Błażej Balewski

An attempt to redefine the concepts of semantic fields: the competence and talent as a determinant of talent management development.
Summary In order to take advantage of conquests of science and maximize their practicality, so called newspeak should be continually eliminated from this discipline. The aim of this article is to redefine the semantic fields of the notions of competence and talent throughout the analysis of outstanding writings of all times. The author of this article did the analysis to influence the process of the development in the subdiscipline of human resource management which is known as talent management.
Introduction

According to Pierre Joseph Proudhoun, nurturing the talent a sacrifice is made to hope by the society. This thought did not lose its importance in today’s world, the world in which the constant progress is required but at the same time creativity and development potential is being destroyed. We face negative influence of actions which are the reasons for that damage. What seems to be harmful is the fact that destroying high level of human resource management occur in enterprises and non-profit organizations. Within this context redefining the notion of talent, outlining the role it plays in social and economic development and the recognition of determinants which prevent from destroying the potential in organizations as well are crucial when taking actions aiming at practical application for effective talent management.

1. The nature of competence The term competence is defined variably depending on the source. The reason of this variety seems to be associated with the common understanding of this notion1. Therefore, linguists define it mainly as the authority of a court to deal with specific matters, being adequately2 or well qualified to achieve a certain goal or perform a task. Moreover, it has been described as knowledge, capacity and responsibility. Many branches of social sciences (the humanities) analyze the notion of competence. Among them we can distinguish psychology, pedagogy, management, law and prakseology.
1 2

McClelland D.C., Identifying Competencies with Behavioral-Event Interviews, Psychological Science, 1998, n. 9

Szymczak M. (red.) Słownik języka polskiego, Warszawa 1978 t.1,s.977;

Tab.1. Selected modern scientific grasps of competence
Type of a grasp sociological Characteristic Divide into monocultural (Understanding of the idea, beliefs, rules, norms, values and symbols characteristic only for one specific culture); multicultural (The knowledge and the ability to apply a variety of lifestyles and ideas derived from several diverse cultures. Frequently called cosmopolitan competence.) In the model of ideal bureaucracy competence is restricted both subjectively and objectively Responsibility, compatibility, formal qualification to operate; The ability to self-realization. It determines the fundamental condition of upbringing. A competence is a result of the process of learning. Identified with the authority given to an individual or a legal body and with skills and knowledge The degree of specialization A set of traits which enable the development of an enterprise. The enterprise differentiates itself from competitors. Reliable, professional preparation combined with cognitive ( intellectual) abilities of an individual which allow her or him to meet the requirements at specific position

pedagogical legal prakseological Within the field of Marketing Science Within the field of Management Psychology

Source: self-study on the basis of: Bartkowiak G., Psychologia zarządzania, AE Poznań 1999, s.181; Okoń W., Nowy słownik pedagogiczny, Żak, Warszawa 2004, s.184; Sztomka P., Socjologia. Analiza społeczeństwa, Znak, Warszawa 2004, s. 127, 132 , 415; Art. 96-109 Ustawy z dnia 23 kwietnia 1964r., Kodeks Cywilny, Dz.U. nr 16, poz. 93 ze zm., Redelbach A., Wstęp do prawoznawstwa, UAM, Poznań 1995, s. 27 i 98, Kotarbiński T. Traktat o dobrej robocie, Ossolineum, Wrocław - Warszawa 1969, s.330, Strategor, Zarządzanie firmą, tł. Bolesta-Kukułka K., PWE, Warszawa 1997, s.588, Szymczak M. (red.) Słownik języka polskiego, Warszawa 1978,t.1., s.977

The term competence is derived form the Latin word ‘competentia’ –a responsibility, compatibility3 referring to the word ‘competere’ – to comply with, to compete, be required (to be qualified, appropriate)4. Not only is the Latin meaning visible in Polish language , but also in other modern languages.
Tab. 2. The meaning of the term competence in selected modern languages.
Language English Term competence competency French Russian compétence компетенция The description of the meaning of the term The ability to perform a specific practical task, action; skill Social competencies Competence Thorough knowledge of the subject

