The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness

1

Błażej Balewski, PhD HR Department WSzK ŁódźUniversity

THE MEASURES OF THE ACTIVE FORMS OF UNEMPLOYMENT COUNTERACTION EFFECTIVENESS
Abstract It is widely accepted and acknowledged fact that economic policy, including labour market policy, is used to obtain social goals on the basis of the accurate handling of economic rules. Therefore, one of the tasks of the mentioned policy is to create the optimal use of work resources, and consequently, to increase the level of the life standards. These actions, especially the ones taken within the confines of the employment policy, should be characterized by economic effectiveness i.e. making the actions more economical or more efficient. Economic efficiency has a great significance in running active employment policy, as it is not a formal social aid, but it is a form of an activity established as registered unemployment resource. This resource is determined by the unemployment whose category is both economical and social. Considering the economical dimension of unemployment phenomenon, the active counteraction should be dependent on the estimation of factors determining the value of the presumed indicators. The analysis of costs and results of the active labour market policy implies that valid ratios are not fully adaptive to measure the effectiveness of the policy mentioned above. Therefore, there is a need to create a new formula of a labour market policy effectiveness that will allow us to make the unemployment counteraction more efficient or economical. The formula in question should be the basis to further research to determine the active labour market policy Key words: unemployment, government policy, unemployment counteraction, effectiveness,market policy The reasons of government intervention in the labour market The analysis of basic macroeconomical ratios, illustrating the phenomena and economic processes, portrays Polish labour market with consideration to time of constitutional transformation. It is affirmed that economical processes mentioned above proceed incompatibly to the ones characterized by the market economy, despite of the adequate law regulations. The phenomena in question are present constantly or in systematically appearing periods. The research dilemma is the attempt to indicate the alternate areas, to find the reasons of differences and to define regularities. The classical, widely used standard is inversely proportional dependency of the change of the level of GDP per capita and the change of the unemployment ratio. The GDP per capita measures the level of wellness and economical activity. The GDP growth determines the limiting of the market pathology and causes downgrade of unemployment ratio. Graph 1. Relations between the weighted average Graph 2. Relations between the

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 The coefficient of the absorption 0. p. Kabaj M..6 0. (1997) p. These reasons lead to the 1 Glikman P. in conditions of Polish transformational economy.2 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness Δ GDP per capita and the weighted average Δ of total number of the unemployed in 1999-2000 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 Lata weighted average Δ GDP per capita and weighted average Δ of the longterm unemployed in 1999-2000 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 Lata 420000 400000 380000 360000 340000 320000 300000 1999 2000 2001 Weighted average Δ PKB per capita Weighted average Δ the unemployed total 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1999 2000 2001 Weighted average Δ PKB per capita Weighted average Δ longterm un. It is possible only while focusing on the constant demand strategy i.Muszkiet T. Poznań 2003. The coefficient of the absorption of employment in Poland in the transformation period.67 -0. Table 1.. (eds. Ref.59 0.3 of employment Ref: Jarmołowicz W. Graph 3. Relations between the share of current turnover deficit in GDP and the level of inflation (in %) an Wb value The inflation level in % The value of the current turnover deficit in % Graph 4.96 The coefficient of absorption indicates positive values only when the growth of the economy is above 5%.) Rynek pracy w warunkach zmian ustrojowych.46 -0..e.: Own study on the basis of GUS Poland The fall of unemployment should be determined by the absorption of unemployment resource through the development of market and by the exchange processes appearing on the market1.55 -1.25 0. are both the low level of both domestic savings and capital.37 0.: Own study on the basis of GUS and NBP The impediments to lead such kind of politics. by using fiscal and monetary instruments of internal consumptive demand.32 0.19 0.166 Unemployment coefficient . Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu. Relations between domestic demand an the unemployment coefficient Domestic demand 170 160 150 140 130 20 15 10 5 0 20 15 10 5 0 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 ______ Domestic demand _______ Wb ______Turnover deficit 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 _____ Inflation _______ Wb unemployment coefficient Ref.00 -0.63 -1.

