Electronics Systems and Technologies

Licuanan, CCNA

Engr. Jaime P.

CHAPTER 1 :Introduction to Electronic Communications •
the transmission, reception and processing of information between two or more locations using electronic circuits electronic communications analog signals

signals that are time-varying voltages or currents that are continuously changing, such as cosine and sine waves. It contains an infinite number of values

• • •

signals that are voltages or currents that change in discrete steps or levels he invented the first workable telegraph

digital signals Samuel Finley Morse (1837) electromagnetic induction Breese

it is used to transfer information in the form of dots, dashes and spaces between a simple transmitter and receiver using a transmission line consisting of a length of metallic wire

they were the first to successfully transfer human conversation over a crude metallic-wire communication system using a device they called telephone

Alexander Graham Bell Thomas A. Watson decibel (dB)

• •

a logarithmic unit that can be used to measure ratios of virtually anything a transmission-measuring unit used to express relative gains and losses of electronic devices and for describing relationships between signals and noise

decibel

another name for power loss • a collection of one or more electronic devices or circuits that converts the original source information to a form more suitable for transmission over a particular transmission medium • it provides a means of transporting signals between a transmitter and a receiver and can be as simple as a pair of copper wires • any unwanted electrical signals that interfere with the information signal • a collection of electronic devices and circuits that accepts the transmitted signals from the transmission medium and then converts those signals back to their original form • higher-frequency analog signal • the process of changing one or more properties of the analog

attenuation

transmitter transmission medium or communications channel system noise receiver carrier modulation

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Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA carrier in proportion with the information signal • a system in which energy is transmitted and received in analog form, both the information and the carrier are analog signals

Engr. Jaime P.

Analog system Digital system

communication

it covers a broad range of communication techniques including digital and digital radio • a true digital system where digital pulses are transferred between two or more points in communication system • the transmittal of digitally modulated analog between two or more points in communication system carriers

communication

digital transmission digital radio Amplitude (AM) Frequency (FM) modulator modulated wave modulated signal or modulation modulation

• the information signal is analog and the amplitude of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal • • • the frequency is varied proportional to the information signal a circuit performing modulation in a transmitter a carrier that has been acted on by an information signal the

• the reverse process of modulation and converts modulated carrier back to the original information

demodulation channel intelligence signal frequency translation electromagnetic energy

• it is often used to refer to a specific band of frequencies allocated a particular service • another name for information signal

• the process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to another location in the total frequency spectrum • it can propagate as a voltage or current along a metallic wire as emitted radio waves through free space or as light waves down an optical fiber • simply the number of times a periodic motion such as sine wave of voltage or current occurs in a given period of time • an international agency in control of allocating frequencies and services with the overall frequency spectrum

frequency International Telecommunications Union (UTI) Extremely frequencies Voice frequencies low

signals in the 30-Hz to 300-Hz range and include ac power distribution signals (60Hz) and low frequency telemetry signals

signals in the 300-Hz to 3000-Hz range and include

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Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA frequencies generally associated with human speech, standard telephone channels

Engr. Jaime P.

signals in the 3-kHz to 30-kHz range which include the upper end of the human hearing range, specialized government and military system (submarine communications)

Very low frequencies

• •

signals in the 30-kHz to 300-kHz range and used primarily for marine and aeronautical navigation signals in the 300-kHz to 3-MHz range and are used primarily for commercial AM radio broadcasting (535 kHz to 1605 kHz)

Low frequencies

Medium frequency

signals in the 3-MHz to 30-MHz range and are used for twoway radio communications, Voice of America and Radio Free Europe broadcast, amateur radio and citizens band (CB) radio

High frequencies

signals in the 30-MHZ to 300-MHz and are used for mobile radio, marine, and aeronautical communications, commercial FM broadcasting (88 MHz to 108 MHz), and commercial television broadcasting of channels 2 to 13 (54 MHz to 216 MHz)

Very high frequencies

signals in the 300-MHz to 3-GHz range and are used by commercial television broadcasting of channels 14 to 83, land mobile communication services, cellular telephones, certain radar and navigation systems, and microwave and satellite radio systems

Ultrahigh frequencies

signal in the 3-GHz to 30-GHz range used for microwave and satellite radio communication system • signals in the 30-GHz to 300-GHz range and seldom used for radio communication system signal in the 0.3-THz to 300-THz electromagnetic radiation generally associated with heat

Superhigh frequencies Extremely frequencies Infrared high

range. It refers to

• the length that one cycle of an electromagnetic wave occupies in space. It is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave and directly proportional to the frequency of the wave and directly proportional to the velocity of propagation • speed of light • the two most significant limitations on the performance of a communication system • simply the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies in the information

wavelength

3 x 108 m/s noise bandwidth bandwidth of information signal an

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Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA

Engr. Jaime P.

the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to pass through • a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communications system • a measure of how much information can be propagated through a communications system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time • simply the number of bits transmitted during one second and is expressed in bit per second • any undesirable electrical energy that falls within the passband signal

bandwidth of a communication channel

Information theory

Information capacity

Bit rate Electrical noise correlated

• •

implies a relationship between the signal and the noise. Exist only when a signal is present noise present all the time whether there is signal or not noise that is generated outside the device or circuit

uncorrelated external noise Atmospheric noise

• • • • • • • • • • •

naturally occurring electrical disturbances that originate within Earth’s surface like lightning another name for atmospheric noise frequency of atmospheric noise

Static electricity 30 MHz Extraterrestrial noise Deep-space noise Cosmic noise Black-body noise Man-made noise Industrial noise internal noise

consists of electrical signal that originate from outside Earth’s atmosphere another name for extraterrestrial noise continuously distributed throughout the galaxies another name for cosmic noise simply noise that is produced by mankind another name for man-made noise electrical interference generated within a device or circuit

caused by random arrival of carriers at the output element of an electronic device such as diode, field effect transistor or bipolar transistor

Shot noise

4

or current-time variations that can be represented by a series of sine or cosine waves • • • a waveform which repeats at a uniform rate a description of a signal with respect to time a time-domain instrument 5 . Jaime P. • any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from the input to the output of a device produces an irregular random variation Transit-time noise Thermal noise • • the rapid and random movement of electrons within a conductor due to thermal agitation another names for thermal noise: white noise Brownian noise Johnson noise Harmonic distortion Harmonics Amplitude distortion Intermodulation distortion Impulse noise Interference • • • • occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are produced through nonlinear amplification integer multiples of the original signal another name for harmonic distortion the generation of unwanted sum and difference frequencies produced when two or more signals mix in a nonlinear device • • • characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration in the total noise spectrum a form of external noise meaning to disturb or detract from when information signals from one source produce frequencies that fall outside their allocated bandwidth and interfere with information signals from another source Electrical interference • the ratio of the signal power level to the noise power level Signal-to-noise ratio power CHAPTER 2: Signal Analysis and Mixing • • the only two levels possible in a digital signal four-level signals binary signal quaternary digital signal Electrical signals Periodic Time domain Oscilloscope • the voltage. CCNA Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

that is. • an amplitude-versus-time representation of the signal • a description of a signal with respect to its frequency • a frequency-domain instrument Signal waveform Frequency-domain representation Spectrum analyzer Sinusoidal wave • any repetitive waveform that is comprised of more than one harmonically related sine or cosine wave • any periodic waveform that is not a sinusoid such as square waves. rectangular waves and triangular waves • a French physicist and mathematician who used a mathematical series to analyze a complex periodic wave • a mathematical tool that allows us to move back and forth between time and frequency domains. symmetry • a periodic voltage waveform that said to have point. It is used in signal analysis to represent the sinusoidal components of non-sinusoidal periodic waveforms • it describes the symmetry of a waveform in the time domain. symmetry • a periodic voltage waveform such that the waveform for the first half-cycle repeats itself except with the opposite sign for the second half cycle • a waveform consists of all the frequencies contained in the waveform and their respective amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain • range of frequencies contained in the spectrum • the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information • the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to pass through • the rate at which energy is dissipated. CCNA Engr. or skew. or mirror. delivered. its relative position with respect to the horizontal (time) and vertical (amplitude) axes • a periodic voltage waveform in symmetric about vertical axis that have axes. Jaime P. Complex wave Baron Jean Fourier Fourier analysis Wave symmetry Even symmetry Odd symmetry Half-wave symmetry Frequency spectrum Bandwidth 6 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

. Discrete Fourier transform Fast Fourier series Bandlimiting Mixing • the computing time is proportional to n log 2n rather that n2 • it reduces the information capacity of the system • the process of combining two or more signals and is an essential process in electronic communications • two ways in which signals can be combined or mixed: • it occurs when two or more signals combine in a linear device. a path to propagate from the output back to input) • four requirements for a feedback oscillator: amplification positive feedback frequencydetermining components power source • an untuned oscillator RC phase shift oscillator that uses both positive and negative feedback Wien-bridge oscillator 7 . Phase-Locked Loops. CCNA or used and is a function of the square of the voltage or current • a time-domain signal is sampled at discrete times Electrical power Engr. and Frequency Synthesizers • to fluctuate between two states or conditions. Jaime P. such as passive network or a smallsignal amplifier • occurs when two or more signals are combined in a nonlinear device such as a diode or large-signal amplifier • • undesired harmonics desired harmonics • • linearly nonlinearly Linear summing (linear mixing) Nolinear mixing Harmonic distortion Frequency multiplication CHAPTER 3 : Oscillators. to vibrate or to change • a device that produces oscillations Oscillate Oscillator Feedback oscillators • • • • • an amplifier with a feedback loop (i.e.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA

Engr. Jaime P.

oscillator circuits that utilize tuned LC tank circuits for the frequency-determining components • the ability of an oscillator to remain at a fixed frequency and is of primary importance in communication systems • feedback oscillator circuits in which the LC tank circuit is replaced with a crystal for the frequencydetermining component • the study of the form, structure, properties, and classifications of crystals. It deals with lattices, bonding and the behavior of slices of crystal material that have been cut at various angles with respect to the crystal’s axes • it occurs when oscillating mechanical stresses applied across a crystal lattice structure generate electrical oscillations and vice versa • another name for mechanical vibrations

LC oscillators

Frequency stability

Crystal oscillators Crystallography

Piezoelectric effect Bulk Acoustic Waves (BAWs) Crystal oscillator module Graded junction

• it is consist of a crystal-controlled oscillator and a voltage-variable component such as varactor diode • it is often used when describing varactor diode fabrication

CHAPTER 4 : Amplitude Modulation Transmission
• the process of impressing low-frequency information signal onto a high-frequency • the reverse process where the received signals are transformed back to their original form • the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal • frequencies that are high enough to be efficiently radiated by an antenna and propagated through free space • the most commonly used amplitude modulation Modulation Demodulation

Amplitude Modulation (AM) Radio frequency AM double side-band full carrier (AM DSBFC) Coefficient of modulation

• a term used to describe the amount of amplitude change present in an AM waveform

8

Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA • gives the percentage change in the amplitude of the output wave when the carrier is acted on by a modulating signal • it use a unique arrangement of transistors and FETs to perform signal multiplication, which is a characteristic that makes them ideally suited for generating AM waveforms • typically a sensitive class A linear voltage amplifier with a high input impedance • a low-gain, high-input impedance linear amplifier used to isolate the oscillator from the high-power amplifiers • it is sometimes called upward or downward modulation and has absolutely nothing to do with the frequency of the carrier. A form of amplitude distortion introduced when positive and negative alternations in the AM modulated signal are not equal • are complex waveforms comprised of two or more frequencies • are complex waves made up of two or more harmonically related sine waves and include square, rectangular and triangular waves • a form of amplitude modulation where signals from two separate information sources modulate the same carrier frequency at the same time without interfering with each other

Engr. Jaime P.

Percent modulation

Linear integrated-circuit function generators Preamplifier

Buffer amplifier

Carrier shift

Nonsinusoidal signals

Complex repetitive

Quadrature modulation

amplitude

CHAPTER 5 : Amplitude Modulation Reception
• several parameters commonly used to evaluate the ability of a receiver to successfully demodulate a radio signal • • • • • • • selectivity bandwidth sensitivity dynamic range fidelity insertion loss noise temperature

• a receiver parameter that is used to measure the ability of the receiver to accept a given band of frequencies and reject all others • the noise reduction ratio achieved by reducing

Selectivity Bandwidth Improvement

9

Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA the bandwidth • the corresponding reduction in the noise figure to the reduction in bandwidth • the minimum RF signal level that can be detected at the input to the receiver and still produce a usable demodulated information signal • another name for receiver sensitivity • the difference in decibels between the minimum input level necessary to discern a signal and the input level that will overdrive the receiver and produce distortion • the output power when the RF amplifier response is 1 dB less than the ideal linear-gain response • a measure of the ability of a communication system to produce at the output of the receiver, an exact replica of the original source information • three forms of distortion that can deteriorate the fidelity of a communication system: (BI)

Engr. Jaime P.