Source: self-study on the basis of: Kupisz K., Kielski B, Podręczny słownik francusko-polski z suplementem, WP, Warszawa, 1983,s.144, Stanisławski J., Billip K., Chociłowska Z., Podręczny słownik angielsko-polski, WP, Warszawa 1986, s. 138, Mitronowa I., Siniczna G., Słownik polsko-rosyjski i rosyjsko-polski, Russkij Jazyk, Moskwa 1978, s.89

The definition of ‘competence’ in English language is described as the ability to perform a specific task, action for function successfully. Competencies and abilities are not synonyms, though. The relation between those two terms and the analysis of each word separately have been a subject of numerable surveys conducted by structuralists, behaviorists and phenomelogists5.
Tab. 3. The comparison of characteristic abilities according to structuralism, phenomenology, and behaviorism .
Philosophy Applied theories Approach
3 4

Structuralism Systems Theory sociotechnical

Phenomenology The theory of process Organizational development Modification, culture, adjusting

Behaviorism Skill Theory Trainings

Kopaliński W., Słownik wyrazów obcych, WP, Warszawa 1985, s.223 Kumaniecki K., Słownik łacińsko-polski, PWN, Warszawa 1984,.s. 102 5 Kotter J., A Force For Change, New York, Macmillan, 1990, s. 76

Operations

Systems transformations aiming at quality improvements

individual and organizational goals

The development of managerial skills.

Source: Rakowska A., Sitko-Lutek A., Doskonalenie kompetencji menedżerskich, PWN, Warszawa 2000, s15

The research, however, traces back to the classical philosophers’ ideas who indicated that the existence of social and individual abilities is a determinant of human existence. Moreover, philosophers outlined the fact that abilities came into being exclusively because of the environment acceptance6.
Tab. 4. Selected thought of classical philosophers concerning the genesis and skill division
Author Plato Skills characteristics (...)It is no possibility (...) that anyone of those who improve their actions turned out to be unquestionable experts if there is no consent given (…) (...)Onward would we see two skills with regard to everything what is done One is the factor of creation, and the later a cause itself (…) Those who does not participate in creation, only preparing tools for the participants, the tools being indispensable for doing the task assigned to each skill, these should be called factors, these who do the task should be called the causes (…) (...) We ought to endeavor to divide caring ability into two separate parts according to the fact that it is based on violation or on good will.(…) The one including violation should we classified as tyranny and the ability of pasturing swine would we call political skill. Whoever possesses this skill is a king and a politician indeed. (...) Royal Government is one skill(...) Moreover, it is not one among all but we people distinguished it before others as the one which judges and gives orders . Mankind live by dint of abilities (…)Skills are acquired through experience (…) Skills are created when from among the immensity of thoughts coming from experience, a general view about similar matters is created (…) (…)reliability, impartiality(…), moderation, courage despite obstacles(…)we are indebted to people , those who established general hints in everlasting behavior systems or approved as law

Aristotle Cicero

Source: self-study on the basis of :Plato , Polityk 276 E, 281D, 284C, 292B tł. Witwicki, Warszawa 1952, Aristotle, Metafizyka, tł. Leśniak K., Warszawa 1984 A (I), Cicero, De re publica, De legibus. London, William Heinemann Ltd., Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1943, tł. Żółtowska I., Antyk. Kęty, 1998, Ks I, II

The followers of ancient philosophers who surveyed skills concentrated on searching for the characteristic traits which influence the effectiveness of individuals and social actions7.
Tab. 5. Semantic field of the notion courageous and its prakseological determinants
Author T. Kotarbiński T. Pszczołowski The notion courageous and its semantic field A courageous person who set goals and want to achieve a success despite accumulating obstacles. A person who use energy and make effort in the long run to act according to justified, recognized plan A courageous person is the one who takes into consideration the efficiency in his or her actions behaving in accordance with his beliefs and conscience . He rejects the goals which are against his consciousness and the existing system of rules and behaviors.

