parsons

ENERGY & CHEMICALS Group

Job Number

Design Guide Number

Rev

Date

Sheet of

DESIGN GUIDE
Project, Client, Location

ECS-DGS-007 (PIP STE05121)
Design Guide Title

0

2/6/03

1

1

COMPANY STANDARD

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN GUIDE

In-House Review Fabrication

Client Approval Construction

Design
_____________________

Entire Design Guide Attached Revised Sheets Only Attached

Approvals Rev Date By Ck
Section Project Engineer Client

Remarks

0

2/6/03

DB

DB

Initial Issue

This sheet is a record of each issue or revision to the subject specification. Each time this specification document is changed, only the new or revised sheets must be issued. The exact sheets changed and the nature of the change should be noted in the Remarks column; however, these remarks are not a part of the specification. The revised sheets shall become part of the original specification and shall be complied with in their entirety.

EGE-FRM-008 (2/06/03)

January 2003

Process Industry Practices Structural

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.

Not printed with State funds

January 2003

Process Industry Practices Structural

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide
Table of Contents 1. Introduction .................................. 3
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Purpose ............................................. 3 Scope................................................. 3 Use of “Shall” and “Should” ............... 3 Dimensions ........................................ 3 5.5 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Circular Pattern................................ 11 5.6 Minimum Dimensions ...................... 11

6. Ductile Design .......................... 13
6.1 Ductile Design Philosophy ............... 13 6.2 Critical Areas Requiring Ductile Design.............................................. 13 6.3 Requirements for Ductile Design..... 13 6.4 Means to Achieve Ductile Design .... 14

2. References ................................... 3
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Process Industry Practices ................ 3 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 3 Government Regulations ................... 4 Other References .............................. 5

7. Reinforcing Design .................. 15 3. Notation ....................................... 5 4. Materials...................................... 7
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Anchors.............................................. 7 Sleeves .............................................. 8 Washers ............................................ 8 Corrosion ........................................... 9 7.1 General ............................................ 15 7.2 Failure Surface ................................ 15 7.3 Reinforcing Design to Transfer Tensile Forces ................................. 16 7.4 Reinforcing to Transfer Shear Forces ................................... 17

8. Frictional Resistance ............... 17
8.1 General ............................................ 17 8.2 Calculating Resisting Friction Force................................... 18

5. Strength Design........................ 10
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Loading ............................................ 10 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet..... 10 Anchor Design Considerations ........ 10 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Rectangular Pattern......................... 11

9. Shear Lug Design..................... 18
9.1 Calculating Shear Load Applied to Shear Lug ........................................ 19 9.2 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Plate ............................... 19

Process Industry Practices

Page 1 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

9.3 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Pipe Section....................19

Examples
1. 2. Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet . A-19 Column Plate Connection – Supplementary Tensile Reinforcing ................................... A-24 Shear Lug Plate Section Design .. A-25 Shear Lug Pipe Section Design ... A-27

10. Pretensioning............................20
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Advantages ......................................21 Disadvantages..................................21 When to Apply Pretensioning ...........21 Concrete Failure...............................21 Stretching Length .............................22 Pretensioning Methods.....................22 Relaxation ........................................23 Tightening Sequence .......................23 Recommended Tightening if Anchor Pretensioning Is Not Required .........23

3. 4.

Figures, Tables, and Examples.....25 Tables
1. 2. 3. 4. Minimum Anchor Dimensions ........ A-1 Reinforcement Tensile Capacity and Development Length .............. A-2 Hairpin Reinforcement Design and Details ............................................ A-3 Pretension Load and Torque Recommendations ......................... A-4

Figures
A. Anchor Details ................................ A-5 B-1. Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear – Octagon “Weak” Anchors............... A-6 B-2. Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear – Octagon “Strong” Anchors ............. A-7 C-1. Tensile Reinforcement – Vertical Dowels............................... A-8 C-2 Tensile Reinforcement – Vertical Hairpin ............................... A-9 D-1. Shear Reinforcement – Horizontal Hairpin......................... A-10 D-2. Shear Reinforcement – Closed Ties .................................. A-11 D-3. Shear Reinforcement – Anchored Reinforcement ............. A-12 D-4. Shear Reinforcement – Shear Angles................................ A-13 D-5. Shear Reinforcement – Strut-and-Tie Model...................... A-14 E. Minimum Lateral Reinforcement – Pedestal ....................................... A-15 F. Coefficients of Friction.................. A-16 G. Pretensioned Anchors for Turbines and Reciprocating Compressors.. A-17 H. Anchor-Tightening Sequence....... A-18

Page 2 of 25

Process Industry Practices

ACI 318. reinforcing.1 Purpose This Practice provides the engineer and designer with guidelines for anchor design for use by the process industry companies and engineering/construction firms. sites. 2. shear lugs.] Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 25 . and pretensioning.1R-91 . 2.3 Use of “Shall” and “Should” Throughout this Practice the word “shall” is used if the item is required by code. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate. 1. ductile design.2 Industry Codes and Standards • American Concrete Institute (ACI) – ACI 318-02 .Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary – ACI 349-01 .Allowable Stress Design . a metric version of the basic reference for Anchor Bolt Design. Appendix B – ACI 355.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide 1. Included are material selection. 1. specifications. and the word “should” is used if the item is simply recommended or its use is a good practice. and references in effect on the date of contract award shall be used. Introduction 1. the latest edition of the following applicable codes. References When adopted in this Practice.Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures. standards.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) – PIP REIE686 – Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design 2.2 Scope This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the design of anchors in process industry facilities at onshore U. had not been developed.Ninth Edition [Short title used herein is AISC ASD Manual. strength design.4 Dimensions At the time of issue of this Practice. 1.S. therefore this Practice was developed in English units only. except as otherwise specified.State-of-the-Art Report on Anchorage to Concrete • American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) – AISC Manual of Steel Construction .

ZincCoated. and Seamless – ASTM A193 . 60.1 .Industrial Safety and Regulatory Compliance Page 4 of 25 Process Industry Practices . 1997 [Short title used herein is ASCE Anchor Bolt Report. David T.Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) .Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs. Studs. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA 29 CFR 1910 . including any additional requirements by state or local agencies that have jurisdiction in the state where the project is to be constructed. Ricker • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) – ASTM A36 . • U.Specification for Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs – ASTM A563 .PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 – AISC Manual of Steel Construction . and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners – ASTM A449 .Third Edition [Short title used herein is AISC LRFD Manual.Specification for Hardened Steel Washers – ASTM F1554 . Steel.Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts. Steel.Specification for Anchor Bolts. Department of Labor. 36.] – ASCE 7-2002 . Some Practical Aspects of Column Base Selection.Specification for Pipe. Welded. Black and Hot-Dipped.Specification for Carbon Structural Steel – ASTM A53 . and 105 Ksi Yield Strength • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Design of Anchor Bolts for Petrochemical Facilities.] – AISC Steel Design Guide Series 1. 55.3 Government Regulations Federal Standards and Instructions of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).000 psi Tensile Strength – ASTM A354 .Steel • International Code Council (ICC) – International Building Code (IBC) 2. Task Committee on Anchor Bolt Design.Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service – ASTM A307 . shall apply.S.Specification for Carbon Steel and Alloyed Steel Nuts – ASTM F436 .Structural Welding Code .Column Base Plates.Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures • American Welding Society – AWS D1.

January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide 2. for calculation of strength in tension. it is more convenient to show these units in the text. for calculation of strength in shear. inches = Distance from the center of the anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete (Figure A). tables.4 Other References – Blodgett. Notation Note: Force and stress units shown herein under “Notation” are lb and psi respectively. = Projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors. inches = Anchor diameter. 1966 3. or member thickness. inches. when not limited by corner influences. inches = Diameter of reinforcing bar. c1 is in the direction of the shear force. respectively. inches2 = Effective cross-sectional area of anchor. Omar W. inches = Anchor sleeve diameter. inches2 = Reinforcing bar area. The James F. and examples as kips and ksi. inches2 AN Ase Ar Arb Areq = Required bearing area of shear lug. inches = Distance from the center of anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in one direction. inches2 = Clear distance from top of reinforcing bar to finished surface (concrete cover). Where shear force is applied to the anchor. spacing. Where this is done. psi = Anchor material minimum specified tensile strength. inches = Octagonal pedestal “diameter” (flat to flat).000 psi). for calculation of strength in shear. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation. inches2 AC C c c1 = Anchor circle diameter (Figures B-1 and B-2). psi c2 D D do db ds f′c ′ fut Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 25 . inches2 = Required total area of reinforcing bars. inches = Compressive strength of concrete (shall not be taken as greater than 10. At times. inches2 AV = Projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors. Design of Welded Structures. the units will always be shown.. inches = Outside diameter of shear lug pipe section. inches2 AVo = Projected concrete failure area of one anchor. = Distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in the direction orthogonal to c1.

inches = Length of anchor sleeve (Figure A).PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 Fy fy G H ha he’ hef hs L = Anchor or shear lug material yield strength. inches = Section modulus of shear lug pipe. psi = Reinforcing material yield strength. inches = Ultimate moment on shear lug plate or pipe. k-inches = Number of anchors = Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor. inches = Effective anchor embedment depth (Figure A). lb P P P1 s S t T = Normal compression force beneficial to resisting friction force. inches = Length of anchor below the sleeve (Figure A). in. inches la. = Anchor projection below bottom nut for Type 2 anchors (Figure A). lb = Side-face blowout strength of a single anchor. k-inches or k-inches/inches = Nominal flexural strength of shear lug pipe. inches = Length of shear lug plate or pipe. inches = Height of shear lug plate or pipe. lb Nsbg = Side-face blowout strength of a group of anchors. lb Page 6 of 25 Process Industry Practices . inches = Anchor spacing. inches = Thickness of the shear lug plate or pipe wall. inches ld ldh lhb Mu Mn n Ncb = Development length of reinforcing bar. lb = Portions of standard hook development length (Table 3). psi = Grout thickness. lb = Anchor projection from top of concrete (Figure A). center to center. inches = Tensile rebar capacity. inches = Basic development length of standard hook in tension. lb Vapp = Applied shear load on shear lug. kip Vcb = Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor or shear lug. = Overall length of anchor under the head or above the base nut (Figure A). lb = Nominal strength of a single anchor in tension as governed by the steel strength. in. inches = Actual development length of standard hook in tension. lb Npn Ns Nsb = Nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor. lb Ncbg = Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors.

