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BGP
Border Gateway Protocol

2007©

Building routing tables
P3 AS1 AS3 AS13 AS11 p1 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13 P3 AS13 AS3
P3 AS3 AS13

P3 AS13 p3 AS13 p3

P3 AS3 AS13 AS1

P3 AS3 AS13 AS2

P3 AS13 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS1 AS3 AS13

P3 AS3 AS13 AS12 p2 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13

Link failure
P3 AS1 AS3 AS13 AS11 p1 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13 AS2 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS1 AS3 AS13 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13 AS12 p2 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13 P3 AS13 AS1 AS3 AS13 p3

Routing Policy
P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS1 AS3 AS13 P3 AS3 AS13 AS11 p1 AS1 P3 AS13 AS3 P3 AS13 p3 AS13 p3

P3 AS13 AS2 P3 AS3 AS13 P3 AS3 AS13 AS12 p2 P3 AS2 AS3 AS13

Do not advertise transit route Still advertise AS12 to As1

Local Preference
If there are multiple exit points from the AS, the local preference attribute is used to select the exit point for a specific route. In Figure, AS 100 is receiving two advertisements for network 172.16.1.0 from AS 200.

Local Preference
When Router A receives the advertisement for network 172.16.1.0, the corresponding local preference is set to 50. When Router B receives the advertisement for network 172.16.1.0, the corresponding local preference is set to 100.

Local Preference
These local preference values will be exchanged between routers A and B. Because Router B has a higher local preference than Router A, Router B will be used as the exit point from AS 100 to reach network 172.16.1.0 in AS 200.

Multi-Exit Discriminator
The multi-exit discriminator (MED) or metric attribute is used as a suggestion to an external AS regarding the preferred route into the AS that is advertising the metric.

Multi-Exit Discriminator
The term suggestion is used because the external AS that is receiving the MEDs may be using other BGP attributes for route selection. We will cover the rules regarding route selection in the next section.

Multi-Exit Discriminator
Router C is advertising the route 172.16.1.0 with a metric of 10, while Route D is advertising 172.16.1.0 with a metric of 5. The lower value of the metric is preferred, so AS 100 will select the route to router D for network 172.16.1.0 in AS 200. MEDs are advertised throughout the local AS.

LOCAL-PREF Example
Which path to AS1 should be advertised to AS5?

p1 AS 2

p1 AS 1
AS1 P1

p1

R1 AS 4
AS2 AS1 P1 LOCAL-PREF 50

R2 R3

AS1 P1

AS 3

AS3 AS1 P1 LOCAL-PREF 100

AS3 AS1: p1

AS 5

MULTI-EXIT-DISC (MED) Example
Which path to AS5 should be selected by AS1? AS4 AS5 P5 MED 20

AS 1 AS 2
AS5 P5

AS4 AS5 P5 MED 10

R1
MED 20

R2 AS 4 R3

AS5 P5 MED 10 AS5 P5

AS 3

AS5 P5 P5 p5

AS 5

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