Source: self-study on the basis of: Pszczołowski T., Zasady sprawnego działania, Wiedza Powszechna, 1982, s. 260, Kotarbiński T., Traktat o dobrej robocie, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1955, s.139.

As a result of their analysis, a model of a courageous individual characterized by bravery and the ability to cope with destination was created. Furthermore, The traits which are indispensable for compatible interactions were defined.
Tab. 6. The conditions of compatible interactions
Requirements
6

The characteristic of compatible interactions requirements

Balewski B., Janowski A., Społeczna odpowiedzialność biznesu, a rozwój regionu (w:) Bartkowiak G., (red.), Szanse rozwoju polskich ziem zachodniego pogranicza - aspekt regionalny i globalny, ZWSHiFM, Zielona Góra 2008, s. 57; 7 Janowski A., Kompetencje agentów ubezpieczeniowych a efektywność towarzystw ubezpieczeń na życie, unpublished doctoral thesis, Instytut Orgmasz, Warszawa 2007

Requirement 1 Requirement 2 Requirement 3

To endeavor to understand a suggestion properly, prior to the immediate negative reaction If a person makes a suggestion, we should try to consider it as a positive, not a negative presumption. Other words we should assume that this is a good idea and it will be rejected only if there were crucial arguments against speaking against it. It is an incentive to be tolerant. What do we call tolerance? Tolerance means accepting other people’s actions in spite of the fact that we consider them undesirable. (…) and allowing to express opinions we regard as inequitable.

Source: self-study on the basis of: Kotarbiński T., Zgodliwe współdziałanie, Od nowa, Warszawa 1957, Nr 2, (w:) Kotarbiński T., Studia z zakresu filozofii, etyki i nauk społecznych, jw. cz. III, Etyka, rozdz. 5, s.191-193

The current analysis of abilities is mainly based on the founding of prakseology and at the same time on the sociology. In the psychological grasp of analysis associated with this issue, the researchers concentrated on the action regulation mechanism. It was indicated that they embrace the process of acquiring, transferring and the loss of competence being the derivatives of different intellectual function. In terms of social psychology skills are investigated on the basis of social skills model where skillful action is the focal point.
Figure 1. The model of Skilful Action
Perception Feedback loop

Motivation, goal

Transmission

Alterations in the outside world

Motor skills Source: Argyle M., Psychologia stosunków międzyludzkich, PWN, Warszawa 2001, (za:) Argyle M., Umiejętności społeczne, (w:) Macintosh N.J., Dolman A.M., (red.) Zdolności a proces uczenia się, tł. Zysk i S-ka, Poznań 2002, s.113

According to the founders and promoters of the model, skillful action is a result of both work itself and inner motivation enriched with information about introducing essential modification,

knowledge and its applications in different situations8. What is outlined is the competence variations being a result of a training conducted according to classical and educational methods. The researchers claim that the later shape skills9 through the process of learning.
Figure 2. The process of learning Shaping

Environment

Law of effect

Behavior

Modelling
Source : Robbins S.P., Zachowania w organizacji, PWE, Warszawa, 1998, s.81

What is more, the process of learning, beside shaping and modeling behaviors embraces the fusion of the notions of skill and qualifications.
Tab. 7. The juxtaposition of lexical semantic fields of the notions of skills and abilities
Notion Qualification Skill The semantic field Education, appropriate training to a professional job; aptitudes, being competent. Being ranked among a specific category, the evaluation, quality assessment Proficiency in any science, job, knowledge

Source: self-study on the basis of : Szymczak M. (red.) Słownik języka polskiego, Warszawa, 1978 t.1,s.1096,t.3, s.599

