UNIT-II Indian Philosophy & Values in Business Ethics

India has many sources of ancient wisdom. The Vedas, a collection of ancient scriptures (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva), the Upanishads, Puranas and Ithihasa, ‘Bhagavad Gita’, and the epics ‘Mahabharat’ and ‘Ramayana’ all contain many nuggets of management principles and practices. The wisdom inherent in these scriptures can be extended and applied to current Indian management problems and especially to fine tune and adjust western thoughts to an Indian setting. We are going to elaborate on the trio Karma, Bhakti and Jnana. These particular concepts complement the many western theories on how to: 1. Inspire employees to excel in work 2. Enhance employee commitment to the organization. 3. Use knowledge to achieve business excellence. These three central themes of Karma, Bhakti and Jnana help reach the listed objectives in a very unique way by combining it with spiritual development of an individual. Briefly, the practice of the trio has both physical and emotional effects. At the physical level, one can be transformed from being self-centered to unselfish to selfless and At the emotional level one can become conscious of ones emotions. After reaching this awareness, then comes the change from the lower to the higher emotion, to being committed and loyal. This helps in clarifying thoughts on the future. In the modern business context, they can be interpreted as three levels: 1. Karma - Creation, Action, Work (Level 1) LIFE (Here the stages are; Creation of an employee, propelling him into action and resulting in fruitful work) 2. Bhakti - Devotion, Commitment, Loyalty (Level 2) LOVE (Here the stages are; Devotion to a goal, commitment to a process and loyalty to an organization.) 3. Jnana- Knowledge, Understanding, Wisdom (Level 3) LIGHT

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Theses concepts have many meanings. Man is expected to achieve this goal by synthesizing the different facets of Dharma. Artha and Kama. Action with knowledge but without devotion leads to crass commercialism. the apparent reason for action Kama: Desire Moksha: Excellence in work. In an organizational context they can take on the following meanings: Dharma: Code of conduct . to go beyond material desires. action is to be performed with knowledge.The cultivation of these three elements lead to form an individuals attitude towards all aspects of life. with a heart full of devotion and without attachment to the fruits of selfish action. is a long-term necessity for survival. Being truthful. loses sight of his objective. For an individual. Karma or action can be Shreya (the appropriate) or Preya (the pleasant). Mere knowledge and devotion without action are unfruitful.e. What is the absolute motivation or incentive to work and what would be appropriate behaviour in the workplace? Mahabharata conveys the quintessence norms of behavior. Moksha (self realization). this essence can be applied to managing human resources. which is the successful achievement of objectives of work. and hence can therefore be extended to an organizations’ and society’s benefit. observable result. the non-apparent reason for action. One can detect in this aspect of Indian philosophy the similarities with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Every action of ours produces two kinds of results. 1990). The three tenets propound that action without knowledge is destined to fall apart. Ancient literature has always sought to synthesize the Shreya and the Preya (Kamalakar Mishra. the pursuit of truth would lead to the ability to discern between what is “appropriate” and what is “pleasant”. Thus.wealth. The other is the unseen result. in an organizational setting. including work life. means ethical sense and helps to discipline and regulate the pursuit of the Artha & Kama Artha: Material attainments . Mahabharata emphasizes man attaining his ultimate goal in life. keeping in mind society’s and other stakeholders’ (appropriate) good in permanent sight. An individual who chooses the appropriate attains happiness (in the long run) and one who chooses pleasant or easy options. One is the seen. Page 2 of 18 . i.