Noise Figure Improvement

Sensitivity Threshold Dynamic range

1-dB compression point

Fidelity • • • amplitude frequency phase

the predominant cause of phase distortion

Filtering Absolute phase shift

• the total phase shift encountered by a signal and can generally be tolerated as long as all frequencies undergo the same amount of phase delay • it occurs when different frequencies undergo different phase shifts and may have a detrimental effect on a complex waveform • it occurs when the amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics of a signal at the output of a receiver differ from those of the original information signal • it occurs when frequencies are present in a received signal that were not present in the original source information • a parameter associated with the frequencies that fall within the passband of a filter and is generally defined as the ratio of the power transferred to a load with a filter in the circuit to the power transferred to a load without the filter • a hypothetical value that cannot be directly measured. An indication of the reduction in the signal-to-noise as a signal propagates through a receiver

Differential phase shift

Amplitude distortion

Frequency distortion

Insertion Loss (IL)

Equivalent Noise Temperature (Te)

10

Electronics Systems and Technologies
Licuanan, CCNA

Engr. Jaime P.

two basic types of radio receivers:

• •

coherent (synchronous) noncoherent (asynchronous)

• a type of receiver wherein the frequency generated in the receiver and used for demodulation are synchronized to oscillator frequencies generated in the transmitter • a type of receiver where either no frequencies are generated in the receiver or the frequencies used for demodulation are completely independent from the transmitter’s carrier frequency • another name for noncoherent detection because the information is recovered from the received waveform by detecting the shape of the modulated envelope • one of the earliest types of AM receivers and probably the simplest designed radio receiver available • it means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing • five sections of the superheterodyne receiver:

Coherent

Noncoherent

Envelope detection

Tuned Radio-frequency (TRF) Heterodyne • • • • • RF section Mixer/converter section IF section Audio detector section Audio amplifier section

• a broad-tuned bandpass filter with an adjustable center frequency that is tune to the desired carrier frequency. It reduce the noise bandwidth of the receiver • it determines the sensitivity of the receiver

Preselector

RF amplifier Detector Tracking

• its purpose is to convert the IF signals back to the original source • the ability of the local oscillator in a receiver to oscillate either above or below the selected radio frequency carrier by an amount equal to the intermediate frequency throughout the entire radio frequency band • the difference between the actual local oscillator frequency and the desired frequency • any frequency other than the selected radio

Tracking error

11

short duration noise spike then mutes the receiver by shutting off a portion of the receiver for the duration of the pulse • the ratio of the demodulated signal level at the output of the receiver to the RF signal level at the input to the receiver Image frequency Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. high amplitude noise transients of short duration such as impulse noise • another circuit option commonly used for reducing the effects of high amplitude noise pulses where it detects the occurrence of a high-amplitude. It keeps the audio section of the receiver turned off or muted in the absence of a received signal • used for removing sporadic. CCNA frequency carrier that if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local oscillator will produce a cross-product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency • a numerical measure of the ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency • it occurs when a receiver picks up the same station at two nearby points on the receiver tuning dial • its purpose is to down-convert the incoming radio frequencies to intermediate frequencies • the most common technique used for coupling IF amplifiers where the voltage that is applied to the primary windings of a transformer is transferred to the secondary windings • the ability of a coil to induce a voltage within its own windings • the ability of one coil to induce a voltage in another coil • the ratio of the secondary flux to the primary flux • the transfer of flux from the primary to the secondary windings • a circuit that compensates for minor variations in the received signal level where it automatically increases the receiver gain weak RF input levels and automatically decreases the receiver gain when a strong RF signal is received • when the receiver becomes less sensitive • a circuit that has the purpose to quiet a receiver in the absence of a received signal. Image-frequency ratio Double spotting Mixer / converter rejection Inductive coupling or transformer Self-inductance Mutual inductance Coefficient of coupling Flux linkage Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Automatic desensing Squelch circuit Diode limiters or clippers Blanking circuit Net Receiver Gain 12 .

CCNA Engr. • samples of receiver losses: • • • preselector loss mixer loss detector loss • it includes all the gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from the transmitter output stage to the output of the detector in the receiver and includes antenna gain and transmission line and propagation losses • the adjustment for the center frequency of the preselector and the adjustment for the local oscillator • it offers higher gain and less conventional cascaded amplifiers noise than System gain Gang tuned Cascoded amplifier CHAPTER 6 Single-Sideband Communications System • a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is transmitted at full power but only one of the sidebands is transmitted. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. It requires only half as much bandwidth as conventional double sideband AM • a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is totally suppressed and one of the sidebands removed and considerably less transmitted power • a form of amplitude modulation in which one sideband is totally removed and the carrier voltage is reduced to approximately 10% of its unmodulated amplitude • a form of amplitude modulation in which a single carrier frequency is independently modulated by two different modulating signals AM Single-sideband Full Carrier (SSBFC) AM Single-sideband Suppressed Carrier (SSBSC) AM Single Side-band Reduced Carrier (SSBRC) AM Independent Sideband (ISB) 13 .

it converts to mechanical vibrations and then converts the vibrations back to electrical energy at its output • four elements that comprise a mechanical filter: Ceramic filters Mechanical filter • • • • input transducer series of mechanical resonant metal disks coupling rod output transducer • filters that use acoustic energy rather than electromechanical energy to provide excellent performance for precise bandpass filtering • the basic SAW filter Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters Bidirectional 14 . CCNA Engr. • a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one complete sideband are transmitted but only part of the second sideband is transmitted • the rms power developed at the crest of the modulation envelope when the modulating-signal frequency components are at their maximum amplitudes • advantages of single-sideband transmission: AM Vestigial Sideband (VSB) Peak envelope power (PEP) • • • • • • power conservation bandwidth conservation selective fading noise reduction complex receivers tuning difficulties • disadvantages of single-sideband transmission: • a circuit that produces suppressed-carrier signal • a double-sideband Balanced Modulator Balanced Lattice Modulator Carrier Leak between 40 dB and 60 Db • • • phase-shift method filter method third method another name for balanced modulator • a small carrier component always present in the output signal • the typical amount of carrier suppression • three transmitter configurations used for singlesideband generation: • it is made from lead zirconate-titanate which exhibits the piezoelectric effect • a mechanically resonant transducer that when it receives electrical energy. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

CCNA • it launches the acoustic wave in only one direction • a narrow band PLL that tracks the pilot carrier in the composite SSBRC receiver signal and uses the recovered carrier to regenerate coherent local oscillator frequencies in the synthesizer • a system that provide narrowband voice communications for land-mobile services with nearly the quality achieved with FM systems and do it using less than one-third the bandwidth • a device expansion that performs compression and Unidirectional Recovery circuit Engr. like metallic or optical fiber cable or a radio-frequency channel • an analog method of combining two or more analog sources that originally occupied the same frequency band in such a manner that the channels do not interfere with each other • a multiplexing method that uses doublesideband suppressed-carrier transmission to combine two information sources into a single composite waveform that is then transmitted over a common facility without the two channels interfering with each other Frequency-division Multiplexing (FDM) Quadrature Multiplexing (QM) CHAPTER 7 Angle Modulation Transmission • it results whenever the phase angle modulation of a sinusoidal wave is varied with respect to time • varying the frequency of a constant-amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal • varying the phase of a constant-amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal Angle modulation Direct Frequency Modulation (FM) Direct (PM) Phase Modulation • • the relative angular displacement of the carrier phase in radians in respect to the reference phase the relative displacement of the carrier frequency Phase deviation (Δθ) Frequency deviation (Δf) 15 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. Amplitude-compandoring Single-sideband (ACSSB) Compandor (compressor-expander) Multiplexing • process of combining transmissions from more than one source and transmitting them over a common facility.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. instantaneous phase deviation instantaneous phase instantaneous frequency deviation instantaneous frequency phase Instantaneous deviation Instantaneous phase Instantaneous deviation frequency Instantaneous frequency Phase modulation Frequency modulation Deviation sensitivities Modulation index Frequency deviation Carrier swing Percent Modulation • the ratio of the frequency deviation actually produced to the maximum frequency deviation allowed by law stated in percent form • a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to Phase modulator 16 . CCNA in hertz in respect to its unmodulated value • four terms with reference to angle-modulation • • • • • the instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a given instant of time and indicates how much the phase of the carrier is changing with respect to its reference phase • the precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time • the instantaneous change in the frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first time derivation of the instantaneous frequency deviation • the precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of time and is defined as the first derivative of the instantaneous phase • it can be defined as angle modulation in which the instantaneous phase deviation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal voltage and the instantaneous frequency deviation is proportional to the slope or first derivative of the modulating signal • an angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency deviation is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal and the instantaneous phase deviations is proportional to the integral of the modulating signal voltage • the output-versus-input transfer functions for the modulators which give the relationship between what output parameter changes in respect to specified changes in the input signal • peak phase deviation • the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a modulating-signal frequency • peak-to-peak frequency deviation Engr.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA the modulating signal • a single-frequency sinusoid Engr. Jaime P. whereas the noise voltage at the output of an FM demodulator increases linearly with frequency • • a high-pass filter a low-pass filter Deviation Ratio (DR) Adjacent Channel Interference Noise Triangle Preemphasis Network Deemphasis Network Direct FM Direct PM • an angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is varied directly by the modulating signal • an angle modulation in which the frequency of the carrier is deviated indirectly by the modulating signal • a circuit that compares the frequency of the noncrystal carrier oscillator to a crystal reference oscillator and then produces a correction voltage proportional to the difference between two frequencies • a purpose to achieve near-crystal stability of the Automatic Control (AFC) Frequency 17 . it defines a bandwidth that includes approximately 98% of the total power in the modulated wave • the worst-case modulation index and is equal to the maximum peak frequency deviation divided by the maximum modulating-signal frequency • the interference produced when the highest side frequencies from one channel are allowed to spill over into adjacent channels • the noise voltage at the output of a PM demodulator is constant with frequency. Unmodulated carrier (rest frequency) Frequency modulator (frequency deviator) PM Modulator PM demodulator FM modulator FM demodulator Carson’s rule • a circuit in which the carrier is varied in such a way that its instantaneous phase is proportional to the integral of the modulating signal • • • • differentiator followed by an FM modulator FM demodulator followed by an integrator integrator followed by a PM modulator PM demodulator followed by a differentiator • rule that approximates the bandwidth necessary to transmit an angle-modulated wave as twice the sum of the peak frequency deviation and the highest modulating-signal frequency.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA transmit carrier without using a crystal in the carrier oscillator • meaning cancel of the deviation thus removing the modulation from the FM wave • transmitters that produce an output waveform in which the phase deviation is directly proportional to the modulating signal therefore the carrier oscillator can be a crystal because the oscillator itself is not a modulator • • the low-pass filter that is simply 1/f filter advantages of angle modulation: AFC loop wipe off Engr. Jaime P. Indirect FM transmitters Predistorter (frequency correction network) • • • • noise immunity FM thresholding capture effect power utilization efficiency and • it allows a receiver to differentiate between two signal received with the same frequency Capture effect CHAPTER 8 : Angle Modulation Reception and FM Stereo • it rejects the image frequency Preselector RF amplifier Mixer/converter IF amplifiers Detector • it establishes the signal-to-noise ratio and noise figure • down-converts RF to IF • it provides most of the gain and selectivity of the receiver • it removes the information from the modulated wave 18 .

it has a single tuned circuit in the transformer secondary • it requires no tuned circuits and automatically compensates for changes in the carrier frequency due to instability in the transmit oscillator • it extracts the original information signal from the composite IF waveform by multiplying two quadrature (90º out of phase) signals • the minimum dB difference in signal strength between two received signals necessary for the capture effect to suppress the weaker signal • the inherent ability of FM to diminish the effects of interfering signals • it is used rather than a simple mechanical switch to reduce the static noise associated with contact bounce in a mechanical switches Balanced slope detector Foster-Seeley discriminator (phase shift discriminator) Ratio Detector Phase-Locked Loop FM Demodulator (PLL) Quadrature FM Demodulator (coincidence detector) Capture Ratio Capture Effect Electronic push-to-talk (PTT) CHAPTER 9: Digital Modulation • the transmission. reception. CCNA • it is a frequency-dependent circuits designed to produce an output voltage that is proportional to the instantaneous frequency at its input • the most common circuits used for demodulating FM signal Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. and processing of Electronic communications 19 . FM Demodulators • • slope detector Foster-Seeley discriminator • ratio detector • PLL demodulator • quadrature detector tuned-circuit frequency discriminators Single-ended slope detector • it converts FM to AM and then demodulate the AM envelope with conventional peak detectors • it is the simplest form of tuned-circuit frequency discriminators that has the most nonlinear voltageversus-frequency characteristics • a simply two single-ended slope detectors connected in parallel and fed 180º out of phase • a tuned-circuit frequency discriminator whose operation is very similar to that of the balanced slope detector • it is relatively immune to amplitude variations in its input signal. Jaime P.

Digital modulation Digital radio Amplitude (ASK) Frequency (FSK) Shift Shift Keying Keying Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Information theory Information capacity Binary digit. CCNA information with the use of electronic circuits • the transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals (carriers) between two or more points in a communication system • sometimes called for digital modulation because digitally modulated signals can be propagated through Earth’s atmosphere and used in wireless communications systems • a digitally modulated signal where in the information signal is digital and the amplitude of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal • if the frequency is varied proportional to the information signal • if the phase of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal • a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communications systems • a measure of how much information can be propagated through a communication system and is a function of bandwidth and transmission time • the most basic digital symbol used to represent information Engr. Like bit rate. 1948 M-ary • a term that is often misunderstood and commonly confused with bit rate (bps). is also a rate of change. bit Bit rate • • simply the number of bits transmitted during one second and is expressed in bits per second (bps) he published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal relating the information capacity of a communication channel to bandwidth and signal-tonoise ratio • a term derived from the word binary Claude E.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. Shannon. however it refers to the rate of change of a signal on the transmission medium after encoding and modulation have occurred • • another name for amplitude-shift keying a form of constant-amplitude angle modulation Baud Digital Amplitude Modulation (DAM) Frequency-Shift Keying 20 .

four output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency • group of two bits • a modified form of QPSK where the waveforms on the I and Q channels are offset or shifted in phase from each other by one-half of a bit time • a bit in QPSK transmitter that modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference oscillator • a bit in QPSK transmitter that modulates a carrier that is 90° out of phase or in quadrature with the reference carrier • three bits are encoded. constantamplitude digital modulation. an M-ary digital modulation scheme similar to conventional phase modulation except with PSK the input is a binary digital signal and there are a limited number of output phases possible • simplest form of PSK. An M-ary encoding scheme where N = 2 and M = 4. a form of square-wave modulation of a continuous wave signal • other names for BPSK: Phase-shift Keying (PSK) Binary Phase-shift (BPSK) • • Keying phase reversal keying (PRK) biphase modulation • it acts as a phase reversing switch in a BPSK transmitter • similar to a phasor diagram except that the entire phasor is not drawn. forming tribits and producing eight different output places. Jaime P. only the relative positions of the peaks of the phasors are shown • a balanced modulator wherein the output signal is the product of the two input signals Balanced modulator Constellation diagram. forming bits.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. there are eight possible output phases • a code used to reduce the number of transmission 8-PSK Gray code (maximum 21 . Quadrature PSK Dibits Offset QPSK (OQPSK) I bit (hence the name “I” for “in phase” channel) Q bit (hence the name “Q” for “quadrature” channel) Shift or • another form of angle-modulated constantamplitude digital modulation. Phase-locked Loop (PLL) • another form of angle-modulated. CCNA similar to standard frequency modulation except the modulating signal is a binary signal that varies between two discrete voltage levels rather than a continuously changing analog waveform • the most common circuit used for demodulating binary FSK signals (FSK) Engr. sometimes called signal state-space diagram Product modulator Quaternary Phase Keying (QPSK).