Nowadays the term competence is broadly used replacing the notions of skills and qualifications. In the beginning, the change was a result of trends10. However, later it was commonly established that the term competence indicates the totality of permanent personal traits which create cause and effect relationship with high and extraordinary results at work11. This trend has contributed to the conducting numerable surveys which has been designed to examine the knowledge included in this term. The most dynamic surveys are conducted by the experts in the field of economy sciences, especially by the representatives of a new created specialty called competency management. Its representatives divide competence in three definition categories. One of them is the descriptive and numerous definition . It is confined to enumerate the components of competence. Psychological definitions occur in the next group and they outline the process of competence shaping. The third group embraces descriptive definitions which determine the nature of a matter in a synthetic way.
8 9

Argyle, A. Furnham, J. A. Graham, Social Situations, Cambridge, 1981, s. 135 Argyle M., Psychologia stosunków międzyludzkich,, PWN, Warszawa 2001, (za:) Argyle M., Umiejętności społeczne, (w:) Macintosh N.J., Dolman A.M., (red.) Zdolności a proces uczenia się, tł. Zysk i S-ka, Poznań 2002, s.113 10 Oleksyn T. Systemy zarządzania kompetencjami – wybrane dylematy (w:) Materiały konferencyjne: Zarządzanie wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie, PFPK, Warszawa 2001, s. 278 11 Boyatzis R., The Competent manager, New York, Jon Wiley, 1982, s. 147 (za:) Pocztowski A., Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi, PWE, Warszawa 2003, s.153

Table 8. Selected definitions of the notion competency within the field of competence management
The author of the definition Spencer L.M. Jr. Rostkowski T. Sitko-Lutek A. Rakowska A Oleksyn T. Hannan D.F., Werquin P. Janowski A. Characteristic Competencies comprise of five elements: motives, traits, attitudes and values; knowledge and abilities Competencies consist of : knowledge, abilities, attitudes, motivation, values and skills. Competencies comprise of the knowledge based on qualifications and experience, attitudes, personality traits and aptitude Defined as a set of traits as aptitudes and predispositions; education, knowledge, experience and practical skills, formally authorized to make decision Integral usage of abilities, personality traits and the knowledge in order to achieve a certain goal for the company who according its own strategy made the employee responsible for his tasks. The level of competence depends on the knowledge a person possesses which comprises of personal abilities, skills, experience and the ability to use them; attitude itself and motivation The type of the definition

Descriptive and numerous definitions

Psychological definitions

Source: self-study on the basis of: Rakowska A, Sitko-Lutek A, Doskonalenie kompetencji menedżerskich, PWN, Warszawa 2000, s. 17, Woodrufe C., Assessment centres: identyfying and developing competencies, Institute of Personel Management, Londres 1993, s.36, Rostkowski T., Zarządzanie kompetencjami w praktyce (w:) Pocztowski A. (red.) Praca i zarządzanie kapitałem ludzkim w perspektywie europejskiej, Oficyna ekonomiczna, Kraków 2005, s.438, Oleksyn T. Systemy zarządzania kompetencjami – wybrane dylematy (w:) Zarządzanie wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie, PFPK, Warszawa 2001, s. 277, Janowski A., Kompetencje agentów ubezpieczeniowych a efektywność towarzystw ubezpieczeń na życie, unpublished doctoral thesis, Instytut Orgmasz, Warszawa, 2007; Ostrowska M., Zarządzanie kompetencjami PTK Centertel, (w:) Zarządzanie wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie, PFPK, Warszawa,2001, s.296, Hannan D. F., Werquin P., Education and labour market change: The dynamics of education/training to work transistions in Europe: a comparative research project (CATEWE) under the TSER programme, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of European Communities, 2002, s. 25-31, Spencer L.M. Jr., Competence At Work. Models for Superior Performance, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1993, s.9-11

Nearly all three groups of detailed characteristics of competence consider competence as a set of specific traits including knowledge , attitudes toward work and learning, and skills as well. The authors of the definitions emphasize knowledge as a part of competence as the most visible. The rest, however, is seen as invisible part12.
Figure 3. Dependencies between competencies and skills
Employees’ competencies