ASTM F1554 grade 55 or grade 105. to account for cracking. chapter 2. or ASTM F1554 grade 36 rods b. For higher strength requirements: ASTM A193 grade B7. lb = Width of shear lug plate perpendicular to shear force. inches = Concrete strength reduction factor (This value varies. or ASTM A354 grade BC or grade BD The following table provides properties for the recommended anchor materials.7 = Coefficient of friction 4.to moderate-strength requirements: ASTM A307 headed bolts. lb = Resisting friction force at base plate. paragraph D.) = Steel resistance factor for flexure = Steel resistance factor for shear = Modification factor. refer to text for value. as defined in ACI 318-02.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide Vcbg = Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a group of anchors. Materials 4. For low. If ASTM F1554 grade 55 rods are specified. inches = Width of anchor head or nut. Unless a special corrosive environment exists. lb = Nominal strength in shear of a single anchor as governed by the steel strength. Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 25 . the following should be specified: a. ASTM A36 rods. Suitable nuts by grade may be obtained from ASTM A563.6. lb Vcp Vf Vn Vs Vu W Wh X φ φb φv ψ7 µ = Nominal concrete pryout strength. lb = Factored shear load. lb = Nominal shear strength. inches = Clear distance between anchor nut and reinforcing bar.2. add the weldability supplement. for strength in shear. for a description of and specifications for common materials for anchors.1 Anchors Refer to the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report.

Pretensioning requires the bolt surface to be free. refer to section 5. If the anchors are to be pretensioned (refer to section 10).6. not the anchor–concrete bond. When precise alignment of anchors is required during installation of structural columns or equipment.5" < do diameter (db) ≤ 4" (used for high4" < do temperature ≤ 7" service) A354 grade BC A354 grade BD A449 Based on bolt diameter (db) 1/4" < do ≤ 1" 1" < do ≤ 1. Page 8 of 25 Process Industry Practices .2 Sleeves Anchors should be installed with sleeves when small movement of the bolt is desired after the bolt is set in concrete. Two types of sleeves are commonly used with anchors. In this situation. therefore. b. Refer to PIP REIE686 for use of sleeves with anchor bolts in machinery foundations. For concrete cover requirements. 4.5" 1. the top of these sleeves should be sealed or the sleeve should be filled with elastomeric material to prevent grout or water from filling the sleeve.5" < do ≤ 3" Fy ksi Not clearly defined 36 55 105 105 95 75 109 130 92 81 58 fut ksi 60 58 75 125 125 115 100 125 150 120 105 90 Ductile? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 4. Sleeved anchors can resist shear forces only when the sleeve is filled with grout. whereas the full sleeve is used for alignment as well as for pretensioning.3 Washers Washers are required for all anchor bolts. The two most common examples follow: a.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 Properties for Recommended Anchor Materials Anchor Material Type A307 A36 or F1554 grade 36 F1554 grade 55 F1554 grade 105 A193 grade B7 do ≤ 2.5" Based on bolt 2. When anchors will be pretensioned to maintain the bolt under continuous tensile stresses during load reversal. the sleeve should be filled with grout after installation is complete. a hardened washer conforming to ASTM F436 is required. A partial sleeve is primarily used for alignment requirements.4 of this Practice. Sleeves do not affect the design of a headed anchor for tensile loading because the tension in the anchor is transferred to the concrete through the head.

4. (Inches) 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2-1/4 2 5/8 2-7/8 3-1/8 3-3/4 4-1/2 4-3/4 5 5-1/4 5-1/2 * Base plate hole size recommendations are based on AISC ASD Manual.4 Corrosion Corrosion of an anchor can seriously affect the strength and design life of the anchor. (Inches) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 1/2 - PIP-Recommended Base Plate Hole Diameter* 13/16 15/16 1-1/16 1-3/16 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 3 3-1/4 3-1/2 3-3/4 4 Outside Washer Dia. Hole size recommendations in the current AISC LRFD Manual. and cost? Galvanizing is a common option for ASTM A307 bolts and for ASTM A36 and ASTM F1554 grade 36 threaded rods. Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 25 . length. Stainless steel anchors are a costly option but may be required in some environments. Recommended Base Plate Hole and Washer Size Anchor Bolt Dia. What limitations are present. and material. availability. When deciding which anchor material to use or what precaution to take against corrosion. The hole in the washer should be equal to the bolt diameter plus 1/16 inch. Painting or coating the anchor will protect the anchor. affecting anchor size. ninth edition. have been revised and are larger. What elements will the anchor contact? • • • • Chemical compounds Saltwater Ground water Caustic gases c. Is the anchor encased in concrete or exposed to the elements? b. consider the following: a. but more maintenance may be required. third edition. fabrication options.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide The following table shows the PIP-recommended base plate hole diameter.

2. shall be equal to 1. 5. ACI 318-02.4. therefore ψ7 should be 1. If the engineer determines that prolonged contact with a corrosive substance is unavoidable. a metallurgist should be consulted to determine alternate anchor materials or protective options. That is.2 or Appendix C. 5. strength design will apply to headed bolts and headed stud anchors. pier design and anchor arrangement should consider water collection and anchor environment. section 9. is used. if the load combinations from Appendix C are used.6. ψ7. this Practice). the modification factor.2. The spreadsheet also lets the user know whether or not the anchor configuration is ductile (refer to section 6. follow the guidelines of ACI 318-02.2) may be ignored. section D. however only equation D-7 (not equation D-8) shall be used for checking the breakout strength in cracked concrete. 5.pip. not to PIP Subscribers.3 Anchor Design Considerations To accommodate reasonable misalignment in setting the anchor bolts. Care shall be taken to assure that the proper strength reduction factor. D. base plates are usually provided with oversized holes. For anchors at beams and slabs. states that for anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no cracking at service loads. The tops of pedestals are normally outside cracked regions. The spreadsheet merely saves the user time in laborious calculations but is no substitute for the engineer’s knowledge and expertise.2 are used. 5.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 To reduce the amount of contact with corrosive substances.2.9.7. D. which utilizes factored loads. In accordance with ASCE 7-2002.9.org/members/irc/ under “Tools. which is available to PIP Member Companies only. can be accessed via http://www.1. the exclusion for bolts more than 2 inches in diameter or embedded more than 25 inches (shown in ACI 318-02. See Appendix Example 1 (this Practice) for an illustration of the use of the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet.1 Loading Anchors shall be designed for the factored load combinations in accordance with ACI 318-02. then use the φ’s from Appendix C. (The spreadsheet. shall be in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318-02. φ.2 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet (Available to PIP Members Only) The Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet has been developed utilizing Appendix D of ACI 318-02 and this Practice.2.6. section A. if the load combinations in section 9.4 for most pedestals. If the factored shear loads Page 10 of 25 Process Industry Practices . then use the φ’s from section 9. solidly cast in concrete.”) The spreadsheet gives shear and tensile capacities of an anchor or anchor group and the concrete around it. In this Practice.7. Strength Design Strength design. The user needs to use the spreadsheet in combination with Appendix D of ACI 318-02 and this Practice.7.

If no tensile force is applied to the anchors.2 5.5 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Circular Pattern Anchor bolts for tall.5.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide exceed the values that can be resisted by friction between the base plate and the grout (see sections 8 and 9). vertical vessels are frequently not required to resist shear. Refer to Figure D-2. (If supplementary reinforcement is added to control splitting or the anchor size is Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 25 . a suitable means must be provided to transfer the shear from the base plate to the foundation. 5. or b. Refer to Figure B-1. Alternatively. 5. Refer to section 7.4 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Rectangular Pattern In accordance with ACI 318. Although not specifically accepted in ACI 318. A mechanism to transfer load from the base plate to the bolt without slippage is incorporated (such as welding washers in place). The design strength of the row of anchors closest to the edge perpendicular to the direction of force on the anchors b.3. the design shear strength of an anchor group in a circular pattern can be determined by calculating the shear capacity of the strong anchors. 5. the concrete design shear strength of a group of anchors in a rectangular pattern shall be taken as the greater of the following: a. However anchor bolts for shorter horizontal vessels may be required to resist shear. Where the tensile force is adequately transferred to properly designed rebar. The shear is resisted by friction created by the large compressive forces attributable to overturning. The design strength of the row of anchors furthest from the edge if the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors c. where closed shear ties or other mechanisms transfer the load from the weak to the strong anchors. Following are two alternative methods for designing the anchors to resist shear: 5. the anchors need not be designed for tension. if closed shear ties or other mechanisms transfer the load to the row of anchors furthest from the edge. This can be accomplished by the following: a. Minimum embedment should be in accordance with the recommendations of the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report. Refer to Figure B-2.5.1 The design shear strength of an anchor group in a circular pattern can be determined by multiplying the strength of the weakest anchor by the total number of anchors in the circle. there is no requirement to check for concrete breakout strength of the anchor or anchors in tension (Ncb or Ncbg).6 Minimum Dimensions Minimum edge distance and anchor spacing shall be in accordance with ACI 318 and should be in accordance with ASCE recommendations. Either shear lugs are used. the design strength of the furthest row. Refer to Table 1 and Figure A of this Practice.