5 Value TUP 1. work efficiency.6 2. 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 % Wb 13.k. similarly to the changes in the pace of the efficiency of work.5 % e.9 103.1 17. in consequence.9 6.: Own study on the basis of GUS The neoclassical approach underlines that the level of unemployment refers to the value of real salary. Tab.9 3. In the transformed Polish economy there is a different situation.6 4.4 1.4 3.p.4 106.: Own study on the basis of NPB data There is a similar growth of the unemployment resource despite of the observed decreasing value of the property per one employee. Referring to Philip’s curve.96 . Graph 5. the further growth of the coefficient of unemployment. As if the efficiency of work grows as the reason of the reduction of employment. determines the growth of demand and. parallel to that.3 Ref. It is said that there is an equilibrium point between the work demand and the supply. That point is the rate of the real salary. the positive tendencies appear in the size of sale. with simultaneous occurrence in the size of sale positive tendencies. Average inflation year to year in % 20 15 10 5 0 1999 2000 2001 The unemployment coefficient value The unemployment coefficient value Ref.2 106.5 % change Wp 3. 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 Inflation aver. In years 2000-2001 r. w GDP 1. the growth of unemployment.7 5. It does not meet the rule mentioned above.4 6. Basic macroeconomic data referring to unemployment rate. In years 1996-1997 there was the fall of the value of employment ratio as well as simultaneous growth of work efficiency. influences a decrease in the supply of unemployment.8 4 % p.9 6. it is generally accepted that there is a short term inversely proportional tendency between the change of inflation’s rate and the unemployment coefficient. In the approach underlined by the neoclassical school of macroeconomics the level of supply of unemployment is related to the changes in efficiency of work as well as to the changes in technical armament of work.2. the more people are 2 Jarmołowicz W.2 10.6 104. Relation of inflation’s rate and the unemployment coefficient. and. at the same time. or this growth is caused by the increase of sale in a given branch also. then the fall of efficiency of work. similar reports of export and the national demand met the fall of efficiency and. The down-grade of the value of technical armament of work illustrates the creation cost of one position of work in a given branch.1 5.2 6.1 15. in GDP 101.9 6.n.6 1. The bigger the real salary is.3 5.4 13. it causes also a decrease in the resource of unemployment if.3 10.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 3 appearance of so called “supply barrier” that causes the growth of the level of inflation and a significant deficit in current turns2.3 105. the value of technical armament of work and domestic demand and export shares in GDP. (2003).

The unemployed referring to time of unemployment time in months. the change of work efficiency and the change of unemployment rate. The conclusion is that there exists a negative shock of the general work activity and unemployment domination. The dependence between rate of real payment and unemployment ratio 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Average monthly real incomes ( 1992 = 100) Real income indicator 1992=100 20 15 10 5 0 Unemployment coefficient Ref. Relation of the unemployment ratio in Wielkopolska and the value of rate of vacancy (The Beveridge curve). Graph 7. Yet.2 0 Unemployment ratio in Wielkopolska Ref. Graph 6. although it causes the fall of the real salary anyway. It does not comply with the assumptions of neoclassical approach (about dependence of changes of the real payment ratio and unemployment rate). June 2000 The value of rate of free positions of jobs in % 20 1 The value of unemployment coefficient .4 0.8 0.4 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness willing to work.6 0.: Own study on the basis of GUS According to the analysis mentioned above. Graph 8. Average inflation year to year % 15 10 5 0 1999 2000 2001 The rate of jobs 0.: Own study on the basis of GUS That surplus mentioned above is particularly observed in the number of the long-time unemployed and in the relation of change between general number of the unemployed and the longtime ones. It is impossible to notice the inverse proportional relation between the change of GDP per capita. which is related to global surplus of work supply. The phenomenon described by the Philip’s formula cannot be also observed. it is justified to state that there are not classical relations during the process of economical transformation. the constant or periodically presented classical form of directly proportional equation (y = ax) can be observed.