Attitude

Personality traits and abilities

Employees’ skills

Knowledge

Source: self-study on the basis of:: Rakowska A., Sitko-Lutek A., Doskonalenie kompetencji menedżerskich, PWN, Warszawa 2000, s. 17

12

Pocztowski A., Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi, PWE, Warszawa 2003, s.155

Simultaneously, it is outlined that presented sets of traits may be divided into two categories: elementary and distinctive13. Both competence categories are found in an organization in two forms called a systematized collection of competencies. The former group includes competencies which are the result of objective and impersonal job requirements . The later are real employees’ competencies14. The diversity was a reason to distinguish management concept within human resources management. 2.HRM vs. competence management To perform so called personal function in an organization mean taking regulatory and executives actions being called personnel management . The areas of modification were values and assumption of the concept, its strategic aspects, defining managers’ roles and indicating operation methods and techniques. Recently human resource management absorbed personnel management enabling to distinguish the two terms15. Linking the conceptions concerned with the regulatory process within personal function contributed to the creation of model grasps of human resource management.
Tab. 9. The nature of selected models of Human Resources Management
Model Name Matching model/ Michigan Model Harvard Model Characteristic HRM model formed in a cycle indicate 4 mutually linked areas: selection, appraisal, rewards and development of skilled individuals The shape of mentioned elements enable effective influence on employees’ behaviors. The management of the company is assigned to link the HRM system with the organizational strategy in order to achieve strategic goals. It is a map of cause and effect dependencies between determinants and consequences in Human Resources Management. It requires not one-way dependency with human resources management strategy and organizational strategy as it happened with Michigan Model, but it requires two-way dependency. HMR strategy is shaped by corporate strategy in order not only to integrate two strategies, but also to match the elements which HRM strategy is comprised of. HRM is strategic. It sees the management and employees as its fundamental resource. It is proactive and it aims at improving the effectiveness and simultaneously satisfying employees’ needs and optimizing their functioning in the society. Based on the integration of three elements : 1. referring to the 4P’s model by using four groups of tools: an employment policy, a system of salary, valorization and participation of so called HRM-mix or mix-social 2. Seven areas presenting effectiveness 3. a sequence of tasks building a cycle model , assessing employee’s performances in achieving set goals, modification in strategy or appropriate correction.

competence

M. Pool’s model Integrated HRM model

Source:self-study on the basis of: Golnau W., Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi, [w:] Golnau W. (red.) Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi, Wydawnictwo CeDeWu Warszawa, Warszawa 2007, s. 50-51, Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice, Macmillan Press, Basingtoke, 1999, s. 48, Poole M., Editorial: Hrm in an International Prespective, Internetional Journal of Human Resource Management, 1990 nr 1, Purgał-Popiela J., Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi we Francji, [w:] A. Pocztowski (red.) Zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi w krajach Unii Europejskiej, AE Kraków, Kraków 2003, s. 46

13 14

Hamel G., C.K. Prahalad, The Core Competences of the Corporation, “Harvard Business Review”, maj/czerwiec 1990 Oleksyn T. Systemy zarządzania kompetencjami – wybrane dylematy (w:) Materiały konferencyjne: Zarządzanie wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie, PFPK, Warszawa 2001, s. 278 15 Bartkowiak G., Ewolucja zarządzanie kadrami, (w:) Banaszyk P. (red.) Klasyczny dorobek nauki o organizacji i zarządzaniu w świetle poglądów współczesnych, AE Poznań, Poznań, 2003

Competence management, as part of organizational operations, on the basis of clearly shaped definition system and the system of rules enables to execute eighteen out of twenty HRM functions16.
Figure 4 . The aims of competence management system within an organization Generating job profiles for every position

