 b+ j
− b/ j

+ C1 1 J 0 + jt 6 +

= C2 1 J 0 + jt 6

1 −b/ j 2 2bj J 0 1 J 0 + jt 6b / j XCHm + 2 41 J 0 + jt 6 j 0b + j 5
b/ j

+ bj 3t 1 J0 + jt 6 + bj 3t 1 J0 + jt 6

b/ j b/ j

XCHm + bj 2 J0 1 J0 + jt 6 XCO + j 4 t 1 J 0 + jt 6
b/ j

XCO + j 3 J 0 1 J 0 + jt 6

b/ j

XCO +

XCO + b 3C1 ln1 J0 + jt 6 + 
 

+2b 2 jC1 ln1 J0 + jt 6 + bj 2 C1 ln1 J 0 + jt 6 =

JO2

bjt 3 −2bXCHm − jXCHm + bmXCHm + jmXCHm − bXCO − jXCO 8 20b + j 5
− b/ j  1 2 2

+ C3 +

+1 J 0 + jt 6 

1C2

+ 2C1 − mC1 6 +

bC1 ln1 J0 + jt 6   2j 

Final report May 1999
Page 79 of 79

for the condition = =

43 J

CH n

> JO2 & JCO ≤ JO2 ,
−b/ j

8 3
0

89

JCH m JCO

jXCH m J0 + jt

0b + j 50b + 2 j 5 + C + 2C 1 J + jt 6 − C m1 J + jt 6 0m − 151 J + jt 6 4bjX J 1 J + jt6 + bj X t1 J + jt6 J = 0b + j 50b + 2 j 5 + C 1 J + jt 6 and for the condition 43 J > J 8& 3 J > J 89 .
−b/2 j −b/ j 3 2 0 1 0 −b/ j b/ j 2 0 CH m 0 0 CH m 0 O2 −b/2 j 2 0 CH n O2 CO O2

jt 2b 2 XCHm + 2bjXCH m − b 2 mXCH m + b 2 XCO + 3bjXCO + 2 j 2 XCO

3

b+ j

1

6 + C 1 J + jt 6
1

8+
− C1 b 2 − 3bj − 2 j 2

b/ j

2

79 +

JCHm JCO JO2

= jtXCHm = jtXCHm

2C3  J0 + jt $ + C1 − m−2 + C2
− b m−2#/ 2 j

− b m − 2 # / 2 j

= C3  J 0 + jt $

Paper VII

.

se (B.conversion@entek. The counter-current flow has been investigated more than cross-current flow due to its use in gasifiers. the heat is not transported downwards far from the position where it is released. Reaction front 1.elsevier. followed by a reaction front propagating from the surface down to the grate. Different combustion behaviours can be achieved depending on how fuel and primary air are introduced.see front matter PII: S0016-236 1(00)00127-7 grate against the direction of the combustion air. Hence.Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 www. The fuel was forest waste with moisture content of approximately 50%. and the air is evenly introduced through the grate from below. 1(a)) propagates from the surface of the bed down to the * Corresponding author. The heat. generated in the reaction front. Due to the different directions of heat and airflow. Leckner). After ignition. the progress of combustion in the bed is opposite to the expected one. B. propagating up towards the surface of the bed. 1(b)). and the reaction front is narrow. . if not all oxygen is consumed in the narrow reaction front. a secondary reaction front. E-mail address: energy. Keywords: Grate combustion. Tel. The hot product gases provide heat for devolatilisation and drying of the fuel during their way up through the bed. which is heated by radiation from flames and refractory surfaces above the bed until it ignites on the upper surface. When char combustion takes place upstream of devolatilisation. In continuous systems fuel and air are usually fed in cross-current and counter-current flow. In counter-current flow the fuel is thrown by a spreader or dropped onto the surface of the bed. Leckner* Department of Energy Conversion. revised 9 August 2000. The most common configurations of fuel and air supply in continuous systems are cross-current and counter-current flow. The combustion stages from the grate and up through the bed are char combustion followed by devolatilisation and drying. 1. All rights reserved. The heat generated in the reaction front originates from oxidation of fuel and. Introduction Grate firing is used to burn bio-fuels in small-scale units. Sweden Received 12 May 2000.chalmers. Biofuels. followed by a reaction front propagating from the grate up to the surface of the bed. When the reaction front reaches the surface of the grate. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Measurements and visual observations presented in this paper show. The airflow can be controlled separately in each part of the grate. and additional experiments have been made in batch-fired pot furnaces. Chalmers University of Technology. This generally accepted combustion process can be described as follows. fax: 46-31-772-3593. (In Ref. however. combustion of wet biofuels is studied in a 31 MW reciprocating grate furnace (a cross-current flow combustor). 412 96 Gothenburg. [6] not less than 37 references on modelling of counter-current flow combustors and gasifiers are presented. An example of units where fuel and air are introduced according to the two modes is shown in Fig.: 46-31-772-1431. is transported against the flow of combustion air and dries and devolatilises the raw fuel. burns the char layer previously formed. The combustion in a cross-current flow furnace is generally assumed to start by ignition on the surface of the bed. Primary air is introduced perpendicular to the grate from below. In this system 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. that in the case of wet fuels the ignition takes place close to the grate.) In a counter-current flow combustor the air is supplied from the bottom and the fuel from the top (Fig. accepted 12 August 2000 Abstract Grate firing is the most common way to burn bio-fuels in small-scale units. Different combustion modes are achieved depending on how fuel and primary air are introduced. the heat will be produced over a larger region due to the rather slow diffusion of oxygen into the char.com/locate/fuel Ignition and propagation of a reaction front in cross-current bed combustion of wet biofuels H. In cross-current flow the fuel is fed at one end of the grate and transported along the grate while burning to completion. All rights reserved. a char layer will be formed above the reaction front. a reaction front (Fig. Combustion in cross-current flow units has been described by several authors [1–5] as taking place in a bed. Here. 0016-2361/01/$ . Thunman. This allows the reaction front to propagate.

extending over the cross-section of the bed. such as forest waste. 2. Fig. Here. The maximum heat transport is achieved if the temperature rises from the initial temperature. and the progress of combustion is similar to that of a fuel batch in the pot furnace. Theory In order to evaluate the limits of the velocity of the reaction front in a fuel batch ignited from one side and with air supplied from the other. which is suitable when the horizontal velocity of the bed along the grate is faster than the vertical velocity of the propagating reaction front inside the bed. H the lower heating value of wet fuel per kilogram dry fuel and r s the density of dry fuel. s the Stefan–Boltzmann constant. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the combustion behaviour of a cross-current fuel bed burning where us is the velocity of the reaction front.max …Tad T0 † : …4† us ˆ H rs …1 n†t In some instances the propagation rate of the reaction front (kg/m 2 s) is used instead of the velocity of the reaction front .474 H.max …Tad x T0 † us H rs …1 n† …2† nearly all volatiles leave the bed unreacted. and therefore the convection is neglected. this gives: k eff. T0. The maximum velocity of the reaction front is attained when the width of the reaction front is minimum. In the present work the cross-current flow unit is studied by combustion of a fuel batch in a pot furnace. This width is determined by the drying time t of the particles: x ˆ us t: …3† The maximum velocity of the reaction front is obtained by inserting Eq. T the temperature and ks the thermal conductivity of the fuel. The combustion time for a fuel batch in a pot furnace corresponds to a certain transport distance on the reciprocating grate. in the reaction front. Heat is transported in the reaction front by thermal conduction. The effective thermal conductivity is temperature dependent. The heat flux across the reaction front must be equal to or smaller than the energy contained in the fuel entering the reaction front. consisting of a radiative and a conductive constituent [7]: keff ˆ 4nsd s T 3 …1 air-to-fuel ratio (–) bed voidage (–) density (kg/m 3) Stefan–Boltzmann constant. as shown in Fig. The supply of air and fuel creates an even. the interest is in the maximum possible velocity. moist max maximum n normal (used to indicate normal cubic meter) eff effective s solid u lower v volatiles w water 0 initial n†ks …1† where n is the bed voidage. (3) into Eq. 5:67 × 10 8 W=m2 K4 Subscript (capital letters indicate species) ad adiabatic b boiling c char vap vaporisation i species m moisture. The behaviour of a large-scale fuel bed is investigated by measurements in a 31 MW reciprocating grate furnace as well as in pot furnaces. Tad. steady state reaction front. making the two-dimensional effects negligible. the convective heat transfer reduces the heat flux. in contrast to the above conventional description. H and Tad are derived in Appendix A. radiation and convection. In such cases it can be suspected that ignition takes place close to the grate and. The concept of the travelling pot furnace is a classical approach [5]. 2. In this evaluation of the maximum velocity the effective thermal conductivity is estimated at the adiabatic temperature. 2(b). estimated according to MacLean [8]. ds the particle diameter. Thunman. to the adiabatic temperature. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 Nomenclature a b Cp d H h M n k T t u x X Y Greek l n r s constant in correlation of Cp (J/kg K) constant in correlation of Cp (J/kg K 2) specific heat (J/kg K) diameter (m) heating value (J/kg) enthalpy at reference temperature (J/mol) molar mass (kg/mol) number of moles (–) heat conductivity (W/m K) temperature (K) time (s) velocity of reaction front (m/s) width of reaction front (m) mass fraction in wet fuel (–) mass fraction in dry fuel (–) wet fuels. the ignition front propagates through the bed in the same direction as the airflow. Due to the opposite directions of the reaction front velocity and the airflow. B. The radiation and heat conduction are modelled by an effective thermal conductivity of the fuel layer. a maximum reaction front velocity is estimated by a heat balance across the reaction front. If the width of the reaction front is x. (2): s keff. keff.