with the possibility of reappearing is what is called Samskara. Management guru Peter Drucker referred to profit not as the end of business but a score of its effectiveness. This mark. According to Indian thought business is created as an instrument of wealth and welfare. The unseen result also has the tendency of imprinting or conditioning the mind & induces the person to repeat the action whenever opportunity arises. it shows us the merit of work in line with organizational mission and values. then the seen result is the new ward for the patients to use and the unseen result is the satisfaction he gets out of the noble deed. If for example a person gets a new hospital ward built with his donation. Likewise a person who accepts a bribe may acquire wealth but also is afflicted with stress and guilt. The method of achieving this state would be by:  aking every employee aware of his relevance to the organization M Highlighting his role in fulfilling this relevance Enabling the employee develop a sense of identity with his organization Creating a work atmosphere that is conducive for an employee to explore his inner potential. Artha \ kama (Triggers ) Dharma (Mode of pursuit) Moksha (Realization) Page 3 of 18 . What we are every moment is determined by the sum total of these impressions of life. complimenting that notion. According to Western thought. helps to create wholesome employees who are ethically strong and who emanate positive vibes to their community. work is the ethos from conception through construction to conclusion. Therefore. security and ego needs.the consequences of these actions taken to reach the work objectives that is left on the mind of a person. This forms character. Vedanta exhorts an enterprise should be profitable and practical though its core objective is sarva loka hitam (well being of all people). the basic motivation to work is the fulfilment of basic. consequently Karma is work and work is life. in order to achieve goals by following ethical means. When applied in the organizational sense. This aspect of the Vedanta philosophy shows us the way to a life in harmony with our environment.

How to Work? From the earlier discussion. In this role. Moreover. follows the answer to both questions is one and the same. The unconscious mind of the employee would then instinctively know that the intention of the manager is to do good and not to harm to him. Love forms the basis for the work ethic. is the bond or union between people. There is faith and everything flows from it. A manager who can generate faith is quite effective. equivalent to a manager. Page 4 of 18 . (3) The quality of work is improved by competition & rivalry among employees. Just as a devotee does not seek reason to understand God.Bhakti. Work then loses its separate identity and becomes spiritual. if he loves his subordinates can naturally convince them. Self. and add to it another question. Why work. without enmity. he may not be able to charge more and increase his profit. or work as worship or work as sport. he may not be able to punish a guilty employee (2) if a manufacturer or salesman loves his customer. to process and people. Ancient philosophy sees these as different versions of the same reality of work-life and work ethic. (1) if an employer loves his employee. he will make an honest supply thereby raising goodwill & customer loyalty. call it self – realization. Universal love is the very nature of our real self. it removes the dichotomy between individual good and organizational good. which is spiritual in essence but material in expression. the manager is endowed with referent and knowledge power. There may be certain doubts regarding the introduction of the love factor into a work ethic. for the leader-manager love can be the remedy for the problems employees face. One might believe love would mar this. having accepted a guru. Love synthesizes the good in oneself and towards the good of the others. He has to make sure that: His concerns are for the organization and his subordinates Understands organizational requirements. 2003). Bhakti marga is the route of devotion. (S Balachandran et al. A manager. Bhakti and love makes work-life a life of joy and tremendously improves the quality of work-life. tasks and goals Is fair and just in dispensing rewards Let us come back to our original question namely. employees would willingly follow his instructions with absolute trust. the devotion to work. These doubts are misplaced and a deeper analysis would reveal that the truth regarding introducing a love factor is otherwise: (1) Love does not mean refraining from punishing a guilty employee but would be like a parent correcting a child for its own good. (2) If the manufacturer or salesman loves his customers.realization is a state where one feels unity with all and therefore wishes good to and for all.

This explains process orientation. It is not possible for an employee to give quality products if he lives in a slum or in deplorable conditions. the organization went out of its way to treat suppliers with a great deal of compassion and under this enlightened guidance. and the family of the employee is treated like an extended family of the organization. The environment is made congenial. loyalty to people and enthusiasm for improvement in order to achieve business excellence (G kanji. the entire system of labor relations was built around the concept of Vatsalya or love for the employees. Level Three – LIGHT Page 5 of 18 . Neither let there be in you Any attachment to inaction. At Telco great stress is laid on how employees live. 2003). What is required is physiological. Since the inception of Telco at Jamshedpur. The Gita encapsulates the secret formula for success through devotion to process: To action alone have you a right And never to its fruits. Healthy competition does not mean letting down or putting another but rather striving for one’s own betterment. Let not the fruits of action be your motive. Instead of having contractual obligations. The critical success factors in the Bhakti marga are leadership. commitment to customer. This is reflected in the employees imbibing the concepts of harmony & aesthetics and enabling them to produce quality products. one too is inspired to become greater. You ought not to make the result the objective: take care of the process and the result will follow. Take care of your actions (process). Enormous investments have been made to provide quality housing. an automobile & engineering company of Tatas. the suppliers too were able to achieve remarkable results. and never consider that you have control over the fruits (results). India.(3) The spirit of healthy competition is not incongruent with love. This commitment & concern for employees is seen in action at Telco. moral and spiritual well being to be achieved in order to attain harmony. education and medical facilities and environmentally upgrade the company’s surroundings. it surely does not mean taking pleasure in overtaking others. attention to process. It should mean that after seeing others flourish. The buzzword in industries is now is quality. The same attitude of love was also extended to the development of suppliers of the company.