3 Spacing between Anchors ACI 318 requires the minimum spacing between anchors to be at least 4do for untorqued cast-in anchors and 6do for torqued anchors. b. 5. 0.2 Embedment Depth No minimum embedment depth is specified in ACI 318 as long as the effective embedment depth is enough to resist uplift forces. If ductility is required. Spacing between anchors should be increased by an amount equal to the difference between the sleeve diameter and the anchor diameter: s ≥ 4do + (ds – do) for A307/A36 anchors or their equivalent. greater embedment may be necessary.1 Edge Distance a.6. According to PIP REIE686. hef = 12do 5. 5. ACI 318 requires cast-in headed anchors that will be torqued to have minimum edge distances of 6do. c. 6 inches minimum. similar to that shown in Figure G.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 larger than required to resist the load. the recommended edge distance for anchor bolts in machinery foundations is 4do. 5. section D. Edge distance should be increased by an amount equal to half the sleeve diameter minus half the anchor diameter.8. the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report recommends a minimum edge distance of 4do for ASTM A307 or ASTM A36 bolts or their equivalent and 6do for high-strength bolts. the only requirement for edge distance is that at least the same cover be present as required for (1) reinforcement cover (normally 2 inches) and (2) to prevent side-face blowout or concrete shear failure. the preceding minimum dimensions should be modified as follows: a. 5.6.6.6. the embedment length should not be less than the sleeve length plus 6 inches. b.6. The ASCE Anchor Bolt Report recommends a minimum embedment depth of 12 diameters. then ACI 318 allows the following edge distances and anchor spacing to be reduced. the edge distance should be increased by half of the plate Page 12 of 25 Process Industry Practices . For anchors less than 1 inch in diameter.5(ds – do). For constructability reasons. c.5 Modification for Anchor Bottom Plate If a plate is used at the bottom of the anchor. Embedment length for anchors equal to or greater than 1 inch should not be less than the larger of 12 anchor diameters (12do) or the sleeve length plus 6 anchor diameters (sleeve length + 6do).4 Modification for Sleeves Where anchor sleeves are used. Otherwise. Refer to ACI 318-02.

Ductile Design 6. the ductile design is achieved when the anchoring capacity of the concrete is greater than that of the anchor in tension. A brittle failure occurs suddenly and without warning. and the steel shall be a ductile material (refer to section 4.g.1. this Practice).1. and the spacing should be increased by the plate width or diameter minus Wh.3 Requirements for Ductile Design If the mechanism described in section 6. when the design of a structure is based upon ductility or energy absorption.6.1. in shear. where design is based upon energy absorption). 5. 6. The former is a brittle failure and the latter is a ductile failure. Examples are anchors in areas of intermediate or high seismicity and anchors used for blast load resistance. In contrast. 6. a ductile failure will cause the steel to yield. often preventing structures from collapsing.1 is used. 6.1. 6. This will result in large deflections. one of the following mechanisms for ductility shall be used.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide width or diameter minus 1/2 Wh. This is a strength requirement and is independent of the magnitudes of the applied loads. in redistribution of loads.1 Ductile Design Philosophy A ductile anchorage design can be defined as one in which the yielding of the anchor (or the reinforcement or the attachment to which the anchor attaches) controls the failure of the anchorage system.2 This ductile design philosophy is consistent with that of ACI 318.1.6 Anchor Projection Anchor bolts should project a minimum of two threads above the fully engaged nut(s). elongate gradually.1. and in absorption of energy before any sudden loss of capacity of the system resulting from a brittle failure of the concrete (ASCE Anchor Bolt Report). If it can Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 25 .2 Critical Areas Requiring Ductile Design Anchors designed to resist critical loads. Anchors embedded in concrete and pulled to failure fail either by pullout of the concrete cone or by tensile failure of the anchor itself. 6. the attachment connected by the anchor to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater than 75 percent of the minimum anchor design strength. possibly causing catastrophic tragedies. and absorb a significant amount of energy. In lieu of the guideline in section 6. shall be designed using the requirements for ductile design.1 Anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or shear strength of the steel.. where magnitudes cannot be precisely quantified (e. Consequently. or in a combination of both.

Refer to section 7. Increasing concrete strength b.2 Increased Concrete Shear Capacity Concrete shear capacity can be increased by the following: Page 14 of 25 Process Industry Practices . the loads and size can then be entered into the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet. (The reverse would also be true but would not normally be applicable to design. and concrete side-face blowout strength) are greater than the tensile steel capacity of the anchor: φNcb or φNcbg > φNs.4 Means to Achieve Ductile Design If conditions as specified in section 6.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 be shown that failure that is due to tensile loads will occur before failure that is due to shear loads.2. The engineer will need to do the following calculations manually. that is by using 0. Increasing edge distance (for near edge cases) d. make sure that the steel chosen φ φ is ductile steel as listed in section 4. pullout strength of anchor in tension. the attachment to the structure that is connected by the anchor to the foundation may be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater than 75 percent of the minimum anchor design strength. to check the second and third steps (next two paragraphs). For these cases.75φNs and 0. 6.3. reinforcing bars can be placed close to the anchor to transfer the load. the preceding methods may not be practical.3 cannot be met.75φVs. using Appendix D of ACI 318-02. the concrete capacity can be increased to achieve a ductile design using the following: 6. The second step is to ensure that the concrete pullout capacities (concrete breakout strength in tension. Increasing embedment depth c.) The first step is to select the anchor size considering only the steel failure modes.1 Increased Concrete Tensile Capacity Concrete tensile capacity can be increased by the following: a. such as anchors embedded in pedestals. Increasing anchor spacing (for closely spaced anchor group) In situations for which space is limited.4.1. described in section 5. then the anchor need only be ductile for tensile loads. Comment: For PIP Member Companies. φNpn > φNs. and φNsb or φNsbg > φNs The third step is to ensure that the concrete shear capacities (concrete breakout strength in shear and concrete pryout strength in shear) are greater than the steel shear capacity of the anchor: φVcb or φVcbg > φVs and φVcp > φVs In lieu of the preceding requirements. In addition.4. 6.

Development lengths and reinforcement covers shall be in accordance with ACI 318.5.1 General When anchor embedment or edge distances are not sufficient to prevent concrete failure that is due to factored loads. toward the surface from which the anchors protrude. edge of nuts.5. If this method is used. For a single bolt.2. If this alternative is chosen. Refer to section 7. The attachment that the shear lug connects to must undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater that 75 percent of the minimum shear lug design strength.1 The failure surface resulting from the applied tension load shall be one of the following: a.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide a. Another alternative is the use of a shear lug. This pyramid is formed by a line radiating at a 1.2. (Refer to Figure RD.1(b) of ACI 318-02. (Refer to Figure RD. do not consider any contribution from concrete shear strength. 7.2 Failure Surface Reinforcement shall be fully developed for the required load on both sides of the failure surfaces resulting from tensile or shear forces. For a group of bolts where the bolts are closer together than 3hef. Increasing edge distance (for near edge cases) c. or for a “ductile type” connection. Refer to section 9.5-to-1 slope from the bearing edge of the anchor group. with the depth equal to the embedded depth of the anchor (hef) and the base being a square with each side equal to three times the embedded depth (3hef). then reinforcing steel may be used to prevent concrete failure. if φNcb or φNcbg < φ Ns or φVcb or φVcbg < φVs.1(a) of ACI 318-02. The reinforcing needed to develop the required anchor strength shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318 and the following.2.) Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 25 . Increasing anchor spacing (for closely spaced anchor group) If the preceding methods are impractical because of space limitations. b.4. the failure surface is that of a pyramid. reinforcing hairpins looped around the anchors can be designed to carry the entire shear.) b. the failure surface is that of a truncated pyramid. Increasing concrete strength b. 7. 7. Reinforcing Design 7. either the following item a or item b must be adhered: a. The shear lug needs to be designed to undergo ductile yielding before failure of the concrete.

) hef = ld + C + (X + db/2)/1. and cannot be applied in areas of moderate or high seismic risk. b. d. half the diameter of the reinforcing bars.3.2.) 7. c1.3 Reinforcing Design to Transfer Tensile Forces (Refer to Figures C-1 and C-2 and Tables 2 and 3.3. per anchor is as follows: Arb = (Ase * Fy)/fy Obtain hef.1(a) of ACI 318-02. the failure surface is from the outermost anchors.) 7.3. (Refer to Figure RD.2 The failure surface resulting from the applied shear load is defined as a half pyramid radiating at a 1. Note that the reinforcing bars were probably sized during pedestal design. Page 16 of 25 Process Industry Practices . Calculate ld. Add X.6.2. the development length of the reinforcing bars resisting the load. Note that the number of bars can be increased and the size of the reinforcing bars can be decreased to reduce the development length when required. b. Arb. the concrete cover over the top of reinforcing bars to the finished surface.) For multiple anchors closer together than three times the edge distance. the reinforcing bar development length may be reduced by multiplying by the ratio of the reinforcing bar area required to the reinforcing bar area provided: ld required = ld x [(Arb) required / (Arb) provided] This reduction is in accordance with ACI 318-02. section 12. 7. Add C.1).5 a.6. If more reinforcement is required by the pedestal design than required by the anchor load transfer.5-to-1 slope in all directions. using ACI 318. the clear distance from the anchor nut to the reinforcing bars. or additional rebar area shall be provided to reduce the required embedment length (see section 7. originating at the top of the concrete where the anchor protrudes and ending at the free surface in the direction of the shear.1(b) of ACI 318-02.2 Direct tensile loads can be transferred effectively by the use of “hairpin” reinforcement or vertical dowels according to the following guidelines: a. beyond the potential failure plane. the embedment depth of the anchor as follows: (Refer to Figure C-1. c.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 7.2.1 The required area of reinforcing bars.2. “Hairpin” legs and vertical dowels shall be located within hef/3 from the edge of the anchor head. Add db/2. (Refer to Figure RD.5. “Hairpin” legs and dowels shall extend a minimum of ld.

