FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering

Lecture 10 – Microwave Processing Microwaves are electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are spread by the interaction electric and magnetic fields it can also be spread in vacuum. Electromagnetic wave has two elements, wavelength and frequency. Wave length is the length of one cycle Frequency is the number of cycles per second Electromagnetic waves which have a frequency between 300 MHz and 300 GHz are classified as microwaves. The velocity of electromagnetic wave in a free space, such as vacuum and air, is constantly 300,000 km per second regardless of frequency.

Table 1: Application and classification of electromagnetic wave

1|Page

for example. Devices that use radio frequencies other than the ISM frequency need a large-scale counter measurement for radio leakage to meet the regulation of Radio Law. Table 2: ISM frequency of microwave band 915MHz has been recognized as ISM frequency in the second region (North and South America) ISM frequencies that can be used worldwide is the ISM frequency of 2450MHz or higher. the Radio Law doesn't regulate the limit of radio leakage for the ISM frequency of 2450MHz band. On the other hand. ITU has allocated frequencies for the purpose of industrial. but also existence of a microwave oscillator tube shown in Figure 1. or for entire building. light weight. there is a law with strict limits to regulate leakage of radio waves in order to avoid interference with telecommunication failure. scientific. and permanent magnet attached. The 2450MHz is the most popular among ISM frequency bands due to not only being usable in any countries in the world. However. including microwave oven at home. such as. as shown in Table 2. Regarding microwave that has frequency of 300MHz to 300GHz (wave length of 1m to 1mm). radio wave shields for equipment installation room. This is why various industrial heating equipment is using ISM frequency. medical use.FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering Permitted Microwave Frequencies ITU (International Telecommunication Union) would assign the available frequencies of radio wave that depends on use. FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering 2|Page . is also a huge contribution to market expansion of the 2450MHz band. The relatively inexpensive magnetron (Output: 300W to 10kW) that is compact built.

Ionic Conduction During the ionic conduction. Molecular dipole rotation When exposed to microwave frequencies. The frequency 2. The amount of heat generated by this process is directly related to the ability of the molecules to align itself with the frequency of the applied field. If the dipole does not have enough time to realign (high-frequency irradiation) or reorientation is too slow (lowfrequency irradiation) no heating occurs. This phase difference causes energy to be lost from the dipole by molecular friction and collisions. but not to follow the alternating field precisely. As the applied field oscillates.45 GHz usually used in all commercial systems lies between these two extremes and gives the molecule dipole time to align in the field. as the dipole re-orientates to align itself with the electric field. creating heat. Microwave heating is to heat dielectric materials mainly through their molecular motion and their ionic conduction by the action of electromagnetic waves of 300MHz to 300GHz. They collide with their neighboring molecules or atoms. 3|Page . Therefore. The conductivity principle is a much stronger effect than the dipolar rotation mechanism with regard to the heat-generating capacity. the field is already changing and generates a phase difference between the orientation of the field and that of the dipole.Figure 1: 2450MHz band Magnetron Principle of Microwave Heating IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) defines. the dipole field attempts to follow these oscillations and the energy is lost in the form of heat through molecular friction and dielectric loss. the molecular dipoles align in the applied electric field. This is why the media containing ions are heated more efficiently by microwaves than just polar solvents. the dissolved charged particles in a sample (usually ions) oscillate back and forth under the influence of the electric component of microwave irradiation. And these collisions cause agitation or motion. giving rise dielectric heating.

