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BANDHANI

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.History

2. REGIONS
2.1.Rajasthan 2.2.Gujarat 2.3.UttarPradesh

3.PRODUCERCOMMUNITIES 4.RAWMATERIALS
4.1.RateandSpecification 4.2.PopularDyesUsedinBandhani
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4.2.1.Vatdyes 4.2.2.Directdyes 4.2.3.Naptholdyes 4.2.4.Prociondyes

5.TOOLS 6.PROCESS 7.MARKET 8.CHANGESINTHERECENTYEARS 9.BIBLIOGRAPHY


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1.Introduction
The art of Bandhani is highly skilled process. The technique involves dyeing a fabric whichistiedtightlywithathreadatseveralpoints,thusproducingavarietyofpatterns likeLeheriya,Mothra,EkdaliandShikaridependingonthemannerinwhichtheclothis tied. 1.1History Different forms of tie and dye have been practiced in India. Indian Bandhani, a traditional form of tie and dye, began about 5000 years ago. Also known as Bandhni and Bandhej, it is the oldest tie and dye tradition that is still practiced. Dyes were discovered by primitive man/womanin the form ofextractsof variousplants, flowers, leaves,bark,etc.,whichwereappliedtoclothandotherfabrics.Eventhoughcolorwas applied theydidn'tconsider this dyeing. It was simply a form of embellishment.What wasconsidereddyeingwastheartofusingcolortoformapermanentbondwithfiberin aprepareddyebath.Ancientartistsdiscoveredthatsomedyesdissolvedandgavetheir colorreadilytowater,formingasolutionwhichwaseasilyabsorbedbythefabric.Herbs and plants like turmeric and indigo were crushed to a fine powder and dissolved in watersothatcottonmaterialcouldbedyedintodeepcolours.Thesecolourshavebeen usedinIndiasinceancienttimesandareconsideredtobetheoriginoftheartofdyeing. Throughout Asia, India and the Far East, traders packed tie and dye cloths as part of theirmerchandise. Bandhani was introduced in Jamnagar when the city was founded 400 years ago. Bandhani fabrics reign supreme in Rajasthan and Gujarat which are home to an astoundingvarietyoftraditionalcrafts.Centuryoldskillscontinuetoproducesomeof the most artistic and exciting wares in these two states and are popular all over the world. Rajasthan is a land of vibrant colors. Thesecolors are a striking part of the life thereandarefoundinthebustlingbazaars,infairsandfestivals,inthecostumesworn andinthetraditionalpaintingsandmurals.

2.Regions
TheartofBandhaniispracticedwidelyinRajasthan,withBarmer,Jaipur,Sikar,Jodhpur, Pali Udaipur, Nathdwara and Bikaner being the main centers. Bandhani comes in a variety of designs, colors and motifs and these variations are regionspecific. Each districthasitsowndistinctmethodofBandhaniwhichmakesthepatternrecognizable andgivesitadifferentname. Thecenters oftie and dye fabricsin Gujarat areJamnagar in Saurashtra(the water in this area brings out the brightest red while dyeing) and Ahmedabad. The craftsmen fromRajasthanareeasilyrecognizedbecausetheygrowthenailoftheirlittlefingeror wear a small metal ring with a point to facilitate the lifting of cloth for tying. The 3

Gujaraticraftsmen,however,prefertoworkwithouttheseaidsasnodamageisdoneto theclothwhenoneworkswithbarehands.TheBandhaniregionsare 2.1Rajasthan MarwarJodhpur MewarUdaipur ShekhawatiSikar,Jhunjhunu,Churu 2.2Gujarat Jamnagar Bhuj Mandavi 2.3UttarPradesh Farukabad