thus improving the bit error performance • the manner in which signal-state transitions are allowed to occur. CCNA errors • a form of digital modulation similar to PSK except the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and the phase of the transmitted carrier. the ratio of the transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth required for a particular modulation scheme • the process of extracting a phase-coherent reference carrier from a receiver signal • the binary data were encoded as a precise phase of the transmitted carrier • the function to determine the absolute phase of the received carrier necessary to produce a carrier at the receiver that is phase coherent with the transmit reference oscillator • methods of carrier recovery distance code) Engr. amplitude and phase-shift keying are combined. Jaime P. Quadrature-amplitude Modulation (QAM) Bandwidth compression Bandwidth efficiency (information density or spectral efficiency) Carrier recovery referencing) (phase Absolute Phase Encoding Carrier Recovery Circuit • • • squaring loop Costas loop remodulator Phase-sift • an alternative form of digital modulation where the binary input information is contained in the difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the absolute phase • combines encoding and modulation to reduce the probability of error. and transitions that do not follow this pattern are interpreted in the receiver as transmission errors • an encoding technique used for over standard telephone circuits • the ratio of the average carrier power (the combined power of the carrier and its associated sidebands) • the energy of a single bit of information Differential Keying (DPHK) Convolutional (tree) codes Trellis Coding Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) Carrier-to-noise Power Ratio Energy per bit Noise power density • the thermal noise power normalized to a 1-Hz bandwidth 22 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. this reduce the likelihood or error occurring • less bandwidth is required to propagate a given bit rate • often used to compare the performance of one digital modulation technique to another.

and phase shifting • one of the most important aspects of any communications system because it is costly and limited • consists essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses and transporting the pulses from a source to a destination over a physical transmission medium Bandwidth Pulse Modulation • sometimes called pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse length modulation (PLM).Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. • used to compare two or more digital modulation systems that use different transmission rates (bit rates) modulation schemes • simply the ratio of the energy of a single bit to the noise power present in 1 Hz of bandwidth • optimum signaling format Energy per Power Density Energy per Power Density Bit-to-noise Bit-to-noise Antipodal signaling Noncoherent FSK Coherent FSK • the transmitter and receiver are not frequency or phase synchronized • local receiver reference signals are in frequency and phase lock with the transmitted signals CHAPTER 10: Digital Transmission • primary advantage of digital transmission Noise immunity Digital (DSP) Signal Processing • the processing of analog signals using digital methods and includes bandlimiting the signal with filters. CCNA Engr. Jaime P. amplitude equalization. constantposition pulse is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog Pulse Width (PWM) Modulation Pulse Position (PPM) Modulation Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 23 . as the width of a constant amplitude pulse is varied proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is sampled • the position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed time slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal • the amplitude of a constant width.

CCNA Engr. each code has the same number of bits and requires the same length of time transmission • he is credited with inventing PCM in 1937 while working for AT&T at its Paris laboratories • the function to periodically sample the continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a series of constant-amplitude pulses that can more easily be converted to binary PCM code • when tops of the sample pulses retain their natural shape during the sample interval making it difficult for an ADC to convert the sample to a PCM code • introduces less aperture distortion than natural sampling and requires a slower analog-to-digital converter • the gradual discharge across the capacitor during conversion time caused by the capacitor discharging through its own leakage resistance and the input impedance of voltage follower Pulse (PCM) Code Modulation Alex H. Reeves Sampling circuit in a PCM transmitter Natural Sampling Flat-top sampling Droop • establishes the minimum sampling rate (fs) that can be used for a given PCM system • an impairment that occurs if minimum Nyquist sample rate is less than two times maximum analog input frequency • the process of converting an infinite number of possibilities to a finite number of conditions • type of code wherein the codes on the bottom half of the table are a mirror image of the codes on the top half. Jaime P. • the analog signal is sampled and then converted to a serial n-bit binary code for transmission.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. except for the sign bit • the magnitude difference between adjacent steps Nyquist sampling theorem Alias or foldover distortion Quantization Folded binary code Quantization Quantum Overload limiting) Resolution interval or • it occurs if the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval • the magnitude of a quantum distortion (peak • any round-off errors in the transmitted signal are reproduced when the code is converted back to analog in the receiver Quantization Error (Qe) 24 .

Jaime P. CCNA • another name for quantization error • the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the digital-to-analog converter in the receiver • a numerical indication of how efficiently a PCM code is utilized.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. analogous to a balance where known reference weights are used to determine an unknown weight • flash encoders and are more complex. however they are more suitable for high-speed applications • • • the process of compressing and then expanding amplified less than the lower-amplitude signals amplified more than the lower-amplitude signals Signal voltage-toquantization noise voltage ratio (SQR) Idle Channel Noise Midtread quantizing Midrise quantization Level-at-a-time coding Digit-at-a-time coding Word-at-a-time coding Companding Compressed Expanded Analog expansion Digital companding • it was implemented with diodes that were placed just after the low-pass filter in the PCM receiver • it involves compression in the transmitter after the input sample has been converted to a linear PCM code and then expansion in the receiver prior to PCM decoding 25 . it requires a very fast clock • this type of coding determines each digit of the PCM code sequentially. thermal noise • the first quantization interval is made larger in amplitude than the rest of the steps • the lowest-magnitude positive and negative codes have the same voltage range bas all the other codes • this type of coding compares the PAM signal to a ramp waveform while a binary counter is being advanced at a uniform rate. the only input to the PAM sampler is random. Quantization Noise (Qn) Dynamic Range (DR) Coding Efficiency Linear codes • occurs when the input signal is at its minimum amplitude • during times when there is no analog input signal. the ratio of the minimum number of bits required to achieve a certain dynamic range to the actual number of PCM bits used • the magnitude change successive code is the same between any two Engr.

1928 Formants First channel vocoder • the spectral power of most speech energy concentrates at three or four peak frequencies • a vocoder that compressed conventional speech waveforms into an analog signal with a total bandwidth of approximately 300 Hz • a vocoder that takes advantage of the fact that the short term spectral density of typical speech signals seldom distributes uniformly across the entire voice-band spectrum.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. the reconstructed signal has variation that were not present in the original signal • a delta modulation system where the step size of Format vocoders Linear predictive coders Line speed Delta modulation Slope overload Granular noise Adaptive delta modulation 26 . CCNA • a single integrated-circuit chip function to encode and decode • refers to the most of the more recently developed codecs as they include an antialising (bandpass filter). a sample-and-hold circuit. it simply determines the location of • a vocoder that extracts the most significant portions of speech information directly from the time waveform rather than from the frequency spectrum as with the channel and formant vocoders • simply the data rate at which serial PCM bits are locked out of the PCM encoder onto the transmission line. Jaime P. and the decoded time waveforms often only vaguely resemble the original input signal • three vocoding techniques: Codec Combo chips Engr. and a bandpass filter in the receive section • special voice encoders/decoders. a hold circuit. and an analog-to-digital converter in the transmit section and a digital-toanalog converter. Vocoders • • • channel vocoder formant vocoder linear predictive coder • he developed the first channel vocoder Homer Dudley. are designed to reproduce only the short-term power spectrum. it is dependent on the sample rate and the number of bits in the compressed PCM code • it uses a single-bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission of analog signals • the slope of the analog signal greater than the delta modulator • when the original analog input signal has a relatively constant amplitude.

a satellite microwave system. or an optical fiber cable • a rather unsophisticated form of multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from different sources on different cables that are contained within the same trench • transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same facility but not at the same time. depending on the amplitude characteristic of the analog signal • secondary lobes • an important consideration in the transmission of pulses over circuits with a limited bandwidth and a nonlinear phase response • it equalize the distortion for all frequencies. Ringing tails Intersymbol (ISI) Equalizers interference Filters Pulse distortion Pulse • it occurs if the relative phase relations of the individual sine waves are altered • a convenient technique for determining the effects of the degradations introduced into the pulses as they travel to the regenerator Phase distortion Eye pattern CHAPTER 11 : Digital T. the transmission medium may be a metallic wire pair. Jaime P. transmissions Multiplexing Space-division multiplexing (SDM) Time division multiplexing 27 . occurs when the peaks of pulses are reduced causing improper ringing frequencies in the time domain • simply the superposition of harmonically related sine waves amplitude and phase relationships a series of with specific Engr. also used to produce specific pulse response • it resulted when the frequency characteristics of a communication channel depart from the normal or expected values. a PCS mobile telephone.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a terrestrial microwave radio system.Carriers and Multiplexing • the transmission of information from one or ore source to one or more destination over the same transmission medium. creating a uniform transmission medium and reducing transmission impairments • placed in a communication channel to bandlimit signals and reduce or eliminate predicted noise and interference. CCNA the DAC is varied. a coaxial cable.

CCNA from various sources are interleaved in the time domain • a communication system that uses digital pulse rather than analog signals to encode information • stands for transmission one and specifies a digital carrier system using PCM-encoded analog signals • occurs once per frame and is recovered in the receiver where it is used to maintain frame and sample synchronization between the TDM transmitter and receiver • consists of 24 193-bit frames totaling 4632 bits.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. of which 24 are bits • a digital interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network • can handle bit-rate conversions on both directions Digital carrier Engr. Jaime P. T1 Additional bit (framing bit) Extended format superframe Data service unit/channel service unit (DSU/CSU) Multiplexers/demultiplexers (muldem) Digital cross-connect (DSX) • provides a convenient place to make patchable interconnects and perform routine maintenance and troubleshooting • a low-quality video transmission for use between nondedicated subscribers • involves converting standard logic levels to a form more suitable to telephone line transmission • can be used to categorize the type of transmission Picturephone Digital line encoding Duty cycle Nonreturn to zero (NRZ) Return to zero (RZ) DC wandering • if the binary pulse is maintained for the entire bit time • if the active time of the binary pulse is less than 100% of the bit time • a condition when a long string of either logic 1s or 0s produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum discrimination between received 1s and 0s • a popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component for clock recovery and does not cause dc wandering • used for encoding SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) time-code data for recording on videotapes Digital (Manchester diphase) Biphase M biphase code or 28 .

CCNA Engr. • forms of delay-modulated codes where a logic 1 condition produces a transition in the middle of the clock pulse and a logic 0 produces no transition at the end of the clock intervals unless followed by another logic 0 • used for the transmission of PCM-encoded timedivision multiplexed digital signals • filters and shapes the incoming digital signal and raises its power level so that the regenerator circuit can make a pulse-no pulse decision • reproduces the clocking information from the received data and provides the proper timing information to0 the regenerator • simply a threshold detector that compares the sampled voltage received to a reference level and determines whether the bit is a logic 1 or logic 0 • were designed to combine PCM and TDM techniques for short-haul transmission of 24 64-kbps channels with each channel capable of carrying digitally encoded voice-band telephone signals or data • a technique used to ensure that sufficient transitions occur in the data to maintain clock synchronization • the same as added-digit framing except that digits are added in groups or words instead of as individual bits • 2 methods of interleaving PCM transmissions: Miller codes T carriers Amplifier/equalizer Timing clock recovery Regenerative repeater T1 carrier systems Binary eight substitution (B8ZS) Added-channel framing zero • • bit interleaving word interleaving • a large-scale integration chip designed for use in the telecommunications industry for private branch exchanges. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. voice store-and-forward systems and digital echo suppressors • combined codec chips. central office switches. provide the analog-todigital and the digital-to-analog conversions and the transmit and receive filtering necessary to interface a full-duplex (four wire) voice telephone circuit to the PCM highway of a TDM carrier system • multiple sources that originally occupied the same Codec Combo chip Frequency-division 29 . digital handsets.

multiplexing (FDM) Baseband Balanced modulator Guard bands Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) • a void band of frequencies that is not included within any supergroup band • involves the transmission of multiple digital signal using several wavelengths without their interfering with one another • separate signals with different wavelengths in a manner similar to the way filters separate electrical signals of different frequencies • direct signals of a particular wavelength to a specific destination while not separating while not separating all the wavelengths present on the cable • specific wavelengths are separated from the other optic signal by reflecting them at different angles • a mirror with a surface that has been coated with a material that permits light of only one wavelength to pass through while reflecting all other wavelengths Demultiplexers or splitters WDM routers Diffraction prisms Dichroic filter gratings or CHAPTER 12: Metallic Cable Transmission Media • two general category of transmission media • • guided unguided • transmission media with some form of conductor that provides a conduit in which electromagnetic signals are contained • it transports signals using electric current Guided transmission media Copper Cable transmission medium • a guided transmission medium and can be any physical facility used to propagate electromagnetic signals between two locations in a communication system 30 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. CCNA frequency spectrum are each converted to a different frequency band and transmitted simultaneously over a single transmission medium • describes the modulating signal (intelligence) in a communications system • a double side-band suppressed carrier modulator Engr.