rs …1 n†. as described in Section 1. II drying. When the bed is ignited. III devolatilisation. 1. For a fuel batch of moderate height the combustion behaviour differs significantly depending on where ignition takes place in relation to the location of primary air introduction.H2 O dT ds dm dd 4ks …Ts Tb † m …6† Fig. as shown in Appendix A. Hvap the heat of vaporisation. 2. a fuel batch that is ignited and supplied with air at the same side of the bed will not have a stable reaction front. In contrast to the above. B. B vertical section. unless the batch is very long in the direction of the airflow. The vaporisation is modelled as a drying front moving from the surface of the particle to its centre. The drying time of a particle is estimated in a simplified way for a onedimensional slab. Under the condition of no external heat losses. (a) Grate with cross-current flow. dm the moist core diameter. ds the particle diameter. The propagation rate is velocity multiplied by apparent density. Xm the moisture content. is transported to the drying front within the particle by thermal diffusion. Once the velocity (or propagation rate) is known. the corresponding airflow can be calculated from the air-to-fuel ratio. Heat accumulation in the particle is neglected. Tb the boiling temperature. resulting in an accelerating drying and devolatilisation front. where Ts is the temperature of the particle surface. combustion can be maintained until the theoretical limit of moisture content in the feed fuel is such that the lower heating value of wet fuel is equal to zero. a narrow char layer is formed. Thunman. MH2 O the molar mass of water. Principle combustion behaviours in a cross in a cross-current flow unit: (a) if the bed is ignited from the surface of the bed. radiating with the adiabatic temperature.H2 O dT : …5† The drying time is then: tˆ 0 d 1 2  Hvap Xm rs Xm MH2 O Ts T0 3 Cp. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 475 heat balance of the particle becomes: 4 s…T ad Ts4 † ˆ ˆ 2 ddm =2 Xm 1 rs Hvap 1 Xm MH2 O dt 2ks …T ds dm s Tb † Ts T0 3 Cp. A indicates position of ignition. devolatilisation and. A batch ignited from the surface opposite to where the air is supplied attains a nearly stable reaction front velocity. and V ash.H. IV char combustion or gasification. C reaction front. precluding the propagation of a reaction front from the . (b) Grate with counter-current flow. gasification of some of the char. dependent on moisture content. exposed to a black surrounding. The latter case is the most favourable combustion situation. or (b) from the surface of the grate. and Cp. The combustion of this layer produces heat that is transported with the gas flow and devolatilises and dries new fuel. (m/s). Under the given conditions the Fig. whereas a batch ignited from the same surface as the air is supplied has a transient reaction front velocity. The velocity and the length of the stable reaction front are directly correlated to the airflow. not only because the heat flows in the same direction as the gas. but also because the oxygen is consumed in the front. The velocity (or propagation rate) of the reaction front is given by the adiabatic temperature. A reaction front with stable velocity does not develop until the heat produced is equal to the heat needed for drying. The radiative heat flux. Not only the order of the combustion stages will differ. but also the behaviour of the reaction front velocity. which is a function of air-to-fuel ratio and moisture content.H2 O the specific heat of water (gas). I unreacted fuel. received by the surface of the particle. This expands the layer of char combustion and more heat will be produced. of the packed fuel bed.

5. Measurements Measurements in the reciprocating grate furnace were made for three operating conditions using two types of fuel. Gas sampling (A). (b) 30. 4. An average velocity of the reaction front through the bed can be calculated from these data. thermocouples (P) (31 MW boiler. Experiments in pot furnaces using the same forest waste as in the reciprocating grate furnace were carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland.5 m. The results presented here were obtained during a larger project reported in Refs. for ignition on the air supply side. The resulting reaction Fig. This value is a typical average for various particle beds having voidages between 0. Three thermocouples are introduced into the bed at different heights. The furnace and the positions of the measurement equipment are shown in Fig.476 H. the air moves upward and the reaction front moves downward at VTT and in the opposite directions at SP. (c) 50 and (d) 70%. ¨ ¨ Jyvaskyla) and at SP (Swedish National Testing and Research Institute). [12]. Thunman. The bed voidage is assumed to be 0.1 and 3 0. bark 40% and saw dust 20%) with a moisture content of about 50%. but concentrations that exceeded the measurement range of the FID-analyser were analysed by a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) analyser. Kvaerner Pulping AB). which are exposed to radiation from flames and refractories in the freeboard. Position of measurements in the reciprocating grate furnace. in various positions along the grate and gas concentrations were measured above the surface of the bed. and moisture content.2 mn /s. . The grate is 5 m wide and 8 m long. Calculated maximum propagation rate of the reaction front for different superficial air velocities. 3. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 Fig.4 and 0. One fuel was chips of trunk wood with a moisture content of 40%. The measurement set-up at VTT is described in Ref. Calculation was made for 10-mm wood particles with different moisture contents: (a) 10. 3. The initial height of the fuel layer was approximately 0. is estimated by Eq. The velocity of the grate was approximately 6 mm/s on the first 4 m and then 1 mm/s. resulting in a fuel residence time of 1 h and 15 min in the combustor. opposite side of the bed. henceforth referred to as pure wood chips. 3. No recirculated flue gas was added to the primary air. VTT-Energy. Both propagation rate and air velocity are given by the adiabatic temperature. Calculation results The theoretical reaction front velocity. The other fuel was forest waste (wood chips 40%. (4) for 10-mm particles with a dry density of 300 kg/m 3 (forest waste) and moisture contents varying between 10 and 70%. Except for the top particle layers. The pot furnace has a circular cross-section with a diameter of 244 mm and a height of 300 mm. The primary air was saturated by water at 45 C and pre-heated to 150 C before entering the grate. The two furnaces differ mostly in the direction of the airflow and the movement of the reaction front. The intention was that both units should be operated at the same primary gas flow as used in the reciprocating grate. Consequently. the combustion is independent of the conditions at the opposite side of the bed. 4. The residence time on the first 4 m was 12 min and the corresponding primary airflow was between 0. The total hydrocarbon (THC) concentration was determined by a FID (Flame Ionisation Detection) analyser. The pot furnace at SP is 480 × 520 mm 2 by cross-section and 700 mm by height and is provided with nine thermocouples introduced into the bed at different heights.6. in a bed with air supply from one side and ignition from the other. the reaction front propagates with the gas flow through the bed towards the opposite surface of the bed. Thermocouples were mounted in drilled holes in the rods of the grate to measure the surface temperature of the grate. l . depending on type and shape of the particles [13]. Also. B. the flue gas measurement was carried out upstream of the secondary air injection at VTT and downstream of this location at SP. [9–11]. which is a function of air-to-fuel ratio.

