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Mariz Joy R.

Macarilay BSA-2G July 12, 2012


Questions: 1. Define Motivation. 2. What are the two types of motivation? 3. Explain and know the ff. theoriews of motivation: a) Maslows Hierarchy of needs b) Theory X and Y c) Frederick henry of Motivation d) David Mcclelland Theory 4. What are the effects of motivation? Answer: 1. Motivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. Motivation is literally the desire to do things. Motivation is the force that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes us to take action, whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological, social, emotional or cognitive in nature.

2. TWO TYPES OF MOTIVATION a. Positive Motivation is a type of motivate that is given to the employees to encourage them to work. i. ii. iii. iv. Promotion Merit, reward or recognition Friendly co-workers Increase to salaries or wages

v.

Good working condition

b. Negative Motivation- is a type of motivation that is given to the employees to correct them their wrong doings. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Demotion Decrease in salary or wages Suspension Termination Lay-off

3. a.) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow (1908 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work. When motivation theory is being considered the first theory that is being recalled is Maslows hierarchy of needs which he has introduced in his 1943 article named as A Theory of Human Motivation. According to this theory, individual strives to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled. Once a lower-level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a source of motivation. In the first level, physiological needs exist which include the most basic needs for humans to survive, such as air, water and food.

In the second level, safety needs exist which include personal security, health, well-being and safety against accidents remain. In the third level, belonging needs exit. This is where people need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. It is about relationships, families and friendship. Organizations fulfill this need for people. In the fourth level, self-esteem needs remain. This is where people looks to be respected and to have self-respect. Achievement needs, respect of others are in this level. In the top-level, self-actualization needs exist. This level of need pertains to realising the persons full potential.

b.)Theory of X and Y In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management's role is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm. Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person:

Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it. Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead. Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals. Resists change. Is gullible and not particularly intelligent.

Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. Theory X - The Hard Approach and Soft Approach Under Theory X, management approaches can range from a hard approach to a soft approach. The hard approach relies on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls, essentially an environment of command and control. The soft appoach is to be permissive and seek harmony with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so. However, neither of these extremes is optimal. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low-output, and hard-line union demands. The soft approach results in ever-increasing requests for more rewards in exchange for ever-decreasing work output. The optimal management approach under Theory X probably would be somewhere between these extremes. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate because the assumptions of Theory X are not correct.

Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions:

Work can be as natural as play and rest. People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.

Under these assumptions, there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee's own quest for fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. Theory Y Management Implications If Theory Y holds, the firm can do many things to harness the motivational energy of its employees:

Decentralization and Delegation - If firms decentralize control and reduce the number of levels of management, each manager will have more subordinates and consequently will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision making to them. Job Enlargement - Broadening the scope of an employee's job adds variety and opportunities to satisfy ego needs. Participative Management - Consulting employees in the decision making process taps their creative capacity and provides them with some control over their work environment. Performance Appraisals - Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met.

If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. c.) Frederick Herzberg Theory Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygienefactors)

Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are factors which surround the job rather than the job itself. For example a worker will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there. Importantly Herzberg viewed pay as a hygiene factor which is in direct contrast to Taylor who viewed pay, and piece-rate in particular Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: Job enlargement workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting. Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life. American David Clarence McClelland (1917-98) achieved his doctorate in psychology at Yale in 1941 and became professor at Wesleyan University. He then taught and lectured, including a spell at Harvard from 1956, where with colleagues for twenty years he studied particularly motivation and the achievement need. He began his McBer consultancy in 1963, helping industry assess and train staff, and later taught at Boston University, from 1987 until his death. McClelland is chiefly known for his work on achievement motivation, but his research interests extended to personality and consciousness. David McClelland pioneered workplace motivational thinking, developing achievement-based motivational theory and models, and promoted improvements in employee assessment methods, advocating competency-based assessments and tests, arguing them to be better than traditional IQ and personality-based tests. His ideas have since been widely adopted in many organisations, and relate closely to the theory of Frederick Herzberg. David McClelland is most noted for describing three types of motivational need, which he identified in his 1961 book, The Achieving Society:

achievement motivation (n-ach) authority/power motivation (n-pow) affiliation motivation (n-affil)

d.) David Mcclelland Theory in his 1961 book named as The Achieving Society, David McClelland identified three basic needs that people develop and acquire from their life experiences .

Needs for achievement: The persons who have a high need for achievement seeks achievement and tries to attain challenging goals. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. The person who have a high achievement need likes to take personal responsibility. Needs for affiliation: The persons who have a high need for affiliation needs harmonious relationships with people and needs to be accepted by other people. (People-oriented rather than task-oriented). Needs for power: The person who have a need for power wants to direct and command other people. Most managers have a high need for power.

4. Effects of Motivation i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.


xi.

xii.

Directs behavior toward a particular goal Tend to increase effort and energy Increases motivation of persistence in actuivities Affects cognitive processes Determines which consequences are reinforcing and punishing Often enhances performance Employees who are sufficiently motivated moved in an act to follow direction desired by management They achieve high out in providing good quality product and services They willingly responds to change/s have been previously explained to and understand by them is that proper timing is provided to adjust them to some changes They are more careful in the use of machines/equipments to avoid accidents minimizes losses and waste They willingly responds in times a during such period or occasions requiring special skills effort on the like. That with motivated employees, the problem of discipline is minimize.