You are on page 1of 26


Introduction Renewable energy sources like solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and hydro can make important contributions to sustainable development. Currently, their exploitation in commercial markets is low, being constrained by costs and uncompensated benefits as well as intermittent supplies and other technical and institutional considerations. However, they hold promise for enhanced energy security by providing supplies that are abundant, diverse and indigenous, with no resource exhaustion constraints. They assure reduced global and local atmospheric emissions when used in place of fossil fuels and improved options to meet specific user and infrastructure needs, particularly in rural areas and in newly industrialising and developing countries. They also provide increased local and regional employment opportunities in energy infrastructure manufacturing, installation and maintenance for developed and developing countries alike. The purpose of the report is to create awareness about renewable energy sources, assess the awareness and implementation levels in the BITS campus, check the feasibility of further installation of renewable energy devices in the campus and gives suggestions on increasing the awareness levels among the people and provides recommendations on implementing certain projects in order to obtain clean energy in the BITS, Pilani campus. The scope of this report is wind, solar, biogas, geothermal and hydro energy and these were studied. The awareness levels have been studied of the students of BITS, Pilani have only been studied to get an idea the true levels of awareness. This report has been authorized in the partial completion of the course Technical Report Writing by the instructor Ms. Ruchika Sharma. To gauge the awareness levels a questionnaire was distributed among one hundred and twenty students from BITS, Pilani selected at random and their responses were analysed. The already installed renewable energy sources were determined and their effectiveness was studied. The feasibility of different renewable energy technologies which can be implemented in the BITS campus and cost analysis was done for the same. Tidal energy, biodiesel and ocean thermal energy have not been considered and discussion on these topics is beyond the scope of this report. Also, the data was collected only from the

students and this does not give a true picture of the actual awareness levels about renewable energy among the people. The barriers to implementation of renewable sources of energy have been studied and measures to overcome the same have been suggested. The suggestions and recommendations given at the end of the report aim to increase the awareness level of the people and list opportunities for further execution of renewable energy technologies.

2. Description Of Renewable Energy: 2.1. Definition Of Renewable Energy: A non-renewable resource is something that we are using up, and at some time there will be none left worth harvesting. Once you use it, it's gone. Examples are coal, oil, natural gas, uranium. Oil is already in short supply. Metals like aluminum and iron and steel are non-renewable if we dig them out of the ground, but renewable if we recycle them. A renewable resource is one which is always there and will never run out. It keeps renewing itself.Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resourcessuch as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heatwhich are renewable (naturally replenished). 2.2. Forms Of Renewable Energy 2.2.1Water: Energy in water (in the form of kinetic energy, temperature differences or salinity gradients) can be harnessed and used. There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. Marine current power. It uses the kinetic energy of marine currents. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between the warmer surface of the ocean and the colder lower recesses. Tidal power captures energy from the tides. Wave power uses the energy in waves.

Advantages Hydropower is the cleanest and one of the most efficient energy sources possible. Generation process is very clean, with no pollution or other harmful environmental effects from it. The process releases no greenhouse gases, so it does not contribute to global warming, and it does not require any fossil fuel use.

Hydropower is a cost effective energy solution. Maintenance fees are relatively small. The costs of building hydropower generation plants are much cheaper than building other types of power plants. Disadvantages Sometimes hydropower generation plants can change the local environment drastically. To be efficient, hydro power generation plants need a reservoir and this may result in many acres of land being flooded. This can mean the removal of homes and people, plus the relocation of entire species that habitat the area. Evaluations include factors including any impact the power plant will have on the quality of the water, on the river flow, on the fish population and their passage, and on any threatened or endangered species in the plant area. 2.2.2. SOLAR ENERGY:Solar energy refers to energy that is collected from sunlight. Solar energy can be applied in many ways, including to: Generate electricity using photovoltaic solar cells. Generate electricity using concentrated solar power. Generate electricity by heating trapped air which rotates turbines. Heat buildings, directly, through passive solar building design. Heat foodstuffs, through solar ovens. Heat water or air for domestic hot water and space heating needs using solar-thermal panels.