3.ProducerCommunities
Itisdifficulttotracetheoriginsofthiscrafttoanyparticulararea.Accordingtosome references it first developed in Jaipur in the form of Leheriya. But it is also widely believed that it was brought to Kutch from Sindh by Muslim Khatris who are still the largestcommunityinvolvedinthecraft.
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4.RawMaterials
The fabrics used for Bandhani are muslin, handloom, silk or voile (80/100 or 100/120 count preferably in voile). Traditionally vegetable dyes were used but today chemical dyesarebecomingverypopular.Varioussyntheticfabricsarealsohighlyindemand.For tyingknotsmostlysyntheticthreadisusedonthefabric. ThedominantcolorsinBandhaniarebrightlikeyellow,red,greenandpink.Maroonis also an alltime favorite. But with changing times, as Bandhani has become a part of fashion, various pastel colors and shades are being used. The Bandhani fabric is sold
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withthepointsstilltiedandthesizeandintricacyofthedesignvariesaccordingtothe regionanddemand. Bandhani forms the basic pattern on the fabric which is decorated further by various embroideries. Aari and gota work are traditional embroideries done in zari and are popularwithBandhani.ThesedaysalotofornamentationisdoneonBandhanifabricto makeitdressyandglitteryforceremonialoccasions.
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4.1RatecottonCottonusedinfabriccostsanywherebetweenRs2056permeter. DyesVatdyesarethemostexpensiveandcostRs15003500perkilogram DirectdyescostRs90250perkilogram NaptholdyescostRs200400perkilogram ProciondyescostRs100250perkilogram (AllratesareasperSeptember04basedinformation)


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4.2PopularDyesUsedinBandhani

4.2.1Vatdyes:Vatdyesareanancientclassofdyesbasedontheoriginalnaturaldye, indigo, which is now produced synthetically. Both cotton and wool, as well as other fibers,canbedyedwithvatdyes. 'Vat dyeing' means dyeing in a bucket or vat. It can be done whenever a solid, even shade, i.e., the same color over the entire garment, is wanted. It can be done using almost anydye,including fiber reactivedye, direct dye, aciddye,etc.Theopposite of vatdyeingisdirectdyeapplication,forexample,tieanddye. 4.2.2Directdyes:Alsoknownashotwaterdyes,directdyescanbeusedwithhotwater and require no binding or exhausting agents. They are convenient but lack in color fastnessandwashfastness.Theyareusedoncotton,wool,silkandnylon.Thecolorsof direct dyes are duller than those provided by reactive dyes. They can be found in powder form as well as in the form of a liquid concentrate. They do not require any formoffixing. 4.2.3 Napthol dyes: These are two sets of chemicals which, upon reaction, produce a third chemical, essentially colorful in nature. The fabric is dyed with one and later printed with the other. The chemical reaction produces a third color. However, the biggestdrawbackofthisprocessisthattherearejustafewchemicalsavailablewhich producecolorsuponreaction.

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4.2.4 Procion dyes: Procion fiber reactive dyes are specially formulated for cellulose fiberslikecotton,linenandrayon.Theyalsoworkwellonsilk.Theyareconsidered'cold water'dyes.Thesedyesmakefabricsgreatforsolardyeing,tieanddyeandbatik.As fortheauxiliarychemicals,allyouneedissaltandsodaash.Synthrapolisoptionalbut veryhelpfulforrinsingoutexcessdye.Procionfiberreactivedyescanalsobeusedon proteinfibersbutdifferentauxiliariesareneededandthedyebathmustbesimmered.

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5.Tools
InsomeplacesinRajasthanthecraftsmenwearametalringwithaprotrudedpointto facilitatetheliftingofclothfortying.
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6.Process
Theprocess,thoughrelativelysimple,isverytimeconsuming.Thetyingofthefabricis mostlycarriedoutbywomenoryounggirls. Thematerialgenerallyusedisathinlooselywovensilkknownasgeorgetteoracotton knownasmalmal.

[Photograph1:Whitemalmalonlehriyafabric]

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Theareaofthefabrictobedyedisoutlinedusingfugitivecolors.Thenaclearthinsheet ofplastic,whichhasbeenpiercedwithpinholes,iskeptoverthisareaofthefabricand usingfugitivecoloursanimprintofthedesiredpatternistransferredontothefabric.

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[Photograph2&3:Aplasticdesigntrace] Thecraftspersonthenpullsonasmallareaofthefabricwhereeachisplacedandwinds threadtightlyaroundtheprotrudingclothtoformaknotorbhindi.Thethreadgenerally usedisnylonthread.

