Let gas 1 be H2 and gas 2 be O2.

Rate1 is the rate of effusion of the first gas (volume or number of moles per unit time). {\mbox{Rate H}_2 \over \mbox{Rate O}_2}={\sqrt{32} \over \sqrt{2}}={\sqrt{16} \over \sqrt{1}}= \frac{4}{ 1} Rate2 is the rate of effusion for the second gas. M1 is the molar mass of gas 1 Therefore, hydrogen molecules effuse four times faster than those of oxygen. M2 is the molar mass of gas 2.

Graham's Law can also be used to find the approximate molecular weight of a gas if one gas is a known species, and if there is a specific ratio between the rates of two gases (such as in the previous example). The equation can be solved for either one of the molecular weights provided the subscripts are consistent.

{M_2}={M_1 \mbox{Rate}_1^2 \over \mbox{Rate}_2^2}

Graham's law states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Thus, if the molecular weight of one gas is four times that of another, it would diffuse through a porous plug or escape through a small pinhole in a vessel at half the rate of the other. A complete theoretical explanation of Graham's law was provided years later by the kinetic theory of gases. Graham's law provides a basis for separating isotopes by diffusion — a method that came to play a crucial role in the development of the atomic bomb.

Graham's law was the basis for separating 235U from 238U found in natural uraninite (uranium ore) during the Manhattan project to build the first atomic bomb. The United States government built a gaseous diffusion plant at the then phenomenal cost of $100 million in Clinton, Tennessee. In this plant, uranium from uranium ore was first converted to uranium hexafluoride and then forced repeatedly to diffuse through porous barriers, each time becoming a little more enriched in the slightly lighter 235U isotope. Graham's law, known as Graham's law of effusion, was formulated by Scottish physical chemist Thomas Graham in 1846. Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. This formula can be written as:

Graham's law is most accurate for molecular effusion which involves the movement of one gas at a time through a hole. It is only approximate for diffusion of one gas in another or in air, as these processes involve the movement of more than one gas.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the
natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:

{\mbox{Rate}_1 \over \mbox{Rate}_2}=\sqrt{M_2 \over M_1}

Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5.


and 1. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons. A pollutant that is not broken down by natural processes is called non degradable pollutant. and sleep disturbance. like synthetic plastics . (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment. Visual pollution. industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. such as chlorine.includes light trespass. Noise pollution:. throat inflammation.anything that can be broken down by organisms NON BIO-DEGRADABLE THINGS:plastic toys. sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce.[31] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50. kitchens.000. Noise pollution induces hearing loss. In many areas. high blood pressure.which encompasses roadway noise. In India. stress. resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution.000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. The 'system of sewers' is called sewerage Sewage is generated by residential. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. baths. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects. Others. Some nondegradable pollutants. which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides).the criminal throwing of inappropriate manmade objects. Littering:..[30] 656. The separation and draining of . juice. It includes household waste liquid from toilets. Children and infants are also at serious risk. over-illumination and astronomical interference. open storage of trash. onto public and private properties. mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research. heavy metals.such as heavy metals which have high toxic content and are very persistent. are a problem because of their sheer volume. MTBE. such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. clothes. eutrophication and littering. and chemical contaminants. Water pollution.700 fatalities a year.[10] herbicides. air pollution is believed to cause 527. manufacture and deployment. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. unremoved. Water pollution causes approximately 14. scarred landforms (as from strip mining). municipal solid waste or space debris. aircraft noise. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater. sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff. motorway billboards. One way of dealing with nondegradable pollutants is to reduce the quantity released into the environment either by recycling them BIO-DEGRADABLE THINGS:paper. and commercial and industrial establishments. chest pain. synthetic rubber. from treated sewage. Radioactive contamination. pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease. CUASCES OF POLLUTION Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. cardiovascular disease. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet. is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. chicken bones.000 deaths per day. by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters. and congestion.Light pollution:. plastic bags. waste disposal and leaching into groundwater. glass. institutional.[32] Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. steel. discharges of untreated domestic sewage. A sanitary sewer (also called a foul sewer) is a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal. showers.) Thermal pollution..[29] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. like the heavy metals . which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines. Nondegradable pollutant A pollutant that is not broken down by natural processes. create problems because they are toxic and persistent in the environment .

The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. and they are not designed to transport stormwater. reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency. water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. rags.). (See urban runoff. If it is sufficiently clean. biofilters or aerobic treatment systems). Industrial sources of sewage often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment).)[5] Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow (dilution by stormwater and/or groundwater) is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. animal waste. and oil and grease. lagoon or wetland. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. wetlands. coral reefs.[3]:119 Combined sewers require much larger and more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Sewerage systems capable of handling stormwater are known as combined sewer systems. Bar screens or mesh screens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal. carried in the sewage stream. SCREENING The influent sewage water passes through a bar screen to remove all large objects like cans. by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream. tree limbs. Sewage may include stormwater runoff. it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment. causing a spill or overflow. . Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system. a decentralised system (in septic tanks. river. or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill..[6] This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations. they become entrained in pipes and moving parts of the treatment plant. Sewage can be treated close to where it is created.. or be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant. Sewage treatment generally involves three stages. and can cause substantial damage and inefficiency in the process. leaves. Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries. Communities that have urbanized in the mid-20th century or later generally have built separate systems for sewage (sanitary sewers) and stormwater. bay. organic compounds. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller than combined sewers.[4] Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil. a centralised system (see sewerage and pipes and infrastructure). called primary. secondary and tertiary treatment. Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local. a manually cleaned screen may be used. Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example.. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. or incinerated. heavy metals. plastic packets etc. low-flow rivers. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets. and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids). in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous. green way or park. If gross solids are not removed. buried vaults with various kinds of media filters. Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw sewage before they damage or clog the pumps and sewage lines of primary treatment clarifiers (trash. it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins. branches etc As rainfall travels over roofs and the ground.household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world. sticks. because precipitation causes widely varying flows. grease and lighter solids float to the surface. state and federal regulations and standards. This design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed. whilst in smaller or less modern plants.