the velocity of the reaction front is the same at two different airflows.2 mn /s. Filled circles indicate measurement with pure wood chips and unfilled circles are measurement with forest waste. 4. To ignite the fuel at the desired airflows. In the case of pure wood chips the temperature rises at a location between 1. 6.012 kg/m 2 s (based on dry substance). In this case the height of the batch was 0. Since the same adiabatic temperature is reached for both over and under-stochiometric conditions. As expected. the reaction front moved down through the bed layer with a velocity of 0.H.28 kg/m 2 s. the lower the moisture content. the higher the velocities of the reaction front can be before extinction takes place. Both airflows. B.03 kg/m 2 s to maintain a sufficiently high temperature inside the bed for propagation of the reaction front. 1– 1.1 and 0.4 m.3 m. The calculation shows that the reaction front velocity and the airflows for which a reaction front exists are very sensitive to moisture content.8 m from the entrance of the fuel. 0. The first part of the bed. a lower temperature reduces greatly the reaction front velocity.4.05 mm/s corresponding to a fuel consumption of 0. The same primary airflow as in the bed of the reciprocating grate. but the airflow had to be reduced to about 0. The reaction front moved down through the bed layer with the velocity of 0. Measured time-average temperature on the reciprocating grate. the reaction rate increased to 0. 3).14]. The reason is that a raise of the moisture content increases the energy needed for the vaporisation and decreases the adiabatic temperature. and to give an impression of the combustion activity. 5. 0. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 477 transfer mainly comes from radiation. Computational fluid dynamics calculations including combustion verify that the high concentration of hydrocarbons measured above the front part of the grate is a result of gas brought there from the bed and not by the stirring of the gas space above the grate [9. . 8. Total hydrocarbon concentration above the bed of the reciprocating grate.3%.5 m. The measurements at VTT are presented in Fig. the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) above the fuel bed is shown in Fig.16 and 0. For forest waste the temperature was high already in the first measurement position at 1.6 to 40.10].5 m.008 kg/m 2 s (based on dry substance). In this region there were no flames. Measurements from operation with pure wood chips. Thunman. Results of measurements The surface temperature of the reciprocating grate is presented in Fig. As the heat Fig. The measurements at SP are presented in Fig. Results from pot furnace experiments with biofuels [2. When 20% of the mass was gone.07 mm/s corresponding to a fuel consumption of 0. 5. front velocities can be seen in Fig. the fuel was pre-dried from the moisture content of 56. 0. 6. A maximum reaction front velocity is attained close to stoichiometric conditions. 7. 4. 3 For the airflows in the reciprocating grate.16 mm/s corresponding to 0. After ignition. but a large amount of smoke left the bed. The height of the fuel batch in the pot furnace was 0.16 and 0. 5. These positions correspond to residence times on the grate of 4–5 min. as seen in Fig.025 kg/m 2 s (based on dry substance).4 and 1. The velocity of the reaction front (ignition front) increases first with Fig. the moisture content must be less than 45% for a reaction front to exist. gave the same velocity and the same behaviour of the reaction front.27 kg/m 2 s. Filled circles indicate the second measurement row and unfilled circles the first measurement row (cf. Fig. is visible through a view-glass located in the wall of the furnace. show a similar influence of air velocity. was wanted. There was also no stirring of the bed during its transport along the grate in this first visible part of the bed. The gas concentrations show that hydrocarbons are released early and that devolatilisation goes on during the first 4– 5 m.

Experimental data from forest waste SP. Primary airflow 0. Fig. 10% moisture ( ). dashed lines represent fitted mass reduction during the propagation of the reaction front. Comparison between calculation and measurement In Fig.025 kg/m 2 s (dry fuel).3% moisture (W). Solid lines are measurements. 40.6% (SP). dashed line fitted mass reduction during the propagation of the reaction front. The ignition rate is based on dry substance. Solid lines are curve fits of the measurements presented in Fig. Higher moisture content in the fuel decreases the velocity of the reaction front [2. [4]. Thunman. increasing air velocity. . The measurements are indicated by capital letters and calculation with small letters. Moisture content 40. 6.6% moisture (X). 9 are compared with calculations of the maximum velocity according to Eq. Experimental data from Gort [2]: 30-mm wood cubes.012 kg/m 2 s (dry fuel). 10 the data presented in Fig. B.3% (wet basis). dotted lines. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 Fig. Primary airflow: (a) 0. the different moisture contents are indicated by: A. Solid line is measurement.3% (VTT) and D. 8.5% (wet basis). This agrees with the observations reported in Ref. B.c 40.28 kg/m 2 s. Bed mass in pot furnace experiment at SP. Calculated maximum propagation rate of the reaction front for 10mm wood particles.03 kg/m 2 s. Moisture content 56. Bed mass in pot furnace experiment at VTT.4]. 9.b 30% [2].008 and (II) 0. The velocity of the reaction front is estimated to (I) 0. [2]. 7.a 10% [2]. It is obvious that the higher moisture content reduces the velocity of the reaction front. reaches a maximum.16 and (b) 0. Fig.478 H. 10% moisture (A). Propagation rate of the reaction front as a function of air velocity. 9. and VTT. The velocity of the reaction front is estimated to 0. Fig. (4) for 10-mm particles. C. In Fig. 30% moisture (K). 56. 10-mm wood cubes. 10. 9 the reaction velocities quoted above are compared with measurements from Ref.d 56. and then drops slightly until the reaction extinguishes. 9. The data of Gort [2] for 10-mm wood cubes with moisture contents of 10 and 30% (curves A and Fig. and 10-mm wood cubes.

shows that heat was generated in the bed before ignition was visually observed on the surface of the bed. devolatilisation 7. 56. which is ignited from the top. and all moisture and volatiles should have left the bed before 2. The reaction takes place inside the bed in a location which is quite well insulated from the surrounding. measured for wood cubes with a moisture content of 10%. the high temperatures clearly indicate that combustion takes place at or close to the surface of the grate after less than 1. the reaction front would reach the grate 8.12 and 0. The measurements show. The fuel is transported 0. The corresponding distance at velocities measured for wet fuels is 18– 60 m. For a bed height of 500 mm.7 m along the grate in 2 min. The conclusion from these facts is that the ignition has not taken place on the surface of the bed. The arguments supporting this observation and that reaction propagates up through the bed. With the velocity of the grate of 6 mm/s. if the bed is ignited from the top.3% (curve C). However. As the airflow raises further the gas residence time inside the reaction front is no longer sufficient for the reaction of the volatiles and all heat generation will not take place inside the bed. 5. calculation and measurements agree sufficiently well to explain the influence of moisture.14] during char combustion. an increasing airflow enhances the convective heat flow between the gas and the particles. it would take 1430 s for the reaction front to propagate from the surface of the bed to the grate. is not sufficient for the front to reach the surface of the reciprocating grate within the first 4 m. There was a heavy evolution of smoke from the bed before the position of ignition on the surface of the bed and before the visible flame zone. the theoretical maximum moisture content is attained when the lower heating value for moist fuel is equal to zero.8 m. on the other hand. For low airflows an insulating char layer develops downstream of the reaction front. this moisture content is too high. 5. The measured data fit the calculated values quite well. Conclusions from measurements As mentioned above. however. A moist wood-chip particle (50% moisture) dries and devolatilises completely in two minutes at a temperature of 973 K [15]. The change of velocity observed. 2(b). and the actual time for complete drying and devolatilisation should be less than 2 min. but it provides a measure of the theoretical maximum velocities of the reaction front for given airflows. The model is qualitative. the reaction front propagates slightly outside of the calculated limit of the airflow and the measurements themselves show a certain scatter. Fig. 6. most likely on the surface of the grate. A moisture content of up to 70 or 80% should therefore generate sufficient heat for drying and devolatilisation. 4. Furthermore. In the experiments at SP and VTT the forest waste with high moisture content was used. the fuel had to be dried to allow the desired air velocities.8 0. Even the highest velocity of the reaction front. fit inside the calculated maximum velocities of the reaction front. The temperature on the grate.1 and 3 0. based on several simplifying assumptions. since in this case. Volatiles were found far from the fuel inlet.7 m) distance from the feed point if the reaction had propagated from the top of the bed to the grate. However. it is generally assumed that ignition takes place on the surface of the bed and that the reaction front propagates down through the bed in a cross-flow situation. The temperature inside the bed is around 1300 K [2. measured at several airflows. At low airflows the situation in the reaction front agrees with the assumptions of the model and there is good agreement between calculation and measurement. For a counter-current bed. 3. but it is inside the limits of accuracy of the model. In contrast. 40. B. which dries and devolatilises fresh fuel. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 479 B). Since the convective heat transfer was neglected in the calculations the reaction front velocity diverges more and more from the calculated maximum velocity with an increasing airflow. In this case no reaction front can propagate at the airflows present on the reciprocating grate. according to visual observations in the reciprocating grate furnace. As the airflow increases the air-to-fuel ratio raises and the char layer becomes less significant.35 mm/ s.6 m after ignition on the surface. the “scatter” (C in Figs. are: 1.H.5 m (1. the velocity of the reaction front is higher than the calculated one. Thunman. Fig.2 mn /s (0. according to Figs.8 m for pure wood chips on the reciprocating grate. where the fuel burned without problems. Fig. 2. 5. Ignition is measured within the first 1. resulting in a low air-to-fuel ratio and consequently a low adiabatic temperature. This observation is supported by the model calculations. The calculation shows that it is possible to achieve two stable velocities of the reaction front at the same airflow. In the pot furnaces the reaction front could not propagate through the bed for the same type of fuel and airflows as in the boiler. .23 m/s at 298 K). excluding heat losses. This occurs at a moisture content of 85– 90%. but in the bed. 5 and 6. Fig. 0. that for the boiler concerned this cannot be the case: 1. and all oxygen is consumed inside the bed. in the boiler case. reduces the heat flux across the reaction front and in the end quenches the reaction front. such as in Fig. 8 and 10) could be a consequence of a transition of the velocity from one of the stable velocities to the other. 2(a).6%). At the highest moisture content (curve D. The heat is generated at the bottom of the bed by char combustion and is transported up through the bed by the gas. which enhances the external heat losses. At the second highest moisture content. 6 shows that volatiles leave the bed up to 4–5 m from the beginning of the grate. Fig. 0. In such a case.