Competency management

Measuring actual skills of employees/candidates suitable for the job Preparing employees’ for current and forthcoming changes Increasing the company value by increasing human capital Increasing the level of satisfaction among the employees Maximal use of employees’ strongest points Optimization of relations : investing in employees’ development and the effect of the investment

Source: Oleksyn T., Zarządzanie kompetencjami. Teoria i praktyka, Oficyna Ekonomiczna, Kraków 2006, s. 189

One of the fundamental function of Human Resource Management, being a part of competence management, is to act for effectiveness improvement in the enterprise. HRM in the organization plays the role of a unit being responsible for seeking for the opportunities to increase the value of enterprise through fulfilling the employees’ needs and increasing human capital. In spite of the fact that competence management is a common process, it does not guarantee the avoidance of problems. Despite it is executed according to the organizational cycle and treating an enterprise as a system being prepared for hiring employees, their transition and their leaving the organization, the system of competences systematization is not commonly optimized. The major difficulty for competence management experts seems to be both the analysis of the organization members’ competencies and the creation of competence model lists. To overcome this problem the elements of behaviorist, constructivist and functional analysis are applied17.
Tab. 10. Juxtaposition of competence analysis characteristics Types of Characteristics analysis Behavioral Defines a competence as a skill, reflecting abilities of individuals and subsequently describing the potential existing in a person and the extent it may be used to. The effective realization is distinguished from other operations on the basis of created characteristics which differ depending on circumstances. Functional Known as a comparative method. The introduction of the method induces people to consider seeking for numerous possibilities through researching already existing solutions. It violates simple duplications. Transferring experience gathered in comparative method to the competence environment, relations
16

Poincare H., Nauka i Metoda, Wiedza Powszechna, 1978, s.236-247, Janowski A., Kompetencje agentów ubezpieczeniowych a efektywność towarzystw ubezpieczeń na życie, niepublikowana rozprawa doktorska, Instytut Orgmasz, Warszawa 2007; Oleksyn T. Systemy zarządzania kompetencjami – wybrane dylematy (w:) Zarządzanie wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie, PFPK, Warszawa 2001. 17 Greengard S., Competency Management Delivers Spectacular Corporate Gains, Workforce, March, 1999, s. 104-105 oraz Schwarz B., Modernizar sin excluir, Dirección General Tecnológica Industrial, Secretaría de Educación Pública, México, 1996, s. 84

Constructive

between skills, knowledge and employees’ results become the subject of the comparison. Suggests that competence should be perceived in the organizational environment context and bounds between members of the organization. The constantly updated definition of competency aiming at detecting malfunctions and appropriate training enables a motivating environment to be created.

Source: self-study on the basis of: Janowski A., Kompetencje agentów ubezpieczeniowych a efektywność towarzystw ubezpieczeń na życie, unpublished doctoral thesis, Instytut Orgmasz, Warszawa 2007;

Moreover, in order to construct and apply the model of competencies, researchers use other scientific methods and techniques. Among these are the human resources experts’ opinions, interviews and trainings with the employees designed to identify indicatory behaviors, functional analysis investigating goals and tasks at work position, Critical Incident Technique, assessment centers and Kelly’s net as well. A huge variety of method and techniques to investigate competencies is at disposal. Bearing in mind the idea of close relation between disciplines it is possible to create new research methods on the basis of already known discoveries. Multiaxiomatic non-direct command method might be an example of new scientific methods used for improving operations in favor of combining competences. The method was taken from the history of methodology. Another example is the method of determining personal traits of autonomous people enriched by the prakseological vision of the role and nature of knowledge.
Tab. 11. Groups of attitudes - component of Multiaxiomatic command method
Honesty Robbing an employer Ambivalent behavior Honesty vs. Resorting to forbidden actions Dishonesty Robbing an employer vs. Ambivalent behavior vs. Resorting to forbidden actions vs. honesty

Seeking for a chance to take Seeking for a chance to take advantage advantage of people’s property of people’s property vs. Loyalty Disloyalty Loyalty vs. Ambivalent behavior Robbing an employer Innovativeness Being passive to new trends Popularization of anti-market ideas Using the economical behavior schemes Law and order Robbing an employer Ambivalent behavior vs. Robbing an employer vs. Disinclination to innovativeness Being passive to new trends vs. Popularization of anti-imarket ideas vs. Innovativeness Using the schemes vs. economical behavior Lack of law and order Robbing an employer vs. honesty

Innovativeness vs.

