# EE 605 : Error Corre ting Codes

IIT Bombay, Dept. of EE,

Semester: July-November 2007

Instru tor: B. K. Dey

Le ture notes : Finite Fields

Field: A set with two operations (F; +; ) is alled a

   . C . +) is an abelian group (ii) (F nf0g. Sub. p 1g under modulo p addition and modulo p multipli ation. 1. ) is an abelian group and (iii)  distributes over + Examples: R. Q Zp = f0. where p is a prime.eld if (i) (F.

eld: If a subset S of a .

eld F forms a .

then S is alled a sub.eld under the same operations.

eld of F . F is alled an extension .

Exer ise: If L is a sub. Example: Q  R  C.eld of S .

How to onstru t an algebrai extension of a . then prove that F is a ve tor spa e over L.eld of F .

i. it is irredu ible..eld: Example: Constru tion of C from R The polynomial f (X ) = X 2 + 1 2 R[X ℄ does not have a root in R and an not be fa tored over R.e. We want to onstru t an extension .

b 2 Rg  R[X ℄ and de. Consider the set S = fa + bX ja.eld of R where f (X ) will have a root.

under this de. One an he k that.ne multipli ation modulo f (X ) = X 2 + 1 in this set (note the similarity with the onstru tion of Zp). Addition is natural.

nition of addition and multipli ation. the set S forms a .

for example. a2 +a b2 b a b 2+ 2 (1)  X is the inverse of a + bX . S is a . (a + bX )  a a +b 2 b 2 a +b 2 X 2  = a2 +  ab a +b a +b 2 b2 a = 2 2+ 2 2 a +b a +b 2 2 2  ab 2 a +b 2 2 X b2 a + b2 2 X2 mod (X 2 + 1) = 1  So. We will he k. the fa t that every nonzero element has multipli ative inverse. Now. Consider any nonzero element a + bX 2 S . So.eld.

eld under natural addition and multipli ation modulo (X 2 + 1). R  S and . Obviously.

EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. K. R is a sub. Dey the restri tion of the operations in S to R are the natural addition and multipli ation in R and so.

and denote the symbol S by C .eld of S . where the indeterminate X is repla ed by the symbol i. One an easily varify from the de. Now. for notational larity. let us denote the element a + bX 2 S as a + bi.

nition of addition and multipli ation that these are the well known addition and multipli ation of omplex numbers. Note that a ording to the de.

nition of multipli ation in C . i is a root of the polonomial X 2 + 1. the extension . So. i:i = i2 (mod i2 + 1) = 1 and so.

there is no irredu ible polynomial of degree more than one over C . ounting multipli ities. Under modulo p addition and modulo p multipli ation.e.e. any polynomial of degree n over C has n roots in C . i. forms a ...eld C is onstru ted so that the polynomial X 2 + 1 has a root in it. and so it an be fa tored into n linear (i. of the form a0 + a1 X ) fa tors. Zp and its extensions: Let p be a prime. It so happens that C an not be extended further the in same way. As a result. This is known as the fundamental theorem of algebra.

a1 . 9b 2 Zp.eld. But 0 < a < p and so p 6 ja. Consider any a 2 Zp. Now. Consider the set A = fab mod pjb 2 Zpg. ab1 mod p = ab2 mod p ) a(b1 b2 )  0 mod p ) pja or pj(b1 b2 ). for any 0  b1 . So.e. In parti ular 1 2 A.    . if there is an irredu ible polynomial f (X ) of degree r [X ℄ = fa0 +z1 X +  +ar 1 X r 1 ja0 . ar 1 2 over Zp. the set A has p distin t elements. so that ab = 1 in Zp. We will prove only the existen e of multipli ative inverse of any nonzero element in Zp. all the elements of Zp. and so. i. The other onditions are left to the reader to verify. b2  p 1. similar to the onstru tion of C from R. pj(b1 b2 ) ) b1 b2 = 0 ) b1 = b2 .. Zp Now. then we an extend Zp to a larger . So.

eld L = (Zf p(X )) Zpg whi h is the set of all polynomials of degree less than r and where multipli ation is de.