it should be designed to carry the entire shear load. a minimum of two No. 7. “Shear angles” welded to anchors (Figure D-4) e.4.) 7. 3 ties is required within 5 inches of the top of each pedestal. it should be designed to carry the entire tension force.1 Several shear reinforcement configurations or assemblies can be considered effective to prevent failure of the concrete.3 7. For an example design calculation using hairpins. 4 ties or three No. d.2 Shear reinforcing shall extend a minimum of ld. “Strut-and-tie model” (Refer to Appendix A of ACI 318-02 and Figure D-5 of this Practice.1 General Where allowed by code. If there is moment on a base plate. beyond the potential failure plane. This downward load can be considered in calculating frictional resistance. the friction resistance attributable to downward force from overturning moment may be used. Where shear reinforcing is designed. 7. Frictional Resistance 8. In resisting horizontal loads.4 Reinforcing to Transfer Shear Forces 7.4. “Anchored” reinforcing intercepting the failure plane (Figure D-3) d.4 8. Where tension reinforcement is designed. one of the following types of shear reinforcement can be used: a. may be reduced by the ratio of the reinforcing bar area required divided by the reinforcing bar area provided.4. Refer to Figure E. excluding any contribution from the concrete.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide c. the moment may produce a downward load that will develop friction even when the column or vertical vessel is in uplift. “Closed ties” transferring load to the stronger anchors (Figure D-2) c.1. Depending on the particular situation. ld. Care shall be taken to assure that the downward load that produces frictional resistance occurs simultaneously with the shear load. see Appendix Example 2 (this Practice). Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 25 . “Hairpins” wrapped around the anchors (Figure D-1) b.3. Use of three ties is recommended near the top of each pedestal if shear lugs are used or if the pedestals are located in areas of moderate or high seismic risk.4. See section 7. For pedestals. excluding any contribution from the concrete. anchors need not be designed for shear if it can be shown that the factored shear loads are transmitted through friction developed between the bottom of the base plate and the top of the concrete foundation. Where excess rebar is provided.

Vf.) a. Therefore. 9. µ = 0. In some cases. A shear lug (a plate or pipe stub section. c. The bearing on the shear lug is applied only on the portion of the lug adjacent to the concrete. 8. The frictional resistance should not be used in combination with the shear resistance of anchors unless a mechanism exists to keep the base plate from slipping before the anchors can resist the load (such as welding the anchor nut to the base plate). thus taking the shear load off of the anchors. may be computed as follows: Vf = µP P µ = normal compression force = coefficient of friction The materials used and the embedment depth of the base plate determine the value of the coefficient of friction. (Refer to Figure F for a pictorial representation. friction and the shear capacity of the anchors used in a foundation adequately resist column base shear forces. If the total factored shear loads are transmitted through shear lugs or friction.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 The frictional resistance can also be used in combination with shear lugs to resist the factored shear load. µ = 0. Note: Before planning to weld the anchor nut to the base plate. the anchor bolts need not be designed for shear. When using a pipe section. The shear lug should be designed for the applied shear portion not resisted by friction between the base plate and concrete foundation. Depending on the metallurgy of the nut. Shear Lug Design Normally. Grout must completely surround the lug plate or pipe section and must entirely fill the slot created in the concrete.90 for concrete placed against as-rolled steel with the contact plane a full plate thickness below the concrete surface. a hole approximately 2 inches in diameter should be drilled through the Page 18 of 25 Process Industry Practices . the welding may require a special welding procedure. b. the engineer should disregard the portion of the lug immersed in the top layer of grout and uniformly distribute the bearing load through the remaining height. the engineer may find the shear force too great and may be required to transfer the excess shear force to the foundation by another means.2 Calculating Resisting Friction Force The resisting friction force. µ = 0. the engineer should consult a welding specialist to determine whether this is practical. welded perpendicularly to the bottom of the base plate) allows for complete transfer of the force through the shear lug. however.55 for grouted conditions with the contact plane between grout and as-rolled steel above the concrete surface.70 for concrete or grout placed against as-rolled steel with the contact plate coincidental with the concrete surface.

φ = concrete strength reduction factor = 0.3 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Pipe Section Design of a shear lug pipe section follows (for an example calculation. The bearing area of the shear lug shall be excluded from the projected area. section B. the lug thickness can be found.85 * φ * f′c) ′ φ = 0.5 φ where AV = the projected area of the failure half-truncated pyramid defined by projecting a 45-degree plane from the bearing edges of the shear lug to the free edge. Determine the shear lug dimensions.Vf 9. The shear lug should not be thicker than the base plate: t = [(4 * Mu)/(0. With the value for the moment. this Practice): a.2 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Plate Design of a shear lug plate follows (for an example calculation. see Appendix Example 4.65 b. Vapp. Calculate the required bearing area for the shear lug: Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 25 . f.9*Fy)]0.85 9. Design weld between plate section and base plate. this Practice): a. the lug width. Calculate the breakout strength of the shear lug in shear. Assume a value of W.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide base plate into the pipe section to allow grout placement and inspection to assure that grout is filling the entire pipe section. Calculate the factored cantilever end moment acting on a unit length of the shear lug: Mu = (Vapp/W) * (G + (H-G)/2) d. assuming that bearing occurs only on the portion of the lug below the grout level. 9.5 e.11: Vcb = AV*4*φ*[f’c]0. The method shown as follows is from ACI 349-01. used to design the shear lug should be computed as follows: Vapp = Vu . on the basis of the known base plate size to find H. Calculate the required bearing area for the shear lug: Areq = Vapp / (0. G: H = (Areq /W) + G c.1 Calculating Shear Load Applied to Shear Lug The applied shear load. the total height of the lug. see Appendix Example 3. Appendix B. including the grout thickness.

prestressing of anchor bolts is unreliable and hardly ever justified. including the grout thickness. Check the breakout shear as shown in section 9. assuming that bearing occurs only on the portion of the lug below the grout level. 10. and the stress level is difficult to maintain because of creep and relaxation of the bolt material.” In practical applications. Assume the D.85φf′c) φ′ φ = 0.” AISC Steel Design Guide Series 1. The AISC LRFD Manual paragraph C-A3. Pretensioning Pretensioning induces preset tensile stresses to anchor bolts before actual loads are applied. Pretensioning may be considered for the following: a.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 Areq = Vapp /(0. diameter of the pipe section.9 and Vn = 0. pretensioning adds cost. the engineer should decide whether to pretension the anchor bolt by considering the following advantages and disadvantages: Page 20 of 25 Process Industry Practices . 6-116). Design weld between pipe stub section and base plate.6 Fy π(D2 – (D-2t)2)/4 Moment check– φb Mn ≥ Mu where φb = 0. When properly performed. pretensioning can reduce deflection. AISC does not recommend pretensioning anchors. Towers more than 150 feet tall Towers with height-to-width ratios of more than 10 Dynamic machinery such as compressors (PIP REIE686) However. “The designer should be aware that pretensioning anchor bolts is not recommended due to relaxation and stress corrosion after pretensioning. Check the applied shear force and the bending moment for pipe section failure (AISC LRFD Manual. and minimize vibration amplitude of dynamic machinery. Determine the shear lug dimensions. pages 6-113. b. based on the known base plate size to find H. anchor bolt section states. the total height of the pipe. f.2(f).60 b. avoid stress reversal. Shear check– φv Vn ≥ Vapp where φv = 0. c. Calculate the factored cantilever end moment acting on the shear lug pipe: M = Vapp * (G + (H-G)/2) d.4 states. “Because of long-term relaxation of concrete.9 and Mn = S * [{600/(D/t)} + Fy] e. G: H = (Areq/D) + G c.

Questionable nature about the long-term load on the anchor from creep of concrete under the pretension load d. f. No recognized code authority that gives guidance on the design and installation of pretensioned anchors.4 Concrete Failure In certain situations. In the case of a stiff base plate Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 25 . Little assurance that the anchor is properly installed and pretensioned in the field g.2 Disadvantages The disadvantages of pretensioning are as follows: a. May increase dampening for pulsating or vibrating equipment c. This is because during pretensioning.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide 10. Can be a costly process to install accurately b. Will decrease. pretensioned anchors shall be designed so that the breakout strength of the anchor in tension is greater than the maximum pretension force applied to the anchor. Whether this situation can occur depends on the depth of the anchor and on other factors. Can prevent stress reversals on anchors susceptible to fatigue weakening b. 10. pretensioning is required if required for warrantee. 10. no bearing resistance to shear on the anchor. Possible stress corrosion of the anchors after pretensioning e. to some extent. Typically. anchors for turbines and reciprocating compressors should be torqued to the values shown in Table 4. the drift for process towers under wind or seismic load d. There is little research in this area. c. such as edge conditions and arrangement of the base plate.1 Advantages The advantages of pretensioning are as follows: a. To ensure that premature concrete failure does not occur. the sleeve around the anchor typically is not filled with grout. Will increase the frictional shear resistance for process towers and other equipment 10. When not otherwise specified. the use of high-strength anchors in concrete with high pretension forces may exceed the ultimate capacity of the concrete by prematurely breaking out the concrete in the typical failure pyramid. The pretensioning itself can damage the concrete if not properly designed or if the pretension load is not properly regulated. Possible direct damage from pretensioning.3 When to Apply Pretensioning Pretensioning should be considered for vertical vessels that are more than 150 feet tall or for those with height-to-width ratios of more than 10 and if recommended by the equipment manufacturer.