8 m from the fuel inlet. and consequently there is a later ignition of the pure wood chips than of the forest waste that includes a large portion of fine saw-dust. that explains the measurements and allows fuel with a high moisture content to burn.2 mn /s. 2. It is also clear from the calculation that the velocity of the reaction front becomes very slow for these moisture contents.5 m of the bed. and they are always supplied by oxygen from the primary air. and for these airflows the limiting moisture content is between 35 and 45% according to calculation. observed to leave the first 1–1. It is nearly impossible to extinguish a burning char particle by an airflow containing oxygen. although the moisture content was 10% higher. The burning pile heats up the furnace and the metal rods. New char particles replace the old ones as they burn out or are transported away. conduction of heat through the metal rods. 2(a). The fuel is then slowly fed and is ignited by the burning pile.5 m from the fuel inlet. It becomes more similar to a counter-current bed than to the traditional description of a cross-current unit. but the circumstantial evidence presented gives a strong indication that this is the case.480 H. There are locations for burning char particles that can ignite the bed at or close to the grate surface in all designs of travelling grates and the reciprocating grate is not a special case. Instead. 8. This combustion situation should not be sensitive to disturbances in airflow and moisture content of the fuel due to the stability of the char combustion. Further experiments in reciprocating grate furnaces and in pot furnaces are needed to finally conclude if this is the typical combustion behaviour of wet biofuel. Conclusions The traditional description of the combustion behaviour. 4. This conclusion is also supported by pot furnace experiments. 3. Acknowledgements This work was supported by a grant from the Small Scale Combustion Programme of the Swedish National Energy Administration. Thunman. The ignition refractory arch is not needed for ignition. 2. Fig. This explains the heavy evolution of smoke. takes place if the reaction front moves in the same direction as the primary airflow. Fig. Combustion and heat release in the bottom part of the bed generates gas. burning char particles that are not transported along the grate by the reciprocating rods. More fuel is introduced until a stable operating condition is attained. The most probable reason for ignition of the bed is by such burning particles. In such a case the bed has to be ignited close to the surface of the grate. which transfers its heat to the fresh fuel and exits the bed at a temperature not much higher than that of entering fuel particles. 5.1 and 0. was not observed on the reciprocating grate studied. A general conclusion from this work is that. In the reciprocating grate studied the airflows were 3 0. The steps of the reciprocating grate provide places for small burning char particles to stay. This explains the volatile release far down on the grate. Fig. 2. Part of the work was carried out under the European Union contract JOR3-CT96-0059. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 and combustion takes place in a narrow front. A combustion behaviour. Ignition of the fuel on the surface of the grate takes place as soon as the fuel has reached the ignition temperature. These particles ignite the fuel above them and heat up the metal rods and new fuel particles are heated by backward transportation of heat through the metal rods. Large scale mixing of the fuel bed could be another reason for the temperature raise before 1. The initiation of combustion on the grate is achieved by the ignition of a pile of wood chips soaked in diesel oil. If this is the actual combustion behaviour. 2(b). the reaction front will have greater difficulties to propagate from the surface of the bed down to the surface of the grate. and so a steady state ignition procedure is maintained. The calculation shows that the maximum moisture content in the range of airflows considered is between 35 and 45%. The cross-current combustion of wet fuel should be described by a fuel batch ignited from the side where the primary air is introduced and not from opposite side as is traditionally assumed. . see Fig. Larger particles need longer time to heat up and ignite. the reaction front always propagates from the grate up to the surface of the bed. it will have a great influence on the principles for boiler design. How can the fuel ignite on the grate? There are at least two mechanisms that can explain a steady state ignition of the bed at the surface of the grate: 1. B. The reaction front propagates up through the bed and the devolatilisation continues until the devolatilisation front reaches the surface of the bed. with ignition on the top of the bed and a reaction front propagating down through the bed. Another fact that is against large scale mixing is the tendency of wood chips to stick together. 9. The possibility for the reaction front to propagate depends on the airflow and the fuel’s moisture content. but ignition or stirring caused by the transport of the bed along the grate were not observed on the surface during the first 1– 1. providing heat for drying and devolatilisation on their way up through the bed. shape. if it is possible to create a steady state ignition at or close to the surface of the grate. As the fuel moisture content raises. The char combustion produces hot gases. position and movement of the metal rods of the grate control where and when ignition takes place. Both calculation and measurements show that the velocity of the reaction front is very slow for fuel having high moisture content.

v …hCO nCO. Miller JM. 78–85. Combustion process in a biomass fuel bed — experimental results. ISSN 1562-479X. p. [8] MacLean JD. Taipale R. www.v † l 1 1†…nC.47:323–54. University of Twente. 109–13. Goteborg.v YH2 =MH2 ˆ 2nCH4 . On the propagation of a reaction front in a packed bed. IChemE. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from wood chip grate furnaces. 4–6 July 1999. The University of Sheffield. hCO2 † hO2 hO 2 nH2 O.36:55–63. T the temperature and H the heating value of wet fuel per kilogram dry fuel: H ˆ Hu Hvap Xm =…1 Xm † …A2† where Hu is the lower heating value of dry fuel. Horttanainen M. Principles of heat transfer in porous media. 159–62.i ˆ ai bi T} Hˆ T0 i 2 3 2 3 ˆ ˆ 2 ni bi =2 Tad ni ai Tad A i i 2 3 2 2 3 3 ˆ ˆ 2 H ni bi =2 T0 ni ai T0 ˆ 0 …A1† i i system of equation: …YC Ychar †=MC ˆ nCH4 . Simulation of waste bed combustion in the municipal solid waste incinerator. Stanchits LK.v 2lnCH4 . [3] Ryu C. Sweden.v †. Ignition front propagation in packed beds of wood particles. the Swedish and the Finnish Flame Research Committees of the International Flame Research Foundation in co-operation with the Swedish ¨ ¨ Bioenergy Association. Leckner / Fuel 80 (2001) 473–481 481 Appendix A The adiabatic temperature for different air ratios is estimated by Tad ˆ ni Cp. 1946. [7] Siegel R. Leckner B. Cp the specific heat. Department of Energy Conversion. May 2000. ¨ Chalmers University of Technology. 1999. Gustavsson L.v nCH4 .ifrf. [2] Gort R. Leckner B. [13] Kaviany M. Philadelphia. Hvap the heat of vaporisation and Xm =…1 Xm † the moisture content based on dry fuel. vol. 1992 (ISBN 0-89116-271-2).v YO2 =MO2 ˆ nCO2 . 0:5…nCO. [12] Horttanainen MVA.v …hCH4 nCO. Thermal conductivity of wood. Werther J. B.v . PA: Taylor & Francis.w nC. ToTEM14 and Swedish–Finnish flame-day 1999.c ˆ Ychar =MC Number of moles in the moisture is: Xm †MH2 O †: Number of moles in the char is: where Y is the mass fraction in dry fuel and M the molar mass. Fundamentals of coal combustion. The molar composition of the volatiles is given by the . Borodulya VA. thermal conversion of municipal waste and biomass. 4–11. IFRF Combustion Journal. [5] Marskell WG. Thunman H. 25. Sakomaa P. Amsterdam: Elsevier.v l†nCH4 . Leckner B. Canada.net. Sarkomaa PJ. Leckner B. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Thunman. 1999. 1995.v .v 2nCH4 . In: Preto FDS.v …A4† …A5† nH2 O ˆ nH2 O. Dikalenko VI. Modelling of fixed bed combustion. Academic Dissertation. Vancouver. Mode of combustion of coal on a Chain grate stoker. Report to the European Commission JOR3-CT96-0059.i dT ˆ {Cp.v † nCO2 ˆ nCO2 . 3rd ed. Howell JR. Berlin: Springer. Combustion and Flame 2000. [6] Smoot LD. Fuel Processing Technology 1993. Article series in “Fuel in Science and Practice”. The number of moles of each specie as a function of air-to-fuel ratio l can be expressed as: nN2 ˆ l3:77…nC.v nH2 O. 1997. Amand L-E.w nH2 O.v nH2 O.c …hC hO2 nCH4 . Ghirelli F. Axell M. Final report to the European Commission JOR3CT96-0059.v 2nCH4 . Modelling and verifying experiments on the whole furnace.v l†nCO. carbon dioxide and that the devolatilisation is thermally neutral. 125–34.v nH2 O. ¨ ¨ [14] Ronnback M.c l…nC nCH4 . Sage PW. ˚ [10] Thunman H. ISBN 90-9008751-6.v nCO ˆ 0 nCH4 ˆ 0 nH2 O ˆ nH2 O. Austria. Choi S. Cooke MJ.v …A3† l 1 nO2 ˆ 0 nC ˆ …1 nCO ˆ …1 nCH4 ˆ …1 l†nC. Thunman H. IFRF-net.v nCO.c nO2 ˆ …l nC ˆ 0 nCO2 ˆ nCO2 . 1993 (ISBN 0-444-89643-0). References [1] Ford NWJ.v 0:5nCO. Propagation of ignition front in fuel beds of wood particles.v Hu ˆ nC. New York: ASME. Vaxjo University. et al.v nCO2 . Saastamoinen JJ. Second International Symposium on Incineration and Flue Gas Treatment Technologies. [4] Saastamoinen JJ. Comparison between CFD calculation and measurement on a grate boiler burning biofuel. 50–62. …A6† hCO2 hCO2 † 2hH2 O † where h is the enthalpy at reference temperature.H. editor. where n is the number of moles of species i. Amand L-E. Tyrol. 17–22 September 2000. water. ˚ [9] Ghirelli F. [15] Palchonok GI. Transactions of the American Society of Heating and Ventilation Engineers 1941. Article Number 200003. [11] Padinger R. The number of moles of each species is calculated from the assumption that the char is pure carbon and the volatiles consist of methane. Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. Thermal radiation heat transfer.c 2nCH4 . 29–30 September 1999.v † 0:5nCO.123:214–26. carbon monoxide. p. Shin D. Kinetics of the main stages of fluidized bed combustion of a wet biomass particle.w ˆ Xm =……1 nC. 1991 (ISBN 0-387-97593-4).