One an verify easily that L is a . Addition is oeÆ ient wise modulo p addition.ned modulo f (X ).

use the same te hnique as in the proof for Zp (noting that f (X ) is irredu ible over Zp).eld under these operations. Chara teristi of a . Just as a hint about how to prove the existen e of multipli ative inverse of nonzero elements. L has pr elements (ea h ai an be hosen in p ways) elements and so it is denoted by Fpr or GF (pr ).

eld: De.

nition: For a .

if n is the smallest positive integer su h that 1 + 1 +    + 1(n times ) = 0 then n is alled the hara teristi of F .eld F . If no su h n exists then the hara teristi of F is de.

then it is prime. R . Example: Fpr has hara teristi p. 2 . Proof: Suppose the hara teristi n of F is not a prime and n = n1 n2 where 1 < n1 . if the hara teristi of F is n and a 2 F . n2 < n. Lemma: If the hara teristi of F is nonzero. then a + a +    + a(n times ) = a(1 + 1 +    + 1(n times )) = 0.ned to be 0. C have hara teristi 0. Clearly. Q .

Dey Then 1 + 1 +    + 1(n1 times ) 6= 0 1 + 1 +    + 1(n2 times ) 6= 0 But for any .EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. K.

b 2 F then a 6= 0 and b 6= 0 ) ab 6= 0. Note that the . ) (1 + 1 +    + 1(n1 times ))(1 + 1 +    + 1(n2 times )) 6= 0 1 + 1 +    + 1(n = n1 n2 times ) 6= 0  - ontradi tion. So.eld F . if a.

elds Zp(also denoted as Fp or GF (p)) and Fpr as onstru ted above have hara teristi p. Lemma: Q is a sub.

eld of any .

Lemma: Zp is a sub. though dis ussed in the lass.eld of hara teristi 0. Proof: Omitted here.

eld of any .

though dis ussed in the lass. Proof: Omitted here. Note that there are in.eld of hara teristi p.

nite .

for example Fp (X ) (.elds of hara teris p.

Theorem: Any .eld of rationals of polynomials over Fp ).

nite .

Proof: Sin e Q is a sub.eld F has pr number of elements for some prime p and positive integer r.

eld of any .

any .eld of hara teristi 0.

eld of hara teristi 0 is in.

Suppose the hara teristi of F is p. Zp is a sub. p is prime.nite. By a previous lemma.

F is a ve tor spa e over Zp. again by a previous lemma. It must have . So.eld of F .

sin e it has .nite dimension.

a2 . ar 2 Zp.nite number of elements.  The number of elements in a . Suppose the dimension of F over Zp is r. xr g is a basis of F over Zp. and su h linear ombibations give distin t elements (property of any basis).    . then the elements P of F are of the form ri=1 ai xi where a1 . Sin e ea h ai an take p values.    . If fx1 . x2 . there are pr su h linear ombinations and so there are pr elements in F .

nite .

eld is alled its order. The theorem says that if n has two distin t prime fa tors. then there is no .

nite .

it does not guarantee the onverse.eld of order n. the fa t that for any prime p and positive integer r. i.e. However.. there is a .

nite .

Of ourse. from our onstru tion of an extension .eld of order pr .

However. then we are through.eld of Zp. we will prove the existen e of irredu ible polynomials of any degree r over Zp using the existen e of an extension . if we an show that for any positive integer r there is at least one irredu ible polynomial of degree r over Zp. we will take a di erent route and in fa t.

eld of order pr . 3 .

Dey Le ture 2 Proposition: If f (X ) 2 F [X ℄ and 2 F . By dividing f (X ) by (X ).EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. then f ( ) = 0 if and only if (X Proof: If (X )jf (X ). we an . then f (X ) = (X )jf (X ). )g(X ) for some g(X ) 2 F [X ℄. Then f ( ) = 0  g( ) = 0 Now. suppose f ( ) = 0. K.

where deg(r(X )) < deg(X ) = 1 i. so that f (X ) = (X )q(X )+ .  Lemma: Given a . 0 = f ( ) = 0  q( ) + = ) = 0 ) f (X ) = (X )q(X ) ) (X )jf (X ).nd two polynomials q(X ) and r(X ).e. r(X ) = onstant = (suppose). Now.