Torque values are shown in Table 4. Nut rotation in degrees = (360 l Ase ft Tlc) / (E Ad) where: l Ase ft Tlc E = = = = = bolt stretch length (the distance between the top and bottom nuts on the bolt) tensile stress area of bolt desired tensile stress bolt threads per unit length elastic modulus of bolt Page 22 of 25 Process Industry Practices . the anchor starts to shed its load to the concrete through its bond on the anchor. if a prestressing load is applied to the anchor. 10. For this case. On a typical anchor embedment. the stresses induced by external uplift on the concrete are offset by the clamping force and the gravity loads. 10. This bond will relieve itself over time and thereby reduce the prestress load on the anchor. Therefore it is important to prevent bonding between the anchor and concrete for pretensioned anchors. a high bond stress exists in the first few inches of embedment.3 Turn-of-nut: This method is the easiest to apply. 10. The pretension load from stretching the anchor can be closely determined. but accounting for the compression of the concrete between the base plate and the nut at the bottom of the anchor is difficult.1 Hydraulic jacking: Hydraulic jacking is the most accurate method and is recommended if the pretension load is essential to the integrity of the design.6 Pretensioning Methods Methods used to apply preload are as follows: 10. the breakout strength needs only to be designed for the amount that the external uplift exceeds the gravity plus pretensioning force loads.5 Stretching Length Prestressing should be implemented only when the stretching (spring) length of the anchor extends down near the anchor head of the anchor. At that time. the required amount of nut rotation from the “snug tight” condition to produce a desired tensile stress in the bolt (ft) can be determined using the following formula. 10. Refer to Figure G for a suggested detail.2 Torque wrench: Torque wrench pretensioning provides only a rough measure of actual pretension load but can be the method of choice if the amount of pretension load is not critical.PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 covering the concrete failure pyramid.6.6. Per the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report. but there are questions as to the accuracy of the pretension load.6. where there is no provision for a stretching length. The anchor design should accommodate any physical clearance and anchor projections required for the hydraulic equipment.

9 Recommended Tightening if Anchor Pretensioning Is Not Required Anchors should be brought to a snug.2. “If headed anchors are pretensioned.2. b. The final value of the tension force in the anchor depends primarily on the value of bearing stresses under the head. Anchors should be tightened in a crisscross pattern. and the anchorage depth. According to ACI 355. This is defined as the tightness that exists after a few impacts from an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using a spud wrench.8 Tightening Sequence Pretensioned anchors should be tightened in two stages: a.) 10.1R. brought to a “snug tight” condition.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide Ad = nominal bolt area If the bolt is to be retightened to compensate for any loss of pre-load. At this point all surfaces should be in full contact.7 Relaxation According to ACI 355. (Refer to Figure H.1 R. this method requires that nuts be loosened. the initial force induced in the anchor is reduced with time due to creep of the highly stressed concrete under the anchor head.4 Load indicator washers: This method is good if the amount of pretension desired is as much as the required load in slip-critical structural steel connections. the concrete deformation.” Retensioning the anchors about 1 week after the initial tensioning can reduce the loss of preload. 10. tight condition. Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 25 . First stage should apply 50 percent of the full pretension load to all anchors. 10. In typical cases the value of that final force will approach 40 to 80 percent of the initial preload (40 percent for short anchors. These loads are typically very high and not normally required for anchors. Second stage should apply full pretension load to all anchors. 80 percent for long anchors).6. and then turned the number of degrees originally specified. the reduction of the initial preload can be reduced by about 30 percent by retensioning. section 3. 10.

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide January 2003 This page is intentionally blank. Page 24 of 25 Process Industry Practices .

January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide Appendix Figures. and Examples Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 25 . Tables.

0 10.5" 6do ≥ 4.0 16.0 (in.38 1.25 1.25 3.06 4.5 5.5 9.75 1.) 1.31 (in.) 6.0 10.0 24.0 30.63 1.0 11.0 5.0 3.5 4.) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 1 (in.50 4.6)1 hef EDGE DISTANCE c 2 HEAVY HEX HEAD/ NUT ANCH.0 9.88 2.8 7.0 4.13 1.5 18.3 9.5 6.0 (in.5 5.5 4.69 1.) 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 (in.0 8.5 4.0 27.) 5 7 7 7 10 10 10 15 15 15 18 18 24 24 24 (in.50 (in.0 10. Wh do P1 12do do + 1/2" HIGHA307/A36 STRENGTH F1554 OR Grade 36 TORQUED BOLTS 4do ≥ 4.63 4.0 7.0 9. EMBEDMENT SHALL BE THE LARGER OF 12do or (hs + he') INCREASE EDGE DISTANCE BY 0.) 1.5 4.00 1.0 21.0 8.75 3.0 16.31 2.5 12.5 15.0 10.0 11.19 3.0 7.do) FOR MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS PIP REIE686 REQUIRES A MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE OF 6 INCHES.0 12.0 36.5" (in.50 2.0 6.5 8.75 3.5 3.5 4.5 4.50 2.0 2.5 4.0 7.00 3.0 SHELL SIZE 4do he ' Diameter Height 6do ≥ 6" ds hs (in.) 4.5 18.50 1.44 1.00 1.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide TABLE 1: Minimum Anchor Dimensions (Refer to Figure A.88 2.0 33.0 13.00 2.) 4.0 5.25 2.3 6.5 15.5(ds .0 13.5 4.0 12. TYPE 2 SLEEVES SPACING ANCHOR WIDTH DIA.) ASCE ANCHOR BOLT REPORT MINIMUM DIMENSIONS (Refer to Section 5. 2 Process Industry Practices Page A-1 .do) INCREASE SPACING BY (ds .5 6.) 2.25 1.5 12.06 2.0 IF SLEEVES ARE USED.5 5.94 5.) 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 11 12 14 15 17 18 (in.

76 32.0 in.58 84. c = 3.) ≥ 1:5/16 ≥ 1:1/4 ≥ 1:3/16 ≥ 1:1/8 ≥ 1:1/16 ≥1 ≥ 15/16 ≥ 7/8 ≥ 13/16 c = 1. fy = 60 ksi Compressive Strength of Concrete.11 0.79 1.3 (Top Reinforcement).20 0. SPACING ≥ 6. in.71 Process Industry Practices Page A-2 . ld LENGTH.5 in.3) Reinforcement Location Factor.000 0. λ = 1. 1.77 6.) 13 17 22 32 55 71 91 115 142 (in. TENSION DEVELOPMENT TENSION DEVELOPMENT REQUIRED LENGTH.000 psi Design Tensile Strength Reduction Factor. Ktr = 0 (Design Simplification) ACI 318-02 .31 0.87 5.2.) (in.00 68. REQUIRED COVER (in.000 1.56 (Kips) 5.74 23. Section 12.24 ≥ 2:13/16 13 ≥ 2:3/4 17 ≥ 2:11/16 22 ≥ 2:5/8 26 ≥ 2:9/16 38 ≥ 2:1/2 43 ≥ 2:7/16 48 ≥ 2:3/8 58 ≥ 2:5/16 71 SPACING ≥ 12.27 1.94 10.0 (Other Reinforcement) Coating Factor. γ = 0.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide TABLE 2: Reinforcement Tensile Capacity and Tensile Development Length Reinforcement Yield Strength. α = 1. f'c = 3.5] (12-1) where c is the smaller of either the distance from the center of the bar to the nearest concrete surface or one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bars BAR SIZE BAR BAR AREA CAPACITY Ar φ*Ar*(fy) SPACING ≥ 3.80 16. 1.0 (> #6 bar) Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Factor.66 54.000 0.0 (Uncoated Reinforcement) Reinforcement Size Factor.0 (Normal Weight Concrete) Transverse Reinforcement Index.0 in.Tension Development Length: ld = db (3/40) [fy/(f'c)1/2] (αβγλ)/[(c + Ktr)/db] [(c + Ktr)/db ≤ 2.00 4.40 42.) (in. Section 9.60 0. ld COVER TOP OTHER TOP OTHER (in.00 1.90 (ACI 318-02. ≥ 5:13/16 ≥ 5:3/4 ≥ 5:11/16 ≥ 5:5/8 ≥ 5:9/16 ≥ 5:1/2 ≥ 5:7/16 ≥ 5:3/8 ≥ 5:5/16 13 17 22 26 38 43 48 55 61 FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF f'c (Note: ld shall not be less than 12 inches. β = 1. φ = 0.0 in.44 0.000 0.3 .) DEVELOPMENT f'c LENGTH FACTOR 3.0 in.) #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 0.) 12 13 17 20 29 33 37 44 55 c = 6.) 12 13 17 25 42 55 70 89 109 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 (in.8 (≤ #6 bar).0 in. 12 13 17 20 29 33 37 42 47 (sq.