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Paper VIII .

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vibrating. SE-501 15 Borås. The fuel bed is the first stage in the combustion process and generates the conditions for the latter part. If the particle size is increased (for the same fuel quality) the airflow range of this regime becomes shorter and starts at higher airflow. a sub-stoichiometric regime with complete consumption of oxygen and an over-stoichiometric regime. For fuels with a high content of volatile matter. see for example La . Two test rigs have been built: a large rig in the same size as a boiler for domestic use and a small laboratory test rig. The bed may be operated as a gasifier producing a combustible gas. Austria Combustion processes in a biomass fuel bed Experimental results Marie Rönnbäck. Incineration of wastes and gasification of biomass are also often performed in a bed. The design of the grate (stationary. gasification and combustion occurring in particular zones in the bed.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. The knowledge of biomass gasification devices today is extensive. The results show that a fuel with higher density and thermal conductivity (but in other respects similar to other fuels) has a wider sub-stoichiometric regime where oxygen is completely consumed. reciprocating or moving) on which the bed rests and the method of fuel supply (from underneath. devolatilization. Lennart Gustavsson SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute. Sweden ABSTRACT: Combustion processes in a biomass bed are investigated experimentally. Devices with bed combustion have as common features drying. although this is achieved downstream of the bed in the form of gas phase combustion controlled by secondary air. Bo Leckner Chalmers University of Technology. SE-412 96 Göteborg. but it may also be operated with excess air. BOX 857. Special attention is paid to the influence of primary airflow and particle properties on the ignition front. A review of available literature on the experimental simulation of solid fuels confirms that the knowledge of coal combustion is more detailed than that of biomass and municipal solid waste. from the side or from above) depend on fuel characteristics and on the size of the plant. Tyrol. The extension of these zones depends on fuel and air supply and on the initial ignition of the fuel bed. The purpose of a boiler is to attain complete combustion. Sweden Henrik Thunman. 2000. Monica Axell. INTRODUCTION Fixed or moving bed combustion is the most common technology for biofuels. its temperature and on the composition of the gas leaving the front. however. Three combustion regimes are identified: a sub-stoichiometric regime with incomplete consumption of oxygen. In both rigs the ignition front moves in opposite direction to the primary airflow. the gas combustion downstream of the bed is crucial for emission control. Energy Conversion.

The fuel beds are ignited on the top and the ignition front propagates against the primary airflow. In their experimental device primary air could be supplied through the grate and through the walls of the fuel chamber. The rig is equipped to measure airflow. Tyrol. The results from such experiments can be extended to steady-state combustion on a stationary or moving grate. Austria Fontaine and Reed (1) and this knowledge also suits the combustion bed. distinct reaction zones were identified. Fatehi and Kaviany (4) performed similar experiments in a 7x7-cm² furnace on wood spheres and described two combustion zones. 2000. It is insulated with a 50-mm glass-wool cover. They focused on the speed of the ignition front as an important factor determining the release of volatiles and that affects the combustion power and the stability of combustion. where fuel and air are supplied co-currently and the fuel is ignited on the top of the bed. Gas analysis is carried out in the gases leaving the bed. coke and municipal solid wastes in a batch-type laboratory grate furnace. Kuo et al. He burned wood cubes. The experiments were conducted so that the results can be used for both batch and continuously fired plants. depending on the mixing of gas and air in the bed. Then.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. see Figure 1. the ignition front moves against the primary airflow towards the grate. Primary air is supplied through the steel grate at the bottom of the cylinder and exhaust gases leave through the top. to cover the influence of the parameters studied. depending on the ratio of ignition rate and superficial air velocity. The large rig is of the same size as a domestic boiler. before they reach the secondary air supply. see e. Shin and Choi (3) studied the effects of air supply rate. Two thermocouples (type K) located 150 mm and 300 mm above the grate measure the temperatures inside and above the fuel bed. The small rig is cylindrical with a diameter of 0. weight loss and bed height. (5) pointed out the importance of the arrangement of air supply for combustion efficiency. here called the large and the small rig. recently several publications have described experiments on high volatile fuels in onedimensional batch-type reactors. fuel particle size and calorific value on the combustion of wood cubes in a similar combustor. Furthermore. in and downstream of the fuel bed and in the grate by shielded 1-mm thermocouples (type K). This is a onedimensional representation of a continuously burning fuel bed on a grate.2 m and a height of 0.and boundary conditions for the fuel bed. Temperatures can be measured upstream. Horttanainen et al. The work aims at forming a basis for modelling of wood burning.g. Gort (2) did a thorough investigation on the effects of moisture and volatile content. The work ranges from substoichiometric to over-stoichiometric supply of primary air to the bed. EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS The experiments were carried out in two test rigs. The fuel is put on the grate and ignited by a torch from the top. The aim of the present work is to further analyse the influence of primary airflow and fuel particle parameters on the combustion process. The inner wall is made of 3-mm stainless steel to minimise the heat capacity of the wall. as well as of particle size.6 m. Thunman and Leckner (7). (6) presented results from experiments on biomass particles of various sizes and moisture content. He distinguished three global reaction regimes. They found that the CO-emissions were related to the oxygen content of the flue gas. The design is chosen to ensure well-defined start. Also. as well as for design of small boilers. mounted both from the side (orthogonal to the movement of the ignition . Experiments were performed with the combustion front moving both upward (as in the studies referred to) and downward (as in a modern boiler with down-draught combustion). where secondary air is supplied before the gases enter the chimney. Depending on the availability of oxygen.