2 F [X ℄.eld F and a polynomial f (X ) f (X ) an be fa tored linearly. there is an extension .

If f1 (X ) is not linear.eld of F over whi h Proof: Suppose f (X ) = f1 (X )f2 (X )    fl (X ) is the fa torization of F (X ) into irredu ible fa tors (not ne essarily distin t) over F . then F an be extended using f1 (X ) to (fF1 ([XX℄)) where f1 (X ) fa tors further (sin e it has a root in this extension .

over this . So.eld).

Continue with this pro ess with ea h irredu ible fa tor of degree more than one till one gets an extension . f (X ) fa tors further into smaller degree irredu ible fa tors.eld.

 Splitting .eld over whi h f (X ) an be fa tored into linear fa tors.

eld: The smallest extension .

eld of F over whi h f (X ) 2 F [X ℄ fa tors into linear fa tors is alled the splitting .

eld of f (X ). Proposition: If F is a .

eld of hara teristi p and . .

then ( + . 2 F .

)p = p + .

p . ( + . Proof: By binomial expansion.

)p = p p   X p i=0 i i .

p i Sin e p is a prime. Corrolary: If F is a . for i 6= 0. i is a multiple of p and so it is zero modulo p. p.

eld of hara teristi p and a0 . at ap0 + ap1 +    + apt .  then (a0 + a1 +    + at )p = Corrolary: If F is a . 2 F. a1 .    .

then f (X )p = Formal derivative: For a polynomial f (X ) = a0 + a1 X +    + at X t 2 F [X ℄. its formal derivative is de. 2 F [X ℄.eld of hara teristi p and f (X ) = a0 + a1 X +    + at X t ap0 + ap1 X p +    + apr X tp .

ned as f 0(X ) = a1 + 2a2 X +    + tat X t 1 . It an be proved that f (X ) has a multiple root in some extension .

Now we pro eed to prove the existen e of a .eld if and only if f (X ) and f 0 (X ) have a ommon fa tor over F .

nite .

eld of order pr for any prime p and positive r integer r. Let Fp denote the .

eld Zp and let L denote the splitting .

eld of the polynomial (X p 1 1). r r whi h is also the splitting .

Let S be the set of roots of (X p X ) in L. One an he k that S is a sub. Clearly. S n f0g is the set of roots of (X pr 1 1).eld of (X p X ).

an extension .eld of L (also. obviously.

eld of Fp ). 4 . We verify a few onditions here.

K. ) ( a) p r = ap = a ) a 2 S . S is a sub. b 2 S ) (ab)p = ap bp = ab ) ab 2 S . 1 The other onditions are trivial. b 2 S ) ap = a and bp = b ) (a + b)p = ap + bp = a + b ) a + b 2 S .EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. 1 2 S : Obvious Additive inverse: a 2 S ases: p = 2 and p 6= 2). r r r r r r r r Closed under multipli ation: a. So. (Che k the step ( 1)p = 1 for two r r Multipli ative inverse: a 2 S ) ap = a ) a r 1 pr = ap r  1 =a 1 ) a 2 S. 0. Dey Closed under addition: a.

eld of L. r So. This gives us a . So. X pr X and its formal derivative do not have any nontrivial ommon fa tor. Now. X p X does not have any multiple root and thus S has pr distin t elements. the formal derivative of X p X is pr X pr 1 1 = 1.

eld of order pr . r Examples of .

nite .

eld onstru tion Suppose. The elements of the . X 4 + X 2 + 1 = (X 2 + X + 1)2 is not irredu ible 4. X 4 + X 3 + X 2 + X + 1 is irredu ible. we want to onstru t F24 by extending F2 . We need an irredu ible binary polynomial of degree 4. X 4 + X 3 + 1 is irredu ible 3. 1. X 4 + X + 1 is irredu ible 2. Let us take f (X ) = X 4 + X + 1.