00 68.0 (Uncoated Reinforcement) Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Factor.2 11.36 48.9 lb (in.1 8.06 37.0 9.3 17.) 12 13 17 25 42 55 70 89 109 (kips) 6. λ = 1.70 Design Tensile Strength Reduction (ACI 318-02.) 2.24 OTHER BARS ld (a) (ACI INSIDE 12.0 7.0 (a) (in.5 13. f' c = 3.2.90 REINFORCING BAR CAPACITY HAIRPIN AND HOOK DIMENSIONS ACI 12.54 74.94 10.87 0.0 8.56 FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF f'c: f'c Development Length Factor (D) 1.7 9.3a) = 0.000 6.22 47.66 54.2.2 4.0 7.0 6.5 6.3.4 19. Minimum Reinforcing Spacing = 3.84 36.8 12.5.4 7.0 3.4 12.1 ldh 0.0 8.76 32.0 13.5 21.3) HOOK (in.5.) 4.5 10.5 5.) 8.) 2.3 19.71 3.37 59.0 in.9 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 f*Ar*(fy) (kips) 5.) 6.8 4.91 13.1).40 21.00 0.000 lb remains the same.58 84.6 11. Paragraph 12. β = 1. R12.5 5.83 91.5.74 23.000 4.000 5.26 73. Coating Factor.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide TABLE 3: Hairpin Reinforcement Design and Details Reinforcement Yield Strength.7 (ACI/ CRSI) VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL HAIRPINS CAPACITY SEE NOTE (4) TOP BARS ld (a) (ACI 12.84 12.6 la (in.7*ldh (in.0 4.8 30.3 3.5 in.02βλfy/(f'c)0.5)db (ACI 12.2 21.) 13 17 22 32 55 71 91 115 142 CAPACITY SEE NOTE (4) REINFORCEMENT BAR SIZE 180 DEG HOOK DEVELOPMENT LENGTH ldh = (0.22 29.3) (in.7 16.9 24.0 (Normal Weight Concrete) Development Length Reduction Factor (ACI 318-02 .0 10.39 89.15 (kips) 6.7 27.0 3.40 42.2. T (hairpin ) = T (hook) x (1+l a/ld) HAIRPIN CAPACITY: (1) Standard 180 hook capacity = capacity of straight bar (2) Capacity of la portion of hook = bar capacity X (la/ld) [ld > la] (3) Capacity of lb portion of hook = bar capacity .80 16.2 ) (in.000 psi Minimum Reinforcement Cover = 2.3 6.6 5.2 11. fy = 60 ksi Compressive Strength of Concrete.80 20. Paragraph 9.5.capacity of la portion (4) Hairpin capacity = bar capacity X (1 + la/ld) where ld = bar development length [ld > la] ldh = ldh*(D) la = ldh-lb Process Industry Practices Page A-3 .77 0.06 58.4 15. φ = 0.3 7.1 & Fig.19 27.

780 6.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide TABLE 4: Pretension Load and Torque Recommendations* Nominal Bolt Diameter (inches) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 Number of Threads (per inch) 13 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Torque (foot-pounds) 30 60 100 160 245 355 500 800 1.200 3.920 7.560 102.060 9.180 4.500 2.870 42.760 157. Appendix A.150 59. the elongation of the bolt will indicate the load on the bolt.570 16. Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design. Note 3: Based upon 30-ksi internal bolt stress * From PIP REIE686. Note 2: In all cases.690 128.060 12.720 Pretension Load (pounds) 3.720 Note 1: All torque values are based on anchor bolts with threads well lubricated with oil.400 79.770 189.400 5. Process Industry Practices Page A-4 .530 21.840 27.

O. C EDGE DIST. ha hef ds TACK WELD NUT TYPE 2 NOTE: DISTANCE BETWEEN BOTTOM OF SLEEVE AND ANCHOR BEARING SURFACE. he' . CONC. C EDGE DIST. ha hef ds T. CONC.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide FIGURE A: Anchor Details T.O. REFER TO TABLE 1 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS Process Industry Practices P1 he' do hs P PROJECTION TYPE 1 he' do hs P PROJECTION Page A-5 . SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 6d o NOR 6-IN.

5c12) Pythagorean theorem: c22 + (AC/2)2 = (Do/2)2 c2 =[(1.AC/2 Calculate D o so that equivalent circle has same area as octagon.5c1D (Max.828D2 π Do2 = 0.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE B-1: Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon "Weak Anchors" Approximate solution c1= Do /2 . c4 = [(1.828D 2 For input into PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet. Note: Area of octagon = 0. available to PIP Members only.03D/2)2-(AC/2)2]1/2 Av = 1.03D/2 .5c1D Av (max) = n 4.828D2(4) 0.828D2(4) Do = π = 1. Av = nAvo = n4. Av = 1.5c12 π Do2/4 = 0.03D/2)2 .AC/2 c2.03D n = Total number of bolts = 12 Failure planes overlap each other to go clear across pedestal. c1 =1.(AC/2)2] 1/2 Process Industry Practices Page A-6 .

5c1(ALT) D Av (max) = n 4.5c12 n=6 Alternate c1 (ALT) =As shown above c2 (ALT) = (D-Cos(45ο)AC)/2 Av = 1. For input into PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet .5(c1(ALT))2 n=4 Process Industry Practices Page A-7 . Only anchors with an edge distance. If the dimension marked c1 (ALT) is chosen.5c1 D Av (max) = n 4. greater than or equal to the c 1 for the chosen bolt shall be used for resisting shear. if the dimension marked c1 is chosen. For the case shown above. available to PIP Members only. n = 4 bolts.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE B-2: Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon "Strong" Anchors c1 will vary with the number of anchors considred. c1 =As shown above c2 = (D-AC)/2 Av = 1. n = 6 bolts. c1.

) ld (min.) hef ld Page A-8 . (Centerline of Anchor Bolt to Centerline of Dowel = (W /2 + X + (d /2)) rb h PLAN T.Vertical Dowels (h ef /3 Ma x.) NOTE: Refer to Section 7.5 1 DOWEL TO MAT SECTION Required Anchor Embedment.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide FIGURE C-1: Tensile Reinforcement .5 d b Refer to Table 3 for ld Process Industry Practices (min.O. hef = l + C + (X + d /2) /1.) X VERTICAL DOWELS c1 or c 2 EDGE DIST. db ha C ds do Wh X (hef /3 max.3 1. CONC.

January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide FIGURE C-2: Tensile Reinforcement . Process Industry Practices (min.O.) PLAN T.5 h ef do X (hef /3 max. CONC.) Wh ld (min. 1 1.Vertical Hairpin HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT X (hef /3 max.) l dh Page A-9 .) HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT SECTION Refer to Table 3 for ldhand ld.

HOOK DIMENSION Page A-10 . Process Industry Practices MINIMUM COVER 180 DEG.Horizontal Hairpin EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.) ld ANCHOR HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT SECTION Refer to Table 3 for l d . STD.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE D-1: Shear Reinforcement .) ld FACE OF CONCRETE ANCHOR HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT PLAN SHEAR DIRECTION EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.

January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE D-2: Shear Reinforcement . STD.) FACE OF CONCRETE STRONG ANCHOR CLOSED TIE REINFORCEMENT PLAN EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min. HOOK DIMENSION WEAK ANCHOR EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.Closed Ties 180 DEG.) FACE OF CONCRETE STRONG ANCHOR HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT PLAN 180 DEG. HOOK DIMENSION WEAK ANCHOR EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.) ANCHOR ANCHOR CLOSED TIE REINFORCEMENT SECTION Process Industry Practices MINIMUM Page A-11 SHEAR DIRECTION . STD.

Anchor plate or anchor angle must be designed for load from anchor. 2. See Table 2 for rebar capacities.5 1 ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT SECTION EDGE DIST.5d b FACE OF CONCRETE ld ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT FAILURE HALF-PYRAMID 1.5 1 LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN PLAN Note: 1. 3.Anchored Reinforcement SHEAR DIRECTION ANCHOR ld ANCHOR PLATE ANCHOR ANGLE SHEAR DIRECTION ANCHOR ld l d Z 1.5 1 ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN 1. Taking ld from centerline of bolt is conservative.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE D-3: Shear Reinforcement . ANCHOR ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT (ALTERNATE) LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN SECTION ld = development length of reinforcement z = vertical hairpin concrete cover + 0. Process Industry Practices Z Page A-12 .

) o ANCHOR TACK WELD FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID SECTION NOTE: DEDUCT AREA OF THE BEARING SURFACE OF SHEAR ANGLE IN CALCULATING A p (THE PROJECTION OF THE FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID).) ANCHOR FACE OF CONCRETE 1 1 FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID PLAN SHEAR DIRECTION EDGE DISTANCE 5d (min.Shear Angles EDGE DISTANCE 5do (min. Process Industry Practices Page A-13 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE D-4: Shear Reinforcement .

T . C1 AND C2 ARE COMPRESSION FORCES. ACTUAL FORCES WILL VARY WITH GEOMETRY. 2. Process Industry Practices Page A-14 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE D-5: Shear Reinforcement . AND T3 ARE TENSION 1 FORCES. 3.Strut-and-Tie Model VERTICAL REBAR TIE T2 C1 T1 25° M I N. T2. T3 NOTES: 1. ANCHOR BOLT T1 C1 25° M I N.

Pedestal 4" 1 1/2" 2" (OR LESS) PROVIDE THIS ADDITIONAL TIE IN HIGH-SEISMIC AREAS OR IF SHEAR LUG IS USED Process Industry Practices Page A-15 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE E: Minimum Lateral Reinforcement .

55 Process Industry Practices Page A-16 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE F: Coefficients of Friction CONCRETE SURFACE GROUT = 0.70 GROUT CONCRETE SURFACE = 0.90 CONCRETE SURFACE GROUT = 0.