both conductors carry current. can be used to propagate dc or lowfrequency ac or to propagate very high frequencies • the displacement (amplitude) is in the direction of propagation. surface wave of water • the direction of propagation of displacement is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. however.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. and the other conductor is the return path • currents that flow in opposite directions in a balanced wire pair • currents that flow in the same direction 31 . two or more electrical conductors separated by a nonconductive insulator (dielectric). twin lead and pair copper wire as well as coaxial cable twisted- Metallic medium transmission • the most common means of interconnecting devices in local area networks transmission of digital signals • a metallic conductor system used to transfer energy from one point to another using electrical current flow. Jaime P. one conductor carries the signal. can be as short as a few inches or span several thousand miles. electromagnetic • propagation of electrical power transmission line occurs in the ______________________ along form a of Cable transmission medium Transmission lines Longitudinal waves Transverse waves Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves Space quadrature • the E and H fields are perpendicular to each other (at 90° angles) at all points • electromagnetic waves that travel along transmission line from the source to the load a Incident waves Reflected waves Sound waves • those that travel from the load back toward the source • it travel at approximately 1100 feet per second in the normal atmosphere • • the rate at which the periodic wave repeats the distance of one cycle occurring in space Frequency Wavelength Differential or Balanced signal transmission Metallic circuit currents Longitudinal currents • with two-wire balanced lines. CCNA Engr. • include open wire.

closely spaced and separated by air. consist simply of two parallel wires. Jaime P. and the cable is susceptible to picking up signals through mutual induction • occurs when a signal on one cable interferes with a signal on an adjacent cable • it is called if the sleeve is woven into a mesh transmission transmission Crosstalk Braid Attenuation Crosstalk • it is given in dB of loss per 100 meters of cable with respect to frequency • given in dB of attenuation between the transmit signal and the signal is returned due to crosstalk with higher dB values indicating less crosstalk • the name given to the area between the ceiling and the roof in a single building or between the ceiling and the floor of the next higher level in a multistory building • plenum cables that coated with Teflon. or special fire-resistant PVC • a coaxial cable with one layer of foil insulation and one layer of braided shielding • consist of two layers of foil insulation and two layers of braided metal shielding • cables that are relatively expensive to manufacture and to minimize losses. its advantage is its simple construction. one wire is at ground potential. install and maintain Plenum Plenum-grade PVC Dual shielded Quad shielding Rigid-air filled coaxial Solid coaxial cables 32 . whereas the wire is at signal potential • a circuit device used to connect a balanced transmission line to an unbalanced load • are comprised of two or more metallic conductors separated by a nonconductive insulating material called a dielectric • two-wire parallel conductors. CCNA • cancellation of common mode signals Engr. there is no shielding.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. radiation losses are high. the air insulator must be relatively free of moisture • have lower losses than hollow cables and are easier to construct. Common mode rejection Single-ended or Unbalanced signal transmission Balun (balanced unbalanced) Parallel-wire lines Open-wire lines to • with an unbalanced transmission line. which does not emit noxious chemicals when ignited.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. the electrostatic and electromagnetic fields that surround the conductor cause the line to act as if it were an antenna and transfer energy to a nearby conductive material • it occurs whenever a connection is made to or from a transmission line or when two sections of transmission line are connected together Skin effect Resistance ratio Dielectric heating Radiation loss Coupling loss 33 . CCNA Engr. the magnetic flux associated with it is in the form of concentric circles surrounding the wire core • the ratio of the ac resistance to the dc resistance of a conductor • it caused a difference of potential between two conductors of metallic transmission line • the energy radiated if the separation between conductors in a metallic transmission is an appreciable fraction of a wavelength. Jaime P. • sometimes referred to as “bayonet mount” as they can be easily twisted on or off • are threaded and must be screwed on and off BNC connectors n-type connectors Secondary constants Characteristic impedance (surge impedance) • the transmission characteristics of a transmission line • defined as the impedance seen looking into an infinitely long line or the impedance seen looking into a finite length of line that is terminated in a purely resistive load with a resistance equal to the characteristic impedance of the line • used to express the attenuation (signal loss) and the phase shift per unit length of a transmission line • defined simply as the ratio of the actual velocity of propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a given medium to the velocity of propagation through a vacuum (free space) • the relative dielectric constant of air Propagation constant (propagation coefficient) Velocity factor constant) (velocity 1.0006 Delay lines • transmission lines designed to intentionally introduce a time delay in the path of an electromagnetic wave • a phenomenon that when current flows through an isolated round wire.

• a luminous discharge that occurs between the two conductors of a transmission line when the difference of potential between them exceeds the breakdown voltage of the dielectric insulator • voltage that propagates from the source toward the load • voltage that propagates from the load toward the source • a transmission line with no reflected power Corona Incident voltage Reflected voltage Flat or nonresonant line Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) • defined as the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage or the maximum current to the minimum current of a standing wave on a transmission lin • used to match transmission lines to purely resistive loads whose resistance is not equal to the characteristic impedance of the line • simply a piece of additional transmission line that is placed across the primary line as close to the load as possible. CCNA Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. losses are lower Quarter-wavelength Transmission-line stub Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) Microstrip Stripline CHAPTER 13 : Optical Fiber transmission Media • the bandwidth of an analog communications system is expressed as a percentage of its carrier frequency • it was a device constructed from mirrors and Bandwidth utilizations ratio Photophone 34 . the susceptance is to tune out the susceptance of the load • a technique that can be used to locate an impairment in a metallic cable • simply a flat conductor separated from a ground plane by an insulating dielectric material • simply a flat conductor sandwiched between two ground planes. less likely to radiate.

• it was when the three scientists experimented on a bundle of glass fiber the transmission of light • he coined the term fiber optics • they wrote a paper describing how it was possible to use stimulated emission for amplifying light waves as well as microwaves • defined as the maximum angle in which external light rays may strike the air/glass interface and still propagate down the fiber • other term used for acceptance angle Charles H. CCNA selenium detectors that transmitted sound waves over a beam of light • he successfully transmitted images through a single glass fiber • they experimented with through bundles of fibers light transmission H. Townes Arthur L.S.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Lamm • A.C.5 Single mode Multimode Mode • • • the term that means path in fiber optics technology • these parameters propagates dictate how a light mode or propagation index profile of fiber • the graphical representation of the magnitude of the refractive index across the fiber • has a central core with a uniform refractive index • no cladding and the refractive index of the core is nonuniform • has a central core that is smaller in diameter that any of the multimode cables Index profile Step-index fiber Graded-index fiber Single-mode step-index fiber 35 . Jaime P. Schawlow Acceptance angle Acceptance cone half-angle Numerical aperture • closely related to acceptance angle and is figure of merit commonly used to measure the magnitude of the acceptance angle • • • the refractive index of a glass core only one path for light rays to take down a cable more than one path 1. Kapany 1951 N. Kapany • • Engr.S van Heel • H.S.H. Hopkins • N.

Multimode step-index optical fiber Pulse spreading • • • Pulse-width dispersion Unipolar return to zero UPNRZ transmission • • Unipolar nonreturn to zero UPRZ • Pulse spreading constant • • • • Total pulse spread Coupling losses End separation Less 0. it would interfere with pulse b UPNRZ is the acronym for _____ the light energy from pulse a were to fall back one bit time. Jaime P. causing a corresponding reduction in the pulse amplitude and stretching of pulse width other term used for pulse spreading UPRZ is the acronym for _____ a condition wherein the energy from pulse a were to fall back one-half of a bit time.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA • type of fiber has a large light to fiber aperture and allows more external light to enter the cable • the light rays that make up the pulse spread out in time. it would interfere with pulse b and change what was a logic 0 to logic 1 the difference between the absolute delay times of the fastest and slowest rays of light propagating down a fiber of unit length equal to the pulse spreading constant times the total fiber length caused by imperfect physical connections the other term used for gap displacement the typical value of displacement less than 2 loss for an angular Engr.5 dB 30 nm to 50 nm Linewidth LED • • • these are the spectral widths of a standard LED the wavelength equivalent of bandwidth a pn junction diode usually made from a semiconductor material such as aluminum gallium arsenide or gallium arsenide phosphide a group iv atom used to produce light wavelengths in the 800 nm range a small batterylike device that produced a dc output voltage proportional to the amount of light received a special high-intensity. it produces a very narrow beam of brilliant • • Arsenide Photocell • Laser 36 . single frequency light source.

Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. this is a semiconductor device that puts out a low-intensity red light beam another commonly used light source. formed when points of equal phase on rays propagated from the same source are joined together • a single location from which rays propagate equally in all directions • an invisible force field produced by a magnet. it can penetrate atmospheric obstacles better than other type of light. • Solid-state laser • Photocell or light detector CHAPTER 14: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation • a form of electromagnetic radiation that consist of traveling electric and magnetic fields • orientation of the electric field vector in respect to the surface of earth • the polarization remains constant Radio waves Polarization Linear polarization Horizontal polarization Vertical polarization Circular polarization • a form of linear polarization when the electric field is propagating parallel to the Earth’s surface • if the electric field is propagating perpendicular to the Earth’s surface • if the polarization vector rotates 360° as the wave moves one wavelength through the space and the field strength is equal at all angles of polarization • when the field strength varies with changes in polarization • shows a surface of constant phase of electromagnetic waves. used to detect the light pulses. such as a conductor when current is flowing through it Elliptical polarization Wavefront Point source Magnetic field 37 . that generates an extremely intense single frequency light beam light sensitive device. • commonly used as a light source. converts the light pulses to electrical signal LED Engr. CCNA light of a specific wavelength (color).

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. • the rate at which energy passes through a given surface area in free space • also an invisible force fields produced by a difference in voltage potential between two conductors • a source that radiates power at a constant rate uniformly in all directions • the power density is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source • reduction in power density and occurs in free space as well as the Earth’s atmosphere • the reduction of power where in it contains particles that can absorb electromagnetic energy • the reduction in power density due to nonfreespace propagation • sometimes referred to as the bending of the radio-wave path • the angle formed between the incident wave and the normal • the angle formed between the refracted wave and the normal • the ratio of the velocity of propagation of a light ray in free space to the velocity of propagation of a light ray in a given material • the ratio of the reflected to the incident voltage intensities • a condition when an incident wavefront strikes an irregular surface. CCNA Engr. it randomly scattered in many directions • reflection from a perfectly smooth surface Power density Electric fields Isotropic radiator Inverse square law Attenuation Absorption loss Absorption Refraction Angle of incidence Angle of refraction Refractive index Reflection coefficient Diffuse reflection Specular reflection (mirrorlike) • the fraction of power that penetrates medium two Absorption coefficient • states that a semirough surface will reflect as if it were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of the angle of incidence is greater than λ /8d. where d is the depth of the surface irregularity and λ is the wavelngth of the incident wave Rayleigh criterion 38 .

Huygen’s principle Linear superposition Terrestrial waves Terrestrial communications Space waves Ground wave Sky wave radio • the cumulative sum of the direct. CCNA • defined as the modulation or redistribution of energy within a wavefront when it passes near the edge of an opaque object. and surface waves • depends on the presence of the ionized layers above the Earth that return some of the energy that otherwise would be lost in outer space • an earth-guided electromagnetic wave that travels over the surface of Earth. sometimes called Kennelly-Heavyside layer E layer 39 . Jaime P. • travel essentially in a straight line between the transmit and received antennas • occurs when the density of the lower atmosphere is such that electromagnetic waves are trapped between it and Earth’s surface • electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon • another term for sky wave propagation Surface waves Direct waves Duct propagation Sky waves Ionospheric propagation D layer • the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is located approximately between 30 miles and 60 miles above Earth’s surface • located approximately between 60 miles and 85 miles above the Earth’s surface. the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to propagate around corners • states that every point on a given spherical wavefront can be considered as a secondary point source of electromagnetic waves from which other secondary waves are radiated outward • occurs whenever two or more waves simultaneously occupy the same point in space. states that the total voltage intensity at a given point in space is the sum of the individual wave sectors • electromagnetic waves traveling within Earth’s atmosphere • communications between two or more points on Earth • direct and ground-reflected waves together Diffraction Engr. groundreflected.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. during daytime. F1 layer is located between 85 miles and 155 miles above the earth’s surface.term • an additional loss is added to the normal path loss to accommodate temporary fading F layer Critical frequency (fc) Virtual height Maximum (MUF) Secant law Optimum working frequency (OWF) Skip distance Pedersen ray usable frequency Quiet or skip zone Free-space path loss Spreading loss Fading Fade margin 40 .and long. as it tends to be much weaker than the lower ray because it spreads over a much larger area than the lower ray • the area between where the surface waves are completely dissipated and the point where the first sky wave returns to Earth • often defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects • it occurs simply because of the inverse square law • loss attributed to several different phenomena and can include both short. the F2 layer is located 85 miles to 185 miles above the Earth’s surface during winter and 155 miles to 220 miles in the summer • defined as the highest frequency that can be propagated directly upward and still be returned to earth by the ionosphere. therefore varies with the time of day and season • the height above earth’s surface from which a refracted wave appears to have been reflected • the highest frequency that can be used for sky wave propagation between two specific points on Earth’s surface • a law that assumes a flat Earth and a flat reflecting layer can never exist • 85% of the MUF that provides more reliable communications • defined as the minimum distance from a transmit antenna that a sky wave at a given frequency will be returned to Earth • usually of little significance. depends on the ionization density and. CCNA Engr. Jaime P. • made up of two layers F1 and F2 layers.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. or pointing from the center of the antenna in the direction of maximum radiation • refers to the filed that is close to the antenna Near field 41 . CCNA Engr. at least not in the true sense of the word • a special coupling device that can be used to direct the transmit and receive signals and provide the necessary isolation • a polar diagram or graph representing field strength or power densities at various angular positions relative to an antenna Passive reciprocal device Diplexer Radiation pattern • • • primary beam in a 90° direction represent undesired radiation or reception the lobe that receives the most energy Major lobe Minor lobe Front lobe Side lobes • lobes adjacent to the front lobe (the 180° minor lobe) • lobes in a direction exactly opposite the front lobe • ratio of the front lobe power to the back lobe power • the ratio of the front lobe to a side lobe Back lobe Front-to-back ratio Front-to-side ratio Line of shoot (point of shoot) • the line bisecting the major lobe. CHAPTER 15 : Antennas and Waveguide • the plane parallel to the mutually perpendicular lines of the electric and magnetic fields • the ratio of radiate to reflected energy Wavefront Radiation efficiency Quarter-wave antenna (vertical monopole sometimes called Marconi antenna) Hertz antenna Dipole • antenna wherein the conductors are spread out in a straight line to a total length of one-quarter wavelength • a half wave dipole • meaning two dipoles that is used to radiate more energy by simply spreading the conductors farther apart • a basic antenna that cannot amplify a signal.