(2003). In this group the growths are not correlated.. Jarmołowicz W. it involves being isolated from the rest of community.. Sztanderska U. Warszawa . Marks K. Fischer S. As a consequence. The inverse relation is also present. Yet later. The long-time unemployment3 characterises the special pace of quantitative changes.2.27 5 The transformational structural unemployment is the economy phenomena determined directly by the transformational processes. Systematic. (2003). which is widely used in the production process. The only exception is the group of the unemployed from one to two years. (1983).Engels F. The positive change of general resource was determined by the down-grade of the number of over two-year unemployed..1951. that the down-grade of the number of the chronically unemployed is much slower than the general one. in the 3 The longtime unemployment /chronic unemployment/ means to be unemployed over 12 months.. Warszawa. This kind of unemployment depends. The rate and range of the unemployed number over one year and over two years with reference to the general number of unemployment are not homogeneous. and also many social detriments for the unemployed.. p. The unemployment type that existed in Poland in the transformation time is mainly structural4 or transformational5. Katechizm Jan Paweł II.. The growth of general unemployed resource tendency is projected on the tendency of the long-term unemployed resource. (1993)_.66 4 The structural unemployment – stricte – it is the unemployment caused by the sructural changes in the economy. Dornbusch R. constant growth of unemployed resources has been noticed in 1997-2001. among others. It is impossible to liquidate them by the short-term ecopolitical activities.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 7% 33% 8% 13% 5 20% <1 month 6-12 months 1-3 months 12-24 months 19% 3-6 months >24 months Ref. In the beginnings the pace of general unemployment growth is much slower from the pace of people who are unemployed from one to two years. 539 and Socha M. on rationalization of the economy. mining). Knapińska (2005). and others. Balicki W. (2000). vol. the difference between the level of unemployment rates in individual labour force groups or on the labour micromarkets. During the initial phase of transformation the change of general unemployed resource was similar to the increase in the number of the short term unemployed (from one to two years) and inversely proportional to the increase of the long-term unemployed.: Own study on the basis of GUS data Over 50% of the unemployment resource there consists of the long-time unemployed people. .. Engels F. vol. the level of budget in GDP and the negative trade balance. On the contrary.p.p.1.. It is specially observed in the changes in 1997-1999. The analysis implicates the conclusion. Kwiatkowski E.40 and 46-49 6 Among others: Strzeszewski Cz (1978). and subordinated to the economic rules. and also. even if the labour market is sedate. (in: ) Marks K. Kapitał. Dzieła wybrane.. that work is one of the relationships between individuals and the form of social relations. „Strukturalne bezrobocie transformacyjne” (In: ) Jarmołowicz W. Referring to the results of scientific research of role and function of work in social life6 it is possible to claim that the work is one of the production factors.. incuding aging and unnecessary qualifications (in Poland for example the metallurgy.. Ptaszyńska B. Referring to the 15% of short-term unemployment confirms the thesis of the chronic surplus of supply. 1949. Begg D.p. largo. the pace of general unemployment growth is significantly faster than the latter one.