Table 1 Fuel characteristics. The pellets were burned both in the large and in the small rig. dry basis) O (weight-%.52 0.53 . the primary air is supplied from the top of the fuel bed and the fuel is ignited from the bottom (in this case by electrical spirals in the grate). 8.16 12 585 305 0. 2000.41 Wood 51. 12 and 34 mm.2 0.7 0.32 8 1259 680 0.1 0.3 20. Figure 1 Ignition front moving against the Figure 2 Ignition front moving against the airflow in the small experimental rig. Tyrol. The ignition front moves against the primary airflow towards the top of the fuel bed.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September.46 0.and 3-mm thermocouples showed that the mounting of the thermocouples and their sizes gave no significant differences in results. i. dry basis) Moisture (weight-%) Hi (MJ/kg.1 19.07-0. while the wood cylinders were burned only in the small one. The rig works with down-draught combustion.53 34 581 279 0. dry basis) Thermal conductivity (J/mK) (8) Diameter (mm) Fuel density (kg/m3) Bed density (kg/m3) Bed void Air mass flow (kg/m²s) 50. dry basis) S (weight-%. The density and the thermal conductivity of the pellets are about twice those of the wood.7 41. The proximate analyses and elemental composition of the fuels were almost identical.4 6. The fresh fuel moves downwards into the ignition front and influences the ignition front with its weight.035-0.53 8 579 307 0. Austria front) and from the air supply.15 0 8.5 6. airflow in the large experimental rig. dry basis) N (weight-%.3 0. The pellets were made of compressed sawdust and had a diameter of 8 mm. The wood cylinders had three diameters.07-0. Pellet C (weight-%. see Figure 2. as seen in Table 1.47 0.2 43.48 0. The fuel bed can be observed through sight glasses.e.047 0 9. dry basis) H (weight-%. A comparison with shielded 2.07-0. The fuels were pellets and wood cylinders (pine).

The temperature in the partly converted layer is about 100°C lower than in the front. increasing as the ignition front moves upward in the fuel bed. 2000. When the ignition front reaches the grate. CO2. The short peak in temperature is the front temperature. Because of radiative cooling by the walls the uncorrected temperature is about 200°C lower than the bed temperature. As the bed shrinks the upper thermocouple finds itself above the bed. In this example the air mass flow is low. In the large rig. Tyrol. Figure 3 shows the temperature at 150 mm and at 300 mm above the grate. O2 and THC (Total Hydro Carbon) were measured on-line. and all fuel is not converted but accumulates upstream of the ignition front. The temperature curves show how the width of the accumulated layer broadens as the front moves downwards. The fuel was 8-mm wood cylinders and the air mass flow 0. see Figure 3.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. In the small rig. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The ignition rate of the fuel bed is defined as kg ignited fuel per grate area and time (kg/m²s). The exact level of temperature chosen (500°C) is not critical. gas was extracted 50 mm downstream of the grate. The gas probe is cooled to quickly stop any combustion reaction. The distance to the ignition front is then up to 450 mm. A conventional instrument could then measure the CO-concentration. The dilution factor was continuously calculated by comparing the CO2-concentration before and after dilution. The primary air mass flow through the grate is presented as kg air per grate area and time (kg/m²s). Austria Emissions of CO. 1300 1200 1100 Temperature (°C) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 300 mm 150 mm 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 60 Time (min) Air flow (m3/h) Flow 20 40 Figure 3 Temperatures at 150 mm and 300 mm above the grate and airflow in the small rig. because the temperature change in a fuel layer is quite fast. In the small rig this quantity was determined by the times when two thermocouples at a distance of 150 mm reached 500°C. Because of the high levels of CO downstream of the fuel bed. gas was extracted in a position 450 mm above the grate. there is a peak in temperature (at about 43 minutes) caused by combustion of the accumulated char. multiplied by the (original) bed density of the fuel. The distance to the ignition front is then 100-350 mm. most likely influenced by the surface temperature of the nearby particles. The gas was sampled as close to the fuel bed as practically possible. . a dilution devise was used to dilute the sampled gases about 10 times. and the temperature of the extracted gas falls to 100°C in less than 200 mm.11 kg/m²s.

The ignition rate in kg/m²s is calculated by dividing the mass of the fuel in the bed by the grate area and the corresponding time. When char combustion starts the production of water vapour from drying and combustion falls and the CO-emission increases because of lack of water vapour for CO-oxidation as illustrated by the expression: -d[CO]/dt = ko[CO][O2]1/2[H2O] 1/2exp(-E/RT) from Howard (9). CO and THC downstream of the grate in the small rig. opposite to the direction of the airflow. In this rig. the time between the moment when the gas downstream of the bed reaches 500°C and when the ignition front breaks through the top of the fuel bed was measured.and a dip in CO2 –emissions followed by a peak in CO2 while CO goes to zero. This dip-and-peak behaviour is not seen at high air mass flows (above 0. enhancing combustion. because the bed shrinks during conversion of the fuel.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. The final increase in CO2 follows from an increase in O2-concentration. when the bed is almost finished and very shallow. The temperature profiles are steep and parallel during the devolatilization. where the air meets the fuel. C O2. The temperature increases continuously in the remaining bed during char combustion. Instead. CO2. the ignition rate of fresh fuel cannot be determined in the same manner as in the small rig. shows peaks to maximum 1100°C. 2000.40 kg/m²s for pellets). devolatilization (ca 125-180 min) and char combustion (after 180 min) are indicated by the temperature curves and by the gas analysis downstream of the grate. to the combustion air and to new layers of fresh . The temperature in the top layer. Figure 6 shows the gas analysis from the same experiment. Figure 5 shows temperatures at different levels in the centre of the bed between 10 mm and 400 mm above the grate. The ignition front moves upward. In the large rig electrical heating of the grate ignites the fuel. After bed break-through the bed consists mainly of char and the fuel burns from the top downwards. Austria As can be seen from the gas analysis in Figure 4 there is also a peak in CO. Tyrol. The peak in CO coincides with a dip in temperature. The break-through of the ignition front at the surface of the bed can be determined in several ways: visual observation of flames above the bed. Data as in Figure 3. Two phases. a rise in temperature in the topmost fuel layer and changes in the gas analysis.17 kg/m²s for wood cylinders and above 0. The peaks in O2 with corresponding dips in CO2. CO and THC originate from back-blowing the analysis system. 30 25 O2. CO (%) 20 15 10 5 0 30000 25000 CO THC 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 60 Time (min) THC (ppm) CO2 O2 0 20 40 Figure 4 Emissions of O2. In the ignition front there is a balance between heat generated by chemical reactions and heat transfer into the fuel particles.

CO and THC originate from back-blowing the gas analysis system. it dries and devolatilizes. and a temperature gradient was present in the particles during devolatilization and char combustion. Data as in Figure 5. where the gases ignite if the conditions are suitable. CO (%) 20 15 CO2 CO 10 5 O2 0 120 140 160 180 200 220 Time (min) Figure 6 Emissions of O2. the Biot number = hDp /k > 1. The particles used were all thermally thick.12 kg/m²s and the fuel 8-mm pellets. Devolatilization of biomass starts already at temperatures about 200°C and spontaneous ignition of . i. 2000. The heat transport to new fuel is dominated by radiation. The peaks in O2 with corresponding dips in CO2. fuel. Water vapour and combustible gases are produced and transported to the surface of the particle and out into the gas between the particles. CO2. because the direction is opposite to the airflow. Austria 1200 1000 10 mm 800 Temperature (°C) 30 mm 600 50 mm 100 mm 150 mm 400 175 mm 200 400 mm 0 120 140 160 180 200 220 Time (min) Figure 5 Temperatures in °C at levels above the grate from 10 mm to 400 mm in the large rig.e. The heat transport into the fuel particles depends on the thermal conductivity of the material. CO2 and CO downstream of the grate in the large rig.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. 30 25 O2. Tyrol. As a particle is heated. The air mass flow was 0.