Holding nut 1. Materials: Anchor plate: ASTM A36 Anchor rod: ASTM A36 or F1554 GR 36.) 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 3x3 3x3 3 1/2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 x 3 1/2 4 1/2 x 4 1/2 5x5 5 1/2 x 5 1/2 6 1/2 x 6 1/2 7x7 7x7 8x8 (in.) 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 (in.1 . Hold nut 2. Position anchor rod to obtain the specified projection above the anchor plate. tighten nut 2 to a snug tight condition. NUT 1 T DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES 4d o+ T 1 ANCHOR ROD NOMINAL PIPE SLEEVE ANCHOR PLATE DIMENSIONS ANCHOR PLATE THICKNESS (T) (in. Position and weld the pipe sleeve. Nuts: ASTM A563 Grade A heavy hex Washer: ASTM F436 Pipe sleeve: ASTM A53 SCH 40 2. Weld shall be inaccordance with AWS D1.) 1-1/2 2 2 2-1/2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 5 5 6 (in. C.) 5/8 7/8 7/8 1 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/2 Process Industry Practices Page A-17 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE G: Pretensioned Anchors for Turbines and Reciprocating Compressors Notes: T0P OF DUCT TAPE BOTTOM OF GROUT 1/2 1. B. D. GROUT TOP NUT WASHER DUCT TAPE ANCHOR ROD PIPE SLEEVE do ANCHOR PLATE NUT 2 NUT 3 BOTTOM OF DUCT TAPE FILL WITH ELASTOMERIC MOLDABLE NON-HARDENING MATERIAL FDN. 3. tighten nut 3 to a snug tight condition. Fabrication Sequence: A.

January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide FIGURE H: Anchor-Tightening Sequence 1 12 8 5 9 4 3 EQUIPMENT 10 TIGHTENING SEQUENCE 6 11 2 EQUIPMENT 7 Process Industry Practices Page A-18 .

available to PIP Member Companies only. c2 = 28".Figure 17 [Similar].625")/(11 + 8 .67 (Refer to Blodgett .Design of Welded Structures .) Nom. T = (146 k-ft x 12 + 17 k x 8.2. Process Industry Practices Page A-19 .Figure F) Vf = 0.maximum uplift condition) Shear (V u) = 17 kips Moment (M u) = 146 kip-feet Tension (N u) = 17 kips Low-seismic area (ductility not required) f'c = 3000 psi. See Example 2.67) T = 116 k for 2 bolts P = 116 . supplementary tensile reinforcing can be used to resist the load. A36 anchor material ΣMP = 0 Nu Mu ANCHOR BOLT Vu 8" T P 11" x TOP OF PED. s1 = 0") (Because only two bolts resist tension. the following is determined. c3 = 46".January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide EXAMPLE 1 . s2 = 6".17 = 99 kips Resisting friction load (Vf) = m P m = 0.55 (PIP STE05121 . X = 2. anchors are not required to resist shear. By trial and error using the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet .) Note: Other theorys for determining "X" are equally valid. This is a very large pedestal. c4 = 28". s 1 must be input as 0".) The Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet input and output sheets are attached for this condition. Anchor Diameter = 1 3/4" Anchor Embedment = 21" (12 anchor diameters) Pedestal Size = 6' 4" x 5' 2" (c 1 = 30".55 x 99 = 54 kips > 17 kips Therefore.Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Base Plate Connection Data W12 x 45 column Four anchors on 6" x 16" spacing Base plate 1 1/2" x 14" x 1'-10" with vertical stiffener plates Factored base loads (gravity plus wind . (This takes only a few minutes. If a smaller pedestal is required or desired.

) = hef Thickness of member in which anchor is anchored. in.0 28.00 = h Eccentricity of tensile force on group of tensile anchors (in.) c2 = least edge distance perpendicular to c 1 h or 1.99 + 0.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Ductility required? 116 0 Yes Tension No No Shear 3000 No Intermediate or high seismic risk? Specified concrete strength (psi) = f' c = Cracking modification factor.0 Spacing.5c1 hef c1 c4 s2 c2 Breakout cone for tension SUMMARY OF RESULTS DUCTILITY Breakout cone for shear INTERACTION OF TENSILE AND SHEAR FORCES φNn = 117.) = A36.January 03 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Input PIP Project # PIP STE05121 PIP STE05121 Company Project Subject Name Checked by Example 1 .) (Note ev' must be less than s perpendicular to shear) eV'= 0 EDGE DISTANCES AND SPACING No No Effective anchor embedment depth (in. 30.5hef 35 o (0=single anchor) No no An = An= No no 200 3813 2000 2790 c1 = 30.00 = hef ECCENTRICITY 60.5hef 1.0 Spacing. Do you want to manually input the value of Av? c1 NU 1. 46.0 kips Nu/(φNn) + Vu/(φVn) = 0.29 φVn = 75.0 28. Nu and Vu were factored using factors from ACI 318-02? Factored tensile load (kips) = N u = Factored shear load (kips) = V u = Is there a built-up grout pad? ANCHOR DATA. in.5c1 1.3 kips RESULTS >= Nu = 116.) 2 eN' = 0 4 Eccentricity of shear force on group of anchors (in. in.Located in region where there isn't cracking at service loads (ft < fr) Adequate supplementary reinf.99 <=1.0 6.0 c3 = c4 = TENSION Edge Distance.2 Process Industry Practices Page A-20 . s2 = 6. s1 = s2 = 0.0 28.0 c1 = c2 = c4 = c1 = minimum edge distance c2 = least edge distance perpendicular to c 1 c1 s1 c3 c2 s2 c4 c2 s2 c4 SHEAR Edge Distance. in.) = h Number of anchors in tension = n (tension) = Number of anchors in shear = n (shear) = CONCRETE FAILURE AREAS Do you want to manually input the value of An? Note: Units for An and Av are sq. Fu = 58 1 3/4 perpendicular to edge Section 9. provided to resist tension loads in anchors? Adequate reinforcement provided to resist shear loads in anchors? 21. (in. EMBEDMENT.5c1 c1 VU VU 35o 1.4 .0 kips ANCHOR OK ! 117.00 = 0.6 kips >= Vu = 0.Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Date Check Date 12/12/2002 Sheet Number Total Sheets 1 1 LOADING CONDITIONS Note: Calculations are per ACI 318-02 Appendix D.0 c2 = 28.0 Av = Av= VU (perpendicular) VU (parallel) c1 = edge distance in direction of V n (perp. AND THICKNESS OF MEMBER Anchor material type = Nominal anchor diameter (in.Ψ 7 1. in.

00 in.0 kips DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DUCTILITY NOT REQD IN TENSION DUCTILITY NOT REQD FOR SHEAR LOW SEISMIC RISK eN' = 0. f'c CRACKING MOD FACTOR. SPACINGS. in.750 in.75 if intermediate or high seismic area Page Page A-21 Process Industry Practices .00 in.3 kips c1 c2 c3 c4 s1 s2 An or Av 117. 165.0 kips 335.0 kips * = φVn >= Vu = 0.6 kips 278.00 in.99 + 0.4 kips STEEL STRENGTH CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR. n(shear) 4.0 sq. 21.00 in. Calculated Concrete Capacity 137.00 in.3 kips INTERACTION OF TENSILE AND SHEAR FORCES = φNn* >= Nu = 116.0 kips 75. in.00 <= 1.00 in. Vu REINFORCEMENT Section 9. 0. 6. fy fut Ase Ab 36 ksi hef 58 ksi n(tension) 1.00 in. in.3 kips 117. in. DESIGN FOR SHEAR Ns 220. 2790. 1.00 in. SHEAR 30.5 kips Vcb or Vcbg Vcp 108. Fu = 58 1 3/4 in.00 in.0 kips ADEQUATE REINF NOT PROVIDED TO RESIST SHEAR 0.January 2003 Output Company Project Subject Name Checked by PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Sheet PIP 1 of 1 Project # PIP STE05121 Example 1 . Perpendicular to edge CONCRETE PRYOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR 3000 psi 1. Nu SHEAR LOAD.6 kips EDGE DISTANCES.4 Vs 211. 6. Ψ7 GROUT PAD eV' = 0.00 in.Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Date 12/12/2002 Check Date BOLT PARAMETERS Grade Size do A36. ECCENTRICITIES DESIGN FOR TENSION STEEL STRENGTH CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR(S) PULLOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR(S) CONCRETE SIDE-FACE BLOWOUT STRENGTH OF HEADED ANCHOR(S) CONCRETE STRENGTH.144 sq. Calculated 3813. 28.900 sq.1 kips NA SUMMARY OF RESULTS TENSION Steel Capacity Concrete Capacity SHEAR Steel Capacity 28. 28.6 kips Ncb or Ncbg nNpn Nsb or Nsbg (governing) 167.00 in. 28. 2 4 LOAD CONDITIONS LOAD FACTORS TENSILE LOAD.2 ADEQUATE REINF NOT PROVIDED TO RESIST TENSION 116.6 kips * * Nu/(φNn ) + Vu/(φVn ) = 0. 46.0 sq.00 in.5 kips 75.00 in. FAILURE AREAS TENSION 30.2 OK *Multiplied by 0.