An understanding of the real world. Jnana helps us to look business environments from this perspective. While organizations today talk of ideals like ‘ organizational culture’. The concern for others arises out of the awareness that everyone is working towards the same goal. Jnana takes a systemic view on the process of creating overall good for the shareholders as opposed to personal or organizational wealth. The manager that pursues this route. It intervenes by removing selfishness that interposes itself between the situation and the decision. here. Jnana alone can impart wisdom. _ Maitri Upanishad Eliminating selfishness through knowledge is a critical need for ensuring a leader’s credibility with all stakeholders as it brings in clarity of thought. All action therefore is regarded as instrumental to achieving Jnana. consults and encourages participation. by connection with desire. In an organizational context this would read as a constant process of evolution to better in order to ensure customer satisfaction and ultimately long term survival. will make a leader more effective. When a business leader experiences such a transformation he or she metamorphoses into a business guru. that is full of contradictions (maya) complimented by the belief in karma philosophy. and freedom from biases. ‘super ordinate goals’ and ‘organizational values’. ownership of decisions and commitment from employees. Pure. discusses. It identifies the goal of life as reaching an end state of bliss and has attributed highest value to it. They are then able to deal with complexity and ambiguity well due to their understanding of the environment and not get carried away by extremes. While we can all learn from our mistakes. So it is a journey towards freedom and attaining a wide and unlimited perspective. this is a long and time-wasting route to a goal. the foundation of the concept of selflessness behind these labels is often forgotten. By having an intellectual understanding and accepting the goals and adopting the proper methods.This is route is an intellectual one. what does it mean to say “problems” in management? What we term as problems today are nothing but the solutions discovered yesterday. explains. Page 6 of 18 . Modern management is centered on the concept excellence and achieving excellence. the manager knows what needs to be done and why it needs to be done. It is always better to learn from business knowledge rather than from business mistakes. Impure. Then the future is really not a mystery. The focus here is on organizational objectives like customer satisfaction and continuous improvement. The mind is said to be twofold: The pure and also the impure. This requires an impersonal orientation on the part of the Leader or head of the organization. the person commits himself to the task. Jnana is the process of discovering human identity in all its absoluteness as ExistenceKnowledge – Bliss. Again. by serving the connection with desire.

This philosophy guides individuals to free themselves from the shackles of selfish.Business knowledge is based on an understanding of business culture. This alone can perpetuate the successful performance of individuals. sense-related desires and aim at liberation through selfrealization. to look within and find insights into the domain of management. teams and organizations. logical knowledge) would help the leadership in management. Indian Ethos & Values in Modern Management Page 7 of 18 . Herein lays the wisdom of going back to our own heritage. by continuously improving all aspects of the organization in order to delight the stakeholders. A combination of Jnana (acquired knowledge) and vijnana (discriminatory. Vedanta suggests that by using business knowledge (Jnana) the organization will be able to achieve the best results through leadership (Karma) with business devotion (Bhakti).