it is assumed that the given antenna and the reference antenna is lossless • defined as an equivalent transmit power.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. assuming both antennas are radiating the same amount of power • the maximum directive gain Radiation resistance Antenna efficiency Directive gain Directivity Power gain • the same as directive gain except that the total power fed to the antenna is used. Jaime P. CCNA • refers to the field pattern that is at great distance • sometimes called to near field Far field Induction field Radiation field Engr. • simply the angular separation between the two half-power points on the major lobe of an antenna’s plane radiation pattern. usually taken in one of the “principal” planes • vaguely defined as the frequency range over which antenna operation is “satisfactory” • normally taken as the difference between the half-power frequencies but sometimes refers to variations in the antenna’s input impedance Effective Isotropic Power (EIRP) Radiated Captured power density Polarization of an antenna Beamwidth Antenna bandwidth Bandwidth 42 . the equivalent power that an isotropic antenna would have to radiate to achieve the same power density in the chosen direction at a given point as another antenna • the power density in space and a somewhat misleading quantity • refers simply to the orientation of the electric field radiated from it. • sometimes called for far field because power that reaches the far field continues to radiate outward and is never returned to the antenna • an ac antenna resistance and is equal to the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the square of the current at its feedpoint • the ratio of the power radiated by an antenna to the sum of the power radiated and the power dissipated or the ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the total input power • the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference antenna.

they receive energy only through mutual induction with a driven element or another parasitic element • a parasitic element that is longer than the driven element from which it receives energy.or quarterwave dipole • elements that are directly connected to the transmission line and receive power from or are driven by source • not connected to the transmission line. CCNA • the point on the antenna where the transmission line is connected • the feedpoint presents an ac load to the transmission line • an electrically short dipole Feedpoint Engr. increases field strength in its direction and reduces it in the opposite direction Counterpoise Loading Loading coil Top loading Antenna array Antenna element Driven elements Parasitic element Reflector Director 43 . such as a half. should be insulated from earth ground • a technique wherein the physical length of an antenna remains unchanged although its effective electrical length is increased • a coil (inductor) added in series with a dipole antenna that effectively increases the antenna’s electrical length • a technique where in a metallic array that resembles a spoked wheel is placed on top of the antenna • formed when two or more antenna elements are combined to form a single antenna • an individual radiator. Jaime P. mounted vertically with the lower end either connected to ground or grounded through the antenna coupling network • a wire structure placed below the antenna and erected above the ground. Antenna input impedance Elementary doublet Resonant antenna Marconi antenna • a multiple of quarter-wavelength long and open circuited at the far end • a monopole antenna one-quarter wavelength long.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. effectively reduces the signal strength in its direction and increases it in the opposite direction • a parasitic element that is shorter than its associated driven element.

as a result the field are additive in line with the plane of the array • a nonresonant antenna that is capable of operating satisfactorily over a relatively wide bandwidth making it ideally suited for HF transmission • essentially a single antenna made up of two elements • dipole elements larger in diameter. • one of the simplest types of antenna rays.E. D. Jaime P. made by simply placing a several resonant dipoles of equal size in parallel with each other and in a straight line • essentially the same element configuration as the broadside array except that the transmission line is not crisscrossed between elements. Isbell • the ratio of the highest to the lowest frequency over which antenna will satisfactorily operate • simply a single-turn coil of wire that is significantly shorter than one wavelength and carries RF current Turnsile antenna Log-periodic antennas Bandwidth ratio Loop antenna • a group of antenna or a group of antenna arrays that. Dyson. H. H. J. from the initial work of V. DuHamel and D.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA Engr. Rumsey. when connected together function as a single antenna whose beamwidth and direction can be changed electronically without having to physically move any of the individual antennas or antenna elements within the array Phased array antenna 44 . R. Broadside array End-fire array Rhombic antenna Folded dipole Fat dipole Yagi-uda antenna Yagi antenna • antenna named after two Japanese scientists who invented it and describe its operation • a linear array consisting of a dipole and two or more parasitic elements: one reflector and one or more directors • formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to each other 90° out of phase • a class of frequency-independent antennas where in its primary advantage is the independence of their radiation and radiation pattern to frequency.

antennas) Aperture ratio Paraboloid Spillover or leakage • energy near the edge of the dish does not reflect but rather is diffracted around the edge of the dish • considers both the radiation pattern of the primary radiator and the effect • the ratio of the focal length of the antenna to the reflector diamtere • houses the primary antenna which radiates electromagnetic waves toward the reflector Aperture efficiency Aperture number Feed mechanism 45 . used as a single element antenna or stacked horizontally or vertically in an array to modify its radiation pattern by increasing the gain and decreasing the beamwidth of the primary lobe • electromagnetic radiation is in a direction at right angles to the axis of the helix • radiation is in the axial direction and produces a broadband. CCNA Engr. relatively directional pattern • defined as the ratio of its maximum gain in the forward direction to its maximum gain in its backward direction • used with point-to-point microwave systems Helical antenna Normal mode Axial mode Front-to-back ratio Highly directional antennas • provide extremely high gain and directivity and are very popular for microwave radio and satellite communications skills • two main parts of parabolic antenna: Parabolic reflector antennas • • parabolic reflector feed mechanism dish • resemble the shape of a plate or dish. • a broadband VHF or UHF antenna that is ideally suited for applications for which radiating circular rather than horizontal or vertical polarized electromagnetic waves. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a plane curve that is defined as the locus of a point that moves so that its distance from another point added to its distance from a straight line is of constant length • the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the mouth of the parabola • the resulting curved surface dish Parabolic reflectors (parabolic dish.

usually rectangular in cross section but sometimes circular or elliptical • the velocity at which a wave propagates. • three primary types of feed mechanism for parabolic antennas: • • • center feed horn feed cassegrain feed • the primary antenna is placed at the focus Center feed Horn feed Cassegrein feed • the primary antenna is a small horn antenna rather than a simple dipole or dipole array • the primary radiating source is located in or just behind a small opening at the vertex of the paraboloid rather than at the focus • consists of a cone that is truncated in a pice of circular waveguide. Jaime P. also the velocity at which energy is propagated. the waveguide in turn connects the antenna to either the transmitter or the receiver • a hollow conductive tube. such as the walls of a waveguide • minimum frequency of operation. the velocity with which a wave changes phase in a direction parallel to a conducting surface. frequencies above the cutoff frequency will not be propagated by the waveguide • maximum wavelength that they can propagate.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. the apparent velocity of a particular phase of the wave. the velocity at which information signals of any kind are propagated. CCNA Engr. defined as the smallest free-space wavelength that is just unable to propagate in the waveguide • the travel of electromagnetic waves down a waveguide in different configurations • means that the electric field lines are everywhere transverse (perpendicular to the guide walls) • waveguides used in radar and microwave applications when it is necessary or advantageous to propagate both vertically and horizontally Conical horn antenna Waveguides Group velocity Phase velocity Cutoff frequency Cutoff wavelength Propagation of modes TE Circular waveguide 46 . can be measured by determining the time it takes for a pulse to propagate a given length of a waveguide • velocity at which the wave changes phase. the absolute limiting frequency.

local exchange office. used extensively in microwave test equipment Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. or central office • enables the subscriber to access the public telephone network • the quality of transmission over a telephone depends on: Subscriber loop Electronic (ESS) • • • switching system received volume relative frequency response of the telephone circuit degree of interference • helps prevent the speaker from talking too Sidetone/talkback 47 . CCNA polarized waves in the same waveguide • waveguide that is more expensive to manufacture than a standard rectangular waveguide. however it allows operation at lower frequencies for a given size • consists of a spiral-wound ribbons of brass or copper. back alleys. or telephone equipment rooms with large buildings and building complexes Public (PTN) telephone network Public switch network (PSTN) telephone Plain old telephone service (POTS) Subscriber loop (local loop) • means to connect a telephone set at a subscriber’s location to the closest telephone office. which is commonly called an end office. generally comprised of several lengths of copper wire interconnected at junction and cross-connect boxes located in manholes. Ridged waveguide Flexible waveguide CHAPTER 16: Telephone Instruments and Signal • a part of global communications network which uses telephone or a data modem on a telephone network • PTN that interconnects subscribers through one or more switches • the simplest and most straightforward form of telephone service which involves subscribers accessing the public telephone network through a pair of wires • simply an unshielded twisted-pair transmission line (cable pair) consisting of two insulated conductors twisted together. Jaime P.

S. Jaime P. the purpose of the ringer is to alert the destination party of incoming calls • a simple single-throw. converts electrical signals received from the local loop to Speaker 48 . FCC • the most common telephone jack in use today and can have up to six conductors • reasons why a dc voltage was used rather than an ac voltage RJ RJ-11 • • • prevent power supply hum allow service to continue in the event of a power outage people were afraid of ac • voltage selected to minimize electrolytic corrosion on the loop wires. mechanically connected to the telephone is idle (on hook) is open. • standards for registered jacks and is sometimes called as RJ-XX. a series of telephone connection interfaces (receptacle and plug) that are registered with the U. CCNA loudly • pair of wires connecting a subscriber to the closest telephone office • one wire on the local loop • come from the ¼-inch-diameter two-conductor phone plugs and patch cords used at telephone company switch-boards to interconnect and test circuits Local loop Tip Tip and Ring Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. when the telephone is in use (off hook) is closed completing an electrical path through the microphone between the tip and ring of the local loop • combinations of passive components that are used to regulate the amplitude and frequency response of the voice signals Ringer circuit On/off hook circuit (switch) Equalizer • the receiver for the telephone. used for supervisory signaling and to provide talk battery for the microphone in the telephone set • examples of supervisory signals -48 Vdc • • • on-hook off-hook dial pulsing • placed directly across the tip and ring of the local loop. double pole (STDP) switch placed across the tip and ring.

typically enclosed in the handset of the telephone along with the microphone • the transmitter for the telephone. converts acoustical signals in the form of sound pressure waves from the caller to electrical signals that are transmitted into the telephone network through the local subscriber loop • a special balanced transformer used to convert a two-wire circuit (the local loop) into a four-wire circuit (the telephone set) and vice versa. Hybrid network (hybrid coil or duplex coil) Dialing circuit Call progress tones and call progress signals Station signaling Interoffice signaling Alerting signals Supervising signals Controlling signals • provide the routing information such as calling and called numbers Addressing signals Call Progress Tone Summary Tone or Frequency Duration/Range 49 . thus enabling full duplex operation over a two-wire circuit • enables the subscriber to output signals representing digits and this enables the caller to enter the destination telephone number. such as busy or ring-back signals • provide information in the form announcements such as number changed another number. either an electronic dial-pulsing circuit or a Touch-Tone keypad which sends various combinations of tones representing the called digits • are acknowledgement and status signals that ensure the processes necessary to set up and terminate a telephone call are completed in an orderly and timely manner • the exchange of signaling messages over local loops between stations (telephone) and telephone company switching machines • the exchange of signaling messages between switching machines • indicate a request for service such as going off hook or ringing the destination telephone • provide call status information.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA acoustical signals (sound waves) that can be heard and understood by a human being. connected to the local loop through the hybrid network. a number no longer in service of to Microphone Engr. Jaime P.

1477 Hz. 45-ms minimum 3-s minimum Two of six tones On. 0. 4 s Indefinite 20 mA minimum 80 mA maximum On. 2060 Hz. 350 Hz plus 440 Hz 697 Hz. 1209 Hz. 39 ms Off. 61 ms On. 1500 Hz. 0. Jaime P. 2 s Off.1 s • a 2600-Hz frequency tone placed on a circuit to indicate the circuit is not currently in use • a multifrequency control tone comprised of 1100 Hz plus 1700 Hz ranging from 90 ms to 120 ms. 1633 Hz MF 700 Hz. used to indicate the beginning of a sequence of MF digits • the method originally used to transfer digits from a telephone set to the local switch • is sent from the switching machine back to the calling station whenever the called telephone number is off hook. 941 Hz. CCNA Signal Dial tone DTMF Engr. 90-ms minimum 120-ms maximum On. 4 s On. 1336 Hz. 2450 Hz.3 s On. 90 vrms (nominal) 440 Hz plus 480 Hz Open loop Dc current 1440 Hz. 2600 Hz Continuous Two of eight tones On.1 s Off.5 s On. 1700 Hz Dial pulses Station busy Equipment busy Ringing Ring-back Receiver on hook Receiver off hook Receiver-leftoffhook alert Open/closed switch 480 Hz plus 620 Hz 480 Hz plus 620 Hz 20 Hz. 50-ms minimum Off. 1100 Hz. 0. 900 Hz. 852 Hz. 2 s Off. a two-tone signal comprised of 480Hz and 620 Hz • sent from the switching machine back to the IDLE signal Key Pulse (KP) signal Dial pulsing pulsing) (rotary dial Station busy signal Equipment busy signal 50 . 0. 770 Hz.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.5 s Off.2 s Off. 1300 Hz. 0. 0.