The lines in Figure 8 represent the theoretical stoichiometric combustion rate that would occur if the fuel was exposed immediately to oxygen. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show combustion in this regime from 7 to 11 minutes. 1500 1300 Temperature (°C) 1100 sub-stoich. Despite the sub-stoichiometric condition. As long as oxygen is present combustion dominates.e. either because of slow kinetics or of insufficient mixing between the devolatilized combustible gases and the primary air. Saastamoinen et al.10 0. Based on the results.30 0. The ignition rate and the ignition front temperature are strongly influenced by the primary airflow. such as gasification with CO2 and H2O and char combustion. A layer of partly converted . partly converted fuel accumulates downstream of the ignition front. (2) Sub-stoichiometric combustion with a complete consumption of oxygen. Austria wood at 500-600°C. This regime occurs at higher primary airflow.00 0. i. 2000. O2≈0. see Figure 7 and Figure 9.40 0. since gasification is slow. During the devolatilization. O2≈0. Char combustion is a slower process than gas combustion and demands a higher temperature (≥ 800°C) to be complete. and is characterised by complete consumption of oxygen in the bed. wood sub-stoich. This regime is found at low primary airflow and is characterised by a clear division in time in a devolatilization phase followed by char combustion. As a result.20 0. heterogeneous reactions. ignition can take place already at 300-400°C. (1) Sub-stoichiometric combustion with incomplete consumption of oxygen. unburned gases as well as oxygen can appear in the sampling gas. oxygen is not fully consumed in the bed. begin. (10). Tyrol. COMBUSTION REGIMES Figure 7 shows the maximum temperatures and Figure 8 the ignition rates in the small rig with 8-mm wood cylinders and 8-mm pellets as fuel. just after the bed where the gas sampling was made.50 0. the combustion process has been divided into three regimes. If a pilot flame is present. When the volatile matter has left the particles.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. The sub-stoichiometric regimes with complete oxygen consumption for the different fuels are marked in the figure. pellet 900 700 Tmax wood 8 mm Tmax pellet 8 mm 500 0. such as the flame front in a fuel bed.60 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure 7 Maximum front temperature for 8-mm wood cylinders and 8-mm pellets as function of air mass flow rate. if the fuel particles were thermally infinitely thin.

As the excess air is heated. the differences in front temperatures and ignition rates are small for the fuels.3 0. the conversion of CO. The interesting difference lies in the combustion regimes. The higher temperature in this regime (compared to wood) can be explained by a higher burning rate (kg mass loss/area and second) for pellets.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure 8 Ignition rate for 8-mm wood cylinders and 8-mm pellets as function of air mass flow rate. The devolatilization phase is followed by a short char combustion phase. 0.08 0. The final char combustion phase is negligibly short. should be complete and no oxygen should be present. The lines represent stoichiometric combustion. according to the rate expression of Howard (9). and the temperature in the front is higher for pellets at higher airflows when for wood cylinders. 2000.04 0. At the temperatures and residence times during the change from Regime 1 to Regime 2.10 Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0.00 0.1 0. The reason for finding CO and O2 downstream of the bed is then most likely bad mixing. INFLUENCE OF DENSITY AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY The density and the thermal conductivity of the pellets are about twice those of the wood cylinders. This may have contributed to extending the sub-stoichiometric regime with full oxygen consumption to higher airflows in the case of pellets. (3) If the primary airflow is increased even more the combustion moves into the overstoichiometric regime and excess oxygen leaves the fuel bed. Tyrol. and their higher thermal conductivity leads to a higher devolatilization rate at the same airflow.5 0.0 Ign. The pellets are thermally thinner than wood.4 0. Pellets have a wider sub-stoichiometric.2 0. .12 0. but the fuels used differ very little in elemental composition and moisture content. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show an example. With increasing airflow the ignition rate slows down and the front temperature decreases. Austria fuel forms downstream of the ignition front. In general.06 0. as seen in Figures 7 and 8. The ignition rate of pellets is less influenced by airflow in a wider range. but the layer does not grow in thickness as in Regime 1. The maximum ignition rate and front temperature are found in this regime. Finally. rate wood 8 mm Ign. the bed cools. The influence of primary airflow on ignition rate and ignition front temperature is not so pronounced. starting at a lower airflow.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. full oxygen consumption regime.02 0. rate pellet 8 mm Stoichiometry wood 8 mm Stoichiometry pellet 8 mm 0. the combustion is extinguished.

1 0.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. Tyrol.2 0. 12 mm.0 0.00 0.and 34-mm wood cylinders.06 0. The sub-stoichiometric combustion regimes with complete oxygen consumption for the different sizes are marked in the figure.08 0.4 0. 12.02 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.3 0. O2 ≈ 0 700 T max wood 8 mm T max wood 12 mm T max wood 34 mm 500 0. rate wood 34 mm Stoichometry wood 0.12 Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0.2 0. The line represents stoichiometric combustion.0 Ign. Austria INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE SIZE Figure 9 shows the maximum temperature and Figure 10 the ignition rate in the small rig for 8-.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure 9 Maximum front temperature for 8-. 12.5 0. 8 mm. 34 mm. 1500 1300 Temperature (°C) 1100 sub-stoich.and 34-mm wood cylinders as function of air mass flow rate. rate wood 12 mm Ign. 2000. O2 ≈ 0 sub-stoich. the variations are generally .4 0. However. 12. No gas analysis was carried out on the 12and 34-mm wood cylinder experiments and the temperature curves were used to separate the combustion regimes.and 34-mm wood cylinders as function of air mass flow rate. O2 ≈ 0 900 sub-stoich. rate wood 8 mm Ign. 0.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure10 Ignition rate for 8-.04 0. At low airflow the front temperature is lower and the ignition rate appears to be somewhat higher for the largest fuel particles.10 0.

Less combustible gases reach the surface of the large particles. and any air and gas “channelling” between the fuel bed and the walls is forced to move over the surface of the grate and leave through holes in the grate. The front temperatures agree at low air mass flows. Four differences between the rigs can be noted: (1) The small rig has a smaller grate area and channelling inside the fuel bed is less probable than in a large rig. At higher airflow the layer of partly converted material is very thin and the front temperature increases by the heat from the flame. At several occasions an uneven start phase in the large rig resulted in an uneven ignition profile. is well insulated by fresh fuel on one side and by partly converted fuel or char on the other. In the large rig. caused by the heavier design.3 kg/m²s when the temperature is 200°C higher in the small rig. Parameters of interest are devolatilization rate compared to ignition rate. heat transfer between particles and primary airflow. and there is only a heat loss at the walls. see Figure12. The resistance towards heat flow into the particles increases with the diameter. At lower airflow the ignition front is covered by partly converted material and is not influenced by the heat from the flame. (3) The large rig has a larger heat loss during batch firing. Austria small and have to be compared with the accuracy of the experiments. In the large rig there is a seal between the grate and the walls. horizontal temperatures were measured in the bed and in the gas phase downstream of the bed. The method of measuring the ignition rate over the batch in the large rig is possibly removing any unevenness in the ignition profile. (4) The most noticeable difference between the results from the two rigs is in the temperature of the reaction front (Figure12) at airflows higher than 0. especially for large particles whose size reduces the precision in the calculation of the ignition rate. but at higher flows the temperatures in the large rig are lower. however. and the combustible gases leaving the bed burn with a gas flame that radiates upstream and heats the bed. The sub-stoichiometric regime with complete oxygen consumption starts at a higher airflow for the larger particles. 2000. Tyrol. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO RIGS A comparison between ignition rates from 8-mm pellets burned in the small and in the large rig shows a reasonable agreement as seen in Figure 11. More of the heat produced is transported to new layers of fresh fuels and not towards the centre of the fuel particle. particles with reduced size may start . The first is that in the small rig secondary air is supplied a few decimetres downstream of the bed. The reason for this has to be further investigated. This difference in design may lead to higher O2– levels downstream of the bed in the small rig. When the particle size increases the transition from Regime 2 to Regime 3 is extended to higher airflow. Also the burning rate in the small rig is higher at these airflows. (2) In the small rig there is a risk for air passing between the outer edge of the fuel bed and the walls without taking part in the combustion process. This is reflected in a higher ignition rate and a lower front temperature at low airflow. There are two explanations for the higher temperatures. An uneven ignition front could lead to a faster ignition of the bed. The second explanation is that in the combustion front of the small rig.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. This can be explained by the larger particle being thermally thicker. The ignition front. but the measured ignition rates are consistent and similar in the rigs (Figure 11). the power produced is lower and the burning rate also becomes lower.

2 0. pellet 8mm 500 0. Figure14 shows the ignition rate of the same cylinders and cubes and of 5-20 mm wood chips with a moisture content of 10.3 0.0 0.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure12 Maximum front temperature for 8-mm pellets as function of air mass flow rate in the large and in the small test rigs.4 0. 0.2 0.1 0. and that would increase the conversion rate and the temperature in the front. pellet 8mm Small test rig.5 0. except for the higher ignition rate of .00 0.10 0. Tyrol.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure 11 Ignition rate for 8-mm pellets as function of air mass flow rate in the large and in the small test rigs.3 % compared to 10-mm wood cubes with a moisture content of 10 % from Gort (2). pellet 8mm Small test rig. Austria to fluidise at high airflow. The results coincide quite well. (6).08 0.06 0.02 0. 1500 Temperature (°C) 1300 1100 900 700 Large test rig.0 Large test rig.12 Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0.3 0. 2000.8 % from Horttanainen et al.04 0.5 0.1 0. COMPARISON WITH OTHER AUTHORS Figure13 shows the maximum temperature in the small rig using 8-mm wood cylinders with a moisture content of 8. pellet 8mm 0. as shown in experiments of Fatehi and Kaviany (4).Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September.4 0.