(1998). Particularly government.17 13 Ibidem. That is as well the subjective category – the state of forcible occupational inaction of people who are able and ready to work.p. Contemporarily.6 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness phenomenon of unemployment. M. and more precisely labour market politics. the notion mentioned above has been repeatedly redefined. There is no example of the perfect liberal system or permament vacancy nation in the history. referring to demographic-social processes in the dynamic configuration. the temporary activation of unemployed force as an active form of employment promotion (as an integral element of social-economical politics). because of its solid connection with society and also the fact of its national power protection. p. that is useful for “invisible hand of labour market” support.p.466 14 Sęp M. should have been proceed focusing on economical rules.23 12 Winiarski B. However. (1992). understood as “the active influence of the government on the labour market according to the economy needs and the benefits of both employers and employees”13 was established in the beginnings of the twentieth century. The author underlines the specific employment effects and shows the methods leading to achieving the goals. Markowski’s opinion. the government power is realized by two variants of labour politics: the passive and active one. Wiśniewski Z.. Sęp thinks that “labour politics is to determine and to explain conjugation power process of the economy growth.23 15 Markowski K . the appeasement of financial results of unemployment. Meller J. p. Kabaj says that the most important functions of counteraction unemployment politics are: protection functions. it is allowed to affirm that triple-element model of economical life: household9 + enterprise10 + government is the construct. the particularly significant element of economy politics12 is the impact on the labour market throughout the employment politics. This category indicates the social consequences of unemployment and.. according to the primary assumptions of national economy regulations”15. and the analysis and elimination of the generating unemployment factors17. according to the K. at a time. These attempts. In the context of the impact on 7 8 Mlonek K. The signification of the active labour market policy In the constitutional transformation time. Warszawa.15 17 Kabaj M. 154 16 Dolny E.310 . p.. In K.. mentioned as the not realized supply of work that is the effect of the unbalance between human resource supply and the power of employment economy absorption. In the context of impact on unemployment. on the contrary. “labour politics includes the elements of economical and social politics. The labour politics. There are problems during the unambiguous defining the scope and notion of labour politics as well as defining the principles. 9 The set of persons who live and earn together (common income) 10 Profit oriented organizations on the perfect competition market 11 Zwoliński A. Wiśniewski underlines that kind of politics as “a symptom of activity of human resources rational allocation”16. 6-7.. creates conditions to use these power and possibilities of enrichment11 and builds the platform of help for market forces. influencing the labour market”14. who understands the unemployment as an analytical category of the labour market.p. since there was no 100% realization of any economical concepts8. the infirmity „invisible market hand” and determines the attempts to find instruments for improvement. it is justified to adapt K. (1996). Mlonek’s approach. The work income is the basis of their existence7..p. Bezrobocie – pojęcia podstawowe. Its principle is to prepare and realise the employment programs. SGH.p. (1996). Z. (2001). M.Mlonek’s context..(1992).

Jarmołowicz additionally underlines the necessity of focusing on the regional character of employment politics20. (2005). 18 19 Wiśniewski Z.p. (2005). These regulations “are the collection of instruments disposed toward joining the unemployed in the labour market”27. etc.. and also to propagate the equal chances on the labour market32...467 20 Jarmołowicz W. etc.p.125 24 ibidem. (1998) 31 Maksim M.. labour market politics can be divided into an active and passive one22. p. trainings.(2001). (2005). The active labour market politics is often focused on the highest risk groups28. The employment politics’ area of interest is to maintain existing and create the new possibilities for people to work on the primary market.163 31 Zieleniewski J. the instruments of active labour market politics are: interventionists and public works. J. In K.. should support cooperation30 or the period of time between part-time work to full-time one and flows of information from the educational system to the labour system31. According to the act of 20th April 2004.16 28 Wiśniewski Z.p.. the “pro-active policy”. the active government policy on the labour market is to lead the unemployed for training. There is not equal meaning of employment and labour market politics. legal consultations and social security) All the instruments listed above do five functions: to activate the unemployed. to increase the productivity of the labour force. Jarmułowicz W. Knapińska M.91 21 ibidem 22 Kwiatkowski E. On the contrary..167 . to decrease the level of structural adaptations on the labour market.25 29 Calmfors L. ( 2005). Skedinger P. public works... for instance. 388 27 Golinowska S.. the labour market politics “is concentrating as the element of employment politics on solving structural and social problems of active labour market”21.. Wiśniewski adds.p. These regulators are also: unemployment and retirement benefits as well as periodical and purposeful ones. These are the mechanisms that determine situation on the labour market and.p.. to verify the level of activity for work and to influence the unemployment level 29. Additionally.. and occupational adviory service.163 26 Krajewska A. (1998) 30 Meager N.... (1994)p.p. influence labour market by. Zarychta H.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 7 unemployment. Knapińska M.31 Gogolewska J. (2003).p. financing up the assets. Z. (2005). (work training. Knapińska M. Wiśniewska’s opinion..125. Gogolewska systematises functions of employment politics by separating them into social and economical ones19. These mentioned above mechanisms are to fulfil the protectional and social functions25. and graduates employment initiation. work mediation. that the principle of labour politics is to maintain the acceptable level of unemployment”18. The second type of politics (passive labour market politics) consists of direct operations of government on the labour market. According to the economical dimension.126 25 Jarmołowicz W. (1995) and Kwiatkowski E. refunding the costs of travel to work.p.p. The differences are the methods of principle realization.(2001)..(1981).p. The first type can be characterised by legislation operations for the benefit of coherent labour law creation – so called autonomic regulators. Kwiatkowski E. The instruments of active government policy in the labour market are: public employment programs – the creation of job vacancies in the not very popular sectors and employment subsidizing the entrepreneurs who give up the reduction of employment or create the new positions of job. without the need to undertake decisions.p. W. (1998).24.. throughout creation and implementation of non autonomic regulations (every time there is a necessity to undertake decisions of government representatives26 as well as legislation. modifying overtime limits23. “About the employment promotion and labour market instruments”.160-161 23 Kryńska E. intervention works.