0 1 = 0 = X 0 =X 2 = X 2 3 = X 3 4 = X + 1 5 = X 2 + X 6 = X 3 + X 2 7 = X 3 + X + 1 8 = X 2 + 1 9 = X 3 + X 10 = X 2 + X + 1 11 = X 3 + X 2 + X 12 = X 3 + X 2 + X + 1 13 = X 3 + X 2 + 1 14 = X 3 + 1 The same an be he ked if the multipli ation is taken modulo X 4 + X 3 + 1. An element (like X in the above example) whi h generates all the nonzero elements of the .eld F24 are the binary polynomials of degree < 4. But all the nonzero elements are powers of X as shown below.

It an be shown that every .eld is alled a primitive element.

nite .

eld has a primitive element.e. if we take f (X ) = X 4 + X 3 + X 2 + X + 1. X 3 + X is a primitive element of the . then we observe the following: 0 5 = 1 0 0 1= =X =X 2 = X 2 3 = X 3 4 = X 3 + X 2 + X + 1 i. However. we an he k that all the elements are obtained as the power of X 3 + X . However. all the elements are not obtained as the power of X . So..

eld F24 onstru ted as F2 [X ℄ . (X 4 +X 3 +X 2 +X +1) Moni irredu ible polynomials like X 4 + X + 1 and X 4 + X 3 + 1 for whi h X is a primitive element 5 .

Dey are alled primitive polynomials. K. Polynomials Though we have been talking about polynomials. It an be shown that for any prime p and positive integer r.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. there is a primitive polynomial of degree r over Fp . let us de.

Let F be a .ne them formally here and explore the ni e properties they have.

Expressions of the form f (X ) = a0 + a1 X + a2 X 2 +    + an X n . where n is a nonzero integer and a0 . a2 . Addition and multipli ation are de.eld.    . a1 . an 2 F . are alled polynomials over F .

For any .ned in the usual way and is omitted here.

e. +) is an abelian group 2. i. the set of polynomials F [X ℄ has many ni e properties. (F [X ℄. a) If f (X ).eld F . under the natural polynomial addition and polynomial multipli ation. g(X ) 2 F [X ℄. then f (X )g(X ) 2 F [X ℄ b) 1 2 F [X ℄ satis.. it forms a ring. To start with. 1.

i.e.. Can you give an example of a ommutative ring whi h is not an integral domain? For a nonzero polynomial a0 + a1 X + a2 X 2 +    + an X n . where an 6= 0. i. that is. its degree is de. multipli ation is also ommutative in F [X ℄. Further. it is an integral domain. the produ t of two nonzero polynomials is again nonzero.es 1  f (X ) = f (X )  1 = f (X ) for all f (X ) 2 F [X ℄ ) multipli ation is asso iative 3.. Moreover.e. it is a ommutative ring. multipli ation distributes over addition. f (X )(g1 (X ) + g2 (X )) = f (X )g1 (X ) + f (X )g2 (X ) and (g1 (X ) + g2 (X ))f (X ) = g1 (X )f (X ) + g2 (X )f (X ).

The degree of the zero polynomial is de.ned to be n. and an is alled its leading oeÆ ient.

) Proof of this is by onstru tion: use Eu lid's algorithm for omputing g d and then onstru t a(X ) and b(X ) from the quotients obtained during the algorithm.ned to be 1. g(X ) 2 F [X ℄.e. i. r(X ) 2 F [X ℄ with deg(r(X )) < deg(g(X )) so that f (X ) = q(X )g(X ) + r(X ). Many of these properties are similar to that of Z. without assuming that Eu lid's 6 . For any f (X ). (Note that this is also true for Z. g(X )). then f (X ) and g(X ) are said to be relatively prime. For any f (X ). 1. If r(X ) = 0 then we say that g(X ) devides f (X ) and state the fa t as: g(X )jf (X ). g(X ) 2 F [X ℄. 2. the ommon moni divisor of smallest degree is alled their greatest ommon divisor (g d) and is denoted as g d(f (X ). g(X ) 6= 0. g(X ). Details: in lass. 9a(X ). g(X ) = 1. For f (X ). g(X ) 2 F [X ℄. F [X ℄ has many more interesting properties whi h are important for us.e. there exists unique q(X ). b(X ) 2 F [X ℄ su h that a(X )f (X )+b(X )g(X ) = g d(f (X ).. Try to prove this also without using Eu lid's algorithm (i. Hint: use the above property℄ If g d(f (X ). the g d is unique. A polynomial is said to be moni if its leading oeÆ ient is 1. [Prove that there is only one su h polynomial.