spiritual readings and unselfish work. 6. Attention to means ensures the end. Atmano Mokshartham. God within. 7. Intellect has. Buddhism. The salient ideas and thoughts of Indian Ethos in Management revealed by our ancient scriptures are: 1. Jagat hitaya cha: All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in our lives 2.it does draw its lessons from the religions of the land . the body of knowledge which derives its solutions from the rich and huge Indian system of ethics (moral philosophy) is known as Indian Ethos in Management (IEM). Management is behavioural science and it has to be culture specific. respect and fellow feeling. so we succeed. IEM has as its basis. Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param bhavapsyathah: By mutual cooperation. through prayer. Formally. Yadishi bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishi: As we think. about social behaviour and relationship of a person or group” while Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society”. – Albert Einstein “It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a western beginning in business management will have to have an Indian ending. Archet dana manabhyam: Worship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their enterprising divinity within. ideas. It cannot lead. Atmana Vindyate Viryam: Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the Divine.be it Hinduism. 4. etc.“Certainly we should take care not to make intellect our God. or any other. when the world adopts rich thoughts of Indian ethos and wisdom. so we become. Page 8 of 18 . the culture base of India and as a country whose culture has its roots in religion . – Arnold Toynbee. It is not fastidious about its choice of leaders (Mind or Soul). Samatvam yoga uchyate: He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most. if it is not to end in the self-destruction of the human race”. Indian Ethos is all about what can be termed as “national ethos”. all of us enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual. powerful muscles but no personality. 3. It can only serve. Nobel Laureate  What constitutes Indian Ethos? Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines Ethos as “the set of beliefs. Tesham sukhm tesham shanti shaswati: Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the Divine in all beings. of course. Yogah karmashu Kaushalam. 5. Is IEM some kind of Hindu concept of management? Certainly not. The intellect has a sharp eye for tools and methods but is blind to Ends and Values”.

Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam . Inner resources are much more powerful than outer resources. 4. The need to behave ethically comes from the following: 1. One must develop one’s Third Eye. intangible subject and gross tangible objects are equally important. Immense potential. 5. Co-operation is a powerful instrument for team work and success in any enterprise involving collective work. 6. Subtle. wisdom and power). Work Ethos and Management Management is the process of optimum utilisation of human and non-human resources with the intent to accomplish the objectives of organisation along with value addition to the world. 3.Excellence at work through self-motivation and self development with devotion and without attachment. Thus.8. individual self and the universe. Vision. Capital. All of us have the same consciousness though our packages and containers are different. Paraspar Devo Bhav: Regard the other person as a divine being. materials and plant & machinery are outer resources. From the point of view of internal customer: • It improves the atmosphere and ambience at work and facilitates by motivating the Employees • The ethical behaviour of management sets a good example for the employees • It evokes a sense of pride for the company and improves its image in the eyes of the Page 9 of 18 . energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within his heart. which leads to efficiency. Karma Yoga (selfless work) offers double benefits. realisation of organisational goals which leads to effectiveness and value addition to world which suggests social responsibility. Holistic approach indicating unity between the Divine (The Divine means perfection in knowledge. the process of management involves three things optimum utilisation of resources. Divine virtues are inner resources. Basic principles of Indian Ethos for Management (IEM): 1. Ethics and ethical behaviour are the essential elements of healthy management. Jnana Chaksu. Abundant access to information and greater business opportunities than ever before make ethics an essential requirement in the modern business world. private benefit in the form of self purification and public benefit. 2. the Eye of Wisdom. Insight and Foresight.

justice. virtue and vice. work ethos involves delivering as per commitment. Thus. Work Ethos or Work Culture refers to certain norms of behaviour governing the conduct of workers involved in work situations to achieve certain desired objectives. poor work culture results in high rate of wastage. Sometimes. On the other hand. observing appropriate code of conduct as determined by the organisation as well as maintaining one's own morality. colleagues and sub ordinates d. to the organisation. At the Basic Level: Work ethos at the basic level entails: a. The safest place is where your action covers all the three aspects Ethics. L or EML. Top Level: At the top level. Work Culture: Good work culture means one is fully dedicated towards work and has high morale and job satisfaction. concepts such as good and evil. Ethics can also be characterised as At workplace. From the organisation's perspective. Page 10 of 18 . we have to keep a proper balance of Morality. The degree of one’s involvement influences his performance resulting in high or low productivity.e. At a Basic Level 2. Consistent sustenance of ethically and morally sound actions 2. etc. an employee may not always follow the law sometime he could listen to his ethics but one should always have the answer of breaking the law of Work life. It is a mixture of abiding to the laws. feeling responsible for the task assigned to an individual. by his behaviour. low productivity and low morale. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality. law and morality. Observance of discipline and decorum in regards to peers and subordinates f. Ethics and Law. work culture is also integrated with a worker’s loyalty and sense of belonging. Consistent maintenance of punctuality c. Further. WORK ETHOS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT Work ethos will be different at different levels. right and wrong.e. Some more factors that form a part of work ethos at the superior level are: a. It can be defined at different levels as under: 1. At the Top Level 1. Discipline b. EM. being accountable for errors. From the point of view of external customer: • It ameliorates the public image of the company and adds to the overall development of ethical behaviour in the society There have been innumerable discussions on ethics. high or low quality. you must not transgress the boundaries of law i. No personal work or wastage of time during working hours e. poor quality.i. perform within EL. 2. Appropriate and cordial demeanour with superior. Morality and Law (EML).employees and establishes a sense of loyalty.