to whom the contract were settled in the mentioned period of time. who get the fullG. minimising the necessary costs36. the mentioned policy became the instrument supporting the structural changes in the economy.2. Tab.8 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness According to the rules of economical activity.1. This is why the active labour market policy became the instrument of mentioned state counteraction..21) or as the effecive budget realization.2. The instrument supporting the counteractive unemployment active forms activities differentiation is.G. .163 36 Kotarbiński T. Its primary aim was decreasing of the unemploment (specially frictional).G.1.163 Zieleniewski J..1. On the contrary.using the economy growth factor.3. that realizes defined aim-optimizaion the value of unemployment coefficient.1.2. Ratio’s name RATIO CHARACTERISTICS Formula G.194 34 The tradiional approach of politics efficiency is ilustrated as the activity based on the conomic rulet to reach the goals (Winiarski B.2. Poznań.=-------the program program39 G.2. Putnam taking efficiency as the depended variable assumed its relation to citizens’ community.1. Additionaly.p.2.1.time job after intervention work period/the G. 38 Where: G.1. –as above 39 Where: G.. simplification and precision of prediction [Shively W.p.1. On the basis of the praxeology definition.1. ployment of the interven. it is justified to assume. cost on one participant of the number of the employed people in the G.3. the term “effectiveness” defines achieving the goals.2. marginalization. whereas the notion of effectiveness and efficiency represent two different meanings.39 37 Where: G.=-------tion work programme total number of all participants37 G. the coefficients of labour market active policy. to fulfil assumptions of these functions must have taken into the consideration the proper using of the economic rules (including effectiveness). who have G. that the efficient active labour market politics is the activity.1. 32 33 Maksim M. 1972. Maksim M. 35 The conceptions of labour market policy aims are revolutionary.The total subvention cost of the programme G. and even the social isolation of the long-time unemployed. Later. the efficiency activity34 means using factors of growth forward on the optimal forming of the level of registered unemployment35..1. participants gram38 G.. R. the efficiency takes place if there is no exclusion of resources and goals33.p.1.p.as above . It it partiularly seen in active labour market policy aims changes.2001. ployment of the interven. participants G. – the intervention works cost – the sum of all the refunded quotas for all the intervention works organizators.33-42]) and proceedenig the assumptions of logic middle-isolated rule.The number of participants.1.1. The statement of effectiveness ratios of intervention work programmes.3. The rate of renewed em. it is the total number of hired participants of the program understood as the sum of number of the unemployed hired in particular months.3 The average subvention The total subvention cost of the program / G. 2001. among others.the number of persons who got the fulltime employment after finishing all programs G. That was the result of conviction about its diminishing influence on macro-economical policy in the scope of unemployment limitation. it is justified to claim that these services identify the notions of efficiency and effectiveness as identical. On the labour market active policy area../ the TTL number of participants.. 3. The effectiveness of active forms of the unemployment counteraction Analysing the effects of labour service activities and its use of effectiveness coefficients.1.1.=-------tion work programme got the full-time job after finishing the proG. (2005). 2005.-the numer of program participants. .1. The cost of renewed em.1..p. (1981). The last decade of the twentieth century was characterized by the growth of poverty.p.2. considering the three basic criteria of social phenomenon theory (importance. expired in investigation period. Lp.