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[Photograph4:Requiredpatternonwhitemalmalfabric]

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[Photograph5:Tyingknots] Aftertyingtheknotsthefabricisthoroughlywashedtoremovetheimprint. Theclothisthendippedinnaptholforfiveminutesanddyedinyelloworanotherlight colorfortwominutes.

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[Photograph6&7:Initialtyingbeingcompleted]

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Nextitisrinsed,squeezed,driedandthentiedagainanddippedinadarkercolor.Thisis keptforthreetofourhours(withoutopeningtheknots)toallowthecolortosoakin. Duringthisprocessthesmallareabeneaththethreadresiststhedyeleavinganundyed dot. This is usually carried out in several stages starting with a light color like yellow, thenaftertyingsomemoreknotsadarkercolorisusedandsoon. Afterthelastdyeingprocesshasbeencompletedthefabriciswashedandifnecessary, starched.Afterthefabricisdried,itsfoldsarepulledapartinaparticularwayreleasing theknotsandrevealingtheirpattern.Theresultisausuallydeepcoloredclothwithdots ofvariouscoloursformingapattern.
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[Photographs8&9:AreadyBandhinicloth] Veryelaboratemotifsaremade,intieanddyework.Theseincludeflowers,creepers, bellsandjalas.Knotsareplacedinclusterseachwithadifferentname,forexample,a single dot is called Ekdali, three knots is called Trikunti and four knots is called Chaubundi. Such clusters are worked intricately into patterns such as Shikargah (mountainlike),Jaaldar(weblike),Beldaar(vinelike)etc. RajasthaniswellknownforitsLeheriyapatternorpatternofwaves,whichsymbolizes waterwaves.Onlytwocolorsareusedwhichalternateeachotherinapatternofstripes arrangeddiagonally.Originally,thetwocolorsusedweretheauspiciouscolorsofyellow and red. Turbans, odhnis and saris with the leheriya pattern are liked and worn all aroundyearbutcarryaspecialmeaningonandaroundthetimeoftheTeejfestivaland monsoon.

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[Photograph10:Aleheriya] 10

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[Photograph11&12:Showingleheriyatieddiagonallybeingdipped]

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[Photograph13:Showingpatternofstripesarrangeddiagonally] InBandhani,differentcolorsconveydifferentmeanings.Whileredrepresentsabride,a yellow background suggests a lady has become a mother recently. Some of the most common designs are dungarshahi or the mountainpattern, boond that results in a smalldotwithadarkcentre,tearshapedkodi,andtheladdujalebiortheswirling.In Tikunthi,circlesandsquaresappearinagroupofthree,inChaubasiingroupsoffour andinSatbandiingroupsofseven.(Boondisadotwithadarkcentreandekdalijusta dot ) Also different printers can call same design different names. Some names have becomefamousandsomeareusedforreferencereasonswiththedyersandprinters). 11

7.Market
BandhaniisbeingsoldalloverIndiaandthedemandhasincreasedoverthepastfew decades.Sales go up during the festiveand wedding seasonsin India. The bulk ofthe market is domestic with the main market being in Gujarat where most women wear Bandhanisaris,shawlsorodhnis.Theodhnisarealsodecoratedwithmirrors,gotaand tassels to give it a richer and more decorative look. However, with the advent of the cheaperprocessofsilkscreenprinting,manyofthepoorerwomenwearprintedcloth withaBandhanidesign.

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8.ChangesintheRecentYears
Today, designers are using Bandhani fabric for contemporary clothing and it is being usedtorepresentIndiaintheinternationalcircuit.Newcolorsandpatternsarebeing usedtocatertoawidermarket,thoughtraditionalred,yellowandpinkstillcontinueto bethealltimefavorites!
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9.Bibliography
1. http://www.indianwomenonline.com/womenhome/indianmosaic/textiles/Bandh ani/Bandhani.asp 2. www.greatvistachemicals.com 3. http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/fiberreactive.shtml 4. http://www.pburch.net/dyeing/FAQ/history_tiedye.shtml InformationinthisnotealsobasedonprimaryinterviewswithBandhaniprintersand dyersandfieldvisitstoprintingsites.
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