a simplex transmission sent from the central office switch over the local loop to a caller ID display unit at the destination • simplex wireless communications system deigned to alert subscribers of awaiting messages. as it is the means by which subscriber locations are connected to the local telephone company 4 kHz Local subscriber loop 51 . tone/no-circuits- • whenever the system is overloaded and more calls are being placed than can be completed • sent from a central office to a subscriber whenever there is an incoming call. CCNA calling station complete the unavailability whenever the call because system cannot of equipment (congestion available) Blocking Ringing signal Engr. the purpose is to give some assurance to the calling party that the destination telephone number has been accepted. relay radio signals and messages from wire-line and cellular telephones to subscribers carrying portable receivers Ring-back signal Cordless telephone Caller ID Paging transmitters CHAPTER 17 : The Telephone Circuit • the network bandwidth for a standard voiceband message channel • the only facility required by all voice-band circuits. portable radio transceiver that communicates directly with a stationary transceiver located somewhere in the subscriber’s office • enables the destination of a telephone call to display the name and telephone number of the calling party before the telephone is answered. and is being rung • simply tones that operate cords attached to the handset.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. battery-operated . the purpose is to ring the bell in the telephone set to alert the subscriber that there is an incoming call • sent back to the calling party at the same time the ringing signal is sent to the called party. allows subscribers to screen incoming calls and decide whether they want to answer the telephone. a full duplex. processed.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. dB Transmission (TLP) level point Transmission level (TL) 52 . dielectric constant of the insulator separating the wires and the conductivity of the wire • refers to the electrical characteristics of a cable uniformly distributed along its length • the largest cable used in a local loop. • occurs when two or more frequencies undergo different amounts of phase shift • depend on the wire diameter. usually 3600 pair of copper wire placed underground or in conduit • a cross-connect point used to distribute the larger feeder cable into smaller distribution cables • a smaller version of a feeder cable containing less wire pairs • a device that serves as the demarcation point between local telephone company responsibility and subscriber responsibility for telephone service • the final length of cable pair that terminates at the SNI • that portion of the local loop that is strung between poles • the location where individual cable pairs within a distribution cable are separated and extended to the subscriber’s location on a drop wire • an irregularity found in cables serving subscriber locations. Jaime P. CCNA • a metallic transmission line comprised of two insulated copper wires (a pair) twisted together • an actual loss of signal strength Local loop Attenuation Engr. unused sections of cable that are connected in shunt to a working cable pair • the basic yardstick used for making power measurements in communications • defined as the optimum level of a test tone on a channel on a channel at some point in a communications system • the ratio in dB of the power of a signal at that point to the power the same signal would be at a 0dBm transmission level point Phase distortions Transmission characteristics Distributed parameters Feeder cable (F1) Serving area interface (SAI) Distribution cable (F2) Subscriber or standard network interface (SNI) Drop wire Aerial Distribution cable and dropwire cross-connect point Bridge tap Decibel. conductor spacing.

assumes a perfect receiver. therefore. improves the high frequency response of a message channel and reduces power loss • specifies the maximum limits for attenuation and envelope delay distortion. differential gain and 1004-Hz deviation) Envelope delay distortion Line conditioning C-type conditioning • the difference in circuit gain of a reference frequency • an indirect method of evaluating the phase delay characteristics of a circuit • the process used to improve a basic telephone channel. • a parameter used as a reference for data transmission • used primarily in Europe. usually with a large number of stations • a relatively low-capacity switching machine where the subscribers are generally limited to stations within the same building or building complex • the time delay encountered by a signal as it propagates from a source to a destination • delay measured in angular units. pertains to line impairments for which compensation can be made with filters and equalizers • telephone systems provided by local telephone companies dedicated to a single customer.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA Engr. its weighting curve corresponds to the frequency response of the human ear only • apply to dedicated private-line data circuits that utilize the private sector of the public telephone network – circuits with bandwidths comparable to those of standard voice-grade telephone channels that do not utilize the public switched telephone network • direct locations connections between two or more Data level point (DLP) Psophometric noise weighting Transmission parameters Private-line circuits Attenuation distortion (frequency response. such as degrees or radians • the actual time required for a particular frequency to propagate from a source to a destination through a communications channel • evaluate not the true phase-versus-frequency characteristics but rather the phase of a wave that is the result of a narrow band of frequencies Private switched networks Private (PBX) branch exchange Propagation time Phase delay Absolute phase delay Envelope delay 53 . Jaime P.

Jaime P. can saturate a message channel.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a requirement and does not add anything to the circuit and it cannot be used to improve a circuit. • the phase difference at the different carrier frequencies. CCNA Engr. indicates the relative delays of the various carrier frequencies with respect to the reference frequency • neither reduces the noise on a circuit nor improves the signal-to-noise ratio. characteristics of temporary open-circuit conditions and are generally caused by deep fades on radio facilities or by switching delays Holding current Loaded Impulse noise Gain hit Dropout 54 . random change in the gain of a circuit resulting in a temporary change in the signal level • a decrease in circuit gain of more than 12 dB lasting longer than 4 ms. the primary source of transmission errors in data circuits • a sudden. it simply places higher requirements on circuits used for high-speed data transmission • unwanted frequencies multiples of the transmitted Envelope delay distortion D-type conditioning Harmonic distortion Intermodulation distortion (fluctuation noise or crossmodulation noise) 1004-Hz test tone C-message noise C-notched noise • cross products [sums and differences] of the transmitted frequencies • the purpose is to simulate the combined signal power of a standard voice-band data transmission • determine the average weighted rms noise power • differ from standard C-message noise measurements only in the fact that a holding tone is applied to the transmit end of the circuit while the noise measurement is taken • ensures that the circuit operation simulates a loaded voice or data transmission • a communications term that indicates the presence of a signal power comparable to the power of an actual message transmission • characterized by high-amplitude peaks (impulses) of short duration having an approximately flat frequency spectrum.

occurs at a 300 Hz rate or lower and its primary cause is low-frequency ac ripple in power supplies • the presence of one or more continuous. uncontrolled variation in the zero crossings of a signal.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. are classified as temporary variations in the phase of a signal lasting longer than 4 ms • a form of incidental phase modulation-a continuous. unwanted tones within a message channel • unwanted tones caused by crosstalk or cross modulation between adjacent channels in a transmission system due to system nonlinearities • occurs in coherent SSBSC systems. was originally coined to indicate the presence of unwanted speech sounds in a telephone receiver caused by conversations on another telephone circuit • crosstalk cause by inadequate control of the transfer characteristics or transmittance of networks • electromagnetic coupling between two or more physically isolated transmission media. a potential problem whenever two metallic conductors carrying different signals are located in close proximity to each other. CCNA • sudden. Phase jitter Single-frequency interference Spurious tones Phase intercept distortion Hybrid set Hybrid circuits Echo cancellers Echo suppressors Crosstalk • can be defined as any disturbance created in a communications channel by signals in other communications channels. • crosstalk that occurs at the transmit end of a Transmittance crosstalk Coupling crosstalk Near-end crosstalk (NEXT) 55 . random changes in the phase of a signal. such as those using frequency-division multiplexing when the received carrier is not reinserted with the exact phase relationship to the received signal as the transmit carrier possessed • used to match impedances and to provide isolation between the two directions of signal flow • used to convert two-wire circuits to four-wire circuits similar to the hybrid coil found in standard telephone sets • eliminate the echo electrically subtracting it from the original signal rather than disabling the amplifier in the return circuit • used to eliminate echo Phase hits (slips) Engr. Jaime P.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a common usage connection. can be simple as a pair of copper wires twisted together or as sophisticated as an optical fiber cable • allows any telephone connected to it to be interconnected to any of the other telephones connected to the exchange without requiring separate cable pairs and telephones for each connection Trunk circuit Telephone exchange 56 . Far-end crosstalk (FEXT) dBx for crosstalk CHAPTER 18 : The Public Telephone Network • identifies and connects the subscribers to a suitable transmission path • supply and interpret control and supervisory signals needed to perform the operation • involves the actual transmission system of a subscriber’s messages and any necessary control signals • referred to the leased lines designed and configured for their use only • equipment and facilities that are available to all the public subscribers to the network which includes transmission facilities and telephone switches • sometimes companies called to public telephone Switching functions Signaling functions Transmission functions Private-line (dedicated lines) circuits Common usage equipment Service providers Local loop • simply the dedicated facility used to connect an instrument at a subscriber’s station to the closest telephone office • similar to local loop except trunk circuits used to interconnect two telephone offices. CCNA circuit and travels in the opposite direction as the signal in the disturbing channel • occurs at the far-end receiver and is energy that travels in the same direction as the signal in the disturbing channel • referenced to the level on the cable that is being interfered with Engr. Jaime P.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. interconnect input loop or trunk circuits to output loop or trunk circuits • local exchanges centrally located within the area they serve. Party line Circuit switch Central offices (CO) Intraoffice call) call (intraswitch Interoffice calls Tandem office Tandem switch Tandem trunks (intermediate trunks) North American Telephone Numbering Plan (NANP) • was established to provide a telephone numbering system for the United States. Mexico. Jaime P. and possibly one or more trunk circuits • an equipment busy signal received by the Concentrator Terminating set (hybrid) Switching hierarchy Route Blocking 57 . and Canada that would allow any subscriber in North America to direct dial virtually any other subscriber without the assistance of an operator • allows many subscribers to share a limited number of lines to a central office switch • splits the two directions of signal propagation so that the actual long-distance segment of the route can be accomplished on a four-wire basis • allows a certain degree of route selection when establishing a telephone call • simply a path between two subscribers and is comprised of one or more switches. two local loops. can directly interconnect any two subscribers whose local loops are connected to the same local exchange • a telephone call completed within a single local exchange • calls placed between two stations that are connected to different local exchanges • an exchange without any local loops connected to it • • called switcher’s switch trunk circuits that terminate in tandem switches Switchboards Engr. CCNA • the first telephone exchanges where manual interconnects were accomplished using patchcords and jacks • each telephone line that could have 10 or more subscribers connected to the central office exchange using the same loop • a programmable matrix that allows circuits to be connected to one another.

CCNA calling party if a call cannot be completed because the necessary trunks or circuits are not available • a local exchange where subscriber loops terminated and received dial tone. and toll-connecting trunks • provided no operator assistance Engr. 7 (SS7 or C7) signaling Point-of-presence Porting Databases Primitive CHAPTER 19 : Cellular Telephone Companies • utilized frequency modulation and were generally assigned a single carrier frequency in the 35 MHz to 45 MHz range that was used by both the mobile unit and the base station Mobile telephone systems (MTSs) (manual telephone system) 58 . Class 5 end office Class 3 primary center Class 2 sectional center • provide service to geographical regions varying in size from part of a state to all of several states. end offices interconnected subscriber loop to other subscriber loops and subscriber loops to tandem trunks. Jaime P. a demarcation point separating two companies • allows customers to change to a different service and still keep the same telephone number • store information about subscriber’s services. was developed as an alternate and much improved means of transporting signaling information through the public telephone network. depending on population density • the highest-ranking office in the DDD network in terms of the size of the geographical area serves and trunking options available • a global standard for telecommunications defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T). routing of special service numbers and calling card validation for fraud protection and provide information necessary for advanced call-processing capabilities • provides access from one level of the protocol to another level Class 1 regional center Common channel no. • a telecommunications term that describes the legal boundaries for the responsibility of maintaining equipment and transmission lines. interoffice trunks.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

Jaime P. receiver. battery powered. or transceiver that could be moved while in operation • described a relatively small radio unit that was handheld. in a television show called Get Smart. CCNA Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. 1945 : Saturday Evening Post. FCC granted authorization to the American Radio Telephone Service (ARTS) to install a second developmental system in the Baltimore. • small handsets. and easily carried by a person moving at walking speed • similar to two-way mobile radio in that most communications occurs between base stations and mobile units. area 1983 59 . full-duplex mobile telephone service with other performance enhancements 1966 : Don Adams. then the commissioner of the FCC hinted of a cellular telephone scheme that he referred to as simply s small zone radio telephone system June 17. Louis Missouri. AT&T and Southwestern Bell introduced the first American commercial mobile radio-telephone service to private customers.C. D.. In the same year. K. best describe by pointing out the primary difference between it and two-way mobile radio • • push-to-talk examples of two-way mobile radio Mobile telephone stations Mobile Portable Cellular telephone PTT • • citizen’s band (CB) public land mobile radio Evolution of Cellular Telephone July 28. Jett. 1946 : in St. E. similar services were offered to 25 major cities throughout the United States early 1950s : the FCC doubled the number of mobile telephone channels by reducing the bandwidth to 60 kHz per channel 1960 : AT&T introduced direct-dialing. easily carried by a person in their pocket or purse • suggested any radio transmitter.Washington. unveiled the most famous mobile telephone to date: the fully mobile shoe phone 1968 : AT&T proposed the concept of cellular mobile system to the FCC with the intent of alleviating the problem of spectrum congestions in the existing mobile telephone system 1974 : the FCC allocated an additional 40-MHz bandwidth for cellular telephone service 1975 : the FCC granted AT&T the first license to operate a development cellular telephone service in Chicago 1976 : the Bell Mobile Phone service for metropolitan New York City offered only 12 channels that could serve a maximum of 543 subscribers.

