# Let gas 1 be H2 and gas 2 be O2.

Rate1 is the rate of effusion of the first gas (volume or number of moles per unit time). {\mbox{Rate H}_2 \over \mbox{Rate O}_2}={\sqrt{32} \over \sqrt{2}}={\sqrt{16} \over \sqrt{1}}= \frac{4}{ 1} Rate2 is the rate of effusion for the second gas. M1 is the molar mass of gas 1 Therefore, hydrogen molecules effuse four times faster than those of oxygen. M2 is the molar mass of gas 2.

Graham's Law can also be used to find the approximate molecular weight of a gas if one gas is a known species, and if there is a specific ratio between the rates of two gases (such as in the previous example). The equation can be solved for either one of the molecular weights provided the subscripts are consistent.

{M_2}={M_1 \mbox{Rate}_1^2 \over \mbox{Rate}_2^2}

Graham's law states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Thus, if the molecular weight of one gas is four times that of another, it would diffuse through a porous plug or escape through a small pinhole in a vessel at half the rate of the other. A complete theoretical explanation of Graham's law was provided years later by the kinetic theory of gases. Graham's law provides a basis for separating isotopes by diffusion — a method that came to play a crucial role in the development of the atomic bomb.

Graham's law was the basis for separating 235U from 238U found in natural uraninite (uranium ore) during the Manhattan project to build the first atomic bomb. The United States government built a gaseous diffusion plant at the then phenomenal cost of \$100 million in Clinton, Tennessee. In this plant, uranium from uranium ore was first converted to uranium hexafluoride and then forced repeatedly to diffuse through porous barriers, each time becoming a little more enriched in the slightly lighter 235U isotope. Graham's law, known as Graham's law of effusion, was formulated by Scottish physical chemist Thomas Graham in 1846. Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles. This formula can be written as:

Graham's law is most accurate for molecular effusion which involves the movement of one gas at a time through a hole. It is only approximate for diffusion of one gas in another or in air, as these processes involve the movement of more than one gas.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the
natural environment that cause adverse change.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular contaminant relevant to each of them:

{\mbox{Rate}_1 \over \mbox{Rate}_2}=\sqrt{M_2 \over M_1}

Air pollution:- the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5.

where: