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# Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.

com

Lecture on Vector Space: Lecture Set IV [In this Lecture set, we discuss inner products, orthogonality, different Unitary and Hermitian operators, applications and all that. ]

Some important ideas: Orthogonal Diagonalizability of a real Symmetric Matrix

Consider a real matrix

For orthogonal matrix, ( Thus the matrix )

is symmetric!

**Note: If a real matrix is diagonalizable by an orthogonal matrix, it is symmetric.
**

Similarity Transform and Characteristic Equation:

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

Consider two similar matrices, (

and : ) ( ( ( ( ( ) ( ) ) ) ) ) ( )

Thus the similar matrices have same characteristic polynomials. Operations with UNITARY Matrix

Preliminaries:

In our previous lecture, we defined the inner product on complex vector space. 〈 〈 〉 〉 ∑ , for complex numbers, , for complex matrices.

**For Unitary Matrices (usually complex), , 〈 〉 〈 〉 〈 . /
**

√

〉=

(

) (

)

〈

〉

# Examples:

√

√

. .

/ / .

. .

/ / . /

√

√

/

Note: The product of two unitary matrices is a unitary matrix. The inverse of a unitary matrix is another unitary matrix. Identity matrix is unitary. The unitary matrices form a group called unitary group. Consider a special unitary matrix, ( ( These ) ( ), where the determinant, )( ) . /

**special unitary matrices form a special unitary group: SU(2)
**

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

The Eigenvalues of a Unitary Matrix are equal to unity:

**Let us consider matrix, . 〈 〉 〈 Therefore, | |
**

be an eigenvector corresponding to the eigenvalue of the unitary 〉 〈 | | 〉 〈 〉 〈 〉 | | 〈 〉

Inner Product is preserved due to operation of Unitary Matrix

Let us suppose, (independent) Take any vector eigenvectors. ( | | ) | | ,

, , ,…

,

,…

correspond to the orthogonal eigenvectors .

. Also assume, for every , | |

and expand it in terms of the orthogonal basis formed by the

, (

)-

(

)

, this means

is unitary. and .

Further, let us consider two vectors, 〈 〉 ∑ 〈 〉 ∑ ∑ ∑ 〉 , ∑ , ,… | | ( ) ∑ 〈 , 〉 〈 , ,… ∑ 〉

Now consider, and

that form an orthonormal basis:

Now, Also, 〈 If now

[Assume,

]

forma orthonormal basis, | |

for each .

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

〈

〉

∑

〈

〉

Thus the inner product is preserved due to the operation of unitary matrix. In other words, we can say that the linear operator and this is then unitary operator. Operations with Unitary Matrix: 〈𝑈(𝑥) 𝑈(𝑦)〉 〈𝑥 𝑈 𝑈(𝑦)〉 〈𝑥 𝑦〉 Inner product conserved 𝑈(𝑥) 𝑥 Norm preserved 𝑈(𝑥) 𝑈(𝑦) 𝑈(𝑥 𝑦) 𝑥 𝑦 Distance preserved. carries an orthonormal basis into another

NOTE: The operation of onto itself.

on the vectors in a vector space

means the isomorphism

**Operations with HERMITIAN Matrix A Hermitian matrix is self-adjoint,
**

.

All the eigenvalues of a Hermitian operator are real numbers.

Take any eigenvalue λ corresponding to the eigenvector : Consider, 〈 Again, 〈 〉 ( 〈 ) 〉 〈 ( 〉 ) 〈 〈 〉 〉 〉 〈 〉 〈 〉

**which means real number.
**

Inverse of a Hermitian Operator (

)

(

)

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

is also Hermitian.

**Suppose, 〈 Also, 〈 Now (
**

)

〉 〉

〈 ( (

〉

) 〈 )

〈 〉 (

〉

)

**Thus we can write,
**

The eigenvalues of are the inverse of the eigenvalues of .

Decomposition of a Matrix

Suppose,

is a unitary matrix.

We can always write,

and

are Hermitian matrices. ( ), ( ( ) )

Now, But , -

, which means

and

commute!

NOTE: The reverse is also true.

