1. a) The Memorial is a tribute to the sacrifice of all Australians who have died in war.

b) The Hall of Memory has 15 stained glass windows, each representing a quality of an Australian soldier, designed and executed by Napier Waller, a Victorian artist who lost his right arm during that war. The walls and dome of the Hall are lined with one of the largest mosaics in the world, also the work of Waller and unveiled in 1959. c) The Founding Fathers were Charles Bean, Australia's Official Historian of the First World War, and John Treloar, the Director of the Memorial between 1920 and 1952. d) – The Memorial was completion delayed due to the extension of the Memorial to also cover the Second World War as well as Australia’s other wars, such as the Gulf War. – As the building had been designed to hold WWI relics only, space created a dilemma for the artifacts of WWII. –Also, Bean only had a budget of £250,000 and an architectural competition in 1927 did not give a satisfactory design. e) Bean had, from the beginning, hoped to include a Roll of Honour. f) The Hall of Memory was completed in 1959. g) On Remembrance Day, 1993, the remains of an unknown soldier, killed at the battlefields of the Western Front were interred to a in a marble-covered tomb in the Hall of Memory. h) – The Memorial became a separate authority, in 1980, whereas before, it was only a part of a government department. This allowed it to access greater power in managing its own affairs – In the early 1980s, there was an endeavor to increase the funding and staffing of the Memorial, which had fallen during the previous years. – During the 1980s a plan to restore the gallery was undertaken, and in 1984 the Gallipoli Gallery was opened. i) June, 2001 marked the completion of the ANZAC Hall. This building holds the Memorial's collection of large technology items. j) Charles Bean's vision was to have the Memorial's galleries showcase one of the world's greatest military collections. 2. a) - The famous Lancaster bomber "G for George". - Famous midget submarine, assembled from sections of two of the three submarines that raided Sydney in 1942.

then. .Monitor engine performance . . at the right moment. this was minimal. From early 1943.Fuel consumption .Selector switched then checked for any ‘hung up’ bombs.Leader. he released the bombs . Flight Engineer .If the target could not be seen. As the war went on. turning back over the target. the Wireless Operator also jammed German fighter control transmissions. Navigator Kept track of the aircrafts position. He was also kept busy assisting the navigator by establish the bomber’s position via base radio transmissions.Directed the pilot as the aircraft made its run up to the target. Recorded all messages Most communication with the outside world was by Morse code and. Get the aircraft to the target on time. In some planes.Log gauge readings .Address any problems.b) Pilot . instructed the pilot to go around again. he was assisted more and more by a range of radio and radar aids.Trigger the photo flash that fell through a chute in the rear of the fuselage allowing the bomb aimer to take a photograph of the aiming point. Wireless Operator (WOP) He was the crews’ link with base. except for regular wind speed and direction reports. . as authority and discipline were essential in the air as well as on the ground and the flyer of the bomber.Manned the rarely used front turret guns.Transfer fuel between tanks . it was also the Wireless Operator job to “drop window” – foil strips intended to confuse the German radar. .Had the responsibility of keeping the aircraft operational. . in-flight . Tasks included: .Check crews’ oxygen supply/equipment .Gave instructions to close the bomb doors.Started engines and conducted pre-flight checks with pilot Bomb Aimer .

Hence. b) This centrepiece is important in this Gallery as the Bell UH-1B Iroquois A2-1019 was one of the first of that type of aircraft to be involved in the Vietnam War. through his invention of the Owen sub-machine gun.The crews primary observer. c) The significant Battle of Long Tan is being recreated in film 4.Mid-Upper Gunner & Rear Gunner . the Thompson. Owen had indirectly broadened the Australian soldiers’ chances of survival.other bombs getting close . it completed 489 missions. c) The Hall of Valour honours the 98 Australians who received the Victoria Cross. as in the first test. NSW. show braver during wartime. on the lookout for: . This gun performed better than that of similar weapons. sand or mud. as the inventor of the Owen sub-machine gun. Lieutenant Evelyn Ernest Owen was born on the 15 May 1915 at Wollongong. From a war perspective. under the most extreme circumstances.Manned the turret for the entire trip . and probably saved many lives. the Sten and the German Burgman. the most efficient sub-machine gun of its time. one can say he contributed to the victory of the Allies in WWII. which bears his name. As this new gun was able to perform better. as well as creating a source of pride for ordinary Australians. and over the next two years. Thus having it is a relic and a memento from the Vietnam War and important to have in the Gallery. e) The Victoria Cross is used to award those that. he contributed to the war. d) The metal in each Victoria Cross originates from the guns captured from the Russians at Sebastopol during the Crimean War of 1854–56.enemy fighters . the gun proved to be more accurate and more able to group is shots better. When it first arrived in May 1966. . 3. As well it performed more effectively and was more impossible to jam than the other three when immersed in water.Had machine guns to fight off attacks. a) The Vietnam Gallery’s centerpiece is an Iroquois helicopter.