41 Where: G.5.zl. do not enable us to indicate the influence of the level of the impact function on quantity of unemployment resource and the cost of realization of the function mentioned above. program ratio fused taking part in the program / the total G. and the relation between the subsidy payment cost for similar group of beneficients of the program and the cost of the program (Small Firms Employment Subsidy – Great Britain)43 Taking into considerations the implications mentioned above it is justified to create a new conception of the unemployment counteraction effectiveness. (1995 r.197579. The new concept of active labour market effectiveness policy should illustrate the relations of 40 Where: G.: Own study on the basis of GUS Preferring the separate measurement of: the general number of program participants. maximal quota of subvention for one participant of the program.2.4.=-------number of participants in the program40 G. G.5. subvention ratio pant of the program / the highest average G. Relations of the average cost of renewed employment and the unemployment ratio in Kępiński district The average value of the renewed employment cost in th.4.1.the number of the unemployed who refused to work in the intervention work program in investigation period. where the effectiveness of unemployment counteraction of active labour market policy took into consideration the relations between savings42 and income taxes taken from the participants of the program and the costs of the program (Temporary Employment Subsidy – Great Britain . the percentage of the unemployed involved in the program and the renewal employment costs. . (1992) The unemployment coefficient value in % Graph 10.5 1 0. The refusal intervention The number of the unemployed. indicates the number of the taken vacancies of part-time jobs.5. 42 not paying unemploymens subsidy 43 Markowski K . 41 gram Ref.5.)s.5 4 3.3.4. who reG. the one that enables the clear differentiation of efficiency and effectiveness of active form of unemployment counteraction policy and also determines the growth of effectiveness of unemployment counteraction. .2.G.1. – the average cost o subvention perone employee of the program.=-------quota per one participant during the proG. G.5 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Average value of renewed employment cost Unemployment coefficient value Average value of rate of renewed employment lata Value of unemployment coefficient in % Ref.: Own study on the basis: Kołodziejczyk P.4.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 9 G.4. The coefficients used in Poland also differ from the ones in Great Britain.3. Graph 9.4. He maximal using of the The average subvention cost per one particiG. Relations of the average rate of renewed employment ratio in Kępiński district 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 The average value of the rate of renewed employment in % The value of unemployment coefficient in % 4..1.5 3 2.145-148 The present coefficients of active forms of unemployment counteraction in Poland show the quantitative scope of this phenomenon or the estimated cost of fulltime employment of the program participants.5 2 1.1.