Employees should assume complete responsibility for the task assigned to them and employ utmost efforts to attain the targets expected of them. e. One should maintain a cordial and amicable relationship with peers. b. sub ordinates and superiors and treat them well. Sense of Belongingness: The worker should exhibit by his behaviour a sense of belongingness to the organisation. marketing and profitability.b. IEM can help develop an effective and holistic management pattern which will assure all round growth in productivity. Loyalty: Work culture is also concerned with a worker's loyalty and sense of belongingness to the organisation. A sense of respect should be demonstrated for the organisation. One should protect the interest of the organisation at all times. Commitment and Responsibility: Every man should work like a master. d. Protecting the interest of organisation: Employees should strive to protect the interests of the organisation and never compromise on this aspect. Principles of IEM are universally applicable. The best form of management has to be holistic and value driven which is the objective of IEM. This will help in synchronizing private and public benefits and encourage individuals to lead an enriched quality of life together with worldly achievements. Page 11 of 18 . No employee should pass any adverse comments about the organisations in the public. not like a slave.

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never speak a word. shareholders and citizens. feelings. (b) Humanising the Organisation – Looking at the three aspects of humane organisations. namely. When the soul manages the other four members of the human being. never throw yourself into action without stepping-back.Indian ethos demands a subjective management system which leads to an understanding of the following: (a) Management Attitude – Top management having firm belief in value-oriented holistic management..  Karma Yoga Page 14 of 18 . This is management by consciousness. intellect and the heart. self-analysis and self-criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony. (g) Self-dynamising Meditation – A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence is called transforming meditation. silent mind is a necessity. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed. (e) Brain-stilling – For rational and enduring decisions. The objective of self management is to first know and manage oneself and then manage others. mind. The stepping back from a situation for a while enables one to control and master a situation. This is called consciousness approach to management. emotions.e. customers. in a silent and calm mind. Faith is a prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition. inter-personal relations. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all stakeholders – employees. i. is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. man-machine equation where man is the prime concern and inner management through mental and spiritual growth of individuals. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Brain-stilling or meditative silence is the most reliable method to discover solutions to problems and difficulties which seem to be difficult to be tackled by reason and intellect because through this one can come into contact with the inner mind or higher consciousness called Chetana. (c) Interiorising Management – Self management or management by consciousness. sensations and passions and a desire to reduce and subdue the ego. (d) Self-introspection – Embark upon self-study. (h) Role of Intuition – Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. A perfect Mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Fulfillment of social responsibility must be ensured. (f) Stepping Back (for a while) – Never decide anything. one reaches a higher level of consciousness which offers guidance in the form of intuitions to tackle a multitude of problems. Through meditation. a self examination of one’s own thoughts. the conflict these four have amongst themselves can be resolved. the body.

Karma Yoga is a good pathway for – self purification and self-development. minimum control and supervision. greed. minimum play of passion. A practioner of NK should possess three important skills: (i) An ability to deal with situations in a mature way (ii) An ability to deal with relationships in a humane manner (iii) Understanding and tapping the power of the mind. team spirit. The main points of difference between NK & SK: NK (Detached Involvement) SK (Attached Involvement) Lord Krishna in the Gita says: “Karmanyeva Adhtkaraste Ma Phaleshu Kadhachana Ma Karma-phala-heturbuhu Ma The’ Sangab Asthu Akarmani” This means “You have the right only to action. Karma Yoga is an end-state or an alias of Nishkam Karma (NK). and never to the fruits of your actions. team work. which is infinitely flexible  Quality of Work Life and Work Ethic Page 15 of 18 . anger and arrogance. hatred. Work is one of the several methods of achieving this union. The result is all round happiness and prosperity. etc. Juxtaposed against the NK is the other attitude to work called Sakam Karma (SK). jealousy. individual as well as collective growth and welfare. autonomous management. nor be attached to inaction”. Yoga means union between ‘individual consciousness’ and ‘supreme consciousnesses’.