Advantages Sunlight is a world wide distributed renewable resource, for all practical purposes.Solar energy is never-ending renewable energy source. Solar energy provides electricity in remote locations that are not linked to a national grid. Installation of solar panels in remote locations is usually much more cost effective than laying the required high voltage wires. Once installed, solar energy equipments provide free source of electricity. Solar energy does not give off any harmful substances and noise.

Disadvantages Initial equipment cost is high. Solar energy is only able to generate electricity during daylight hours and cloudy weather, rainy conditions, pollution can interfere in the amount of sunlight that reaches the solar panel, which in turn affects the amount of energy and power that is produced. World's different parts have different solar energy levels. So every location is not feasible for solar energy production. Also, solar panels require quite a large area for installation to achieve a good level of efficiency.

2.2.3. WIND POWER: Windmills are used to convert energy from wind to mechanical and electrical energy. It converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Originally windmills were developed for milling grain for food production. In the course of history the windmill was adapted to many other industrial uses. An important application was to pump water. Windmills used for generating electricity are commonly known as wind turbines. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Advantages Wind energy is a completely environment friendly, sustainable, safer and cleaner source of energy. Wind energy production will not contribute to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions. Once the initial cost of a wind turbine is paid for, future wind energy production is free. Wind is a never ending resource, therefore power cuts and power failures are almost non-existent in areas that rely upon wind power to generate electricity. With the use of larger electric grids, higher amount of electricity can be generated, which thus makes electricity accessible to a larger number of households in the vicinity.

Disadvantages Initial cost of wind turbines is very high. Wind turbines are damaging or disruptive to animals and birds. Wind turbines can also get damaged, when hit by a heavy storm or a severe lightning. Wind does not necessarily flow in the same speed all the time. Therefore, the production of electricity would not always remain consistent; there might be ups and downs in its production, depending upon the speed of the wind. This inconsistency in electricity production affects its supply in the nearby high demand areas. 2.2.4. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, usually from kilometres deep into the Earth's crust. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core. Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat. Advantages Totally cost effective, reliable, sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source. Geothermal energy is totally a green energy and has no emissions from the provision of heat. Earth's interior constantly produces heat and there are no harmful effects to the environment. Earth's geothermal resources are more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs. After an initial expense of geothermal plant, there are no extra expenses for energy retrieval. Geothermal energy can help reduce global warming, if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.

Disadvantages Initial expense for building of geothermal plant, drilling and exploration for deep resources and land requirement is quite expensive. Also it can cost thousands to dig out the land and lay the pipes. After doing large expensive work for building of geothermal plant, the success is not guaranteed. Geothermal heat energy is limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries of the world. 2.2.5. BIOGAS: Biogas can easily be produced from current waste streams, such as paper production, sugar production, sewage, animal waste and so forth. These various waste streams have to be slurred together and allowed to naturally ferment, producing methane gas. This can be done by converting current sewage plants into biogas plants. Biogas Plants are designed to generate energy from liquid and solid wastes. When a biogas plant has extracted all the methane it can, the remains are sometimes more suitable as fertilizer than the original biomass. Advantages Burning of biogas produces very high energy. Biogas is very simple to handle and easy to use. Biogas is a low-cost fuel for any heating purposes, such as cooking. Compressed biogas can be used to power motor vehicles. Biogas is carbon neutral i.e. amount of carbon dioxide created by burning of biogas equals carbon dioxide absorption capacity of plants. Disadvantages Substrates in the biogas have an unpleasant odour. Biogas price is dependent on which substrates are present in biogas. High investment is required to prepare a biogas plant.