1998 : a subsidiary of Motorola Corporation implemented Iridium. cellular telephone system called Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) 1991 : the first digital cellular services were introduced in several major U. Jaime P. its physical size varies depending on user density and calling patterns • the smallest cells used most often in highdensity areas such as found in large cities and inside buildings. thus creating more cell areas.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. provided the cells are separated by sufficient distance • a geographic cellular radio containing three groups of cells coverage area Microcells Picocells Omnidirectional antennas Sectored directional antennas Frequency reuse Clusters Cell splitting • when the area of a cell. cities. improves reception by effectively providing a larger target for Maximum traffic load Sectoring Space diversity 60 . or independent component coverage area of a cellular system is further divided.S. to increase the channel capacity and improve the availability and reliability of a cellular telephone network • the point when a cell reaches maximum capacity occurs when the number of subscribers wishing to place a call at any given time equals the number of channels in the cell • decreasing co-channel interference while increasing capacity by using directional antennas • placing two receive antennas.excited cells (three of the cell’s six vertices) • the process in which the same set of frequencies (channels) can be allocated to more than one cell. exhibit milder propagation impairments such as reflections and signal delays • these is used in well-shielded areas or areas with high levels of interference • normally used in center-excited cells (center of the cell) • are used in edge. : the FCC allocated 666 30 kHz half-duplex mobile telephone channels to AT&T to form the first U. a satellite-based wireless personal communications satellite system (PCSS) • the pattern that fits the cellular concept Honeycomb Cell • defined by its physical size.and corner. enabling a more efficient utilization of the available bandwidth using voice compression November 17.S. CCNA Engr.

supervises calls. allow mobile units to roam and to perform handoffs of calls already in progress when a mobile unit moves from one cellular system into another without subscriber intervention • the process where a mobile unit notifies a serving MTSO of its presence and location through a base station controller • operates under the direction o switching center (MTSO). turns the radio transmitter and receiver on and off. serves as central control for all users within that cell Segmentation Dualization Base stations • when mobile unit moves possibly from one company’s service area into another company’s service area • the transfer of a mobile unit from one base station’s control to another base station’s control • a connection that is momentarily broken during the cell-to-cell transfer • a flawless handoff. a means of avoiding co-channel interference. manage each of the radio channels at each site. injects data onto the control and voice channels and performs diagnostic tests • second part of the base station controllers Roaming Handoff (handover) Hard handoff Soft handoff IS-41 Autonomous registration Cell-site controller Base (BTS) transceiver station 61 . no perceivable interruption of service and normally takes approximately 200 ms which is imperceptible to voice telephone users although the delay may be disruptive when transmitting data • a protocol aligns with a subprotocol of the SS7 protocol stack that facilitates communications among databases and other network entities. which are within the reuse distance. • divides a group of channels into smaller groupings or segments of mutuality exclusive frequencies. lowers the capacity of a cell by enabling reuse inside the reuse distance • means of avoiding full-cell splitting where the entire area would otherwise need to be segmented into smaller cells • the locations of these radio-frequency transceivers. are assigned their own segment of the channel group.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA signals radiated from mobile units Engr. Jaime P. cell sites.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. and a four-digit subscriber (extension) number • a 32-bit binary code permanently assigned to each mobile unit • indicates whether the terminal has access to all 832 AMPS channel . Jaime P. 1983. the idea was to eliminate the possibility of a monopoly and provide the advantages that generally accompany a competitive environment • a transmission mode transmit in both directions that simultaneously Advanced Mobile System (AMPS) Telephone Duplexing Mobile identification number (MIN) Electronic (ESN) Four-bit (SCM) serial number mark • a 34-bit binary code comprised of a three-digit area code. • also a part of the base station subsystem. CCNA Engr. used with cellular telephone system voice channels can be either narrowband FM for analog system • generally used to connect switching centers to cell sites and to the public telephone network • governs the way telephone calls are established and is disconnected • the actual voice channel where mobile users communicate directly with other mobile and wireline subscribers through a base station • is used for transferring control and diagnostic information between mobile users and a cellular telephone switch through a base station Radio transceivers Four-wire leased lines Communications protocol User channel Control channel CHAPTER 20 Cellular Telephone Systems • a standard cellular telephone service (CTS) initially placed into operation on October 13. a three-0digit prefix (exchange number). specifies the maximum radiated power for the unit • a 15-bit binary code issued by the FCC to an operating company when it issues it a license to provide AMPS cellular service to an area • combination of cellular telephone networks and station class System identifier (SID) Personal Communications 62 .

CCNA the Intelligent Network which is the entity of the SS7 interoffice protocol that distinguishes the physical components of the switching network System (PCS) Engr. a unidirectional base station-to-mobile unit transmission shared by all mobile units • an access method used with standard analog AMPS • was first used by the military to ensure reliable Home location register (HLR) Visitor location register (VTR) Equipment registry (EIR) Available mode identification Screen mode Private mode Unavailable mode Narrowband AMPS (N-AMPS) RACH SPACH BCCH FDMA Frequency-hopping spread 63 . a unidirectional channel specified for transmissions from mobile-to-base units only • used to transmit information from base stations to specific mobile stations. which allows PCS users to screen calls • all calls except those specified by the subscriber are automatically forwarded to a forwarding destination without ringing the subscriber’s handset • no calls are allowed to pass through to the subscriber • was originally intended to provide a short-term solution to the traffic congestion problem in the AMPS system • used by mobile units to request access to the cellular telephone system. including home subscription information and what supplementary services the user is subscribed to • a database that stores information about subscribers in a particular MTSO serving area • a database that stores information pertaining to the identification and type of equipment that exist in the mobile unit • allows all calls to pass through the network to the subscriber except for a minimal number of telephone numbers that can be blocked • the PCS equivalent to caller ID. Jaime P. • channels used to carry generic. system-related information. the name of the calling party appears on the mobile unit’s display. • a database that stores information about the user.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

facsimile and paging • uses 66 satellites • the unique key to the Iridium system and the primary differentiation between Iridium • relay information to the terrestrial gateways and the system control segment located at the earth stations Iridium Satellite cross-links Feeder links CHAPTER 21: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking • Data are systems of interrelated computers and computer equipment and can be as simple as a network personal computer connected to a printer or two personal computers connected together through communications 64 . Jaime P. including voice. data. CCNA antijam and to secure communications in a battlefield environment. networking.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Direct-sequence spectrum spread Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) • • • • • • • GMSK modulation (Gaussian MSK) 50 MHz bandwidth FDMA/TDMA accessing eight 25-kHz channels w/in each 200-kHz traffic channel 200 kHz traffic channel 992 full-duplex channels supplementary integrated services digital network (ISDN) services • a satellite-based wireless personal communications network designed to permit a wide range of mobile telephone services. the fundamental concept is to break a message into fixed-size blocks of data with each block transmitted in sequence except on a different carrier frequency • a high-bit rate pseudorandom code is added to a low-bit rate information signal to generate a highbit-rate pseudorandom signal closely resembling noise that contains both the original data signal and the pseudorandom code • a second-generation cellular telephone system initially developed to solve the fragmentation problems inherent in first-generation cellular telephone system • basic parameters of GSM spectrum Engr.

Jaime P. • Morse secured an American patent for the telegraph.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. • the first practical data communications code. the telephone graham bell was invented by Alexander 1874 • • • • • 1875 1899 1920 Konrad Zuis 1940 1960s Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in sending radio telegraph messages the first commercial radio stations carrying voice information were installed he demonstrated a sometime in the late 1930s computing machine the first special purpose computer using electromechanical relays for performing logical operations • batch processing systems were replaced by online processing systems with terminals connected directly to the computer through serial or parallel communications lines. • the first telegraph line was established between Baltimore and Washington dc with the first message conveyed over this system. • the year introduced microprocessor controlled microcomputers. • 1833 • the first successful data communications system was invented. CCNA the public telephone network • one of the earliest means of communicating electrically coded information when a proposal submitted to a Scottish magazine suggested running a communications line between villages comprised of 26 parallel wires Carl Friedrich gauss developed an unusual system based on a five by five matrix representing 25 letters 1753 Engr. 1970s 65 . • high speed printers were available 1832 Morse code 1840 1844 1860 • Emile Baudot invented a telegraph multiplexer which allowed signals from up to six different telegraph machines to be transmitted simultaneously over a single wire.

for future HDTV projects.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.544mbps). named after Emile Baudot. h channels B-channel D channel • • H channel PRI • Broadband ISDN CHAPTER 22: Fundamental Concepts of Data Communications • the first fixed-length character code developed for machines rather than for people. a fixed-length source code.048 mbps) 150 mbps. 1980s • ATM components • routers and switches to connect carrier on global basis • backbone devices to connect all the lans within a large organization • switches and adapters which link desktop computers to high speed atm connection for running multimedia applications 1. European 30b + d (e1= 2. American 23b + d(t1 = 1. CCNA Engr. build block of the ISDN. combination of several b channels for business with larger data needs.4 Gbps ISDN • • ATM speeds a digital telecommunications technology that can simultaneously transmit voice and data over the same pair of telephone wires ISDN channels: • • B-channel (Bearer channel) • D channel • H channel • • used to carry the digital information. kpbs (bri) or 64 kbps (pri) provide for user information at higher bit rates. • personal computers became an essential item in the home and workplace. an early pioneer in telegraph printing. 64 kbps used to carry signaling and supervisory information to the network. Jaime P. all characters are represented in binary and have the same number of symbols (bits) Baudot Code 66 .

consists of 36 unique codes representing the 10 digits and 26 uppercase letters • developed sometime in the early 1970s to identify the products of the grocery industry. affects only one character within a message • when two or more non-consecutive bits within a given data string are in error. can affect one or more characters within a message • the first fixed length character code developed for machines rather than people • a French postal engineer who developed the Baudot code • RTTY is the acronym for _____ • a fixed length source code Code 39 (Code 3 of 9. 3 of 9 Code) Universal Product Code (UPC) Single bit error Multiple bit error Baudot code Thomas Murray Radio teletype Baudot code 67 . used almost exclusively with IBM mainframe computers and peripheral equipment • are those omnipresent black-and-white striped stickers that seem to appear on virtually every consumer item in the United States and most of the rest of the world. each character within the bar code is independent of every other character • does not include spaces between characters Engr. found on virtually every grocery item from a candy bar to a can of beans • only one bit within a given data string is in error. United States of America Standard Code for Information Exchange (ASCII) Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) Bar codes Discrete code Continuous code 2D code • stores data in two dimensions in contrast with a conventional linear bar code • uses an alphanumeric code similar to the ASCII code. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a seven-bit fixed length character set • an eight-bit fixed-length character developed in 1962 by the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). a series of vertical black bars separated by vertical white bars • has spaces or gaps between characters. CCNA • the standard character set for source coding the alphanumeric character set that humans understand but computers do not.

Jaime P. a convolutional scheme. parity) Parity bit Marking parity Checksum • own error-detection bit • the parity bit is always a 1. EBCDIC Extended binary coded decimal interchange code Burst error Error detection Redundancy Redundancy checking Vertical redundancy checking (VRC) (character parity.999% of all transmission errors are detected 68 . CCNA • the standard character set for source coding the alphanumeric character set that humans understand • an eight bit fixed length character set developed in 1962 by IBM • EBCDIC is the acronym for ___ • when two or more consecutive bits within a given data string re in error. appended to the end of the message • a redundancy error detection scheme that use parity to determine if a transmission error has occurred with a message and is therefore sometimes called message parity • the bit sequence for the LRC Longitudinal Checking (LRC) Redundancy Block check sequence (BCS) or Frame check sequence (FCS) Cyclic (CRC) redundancy checking • probably the most reliable redundancy checking technique for error detection. useful only when errors occur in a large number of bits • another relatively simple form of redundancy error checking where each character has a numerical value assigned to it. can affect one or more characters within a message • the process of monitoring data transmission and determining when errors have occurred. not to prevent errors from occurring but to prevent undetected errors from occurring • duplicating each data unit for the purpose of detecting errors. an effective but rather costly means of detecting errors. approximately 99.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. especially with long messages • adding bits for the sole purpose of detecting errors • probably the simplest error-detection scheme ASCII Engr.

• include enough redundant information with each transmitted message to enable the receiver to determine when an error has occurred • include sufficient extraneous information along with each message to enable the receiver to determine when an error has occurred and which bit is in error • two primary methods used for error-correction: Error-detecting codes Error-correcting codes • • retransmission forward error correction CHAPTER 23: Data-Link Protocols and Data Communications Networks • the primary goal is to give users of a network the tools necessary for setting up the network and performing data flow control • arrangements between people or processes Network architecture Protocols Data-link protocol • a set of rules implementing and governing an orderly exchange of data between layer two devices such as line control units and front-end processors • all stations have equal access to the network. Jaime P. they must contend with the other stations on the network for access to the transmission medium • determines which device is transmitting and which is receiving at any point in time • coordinates the rate at which data are transported over a link and generally provides an acknowledgement mechanism that ensures that data are received at the destination • a solicitation sent from the primary to a secondary to determine if the secondary has data to transmit • how the primary designates a secondary as a destination or recipient of data • the transmitting station sends one message frame and then waits for an acknowledgement Peer-to-peer network Line discipline Flow control Poll Selection Stop-and-wait flow control 69 . but when they have a message to transmit. CCNA Engr.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

Sliding window flow control Sliding window Character-oriented protocols Bit-oriented protocol Asynchronous protocols Synchronous protocols Cluster Binary synchronous communications (BSC) data-link data-link Synchronous data-link control (SLDC) Supervisory frame Clear Beacon test Monitor mode Wrap Transparency Public switched data network (PDN or PSDN) Packet switching • causes the addressed secondary station to place itself into the monitor mode • causes a secondary station to transmission directly to its receiver input • loop its make a receiver transparent to all data located • a switched data communications network similar to the public telephone network except it is designed for transferring data only • involves dividing data messages into small 70 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. and other digital devices • a synchronous character-oriented data-link protocol developed by IBM. CCNA before sending the next message frame • a source station can transmit several frames in succession before receiving an acknowledgement • refers to imaginary receptacles at the source and destination stations with the capacity of holding several frames of data • interpret a frame of data as a group of successive bits combined into predefined patterns of fixed length usually eight bits • a discipline for serial-by-bit information transfer over a data communications channel • are relatively simple. character-oriented generally used on two-point networks using asynchronous data and asynchronous modems • remote stations can have more than one PC or printer • group of computers. sometimes called bisync or bisynchronous communications • a synchronous bit-oriented protocol developed in the 1970s by the IBM for use in system network architecture environment • an information field is not allowed. Jaime P. cannot be used to transfer numbered information • causes all previously set functions to be cleared by the secondary • causes the secondary to turn on or turn off Engr. printers.

a network that proposes to interconnect an unlimited number of independent users through a common communication network • provides the most economical and effective means of handling local data communication needs • the time it takes a signal to travel from a source to a destination Permanent (PVC) Engr. provides an artificial boost in amplitude to the higher baseband frequencies • a receiver and a transmitter placed back to back or in tandem with the system • another name for local oscillator and is considerably lower in frequency than either the received or the transmitted radio frequencies Microwave Long-haul microwave systems Microwave radios Baseband Microwave transmitter Microwave repeaters Shift oscillator 71 . CCNA bundles of information and transmitting them through communications networks to their intended destinations using computer-controlled switches • logically equivalent to a two-point dedicated private-line circuit except slower • users send small packets of data into the network • the integrating of a wide range of services into a single multipurpose network.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. virtual circuit Datagram (DG) Integrated service network (ISDN) digital Local area network (LAN) Propagation delay CHAPTER 24: Microwave Radio Communications and System Gain • described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more • systems are those used to carry information for relatively long distances • propagate signals through Earth’s atmosphere between transmitters and receivers often located on top of towers spaced about 15 miles to 30 miles apart • the composite signal that modulates the FM carrier • a preemphasis network precedes the FM deviator.