Human Values make a person Antarmukhi (interiorized) while skills will make him more and more Bahirmukhi (exteriorized). Values v/s Skills 1.. i. etc. forgiveness. To ‘become’. transparence. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her life time. Value system indicates a hierarchy based on ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. to provide public benefit What is work? To nurture each other. gratitude. integrity. A broad definition of values. It is a form of Yagna. charitableness. humbleness. The sequence being: Character -> Values -> Attitudes -> Behaviour Human Values is the sum total of qualities like truthfulness. we need values. we need skills. Tyag and to serve others without self-interest Spirit of work Excellence and perfection in work  Human Values – Indian Insights Values are basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Instrumental values are preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving one’s terminal values.Why work? To purify the mind and the heart (Chittashuddhi’) and to become wise. To ‘do’. simplicity. ethical and spiritual values. It is the worship of the Divine How to work? With the spirit of renunciation. Page 16 of 18 . patience. sacrifice. Terminal values are desirable end-states of existence. Human values transcend moral. derived from an insight into ancient India’s psychophilosophical wisdom literature is: “Values are states of feelings/emotions that underpin the content of a choice/decision and determine the manner of using the intellect/reason for justifying and implementing that choice/decision.” Character is the foundation of values.e.

Skills see us through mechanics of management. We have permanent fundamental values. Otherwise. 5. skills are used to bring about division. 7. holism and relatedness. 8. Values are internal. principles and values are not. More often than not. Skills change with passage of time. values are. The field of values is governed by union. but well lit and clean. Values are the means of perfection of personality. one can manipulate skills for ulterior motives. “Skills must pass through the corridors of values and the corridors have to be kept not dark and untidy. 6. purifying mind and heart. Policy is flexible.2. ‘Becoming’ (needing values) must precede ‘doing’ (needing skills).” Page 17 of 18 . Skills on the other hand only make a person proficient. Skills are not enduring. Values bring about excellence and universal good. Values should act as the basis of the skills acquired. dealing with internal development of a person. fragmentation and separation. 4. 3. Skills must have sound system of values as the base. Values are the means of perfection.

which enable them to accomplish their work beyond the physical boundaries of their office. use a definition of happiness that is to have as little separation as possible "between your work and your play. communication technologies in the temporal and structural aspects of work have changed. This implies that each individual views work-life conflict differently. This type of control. or simple control. "increasingly sophisticated and affordable technologies have made it more feasible for employees to keep contact with work. Related. Employees may respond to an email or a voice mail after-hours or during the weekend. though broader. In other words. As a result. terms include "lifestyle calm balance" and "life style choices". such as emails. The more this boundary is blurred.Work–life balance is a concept including proper prioritizing between "work" (career and ambition) and "lifestyle" (Health. report stress related to the conflict between work and family Page 18 of 18 . family and spiritual development/meditation)." Most recently. As Bowswell and Olson-Buchanan stated. Those in high-stress jobs are three times more likely than others to suffer from stress-related medical conditions and are twice as likely to quit. authoritarian control. replaces the more direct. The study states that women. leisure." Researchers have found that employees who consider their work roles to be an important component of their identities will be more likely to apply these communication technologies to work while in their non-work domain. The work-leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid 1800s. in particular. According to a survey conducted by the National Life Insurance Company. Technological control "emerges from the physical technology of an organization" ." Employees have many methods. Some theorists suggest that this blurred boundary of work and life is a result of technological control. defining a "new workplace" in which employees are more connected to the jobs beyond the boundaries of the traditional workday and workplace. typically while not officially "on the job. the higher work-to-life conflict faced by employees Many authors believe that parents being affected by work-life conflict will either reduce the number of hours one works where other authors suggest that a parent may run away from family life or work more hours at a workplace. companies use email and distribute smart phones to enable and encourage their employees to stay connected to the business even when they are not in the real office. pleasure. Paul Krassner remarked that anthropologists. four out of ten employees state that their jobs are "very" or "extremely" stressful. computers and cell phones. as Barker argues. there has been a shift in the workplace as a result of advances in technology. such as managers and bosses.