Dey algorithm works.) Hint: prove that g d(f (X ). b(X ) 2 F [X ℄g. K.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. g(X )) is the unique smallest degree moni polynomial in the set fa(X )f (X ) + b(X )g(X )ja(X ). Consequen es: If f (X ) and g(X ) are relatively prime then the above a(X ) satis.

3.    ..    . This gives another proof of existen e of multipli ative inverse of nonzero elements in (Fg([XX))℄ when g(X ) is irredu ible (similarly in Zp). it is an integral domain where every polynomial f (X ) an be fa tored in the form f1 1 (X )f2 2 (X )    ft t (X ).e. distin t irredu ible polynomials and 1 . i. F [X ℄ is also a unique fa torization domain. t are unique positive integers. where f1 (X ). ft (X ) are unique.es the ondition: a(X )f (X )  1 mod g(X ). 2 . Minimal polynomial and onjugates Let L be an extension . f2 (X ). upto permutation. Like Z.

b 2 L have the same minimal polynomial over F . then it does not have any onjugate. Consider F24 = (X F4 +2 [XX+1) as onstru ted above. Consider the extension C over R.eld of F and a 2 L. ℄ 2. C over R. One an he k that Y 4 + Y + 1 = (Y )(Y 2 )(Y 4 )(Y 8 ). We take the indeterminate Y to distinguish it 2. Y 4 + Y + 1 is the minimal polynomial of = X. We take the indeterminate Y to distinguish it from the symbol X used in the onstru tion of F24 . then they are alled onjugates of ea h other. The minimal polynomial of any 2 C is (X )(X  ) if ℄ as onstru ted above. Consider the extension 62 R. Clearly. Examples: 1. Examples: 1. If 2 R. If a. (Do you see some pattern here? That is not a oin iden e!!!) Let L be an extension . The smallest degree moni polynomial (if it exists) over F whi h has a as a root is alled the minimal polynomial of a over F . Consider F24 = (X F4 +2 [XX+1) from the symbol X used in the onstru tion of F24 . and (X ) if 2 R. The omplex onjugate of any 2 C is a onjugate if 62 R.

eld of F and a 2 L. 2. 2 G. The following properties are easy to prove: 1.. For any a. f (a) = 0 if and only if fa (X )jf (X ). b. fa (X ) is irredu ible over F . G is losed under the operation . b 2 G. a  b 2 G. Let fa (X ) be the minimal polynomial of a. i.  is asso iative: (a  b)  = a  (b  ) 8a. Then for any f (X ) 2 F [X ℄. Glimpse of Group Theory The pair (G. 7 . Existen e of identity element: 9e 2 G su h that e  a = a  e = a 8a 2 G. 2.e. ) of a set and an operation is alled a group if 1. 3.