5. Use Av = 2790. (D.0 sq.5c12 = 4050. AV (max) = nAVo = 16200.0 .2.4.1) Steel Strength of Fastener in Shear: Vs = nAse(0. in. Use hef = 20.5 kips 3.0 in.1. Abrg = 4.900 sq.2. Sheet 1 of 2 (D-18 & D.6.6.0 in.3) Nb = 129. Nsbg = (1+so/6c)Nsb = NA (D-16) Nsb or Nsbg (governing) = NA (D-13) (D-12) c2/c = 0.0 in.0 sq.6.1 kips (D. in. in.9fy and fut < 125 ksi) = 220. (D-9) (D-10 or D-11) (D-7 or D-8) (D-4 or D-5) (D-6) (D.6 fut)*(0.0 sq.Notation for l) c1 (max) = 40.1) Use min Av = 2790.00 cmin = 28.980 Ψ3 = 1. Pullout strength of anchor in tension: Ψ4 = 1.0 in.5. in. Appendix D. hef(max) = 20. hef = 21. of Bolts nt(tension) = 2 nv(shear) = 4 Note: Figures in parenthesis and in red refer to equations or paragraphs in ACI 318-02 .4 Np = Abrg8f'c = 99. nNpn = nΨ4Np = 278.8 if there is a grout pad) = 211. Nsb = 160c(Abrg)0. Avo = 4.750 in.0 in.6) Ncb or Ncbg = (AN/ANo)Ψ1Ψ2Ψ3Nb = 167.6 kips 1. in.6) For n bolts. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension: AN(calc) = 3813. in.2.4) Use c1 = 30.5 = NA (D-15) Side blowout (group effects) does not apply. Process Industry Practices (D.5. Concrete side-face blowout strength of headed anchor in tension: c2 = 28.5(f'c)0. in.0 in.0 sq.0 sq. Ψ1 = [1/(1 + 2eN'/3hef) <= 1] = 1. Steel Strength in Tension: Ns = nAsefut (fut < 1. Side-face blowout strength does not apply. A36. Ase = 1.5.93 <=3 Nsb (modified) = NA (D. in.144 sq. c = 30. Fu = 58 fy = 36 ksi fut = 58 ksi PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Selected Bolt: do = 1. l = min (8do and hef) = 14.3.January 2003 Calculations 1 3/4 in.3) (D-22) Page A-22 .0 sq. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear: Av(calc) = 2790.0 in. in. Use AN = 3813.6 kips 2.0 sq.0 in.4 kips (D-3) 1.0 in.0 sq. No. in.25 ANo = 9hef2 = 3600. (D.2.5 kips (D. Ψ2 = 0.

6 kips Governing mode of concrete failure: Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear Ductility? Tension 0 Shear: (D.0 if c2 >= 1.29 OK Process Industry Practices Sheet 2 of 2 Page A-23 .7+0.3) (D.6.4) Steel capacity = φVn[*0.65 (D.3.70 φ for steel = 0.5 = 126.3) Shear 0 Interaction of tensile and shear forces: φNn = 117.75 if inter.3 kips (D.4.4) Steel capacity = φNn[*0.0 kips Nu/(φNn) = 0.99 Applicable equation = (D-1) (D.3 kips Ψ5 = 1/(1 + 2eV'/3c1) <= 1 = 1 (D-25) Ψ6 = [0.3 kips 0. capacity = φVn[*0.3. 1.3. or high seismic risk] = 117.00 117.3.NA Ncb = 167.Applies <-------.3) Governing mode of concrete failure: Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension φ for concrete = 0.75 Tension: (D. or high seismic risk] = 165.3) Concrete capacity = φNn[*0.2(do)0.0 kips 243.7 kips 2.2.6 kips (D-28) (D-4) Summary of Results: φ for concrete = 0.1 kips Vu = 0.1) Vcp = kcpNcb = 335.6.5c1) if c2 < 1.5(c1)1.7) (D-20 or D-21) (D-20 or D-21) Vcb or Vcbg = (AV/AVo)Ψ5Ψ6Ψ7Vb = 108.2φNn = 23.75 if inter.January 2003 Calculations (D-23) (D-26 [Errata] or D-27) PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Vb = 7(l/do)0.7) φVn = 75.4 (D.5 kips Conc.887 Ψ7 = 1.75 if inter.3 kips (D.5(f'c)0. or high seismic risk] = 75. or high seismic risk] = 137.3.2φVn = 15.5c1. Concrete pryout strength of anchor in shear: kcp = 2 (D.5c1] = 0.1 kips Shear perpendicular to edge Shear parallel to edge <------.70 φ for steel = 0.5 kips Nu = 116.3(c2/(1.4.75 if inter.6 kips 0.0 kips Vu/(φVn) = 0.

one #8 hairpin resists 48. Where C = concrete cover = 2" Final Design hef = 2 + 15.0". Use supplementary tensile reinforcing to reduce pedestal size.Column Plate Connection .Supplementary Tensile Reinforcing Same data as Example 1. anchor diameter = 1-3/4" Assume a 2'-0" x 2'-6" pedestal. ANCHOR (TYP.5 = 20.) l or ldh* d #8 HAIRPIN (TYP. = 7. NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY) Process Industry Practices 3" 3" 2'-0" Page A-24 .61/1. Assume anchors are resisted by three hairpins.0" + #8 diam. Shear (Vu) = 17 kips Moment (Mu) = 146 kip-feet Tension (Nu) = 17 kips Per Example 1: T = 116 k on two bolts Friction will take shear load.0/2) ] = 4.5 Distance from anchor to leg of hairpin = [3 +(7. 2 2 0. See Figure C-2.75 = 21" Use h ef = 21" C = 2" CLEAR T 1 3/4" DIA.5 1 HAIRPIN (TYP. See Table 3.7 kips Per Table 3 of PIP STE05122.) ANCHOR (TYP. OK.5.) hef = 21" 6" 6" (TYP.61/1.61" Required hef = C + ldh + 4.37 kips.) 1'-4" 2'-6" ELEVATION * USE l IF HOOK IS ADDED dh AT BOTTOM OF HAIRPIN PLAN (NOTE: OTHER REINF.3 + 4. Nom. Space hairpins 3" away from each anchor. 116k / 3 = 38.3" per Table 3.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide EXAMPLE 2 .) 1. hef = 12 d0 = 12 x 1.4" min. Width of hairpin = 6. ldh (min) = 15.

Shear Lug Plate Section Design PLAN Vu = 40 K (ULTIMATE) SECTION Process Industry Practices Page A-25 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide Example 3 .

9*36 ksi))½ = 0. x 0. subject to a factored axial dead load of 22.75) / 2 = 11.75-in. Thickness = t = [(4 * Mu)/(0. Design of the weld between the plate section and the base plate is left to the engineer.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide EXAMPLE 3 .6 kips Bearing area = Areq = Vapp / (0.Shear Lug Plate Section Design Design a shear lug plate for a 14-in.6 kips / (0.39 in.67 in.)/2) = 4.6 kips / 12 in.85*0. square pedestal is assumed. Distance from shear lug to edge of concrete = (24 . Check concrete breakout strength of the shear lug in shear.-1 in.75 in.0. x 3-in. This 12-in.4 kips > 27. Vapp = Vu – Vf = 40 – (0. /12 in.85 * [3000] 0.67 in. and a factored shear load of 40 kips. assume the plate width.5 = 56400 lb = 56.63 in.5 = 303 * 4 * 0. Ultimate moment = M u = (Vapp / W) * (G + (H – G)/2) = (27. + (3 in.9* Fy)]½ = ((4*4.)/(0. Height of plate = H = A req / W + G = 16.5 kips.65*3 ksi) = 16.754 in. The contact plane between the grout and base plate is assumed to be 1 in. AV = 24 * (2+11. factored live load of 65 kips.85 f f’ c) = 27.63) – (12 * 2) = 303 in. = 2. Ductility is not required.3 kips OK Process Industry Practices Page A-26 . 2 On the basis of base plate size. A 2-ft 0-in.5) = 27.) * (1 in. 2 2 Use 3 in. will be 12 in. / in.55)(22. + 1 in. square base plate. above the concrete. Vcb = AV*4*f*[f’c] 0. plate will be sufficient to carry the applied shear load and resulting moment. W.61 k-in.61 kip-in. Use 0. The base plate and shear lug have F y = 36 ksi and f' c = 3 ksi.

Shear Lug Pipe Section Design PLAN Vu= 40K (ULTIMATE) SECTION Process Industry Practices Page A-27 .January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide Example 4 .

322 in.69) – 8. Check moment: Mn = S [600/(D/t) + Fy] = 16.5 kips > 27.63 kips * (1 in.625 – 2*0.67 in. above the concrete. A 2-ft 0-in. D = 8.5) = 27. square base plate.4 kips) = 163.85*0.Shear Lug Pipe Section Design Design a shear lug pipe section for a 14-in. Check Vn = 0.625 in.7 in.3 kips OK Process Industry Practices Page A-28 .81 in. Av = 24*(2. t = 0.62*2.9)*(181.625 in.9 fbMn = (0. nominal std.5-in.5 = 223 in.5 = 41500 lb = 41.55)(22. 2 Based on base plate size.6 Fy p(D2 – (D-2t)2)/4 = 0.85 f f’c) = 27..81 in. + (3.5 + 7.January 2003 PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide EXAMPLE 4 . + 1 in.65*3ksi) = 16. Ductility is not required.322)2 ) in. = 2. .69 in.) = 884 k-in.93 in. The base plate and shear lug have Fy = 36 ksi and f'c = 3 ksi.1 in.322 in. OK 2 Use 3.9 fv Vn = (0.6252 – (8.4 kips fv = 0.9)*(982 k-in. fb = 0.2 Vcb = Av*4*f*[f’c]0.2 / 4 = 181.3 *(600/(8.6* 36 ksi * p* ( 8. assume the pipe diameter will be 8-in.625 in.17 k-in.5 in.-long x 8-in. Check failure plane of pedestal: Distance from edge of pipe to edge of concrete = (24 – 8.) + 36 ksi) = 982 k-in.5 kips.85 * [3000]0.6 kips OK This 3. Vapp = Vu – Vf = 40 – (0. The contact plane between the grout and base plate is assumed to be 1 in.3 Height of pipe = H = Areq / D + G = 16.-diameter nominal std.2 kips > 27.5 in.17 k-in.. subject to a factored axial dead load of 22. square pedestal is assumed.6 kips / (0. and a factored shear load of 40 kips. Ultimate moment = M u = Vapp * (G + (H – G)/2) = 27. S = 16.625) / 2 = 7.)/2) = 62. / 8. > 62./0. weight pipe will be sufficient to carry the applied shear load and resulting moment. weight pipe.6 kips Bearing area = Areq = Vapp / (0.5 = 223 * 4 * 0. factored live load of 65 kips.