shape the way we govern ourselves in society. Such an award was presented to the trooper. furthermore. For example. Later he went out under heavy fire and brought in two badly wounded men. a rare award for those who have shown remarkable and unselfish courage in the service of others. for bravery under enemy attack in Afghanistan. the Victoria Cross to Trooper Mark Donaldson. so the Victoria Cross is awarded to those who show these values in the past and during the present. by their extraordinary deeds of bravery. still putting themselves at risk in serving others. . Through the presentation of the highest military award. at his own risk. The VICTORIA CROSS promotes core values of societies of the past and present. though sacrificing his own safety. The Victoria Cross is deigned to honor and commemorate those who have. and. to provide leadership and an example during the time of great peril in war. also encourages the Australian public to find relevance in his actions and to follow in Trooper Donaldson’s acts of bravery. from other nationalities. and one can see that there are people today. performed first aid on him. as he sought to protect his comrades. Thus. But then the trooper Donaldson saw a severely injured afghan interpreter lying on the ground. as examples of the core values that maintain our society and. The VICTORIA CROSS also commemorates the core values of the ANZAC spirit. and promoting core values of the Australian society. and ran “80 metres of exposed ground to rescue him”. During WWI. leadership and service to others. He was traveling in an Afghan. during wartime. and dire circumstances. such as bravery. It is the highest form of recognition to be bestowed on a soldier. before returning to fight. but. still sacrificing their lies. Donaldson ran from one position of cover to another. These are key values in today’s society as we all rely on one another. . selflessness. Therefore. selflessness. which is still alive from WWI. through rescuing an injured afghan interpreter. and further. it has meant that his actions were commended. hence. just as artifacts and medals only hold significance if their purpose is commemorated and thus their relevance is conveyed to the public. Sergeant Percy Clyde Statton VICTORIA CROSS won the VICTORIA CROSS for performing a number of brave actions. leadership and service to others. one can see that as the ANZAC spirit transcends time and place. and sometimes sacrificing their own lives. He disposed of two of the posts and killed five of the enemy. and thus the VICTORIA Cross seeks to promote these to the AP through the presentation of the award to people such as Mark Donaldson. The ANZAC spirit is what defines the Australians in battle. it is important to promote and maintain its place in Australian society. or else the nation and individuals would lose their history and their identity. US and Australian convoy through the province of Oruzgan province in Afghanistan. upholding the ANZAC spirit. at one point rushing four enemy machine-gun positions armed only with a revolver. when they were ambush.History is only important when one finds interest in it. Similarly the actions of trooper Mark Donaldson are based on the core values of the ANZAC spirit. Thus the Victoria Cross still has much relevance for the Australian Public. in relevance. “engaging the attackers” and “bought enough time for those wounded to be moved to relative safety”. Mark Donaldson.

. Therefore.Perhaps the most obvious reason for the Victoria Cross’s relevance to the Australian public is due to the continuation of certain people’s sacrifices. continue to make such choices. one can see that the Victoria Cross still has much relevance to today's Australian public. such as bravery. The citation for the medal reads “Trooper Donaldson’s actions on this day displayed exceptional courage in circumstances of great peril. then the present day Australian public should not imagine that the Victoria Cross is irrelevant as it has occurred in history and the past. one should remember that history is always present and key values such as bravery. selflessness. leadership. even in the present day. to acknowledge to actions of Mark Donaldson creates a link from the past wars to the present. It also commemorates the ANZAC spirit. As the nations continue to clash. and service to others. and service to others. and thus relevance. selflessness. finds relevance constantly in today’s society. There are still people such as Mark Donaldson. leadership. as the award promotes core values of society. and the presentation of the award. there are individuals who still sacrifice much for the sake of Australia. Thus. Therefore. due to the fact that people such as Mark. His actions are of the highest accord and are in keeping with the finest traditions of the Special Operations Command. leadership. and world continues to create conflict. the Australian Army and the Australian Defence Force”. who continue to maintain the core values of bravery. and service to others. selflessness.

Flintshire.asp why did certain ppl win it? Eg People profiles Second Lieutenant Frederick Birks VICTORIA CROSS Frederick Birks P01113. Belgium Frederick Birks was born in North Wales. . Birks was commissioned in the 6th Battalion. during the battle of Menin Road. North Wales Date of death: 21 September 1917 Place of death: Glencorse Wood. in May 1917. Later he led a small party against another strongpoint. He was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. In France next year he was awarded the Military Medal for bravery. who was serving in the British army. Birks and a corporal attacked a German pillbox which was holding up the advance. the award was accepted by his brother. Having been selected for officer-training. capturing 16 men and killing or wounding nine others. He held different jobs before enlisting in August 1914.au/people/8228. he was wounded in June 1915. AIF.001 Date of birth: 16 August 1894 Place of birth: Buckley.awm. He was posted to the medical corps and served as a stretcher-bearer on Gallipoli. the brave officer was killed by a shell.gov.More info: https://www. the corporal was wounded but Birks went on. while trying to rescue some of his men who had been buried by an explosion. The following day. and migrated to Australia in 1913. On 20 September. killing those in the pillbox and capturing a machine-gun.

au/encyclopedia/vic_cross.gov.awm. a Military Medal.gov.awm.au/blog/2009/01/22/the-victoria-cross/ http://youtu.gov.awm.au/exhibitions/bravemen/ .gov.asp http://www.au/blog/2012/02/03/victoria-cross-records-and-ephemera/ http://www.awm.be/17TDiTnQoZg http://www.awm. http://www. and service medals for the First World War.asp VICTORIA CROSS info http://www.gov.au/encyclopedia/vic_cross.Birk received the Victoria Cross.