for instan e. The set of n  n matri es over R It is a with determinant 1 forms a subgroup of the above group. The set of non-abelian group. aH  bH . they are not disjoint and 2 aH \ bH . H = aH = bH . Examples: 1. If it is denoted by +.e. 9b 2 G su h that a  b = b  a = e. R . i. and also the inverse of any element is unique. bH  aH .EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. 2 aH ) = ah2 for some h2 2 H ) = (bh 1 )h2 2 bH . we will show that either they are same or they are disjoint. So. Proof: b 2 aH =) b = ah for some h 2 H . or for any general operation whi h is not known to be ommutative. they are disjoint and their union is G. Suppose. So. C are groups under addition. it is often denoted by +. Lemma: If b 2 aH . Now. 5. for any two left osets aH and bH . For any a 2 G. The set of m  n matri es over R forms a group under matrix addition. 3. a  b is often written as simply ab and inverse of a is denoted as a 1 . They form a hain of subgroups of C . K.  The number of elements in a group is alled its order. Now. 2 bH ) = bh1 for some h1 2 H ) = ahh1 2 aH . Then by the previous lemma. Corollary: If G is a . Z. Subgroup: A subset H  G is alled a subgroup of G if it forms a group under the same operation. Existen e of inverse: for every a 2 G. 2. Now. So. then the identity element is denoted by 0 and inverse of a is denoted by a.  Proposition: The left osets of H in G form a partition of G. The set Q  = Q n f0g. 4. the set aH = fahjh 2 Gg is alled a left oset of H and Ha is alled a right oset of H . If G is abelian then both these are same and are simply alled a oset of H . Q . any element a of G is in a left oset aH of H . Dey 4. Proof: Obviously. then bH = aH . then it is written like multipli ation. Coset: Let H be a subgroup of G. One an show that the identity element is unique. R .. C  are groups under multipli ation invertible n  n matri es over R form a group under matrix multipli ation. b) If the operation  is not ommutative. the union of the left osets of H is G. Some onventions: a) If the operation  is ommutative.

For any element a 2 G and n 2 Z. de. then jH j divides jGj.nite group and H is a subgroup.

ne aa    a(n times ) an = (a 1 )(a 1 )    (a 1 ) ( n times) e ( 8 if n > 0 if n < 0 if n = 0 (2) .

Dey Cy li subgroup: If G an be written as fai ji 2 Zg for some a 2 G then G is alled a y li group generated by a. Examples: Z. one an he k that for any a 2 G. Zn (for any positive integer n) In general.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. the set hai = fai ji 2 Zg forms a subgroup of G and it is alled the y li subgroup generated by a. If this subgroup is . K.

Clearly.nite. any subgroup of a y li group is also y li (proof?). are y li subgroups of Z. 3Z. for an element a 2 G of . et . In fa t. then its order is also alled the order of the element a and is denoted by ord(a). Examples: 2Z.

   .nite order ord(a) = n. Sin e the order of any subgroup divides the order of the group. 1 g. Proposition: If G is a . a. we have. a2 . an and an = e. hai an be written as fe.

a(n=d 1)d g is a subgroup of order n=d. and is alled the Euler's fun tion. i. n) denotes the g d of i and n. where (i.    .n) . G is y li if and only if for every djn. ng for whi h (i. ai has the order n=(i. a2d . the number of generators of a y li group of order n is (n) where (n) is the number of integers i 2 f1.nite group and a 2 G. The last inequality follows sin e there is at most 9 . So. and also for every positive integer djn. n). 4. we an see that ai generates G if and only if (i. there is at most one y li subgroup order d. 2. In fa t.    .. ad . onsider a y li group G of order n and note that every element in G generates a y li group or some order dividing n. So. every element is a generator of a unique y li subgroup of G. From 2. So. n= X djn (d) Proposition: Let G be a group of order n. If G = hai is order n and djn.e. this is true only if G is y li . we have. we have. there are (d) generators of the y li subgroup of order d. 3. ord(G) =  X H : y li subgroup X djn (d) jgen(H )j (3) where gen(H ) denotes the set of generators of H . n) = 1. Sin e every element generates a y li subgroup. then aordG = e. 2. this is the only subgroup of this order. as stated in a later proposition. only the reverse impli ation is left to be proved. One an also he k (prove) that the subgroup generated by ai is the same as that generated by a(i. Also. Proof: In light of result 1 above. Now. then had i = fe. Some results easy to prove: 1. n) = 1.

the last inequality is satis. we also know djn (d) = n = ord(G). K. Dey P one y li subgroup of order d.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. So. Now.

Ba k to .ed with equality. In parti ular. whi h an happen if there is exa tly one y li subgroup of order d for ea h djn. taking d = n gives the desired result.

nite .

elds: For any .