3. Need to adopt Renewable Sources of Energy Man has relied on fossil fuels for a long time. The harnessing of the capabilities of these fuels meant that the industrial revolution could happen. However, the burning of fossil fuels creates more carbon dioxide than can be absorbed. Economic development is closely linked with the energy development. Most of the world's commercial energy supplies are provided by fossil fuels, with the associated emissions causing local, regional and global environmental problems. Projections over the horizon to 2050 indicate that world energy demand may increase dramatically, with most of this increase taking place hi developing countries. It is feared that not only these levels of energy production and use from current energy sources are difficult to achieve but also unsustainable. Therefore, energy-use efficiency needs to be increased to moderate the growth of energy while contribution from clean energy sources needs to be increased to reduce adverse environmental impacts of energy usage. There is much monitoring of the usage of fossil, nuclear and renewable energies. The current statistics can be rather shocking. Despite the huge amount of publicity about the problems we face the global usage is still primarily fossil fuels, with coal, oil and gas producing 85 percent of the fuel used.

Illustration 1:World Elecricity Generation by Fuel(2005-2030) However, there is good news as well. In 2010 23% of fuel usage was from renewable sources.

However, if we do not manage to get more and more of the renewable energy sources working in our daily lives, then we will have no choice but to increasingly rely on the range of alternatives which are not renewable sources! The environmental imbalance created by burning fossil fuels, combined with the realisation that they would run out lead to a need to find alternative energy sources. One of the resources which were believed to be the solution to this problem was nuclear power. Nuclear power is the primary difference between renewable and alternative energy. Nuclear energy is an alternative to fossil fuels, but it is not a naturally renewable energy source. Renewable energy is considered one of the potential measures to meet the challenges of ever increasing energy use and related environmental concerns. Renewable energy offers a promising alternative to traditional energy sources in developing countries, which may face several constraints in meeting then energy requirements in future. Most of the investment is still directed towards conventional energy technologies, even where commercially available energy efficient and renewable technologies are technically feasible and economically attractive. Several developing countries have tried to promote renewable energy but despite their efforts renewable energy contribution to the total energy use has not increased significantly. The fact that renewable energy accounts for only a modest proportion in meeting the world's (commercial) energy demand means that there is a missing link in then potential and their implementation - the barriers in then implementation. Renewable energy can play an important role in helping to meet basic energy needs in periurban zones and in rural areas, through the use of modem technologies. These can help to provide alternative sources of energy for some specific needs, for example, hot water production using solar heaters, and small-scale agro-processing industries. However, before this can be done, several issues may have to be addressed. These may include financing schemes, technical appraisal and testing, technology transfer and job creation and product manufacturing etc.

4. Status of Renewable Energy in Indian India has great potential to accelerate the use of its endowed renewable resources to power its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources is critical to ensure that it is able to meet both its economic and environmental objectives, and it has promoted this development through policy action. India started its renewable energy program in 1981 with the establishment of Commission for Additional Sources of Energy which was later converted into Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources in 1992. In the year 2006 it was renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). Today, MNRE operates one of the worlds largest programmes for promotion of RE sources in the country. India has been bestowed with huge renewable energy potential; however it is not distributed uniformly across the country.

Illustration 2:Indias Technical Potential of Renewable Power(in MW) Solar, wind, biomass and small hydro are the major RE sources in India. India receives solar energy approximately 5000 trillion kWh/year equivalents, which is far more than Indias total energy consumption of about 848 billion kWh as projected for FY 2010 by Central Electricity Authority in its 17th Electric Power Survey.

The total power generation capacity in India in March 2010 was 159 GW. Of this, 64.3% was fossil-fuel-fired power plants (coal, gas, and diesel), 23.1% hydropower, 2.9% nuclear power, and 9.7% renewable energy.

Illustration 3: Installed capacities for power generation in India(as of March, 2010) The composition of the power sector has changed significantly in the last 30 years. The power generation capacity controlled directly by the central government has increased from 12% to 32%. At the same time, the fraction of generation capacity controlled by the individual states fell from 83% to 50%. Generation capacity controlled by the private sector more than tripled from 5% to 18%.41 The private sector dominates in power generation from renewable energy sources.