2 0. which decreases the accuracy of the calculation of the ignition rates. For the larger particles (the cylinders) the maximum ignition rate is found at a higher air mass flow. 10-mm wood cubes and 5-20-mm wood chips as function of air mass flow rate. Horttanainen 0. Gort 500 0.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. The results from the 34-mm wood cylinders are more scattered.3 0.1 0. Gort wood 5-20 mm. Despite the scatter.1 0. and this enhances the ignition rate. suggest that smaller chips act as pilot flames for larger chips. 2000.00 0.0 0.3 % compared to 30-mm wood cubes with a moisture content of 10 % from Gort (2). Tyrol.5 0. Figure15 and Figure16 show the maximum temperature and the ignition rate in the small rig with 34-mm wood cylinders having a moisture content of 8. 1500 1300 Temperature (°C) 1100 900 700 wood 8 mm wood 10 mm. Horttanainen et al.04 0. the temperatures coincide well.2 0. 0.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure14 Ignition rate for 8-mm wood cylinders.02 0. probably because the cylinders form a less homogenous bed. Austria the wood chips.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure13 Maximum front temperature for 8-wood cylinders and 10-mm wood cubes as function of air mass flow rate.06 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.12 0. Ignition rate (kg/m²s) .0 wood 8 mm wood 10 mm.08 0.3 0.10 0.

Gort 0.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September.4 0.00 0.2 0. Austria 1500 1300 Temperature (°C) 1100 900 700 wood 34 mm wood 30 mm. 2) a complete gasification regime characterised by a layer of partly converted fuel with constant thickness and full oxygen consumption and 3) a complete combustion regime characterised by a layer of partly converted fuel with constant thickness and incomplete oxygen consumption.3 0. Gort 500 0.02 0. Shin and Choi (3) identified three combustion modes depending on the air supply rate.1 0.4 0.0 wood 34 mm wood 30 mm.2 0. These regimes coincide in principle with the ones defined in the present paper with the exception that Gort found no excess oxygen after the bed in the first regime.5 0. 2000.1 0. When the air supply is low.12 0.0 0. the reaction rates are controlled by the oxygen supply .6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure15 Maximum front temperature for 34-wood cylinders and 30-mm wood cubes as function of air mass flow rate.6 Air mass flow (kg/m²s) Figure16 Ignition rate for 34-wood cylinders and 30-mm wood cubes as function of air mass flow rate.08 0. Other authors have identified combustion regimes similar to this work.5 0. Gort (2) divides the combustion process into 1) a partial gasification regime characterised by accumulation of partly converted fuel and full oxygen consumption.04 0.3 0. Tyrol.10 Ignition rate (kg/m²s) 0. 0.06 0.

oxygen is not fully consumed in the bed. In this regime. The devolatilization phase is followed by a short char combustion phase. This regime is characterised by a clear division in a devolatilization phase followed by a phase dominated by char combustion. The thermally thinner fuel has a wider sub-stoichiometric. CONCLUSIONS Two test rigs have been built for investigation of the combustion processes in a bed of solid fuels and particularly the influence of primary airflow and of particle properties (size. Austria (oxygen-limited combustion). The excess air cools the bed. where the air is supplied from beneath. Because of the higher devolatilization rate. The sub-stoichiometric regime with complete oxygen consumption starts at . giving a higher heat transfer to the bed from the gas flame in the small rig. When the air supply increases. At higher airflow the ignition rate slows down and the front temperature falls. (3) The two fuels compared show differences with respect to the combustion regimes. the oxygen-limited mode should correspond to the sub-stoichiometric regimes. None of these authors related the modes or zones to a description of bed events. the combustion is extinguished. During the devolatilization. the flame propagation speed is limited by the reaction rate of the fuel (reaction-limited combustion). starting at a lower airflow. However. 2000. the flame propagation speed increases. When the air supply further increases. The larger particles are thermally thicker. but the temperatures in the ignition front diverge at higher airflow. Nevertheless. (4) Three sizes of the same fuel have been compared. partly converted fuel accumulates downstream of the ignition front. and the devolatilization rate is lower. and the reaction. (2) Three combustion regimes were identified. At low airflow a sub-stoichiometric combustion regime with incomplete consumption of oxygen was found. Fatehi and Kaviany (4) identified in a similar way two modes and called them an oxygen-limited and a fuel-limited mode. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results: (1) The two test rigs show the same ignition rates. but it is not growing in thickness as in Regime 1. Also the gas composition downstream of the bed has been investigated. Finally. density and thermal conductivity) on the rate and temperature of the ignition front.or fuel-limited one to the overstoichiometric regime. excess air cools the bed and puts an end to the flame (extinction by convection). full oxygen consumption regime.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. At higher airflow there is a sub-stoichiometric combustion regime with a complete consumption of oxygen in the bed. This divergence may be caused by a difference in design of the secondary air supply. the combustion moves into the over-stoichiometric regime with excess oxygen leaving the fuel bed. and more of the heat produced is transported to new layers of fresh fuels and not towards the centre of the fuel particles. Although the combustion is sub-stoichiometric. The resistance towards heat flow into the particles increases with diameter. At low airflow the ignition rate is higher and front temperature lower with the larger fuel. The higher temperatures may also be influenced by fluidisation of particles in the front in the small rig. A layer of partly converted fuel forms downstream of the ignition front. When the primary airflow is increased even more. Tyrol. the thermally thinner fuel has a sub-stoichiometric regime with full oxygen consumption sustained at higher airflow. the final char combustion phase is negligibly short.

(1997) Effect of Air Distribution on Solid Fuel Bed Combustion. R. REFERENCES 1. Thunman. B. Kuo. Transaction American Society of Heating and Ventilation Engineers. D. The secondary air is important as a measure for mixing during gas phase combustion. J. (2000) Ignition and propagation of a reaction front in cross-current bed combustion of wet biofuels. The Combustion Institute. Växjö. Combustion and Flame Vol. T. A. G. pp. J. D. 2. and the transition from Regime 2 to Regime 3 is extended to higher airflow. However. & Yo. Ph D Thesis. & Choi. Williams. International Flame Research Foundation.. 3. 8. M. The primary air is kept substoichiometric to enhance reduction of NO. (2000) The Combustion of Simulated Waste Particles in a Bed. Horttanainen. & Kaviany. H.C. This means that the most important regions for the primary air are the low velocity regimes. B. La Fontaine. W. Vol. 121.. Parameters of interest are devolatilization rate compared to the ignition rate and heat transfer between particles and primary airflow. pp. M. Gort. M. Austria a higher airflow for larger diameter fuel. C. H. the air supply is divided between primary air to the bed and secondary air to the produced gas. The Swedish-Finnish Flame Day. J. & Reed. (1994) Adiabatic Reverse Combustion in a Packed Bed. H. (5) In modern combustion equipment. Washington D. J. 6. 7. 99. 5. Hsu. pp. J. & Fine. Knowledge of the influence of fuel characteristics on the regimes is important for the division between primary and secondary air under various load conditions. . & Leckner. The reason for this has to be further investigated. 47. 975-986. B. 120-128. 167-180. Howard. batch-wise combustion or steady-state combustion on a transporting grate) the build-up of char or not is also an important issue to consider. Journal of Energy Resources Technology Vol. Shin. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work has been supported by the Swedish National Energy Administration. J. V. Tyrol. 119. 323-354. 2000. (1999) Ignition Front Propagation in Packed Beds of Wood Particles. (1972) Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in Postflame Gases. (1995) On The Propagation of a Reaction Front in a Packed Bed. 10. 814-819. MacLean. Saastamoinen. D. Fatehi. Energy from Biomass and Wastes XV. Enschede.-S. L. Universiteit Twente. (1998) Modelling of Pyrolysis and Combustion of Biomass Particles.-C. (1993) An Inverted Downdraft Wood-Gas Stove and Charcoal Producer. 1-17. 9. ECCOMAS 98. pp. Huttunen. S. Saastamoinen. T. Ltd.g. M.Progress in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion 17-22 September. P. J. Combustion and Flame Vol. pp. 4. T. depending on the design (e. J. & Sarkomaa. Fourteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion. Fuel (in press). John Wiley & Sons. (1941) Thermal Conductivity of Wood. pp... which is gratefully acknowledged. & Kjäldman.