space. then transmitting both RF signals to a given destination • the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more antennas that are physically separated by an appreciable number of wavelengths • a single RF carrier is propagated with two different electromagnetic polarizations • using more than one receiver for a single radiofrequency channel • it combines frequency. CCNA • the reduction in signal strength Radio fade Diversity Engr. used to increase the reliability of the system by increasing its availability • simply modulating two different RF carrier frequencies with the same IF intelligence. • it suggests that there is more than one transmission path or method of transmission available between a transmitter and a receiver. Jaime P. polarization and receiver diversity into one system • somewhat specialized form of diversity that consists of a standard frequency-diversity path where the two transmitter/receiver pairs at one end of the path are separated from each other and connected to different antennas that are vertically separated as in space diversity • provide protection for a much larger section of the communications system that generally includes several repeaters spanning a distance of 100 miles or more • two types of protection switching arrangement: Frequency diversity Space diversity Polarization diversity Receiver diversity Quad diversity Hybrid diversity Protection arrangement switching • • hot standby diversity • each working radio channel has a dedicated backup or spare channel • a single backup channel is made available to as many as 11 working channels • points in the system where baseband signals either originate or terminate • points in a system where baseband signals may be reconfigured or where RF carriers are simply repeated or amplified Hot standby protection Diversity protection Terminals Repeater stations 72 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. used in conjunction with a channelcombining network to prevent the output of one transmitter from interfering with the output of another transmitter • this occurs when three stations are placed in a geographical straight line in the system • preventing the power that leaks out the back and sides of a transmit antenna from interfering with the signal entering the input of a nearby receive antenna • the line-of-sight path directly between the transmit and receive antennas • the portion of the transmit signal that is reflected off Earth’s surface and captured by the receive antenna • consists of the electric and magnetic fields associated with the currents induced in Earth’s surface • the portion of the transmit signal that is returned back to Earth’s surface by the ionized layers of Earth’s atmosphere • often defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from a nearby objects • a phenomena where in no electromagnetic is actually lost or dissipated – it merely spreads out as it propagates away from the source resulting in lower relative power densities • the reduction in receive signal level. it applies to propagation variables in the physical radio path that affect changes in the path loss between transmit and receive antennas • the difference between the nominal output power of a transmitter and the minimum input Transmit (transmod) Engr. and bandpass filter. reduction in signal strength at the input to a receiver. CCNA • a balanced modulator that when used in conjunction with a microwave generator. Jaime P. modulator Isolator Multihop interference Ring around Free-space path Ground-reflected wave Surface wave Sky wave Free-space path loss Spreading loss Fading System gain 73 . power amplifier. up-converts the IF carrier to an RF carrier and amplifies the RF to the desired output power • a unidirectional device often made from a ferrite material.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. a ground-based station to control the operation of the system and a user network of earth stations that provides the interface facilities for the transmission and reception of terrestrial communications traffic • includes control mechanisms that support the payload operation • the actual user information conveyed through the system Bus Payload 74 . filter. waveguide and about nay other electronic communications circuit ever developed • called a transponder Satellites Communications satellite Satellite radio repeater Satellite system • consists of one or more satellite space vehicles. a celestial body that orbits around a planet. Fade margin (link margin) Receiver threshold sensitivity) Noise factor Noise figure (receiver CHAPTER 25 : Satellite Communications • in astronomical terms. demultiplexer. onboard computer. must be greater than or equal to the sum of all gains and losses incurred by a signal as it propagates from a transmitter to a receiver • essentially a fudge factor included in system gain equations that considers the nonideal and less predictable characteristics of radiowave propagation. amplifier. abnormal atmospheric conditions • the minimum wideband carrier power at the input to a receiver that will provide a usable baseband output • simply a ratio of input signal-to-noise ratio to output signal-to-noise ratio • indicates how much the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates as a waveform propagates from the input of a circuit Engr. Jaime P. regenerator. antenna. CCNA power to a receiver necessary to achieve satisfactory performance. a space vehicle launched by humans and orbits Earth or another celestial body • a microwave repeater in the sky that consists of a diverse combination of one or more of the following: receiver. such as multipath propagation and terrain sensitivity. transmitter. multiplexer. in aerospace terms. these characteristics cause temporary.

2 GHz to 1. the main advantage is that the path loss between earth stations and space vehicles is much lower than for satellites revolving in medium. • a continuously transmitted unmodulated carrier that an earth station can lock on to and use to determine the exact location of a satellite so the earth station can align its antennas • accomplished transmission • meaning lightning Kepler’s laws: the first transatlantic Beacon Echo Molniya • the planets move in ellipses with the sun at one focus the line joinining the sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time (laws of areas) the square of the time of revolution of a planet divided by the cube of its mean distance from the sun gives a number that is the same for all planets (harmonic law) • • • • • closest approach to the earth farthest point from earth Perigee Apogee Orbital (nonsynchronous) satellites • rotate around the Earth in an elliptical or circular pattern • the orbit if the satellite is orbiting in the same direction as Earth’s rotation (counterclockwise) and at an angular greater than that of earth • the orbit if the satellite is orbiting in the opposite direction of Earth’s rotation or in the same direction with an angular velocity less than that of Earth • a system utilizing a 66-satellite constellation orbiting approximately 480 miles above Earth’s surface.or high-altitude orbits • operate in the 1.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. CCNA Engr.66 GHz frequency band and orbit between 6000 miles and 12000 miles above the Earth Prograde or posigrade orbit Retrograde orbit Low Earth Orbit Medium Earth Orbit • high-altitude earth-orbit satellites operating Geosynchronous satellites 75 .

CCNA primarily in the 2 GHz to 18 GHz frequency spectrum with orbits 22 300 miles above the Earth’s surface • the line joining the perigee and apogee the center of Earth • the line perpendicular to the major axis and halfway between the perigee and apogee • half the distance of the minor axis Engr. Jaime P.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. usually in a circular path • when the satellite rotates in a path that takes it over the North and South poles in an orbit perpendicular to the equatorial plane • causing elliptical orbits to rotate in a manner that causes the apogee and perigee to move around the Earth • satellites appear to remain in a fixed location above one spot on earth’s surface • the process of maneuvering a satellite within a preassigned window • • the circumference of a geosynchronous orbit the velocity of a geosynchronous satellite Rotation of the line of apsides Geosynchronous geostationary) Station keeping 264 790 km 6840 mph (stationary or 76 . Major Axis (line of apsides) Minor axis Semiminor axis Geocenter • all satellites rotate around Earth in an orbit that forms a plane that passes through the center of gravity of Earth • are virtually all orbits except those that travel directly above the equator or directly over the North and South Poles • the angle between the Earth’s equatorial plane and the orbital plane of a satellite measured counterclockwise at the point in the orbit where it crosses the equatorial plane traveling from south to north • traveling from south to north Inclined Orbits Angle of inclination Ascending node Descending node Line of nodes Equatorial orbit Polar orbit • the point where a polar or inclined orbit crosses the equatorial plane traveling from north to south • the line joining the ascending an descending nodes through the center of Earth • when the satellite rotates in an orbit directly above the equator.

• sometimes referred to geosynchronous earth orbit • direction of maximum gain of an earth station antenna • azimuth and elevation angle are jointly referred to __________ • a point on the surface below the satellite Clarke orbit or Clarke belt Boresight Look angles Subsatellite point (SSP) Angle of elevation • the vertical angle formed between the direction of travel of an electromagnetic wave radiated from an earth station antenna pointing directly toward a satellite and the horizontal plane • the horizontal angular distance from a reference direction either the southern or northern most point of the horizon • defined as the horizontal pointing angle of an earth station antenna • determine the farthest satellite away that can be seen looking east or west of the earth station’s longitude • uses the angular momentum of its spinning body to provide roll and yaw stabilization • the body remains fixed relative to Earth’s surface. therefore. while an internal subsystem provides roll and yaw stabilization • the geographical representation of a satellite antenna’s radiation pattern. Jaime P. therefore. typically have proportionately higher EIRPs than those targeting much larger areas because a given output power can be more concentrated • typically target up to 20% of the Earth’s surface and. CCNA Engr. the area on Earth’s surface that the satellite can receive from or transmit to • the smallest beams.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. have EIRPs that are 3 dB or 50% lower than those transmitted by spot beams that typically cover only 10% of the Earth’s surface • have a beamwidth of approximately 42% of Earth’s surface which is the maximum view of any one geosynchronous satellite Azimuth Azimuth angle Line-of-sight limits Spinner satellite Three-axis stabilizer satellites Footprint (footprint map) Spot beams Hemispherical antennas downlink Earth coverage 77 . concentrate their power to very small geographical areas and.

Jaime P. often used rather than noise figure because it is more accurate method of expressing the noise contributed by a device or a receiver when evaluating its performance • the noise power normalized to a 1-Hz band width. a frequency translator. an input low-noise amplifier (LNA). and an output bandpass filter • used when it is necessary to communicate between satellites • high power amplifiers used in earth station transmitters and the traveling-wave tubes typically used in a satellite transponders • the amount the output level is backed off from rated levels equivalent to a loss • defined as an equivalent transmit power Frequency reuse Engr. or the noise power present in a 1-Hz bandwidth • the average wideband carrier power-to-noise density ratio • the combines power of the carrier and its associated sidebands • the thermal noise present in a normalized 1-Hz bandwidth Equivalent noise temperature Noise density Carrier-to-noise density ratio Wideband carrier power Noise density CHAPTER 26: Satellite Multiple Accessing Arrangements • sometimes called multiple destination Multiple accessing 78 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. CCNA • increasing the size of an antenna. Satellite transponder Cross-links or intersatellite links (ISLs) Nonlinear devices Back-off loss Effective isotropic power (EIRP) radiated • a hypothetical value that can be calculated but cannot be measured. different beams of the same frequency can be directed to different geographical areas of Earth • consists of an input bandlimiting device (BPF). a low-level power amplifier. the beamwidth of the antenna is also reduced thus.

Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. Jaime P. access (DAMA) SPADE multiple • • an acronym for single-channel-per-carrier PCM multiple-access demand-assignment equipment a time-division-multiplexed transmission that is frequency-division multiplexed into the spectrum below the QPSK-encoded voice-band channels with a 160 KHz bandwidth • called when each stations can transmit only Common signaling channel (CSC) Store-and-forward system 79 . a given number of the available voice-band channels from each other station are assigned a dedicated station • voice-channels are assigned on an as-needed basis. transmissions are separated in the time domain. the entire transponder bandwidth and power are used for each transmission but for only a prescribed interval of time • the entire satellite transponder bandwidth is used by all stations on a continuous basis. • a method required when three or more earth stations wish to communicate with each other • sometimes called to multiple accessing because the transmissions from each earth station are received by all the other earth stations in the system • when it is used. transmissions are separated in the frequency domain Multiple accessing Multiple destination Preassignment Demand assignment FDMA • each earth station transmits a short burst of information during a specific time slot (epoch). signal separation is accomplished with envelope encryption/decryption techniques • an alternate channel allocation scheme TDMA CDMA Demand-assignment. provides more versatility and more efficient use of the available frequency spectrum • each earth station’s transmissions are assigned specific uplink and downlink frequency bands within an allotted satellite. CCNA because the transmission from each earth station are received by all the other earth stations in the system • method of assigning adjacent channels different electromagnetic polarization • an Eskimo word meaning “little brother” Frequency reuse Anik Engr.

such as railroad tracks. is simply continuing to travel about until you reach your destination • direction and distance are determined from precisely timed sightings of celestial bodies including the stars and moon. mountain peaks and bodies of water • a navigation technique that determines position by extrapolating a series of measured velocity increments used quite successfully by Charles Lindbergh in 1927 during his historic 33 hour transatlantic journey and quite unsuccessfully by Amelia Earhart in 1937 during her attempt to make first around-the-world flight • the most accurate navigation technique. significant landmarks. Jaime P. or directing the course of movements.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan. barns. CCNA during their specified time slot although incoming voice-band signals are continuous • a unique binary word the Engr. fixing a position and direction with respect to familiar. ascertaining. knowing where you are and being able to find your way around • the most ancient and rudimentary method of navigation. water towers. Chip code Direct-sequence spectrum (DS-SS) Frequency hopping Channel compression Competitive clipping Time-assignment interpolation (TASI) Navigation speech spread • produced when a bipolar data-modulated signal is linearly multiplied by the spreading signal in a special balanced modulator • a form of CDMA where a digital code is used to continually change the frequency of the carrier • there can be more TCs assigned than there are SCs • a phenomenon when speech energy is detected on a TC and there is no SC to assign it to • a form of analog channel compression that has been used for suboceanic cables for many years • can be defined as the art or science of plotting. a primitive technique that dates back thousand of years • another rudimentary method of navigation. position is determined by measuring the travel time of an electromagnetic wave as it moves from a transmitter to a receiver Wandering Celestial navigation Piloting Dead reckoning Radio or electronic navigation 80 .

an astronomical almanac Space segment Pseudorandom noise (PRN) code Ephemeris • the Navstar control segment which includes all the fixed-location ground-based monitor stations located throughout the world a master control station (MCS). works by canceling out most of the natural and man-made errors that creep into normal GPS measurements Operational (OCS) control system Differential GPS -end- 81 . there are 21 working satellites and three satellites reserved as spaces • this unique number is used to encrypt the signal from that satellite • a term generally associated with a table showing the position of a heavenly body on a number of dates in a regular sequence. • consist of 24 operational satellites revolving around Earth in six orbital planes approximately 60° apart with four satellites in each plane. in essence. Jaime P. CCNA Engr. and uplink transmitters • makes GPS even more accurate.Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

CCNA Engr. Jaime P. 82 .Electronics Systems and Technologies Licuanan.

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