Using the last proposition on groups. we get. the multipli ative group F n fog is denoted by F . For any .eld F .

. 2 Fq .

there exists a . all the nonzero elements of Fq are roots of the polynomial X q 1 1. the elements of Fq are the roots of the polynomial X q X . So. and onsidering the degree of the polynomial. q 1 = 1. So. they are the only roots of this polynomial. Re all that this was also shown before while proving that for any prime power.

nite .

So. Lemma: If L is an extension . we have.eld of that order.

eld of Fq and .

2 F . then .

. 2 F .

q = .

Take any dj(q 1). sin e they are in a subgroup of order d.. But H1 [ H2 has more than d elements : ontradi tion. Proposition: The mutipli ative group Fq is y li Proof: The order of Fq is q 1. This proposition shows that every . All elements of H1 [ H2 are roots of the polynomial X d 1. We will show that there is at most one y li subgroup of order d. Then the result will follow from a previous proposition. Suppose there are two y li subgroups H1 and H2 of order d.

nite .

eld has a primitive element. De-mistifying onjugates: If Fqr is an extension .

eld of Fq and .

then we want to . 2 Fqr .

nd the Fq - onjugates of .

. Lemma: .

q is a onjugate of .

Proof: Let f. .

(X ) 2 Fq [X ℄ be the minimal polynomial of .

. f.

(.

q ) = (f.

(.

))q = 0. Suppose r is the smallest positive integer su h that .

q = .

r n Proposition: . .

. .

q . .    .

q r 1 o are the onjugates of .

. f. i.e. .

(X ) = Proof: By the lemma. .

..

.    . q .

q Qr .

i=0 (X i 1 are all roots of f. q ).

e. i.. they are onjugates of . (X ).

But we need to show that there are no other onjugate of . .

we need show that the oeÆ ients Q Q i i of the polynomial f (X ) = ir=01 (X . . Equivalently.

be ause. then it means that ir=01 (X . q ) are in Fq .

q ) is the minimum degree moni polynomial over Fq having .

as a root. Q r 1 Q Suppose f (X ) = ir=01 (X .

Then (f (X ))q = ir=01 (X q . q ) = b0 + b1 X +    + br X r .

q ) = Qr 1 q .

b0 + b1 X q +    + br X qr = f (X q ) = (f (X ))q = (b0 + b1 X +    + br X r )q = i=0 (X bq0 + bq1 X q +    + bqr X qr . So. b1 . b1 = bq1 . br = bqr ) b0 . n . br 2 Fq .    . qi ) = f (X q ).    . So. b0 = bq0 .

..

. q .    .

q r 1 o i (i+1) is alled the Fq - onjuga y lass of .

. and is denoted as [.

Examples: Let us onsider the extension . ℄q .

2 .    . .eld F16 = f0. 1. The onjuga y lasses are: 10 . 14 g over F2 .

8 g [ 3 ℄2 = f 3 . 4 . 12 . K.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. Dey [0℄2 = f0g [1℄2 = f1g [ ℄2 = f . 13 . 2 . 10 g [ 7 ℄2 = f 7 . 9 g [ 5 ℄2 = f 5 . 14 . 11 g Note that F4 is also a sub. 6 .

eld of F16 and so we an talk about the F4 - onjuga y lasses of elements of F16 . If .

say f. 2 F16 . then its minimal polynomial.

(X ) over F4 is also a polynomial over F2 with a root .

. and so it divides the minimal polynomial. say g.

the F4 - onjuga y lass of . (X ) over F2 . So.

is a subset of the F2 - onjuga y lass of .