Any matrix which is not Hermitian, can be expressed as the sum of a Hermitian matrix and a skew Hermitian matrix. ( ) ( )

Suppose,

is an unitary matrix and .

is a Hermitian matrix. Consider the similarity ) ,( -

transformation,

Now the adjoint to the above, (

)

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

( ( So, the similarity transformation is self-adjoint! )

) (

)

# EXAMPLES of Hermitian Matrices that we often encounter in Physics: Pauli spin matrices, . /, . /, . /

If we now construct a general matrix, ( ), this is also a Hermitian matrix.

Gram-Schmidt Ortho-normalization Process

This is a method to construct a orthonormal basis from an arbitrary basis: * Consider, Next, * 〈 + * so that 〉 and + is normal, 〈 〉 is normal.

+ form an orthonormal set. 〈 〉 〈 〉 and is normal.

Next stage, Now, *

+ form an orthonormal set.

In this way, we can construct 〈 〉 〈 〉 〈 〉 and

.

Notice the following transition: ( ) ( )( )

The Transition matrix is clearly in triangular form.

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

To use the method: For a vector, the following way, 〈 The vector To check: 〈 〉 〈 〉 [ * This is true for all Example #1: Consider the following set of vectors, ( ( √ 〈 . √ We can now check, 〈 Note: , 〉 〉 / ( ( )

√

if we construct a new vector 〉 〈

in terms of the basis set * 〉 ’s. 〉 〈 〉〈 〉 〈 〉

+ in

will be orthogonal to each of the vectors 〈 〉〈 〉 〈 〉〈

+ is a orthonormal set] .

’s,

), ) ( )

( ( √ .

) in √ / )

.

.

√

√

/

.

/

√ .

√

)

form orthonormal basis in

.

**Example #2: (Ref: Hoffman-Kunze) Consider the vectors, Soln. ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) 〈(
**

( )

(

),

(

),

(

) in

Apply Gram-Schmidt process to find orthogonal set of vectors.

) ( ( )

)(

)〉 ) )

(

)

(

〈(

(

)〉

(

)

〈(

)(

)〉

(

)

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

( ( Now , , )

)

(

)

(

)

are orthogonal set of vectors in

.

Inner Product space: An inner product space is a real or complex vector space together with a specified inner product defined on that space. A finite dimensional real inner product space is called Euclidean space. A complex inner product space is called Unitary space.

Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

**From Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process we go over to Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Consider two vectors, , .
**

〈 〉

**From Then 〈 Also, 〈 〈
**

〈

[From Gram-Schmidt]

〉

〈 〉 〈 〉

〉

〉

〉

〈

〉〈

〉

[ 〈

〉

〈

〉]

|〈 |〈

**〉| 〉| | || | This is Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
**

Inner Product in complex Vector Space

For ,

,〈

**〉 is a complex number. So we can write,
**

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

〈 Now, 〈 〈 Consider, 〈 〉 〉 〈 〈 〉 〈 Similarly, Therefore, for Real space: 〈 〉 〉 〉 〈 , 〈 〉 ,〈 〉 〉 〈 〉 〈 〈 〉 〉〈 〈 〉

〉 〉

〈

〉

〈

〉

〉

〈

〉

〈

〉

〈

〉

(1) 〉 (2)

(3) (4)

Complex space: 〈

[H.W.: Check the above two identities.] (3) & (4) are called polarization identities.

Condition for Orthogonalization:

Consider a

matrix, (

.

/, where ) and ( )

are complex numbers in general.

**Now set two vectors, ( ( (
**

| | | | | |

**Next, we apply Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization scheme, ) ) )
**

| | | | | |

〈(

) ( )〉 ( | | | |

) | |

)

( | |

( | | )( )

) | | ) | | | | | | )

( | | ( (

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Lecture Notes IV compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

Now

and

are linearly independent if .

[

and

are also linearly independent.]

The above is possible only if #Example: Two vectors, . We have, On the contrary: Take . / where the

Thus this is the condition of orthogonalization of two vectors.

/ and . / are orthogonal. | |

Now construct two vectors, 〈

. / and 〉 . /(

. / )

Thus the two vectors are not orthogonal. H.W. Check the orthogonality for the following rotation matrix: ( )

More about Inner Product Space: For a vector space of matrices, the inner product 〈 ( ) ∑( ) ∑ 〉 ( ) ∑ ( )

For a vector space of all continuous complex valued functions on the unit interval, , 〈 〉 ∫ ( ) ( ) .

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