Resorting to actions forbidden Resorting to actions forbidden by law Observance of the law by law Observance of the law vs. Specificity in understanding Specificity in understanding the law vs. the law Sense of duty Negligence Conscientiousness And flexibility Leading to poor quality Work avoidance behavior Leading to poor quality Work avoidance behavior vs. Conscientiousness And flexibility

Source: Balewski B., Psychospołeczne i ekonomiczne uwarunkowania efektywności aktywnych form przeciwdziałania bezrobociu, unpublished doctoral thesis, Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu, Wydział Zarządzania, Poznań 2006

Multiaxiomatic command method is not directly designed to investigate the values of attitudes by estimating incidence of consistent behaviors and their assessment on the basis of personal perception confronted with public opinion. In order to identify the level of two others components of competence namely the level of knowledge and skills one might use an modified analysis of personal traits of autonomous people. The analysis of occurring traits and their frequency is based on A.H. Maslow’s research18.
Tab. 12. The characteristics of autonomous individuals.
 Rapid and thorough perception and breaking new ground Openness , favoring obscurity, the lack of structure and uncertainty Keeping Inner distance from the environment Self-acceptance and acceptance of other people despite their disabilities Pursuit of perfection in problems solving and in the development Pursuit of self-determination Submissiveness to the immense and complex knowledge about human beings, things and ideas, the awareness of one’s lack of knowledge and curiosity of the world The possession of individual system of opinions and ethical assessments Willingness to defend personal , especially fundamental causes Independence of public opinion Spontaneous, natural behaviors Experiencing exaltation - Broading horizons, the upsurge of individual strength (accompanied by allembracing helplessness and the feeling of fascinating fear) Impersonal sense of humor Identifying with human beings in general and with a few people chosen Familiarity with facts and the relationship between them as well; familiarity with the conditions and boundaries of these dependencies Being aware of the nature of one’s actions, its positive and negative aspects , the conditions of approaching the mastership and factors which not only lead to mastership but also may discourage within the community or individual life course The ability to overtake skills acquired by predecessors


             

Source:self-study on the basis of: Janowski A., Kompetencje agentów ubezpieczeniowych a efektywność towarzystw ubezpieczeń na życie, unpublished doctoral thesis, Instytut Orgmasz, Warszawa, 2007;

Similarly to studying attitudes, aiming at minimizing the possible occurrence of assessment pathology , the process of investigating the occurrence of knowledge and skills should be implemented by confronting public opinion and personal view and then defining the same fields of appraisal. Information, based on mentioned above methods, integrating disciplines and research fields within humanities, will enable to define attitudes and skills value precisely. As a consequence, it will optimize the process of analyzing the need and creating systematized collection of competencies and providing with required competencies at a specific position. The best results in competence management may contribute to systematization of knowledge, attitudes and skills and simultaneously selection of extreme values. It will influence the

18

Maslow A.H., Motywacja i osobowość, PAX, Warszawa, 1990 (za:) Listwan T.,Zarządzanie talentami – wyzwania współczesnych organizacji, (w:) Borkowska S., 2005, s. 33

economy in a creation of human capital within an organization and permanent introduction not only competence management but also talent management.

Conclusions: Talent management in an organization is a continuation of noble action namely nurturing the talent in order to make a sacrifice to hope. Rereading and redefining basic categories for the specific research field constitutes as a beginning to popularization of the actions which are not simple and transient . The author of this article hopes that this work would contribute to satisfying the defined need. References:
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