. Furthermore. The practical use of mentioned coefficient shows that the optimal value is reached very rarely44. Bearing in mind that the unemployment phenomenon. (2006) 46 Balewski B. in the proposed formula.31977 Avg= .∆ Wb 0 The connection. Analysing the creation of the formula value. it means to make it more thrifty or more productive. when there is decreasing pace of the growth of unemployment coefficient and the decreasing the cost of renewed unemployment at a time.: Own study The aim of the creation of effectiveness formula. The economic factors as the determinant of active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 44 45 Balewski B.10 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness the connection of the renewed employment cost of program participants.2 -1. 0 -0.8 -2 -2.0. Bartkowiak G.n ) Ef = 1 -[ ] 1. Balewski B. It can also be noticed that the training programmes are more effective than the subsidy ones45.6 -0.∆ Wb n ____________________________ 1. it is justified to claim. manifests the direction of active labour market policy toward creation costs in connection with the main strategy of employment services – the creation of unemployment level.2 1999 2000 2001 Avg. limited by the labour market active policy. in the period n (Gn) to discounted cost in the period 0.= -0..4 -1.( 2006)..8 -1 -1. combining the expenses on temporary activity of the unemployed and the level of government policy on the labour market. there is a necessity to identify the factors determining the differentiation and changes of level of active forms of unemployment counteraction. is both the economic and social phenomenon it is justified to underline that the determinants of unemployment counteraction activity are the same kind.2 -0. This thesis is positive verified by empirical research46. that proposed effectiveness coefficient value is optimal (Ef>0). (2006) . Graph 11. of the active form counteraction unemployment. Relations between the average cost of subsidy employment and training programs effectiveness. in the relation to changes of unemployment ratio in period n and 0 Gn ______________ G0 ּdt ( 0.4 -0. between the cost changes of the renewed employment cost and the changes of unemployment ratio. is to find the optimal tool of measuring of the active form of unemployment counteraction.67095 Average value of the training program effectiveness Average value of the subsidy employment programs effectiveness Ref..6 -1.

The particular analysis of relations between the value of effectiveness coefficient and the economic factors and done on the basis of the research sample.: Own study This result is particularly important in the fact of general opinion that the limited quota of financial resources is the determinant of the employment services efficiency on the area of active labour market policy realization. demographic and financial ones and factors determining the level of enterprise and program management ones.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 11 The results of accomplished research indicate that the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness are determined by whole set of elements the economy potentially consists of. They can be divided by: infrastructure factors.ˇ effectiveness ^ financial expenses . Graph 12. Government aims Company aims . indicate that the relations between the result of the effectiveness formula and active labour market policy and individual economic factors are rather complex and heterogeneous. Tab.. 4.ˇ effectiveness ^ financial expenses . The significant research conclusion is the negative verification of hypothesis underlying the impact of the active labour market policy and financial resources on effectiveness.n ≥ Bn as well as on the impact scale. The reasons of differentiation of impact of economic factors should be tracked both in one of the elements of the set – the productivity of employment services. These elements constitute the economic part. Creation of the coefficient value of active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness referring to the growth of the financial expenses for the subsidiary employment programmes 20% Graph 13.. Composition of organizational aims and practical application of promotion programs of employment and enterprise. throughout the skill of using financial resources (other economic factors) on ↓∆ Wb0 . Creation of the coefficient value of active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness referring to the training programmes 20% 80% 80% ^ financial expenses . Permanency of the opinion mentioned above is probably the reason of lack of the aims coherency between the authors and beneficients of the active forms of unemployment counteraction program. so called “the rest” – the set of psychosocial factors.^ effectiveness ^ financialexpenses .^ effectiveness Ref.