whose proofs are left as exer ise. B. The following results. X p r D. will give us insight about these polynomials. 1. Let r and m be two positive integers and let p be a prime. . There is an element of order n in Fpm . Suppose q = pm is a prime power and n is relatively prime to q. A. 11 . 4 g [ 2 ℄2 = f 2 . prove that the following are equivalent. 12 g [ 6 ℄2 = f 6 . 11 g Polynomials of the form X n 1 are of spe ial interest to us. X p r 1 1. X n 1. n divides pm C. r divides m. 1 divides X p m X divides X p m 1 1. 2. The roots of X n 1 are alled the n-th roots of unity for obvious reason. B. 8 g [ 3 ℄2 = f 3 . The F4 - onjuga y lasses in F16 are: [0℄2 = f0g [1℄2 = f1g [ ℄2 = f . Prove that there exists a positive integer r su h that nj(qr 1). 9 g [ 5 ℄2 = f 5 g [ 10 ℄2 = f 10 g [ 7 ℄2 = f 7 . Prove that the following are equivalent. 3. 13 g [ 14 ℄2 = f 14 . pr 1 divides pm C. X. A. For any positive integers m and n and a prime p. 1 divides X p m 1 1.

Fpr is a sub.EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B. Dey E. K.

4. (i) If n is relatively prime to p then prove that X n 1 2 Fp [X ℄ has distin t roots in the splitting .eld of Fpm .

eld. Prove that the splitting . (Hint: use formal derivative).

(ii) If n = tpl where t is relatively prime to p.eld of X n 1 is Fpm if m is the smallest positive integer su h that nj(pm 1). then what an you say about multipli ity of roots of X n 1? (ii) Take p = 2 and n = 51 and .

nd the smallest extension .

eld of F2 where there is an element of order n. Con lude that this is also the splitting.

then (X n 1) = (X t 1)p . p) = 1.eld of X 51 1. X t 1 has t distin t simple roots and the roots of X n 1 are the same as the roots of X t 1 and ea h is of multipli ity pl . the hara teristi of the . where (t. If n is of the form tpl . we will onsider n to be relatively prime to p. Hen eforth.

the q- y lotomi oset modulo n of i is de. l Cy lotomi oset: For any i 2 f0.    . n 1g.eld. 1.

iqr 1 g where r is the smallest positive integer su h that iqr  i (mod n). n 1℄.    . 6. iq2 .ned as [i℄nq = fi. the 2- y lotomi osets modulo 7 are: [0℄72 = f0g [1℄72 = f1. 4g [3℄72 = f3. and so [i℄nq  [0. Here every element is taken modulo n. Then the splitting . iq. 2. then let r be the smallest positive integer su h that nj(qr 1). 5g If n is relatively prime to q = pm . For example.

the roots of X n 1 form a y li subgroup.eld of X n 1 2 Fq [X ℄ is Fqr . Sin e every subgroup of a y li group is also y li . The roots of X n 1 learly forms a subgroup of Fqr . Suppose .

. is a generator of that group. The roots of X n 1 are f1.

. .

. 2 .    .

g ! f . If we onstru t F8 as (Y 3F+2Y[Y2℄+1) . . Irredu ible fa tor X 1 ! X3 + X2 + 1 ! X3 + X + 1 ! Conjuga y lass f1g ! f . the onjuga y lasses in the set f1. then Y is a primitive element of F8 . 6 g and the 2- y lotomi osets (or the binary y lotomi osets) modulo 7 have one-one orresponden es as following. n 1 g. 2 . g ! 2 3 4 6 5 12 Cy lotomi oset f0g f1. 4g f3. For example. The irredu ible fa tors of X 7 1. 2. onsider n = 7. The polynomial X 7 X 7 1 = (X 1 fa torizes as 1)(X 3 + X 2 + 1)(X 3 + X + 1) (4) The roots of X 7 1 are all the nonzero elements of F8 . q = 2.    . Then r = 3. 6. = Y. The onjuga y lasses of the elements in this set forms a partition of this set and ea h onjuga y lass is the set of roots of an irredu ible fa tor of X n 1. 5g . .

K. R. Lidl and H. Niederreiter. Dey Referen e books: 1. \Introdu tion to .EE 605: Error Corre ting Codes IIT-Bombay Instru tor: B.

nite .

elds and their appli ations. R. \Finite ." Cambridge : Cambridge Univiversity Press. 1986 2. Niederreiter. Lidl and H.

1997 3. Herstein. \Topi s in Algebra" 4.elds. 13 ." Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. All the books on oding theory mentioned in the ourse web page.