This collision generated heat in food. So. the liquid becomes T2 [℃].FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering Microwave interaction with food materials Microwave reaches the food and reacts with water (permanent dipole). the specific heat of the liquid is C [J /(kg・K)]. 2. microwave power [W] absorbed by the liquid is given by Equation 2. the heating efficiency is given by Equation 3. absorbed microwave power of water can be calculated. Power Absorption 1. The microwave power absorbed by the dielectric (calculation formula for calculating calories) In the applicator. a vessel with liquid w [Kg] (at initial temperature T1 [℃]) is irradiated at microwave power PA [W] for t [s].556 x 10-10 is dielectric Constant tan is the loss tangent f is the frequency in (Hz) E is the electric field strength (V/m) On the other hand. For example. it can be explained by the calculation described in calories (2). And. there is no way to find out the actual electric field strength in the dielectric.Equation 1 Where. 4|Page . The microwave power absorbed by the dielectric (theoretical formula) Equation 1 shows microwave power P1 absorbed by the dielectric in a theoretical formula. when the liquid is water. Then. And. K is Constant 0. E in Equation 1 is the electric field strength which will be determined at the design of applicator in device as well as at conditions of the dielectric in the applicator. This causes the continuous rearrangement of molecules and starts colloidings with each other. by using the specific heat of water 4180 [J /(kg・K)]. Then. To find the microwave power absorbed by the dielectric. ---------------------------------.

Power = = 0. 0. Given Operating Condition .058 watt (C) The depth of microwave penetration into dielectric The microwave penetration depth from the surface of the dielectric to inside is defined as depth that is 50% of the surface power. the formula for the penetration depth is given by Equation 4.15 kg Initial temperature 19 degrees C Final temperature 30 degrees C Solution Temperature rise = 30-19=11 degrees C. Equation 4 5|Page . And.Microwave on full power for 2 minutes (120 seconds) Volume of water 150 g = app. Therefore.FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering Equation 2 Equation 3 Problem 1 Microwave operates in full power mode to heat water. Take the give conditions below and find the power absorptive of liquid.

hydrogenation of 1. there are microwave effects that are caused by the unique nature of the microwave dielectric heating.4-butadien was performed using both the thermal (oil bath) and microwave heating under the same temperature and time. specific thermal microwave effects and specific non-thermal microwave effects. but essentially are still thermal effects. It was established that microwave-heated liquids boil at temperatures above the equilibrium boiling point at atmospheric pressure. WileyVCH. 2.O. Stadler Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemisry. Therefore. Superheating . It means that high reaction temperature achieved rapidly under microwave irradiation of polar materials cause increase in the chemical reaction rate. but the yield of the hydrogenated product appeared to be much higher under microwave irradiation conditions. the temperature at the inner surface of the reactor wall is lower than that of the bulk liquid Picture 1. Specific thermal microwave effects In addition to thermal effects. Wall effect: with microwave heating. Thermal effects (kinetics) In the majority of cases the reason for the observed rate enhancement of chemical processes is a purely thermal (kinetic) effect. 1. These effects should be defined as accelerations of chemical transformations in a microwave field that cannot be achieved or duplicate by conventional heating. Inverted temperature gradient in microwave (left) versus oil bath (right) heating (the picture from the book C. Kappe and A. 2005) 3. In this case.. the surface of the wall of the reactor is generally not heated since the energy is dissipated inside the whole volume of the reaction mixture. Volumetric heating: another phenomenon characteristic of microwave dielectric heating is rapid and even heating of the whole reaction mixture by microwaves. almost without any temperature gradient.FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering Effects of microwave on material properties There are three possibilities for rationalizing of rate-enhancements in chemical processes is observed in microwave-assisted process: thermal effects (kinetics). Weinheim. 6|Page .

It means that in a sample containing more than one component. It is considered that "molecular radiators" can directly couple microwave energy but this hypothesis is difficult to prove experimentally. They are believed to be formed when a polar substance is irradiated in non polar media. Specific non thermal microwave effects In contrast to specific thermal microwave effects an existing of specific non-thermal microwave effects is suggested by some authors.FPE602 – Advances in Food Engineering 4. These should be classified as acceleration of chemical processes in a microwave field that cannot be rationalized in terms of either purely thermal/kinetic or specific thermal microwave effects. 7|Page . only that one which couples with microwaves is selectively heated. Thus the controlled microwave heating is a new and efficient tool in Chemistry. Molecular radiators: for homogeneous mixtures an existing of so-called "molecular radiators" (microscopic hot spots) is suggested. which widens the scope of thermal heating limitations and gives chemist novel and exciting possibilities. Selective heterogeneous heating: one of the most important specific thermal microwave effects results from the selective heating of strongly microwave-absorbing heterogeneous catalysts or reagents in a less polar reaction medium. 5.