3) Searching for the employment possibilities 4) Generating of the company’s value. p. in the aim of finding the relationship with other category. Warszawa 1995. 12) Development of the local infrastructure in the aim of creation of new job opportunities. On this level of research it was proved.infrastructure. 8) Creating the possibilities of finding jobs 7) Decreasing expenses of Employment Fund through the relatives and friends of entreprethrough not paying unemployment subsidi. law and order/outlaw and disorder. 7) Increasing ROE/ROA. 9) Supporting of the local firms development.1) Maintenance of the current level of emfied personnel. MPiPS /KUP. 15) Creation of the possibilities of full-time employment 16) Encouraging to the graduate employment. needs in the long run. employment. 11) Decrease of long-term unemployment. Indicated. dutifulness/negligence. The psychosocial factors as the determinants of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness Considering the results of author’s research there is the positive verification of the thesis underlying the connection of psychosocial factors and the active forms of unemployment counteraction. enabled to 47 The idea of the creation of this method was to acquaintance and illustrating of differentiation of evaluating past and present values realization. 6) Decreasing the investment level in the 5) Create the possibilities of self. 10) Promotion of the preferential sectors of economy. consequent attitudes. Identified in earlier part of the research. and the aims of employers-participants are focused on the organizational needs. for program participants. was shared to coherent groups: honesty/dishonesty. 8) Promotion of the renewed employment through the creation of new job opportunities and assuring resources to work.neur (public sector manager) ary. 5) Developing of the company’s technical 4) Promotion of small companies’ develop. ment. that the psychohistorical analysis of the society. ployment within company.company. the consequent reactions on the environment stimuli. The conducted research on the basis of indirect proving multiaxiomatic method47. 2) The adaptation of the labour force occupa.). (red. loyalty/disloyalty.135-137 and own research The expectations of active forms of unemployment counteraction received by the employment services particularly focus on the area of unemployment resource management. 17 )Supporting in gaining the practical skills.2) Increasing of products supply – the offer tional structure according to the economy of the company. 6) Creation of new job opportunities. innovation/innovation reluctance. was joint in quality coherent groups. 3) Decreasing the employment costs. who lived on the “Polish territory” area. Grouping made enables to . Analiza efektywności programów rynku pracy . 13) Supporting the new qualifications for employees.: Own study on the basis: Kołodziejczyk P. enables to differ other sets of consequent attitudes. Ref.12 The measures of the active formsof unemployment counteraction effectiveness 1) Professional skills assurance for unquali. for example: effectiveness.

enables to affirm that there are not the classical relationships which can decrease the value of unemployment resource48. Relation between the values and psychosocial factors Ref: Balewski B (2006. There is negative shock of the general activity and the domination of the unemployment determined by supply surplus. . The logic of indirect proving minimalizes or enables to avoid the false data.The measures of the active forms of unemployment counteraction effectiveness 13 make consideration into the values. Using the convergence and multiple-correlation coefficients. The creation of the new effectiveness formula. Fig. including intergeneration transmition. based on logical rule of indirect proving. using the elements of scientific achievements. The multitaxiomatic questionnaires of indirect proving. Up to now. The conducted research indicated the territorial differentiation of attitudes. There is not indicated the inverse relationship between the GDP. The values mentioned above are the basis of the individual system creation attitude – its significance is fundamental. That is the reason of the government activity to unemployment counteraction activities.p. 48 The neoclassical principles do not comply on the area of impact the real payment on the level of unemployment. construct own questionnaires. and the value of TUP and the level of unemployment rate and also the Philip’s Curve relation is not present. The result of the inquiring of effectiveness determinants are the basis to construct the new model of the active unemployment counteraction. As the result of conducted research with the own created questionnaire.264) As well as they impact on social capital and organizational culture. There is particularly seen in the number of long-time unemployed people and creation of the relations of total number unemployment change and the long-time unemployed one. The difference is in the area of self and environment estimate. is the good beginning to bring in the active forms of unemployment counteraction as the more effective or thrifty instrument. where the relation analysis between the basic coefficients illustrating the phenomena and economic processes and the unemployment level. But these activities should be effective.1. There is the difference in evaluating attitudes. The results were ranked. In the situation. work productivity change. based on the great experiences of the others. The acceptation of indirect proving standard enabled particularly to avoid the „hallo” and Horn’s effect. are used to estimate the attitudes. the used effectiveness coefficients do not make practically possible to differ the notions of efficiency and effectiveness of active labour market policy. there is a possibility to use the attitudes mentioned above to increase productivity or modification of behaviours of the labour market participants. it is authorized to underline that the knowledge of the consequent attitudes is reached. The utility of economical research on the area of active forms of unemployment counteraction. It is also proven that during organizational process. indicates the relationship between individual elements and the set of the other category.

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