5. Renewable Energy Sources Implemented in BITS 5.1 Solar Water Heaters Presently BITS, Pilani is using Solar Water Heaters for all the boys hostels (eleven in total) to get hot water for bathing purpose during winters.

Illustration 4:Solar Water Heaters installed in BITS The water heaters installed are Zing Solar Water Heaters manufactured by TATA BP SOLAR. They are innovative solar water heaters that helps consumers save considerably on energy costs without the maintenance overheads. Their effectiveness has been proved over the years and has helped reduce the electricity bills and save the environment at the same time. 5.1.1. Benefits Green, clean, environmentally friendly energy source. Lower utility costs today, no future utility cost increases. Provides additional hot water storage capacity for your home or business. Green, clean, environmentally friendly energy source. Very low to no operating maintenance expense. Maintain regular hot water supply during electric utility outages.


5.1.2. Factors to be considered while installing Solar Water Heaters(SWH) Roof availability is almost a non-issue, it is available. However, security and upkeep of SWH installations may demand care in the light of potential student-activity on the terrace. It is possible to maximize SWH performance because regulating hot water supply to morning hours is easy. It is in summer that hostels have low occupancy. The vacations, thus, do not hurt, demand for hot water. The common method of water-heating is electricity. SWH, therefore, offers significant scope for cost-saving.

Illustration 5: Comparison of Electric Geysers vs Solar Water Heaters The recourse to individual electric heating rods, inefficient and electricity-intensive, is considerable, enhancing further scope for saving. The decision-making, in case of hostels, managed by registered societies/trusts, rests with key managing trustees. They are generally far removed from everyday management of hostels and will have to be educated. Many hostel-owners are sensitive to capital expenditure proposals, notwithstanding recurring saving. This, combined with 150 days/year hot water demand business case, makes a strong financial incentive, necessary to convert potential into actual demand.


5.1.3. Savings per Year by BITS through Use of Solar Water Heaters Instead of Electric Water Heaters Average water consumption per bath=80 L No. of days in year hot water is required=180 No. of students= 3500 Frequency of taking bath=40 in 100 days Total hot water consumption=3500*180*0.4*80=2,01,60,000L Saving of electricity per 100L of hot water=6.8units Cost of electricity=Rs. 6/unit Total Savings by using Solar Water Heaters instead of Electric Water [1]

Heaters=2,01,60,000*(6.8/100)*6=Rs. 82,25,280


6.Renewable Energy Sources Feasibility In Bits 6.1. Biogas plant The average wastage from messes, canteens and dairy which can be used for biogas production is 200 Kg. Medium Sized Biogas plants can be setup in the campus. These Plants are available from 100 Kg. wastes per day. 6.1.1. Brief process description: The segregated wet garbage (food waste) is brought to the plant site in bins and containers. It is loaded on a sorting platform and residual plastic, metal; glass and other non-biodegradable items are further segregated. The waste is loaded into a Waste Crusher along with water, which is mounted on the platform. The food waste slurry mixed with hot water is directly charged into the Primary digester. This digester serves mainly as hydrolysis cum acidification tank for the treatment of suspended solids. For breaking slag compressed air is used for agitation of slurry. Compressed air will also help in increasing aeration since bacteria involved in this tank are aerobic in nature. The tank is designed in such a way that after the system reaches equilibrium in initial 4-5 days, the fresh slurry entering the tank will displace equal amount of digested matter from top into the main digester tank. Main digester tank serves as a methane fermentation tank and BOD reduction takes place here. The treated overflow from this digester is connected to the manure pits. This manure can be supplied to farmers at the rate of 4-5 Rs. per Kg. Alternatively municipal gardens and local gardens can be assured of regular manure from this biogas plant. The biogas is collected in a dome is a drum like structure, fabricated of either mild steel sheets or fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP). It fits like a cap on the mouth of digester where it is submerged in the water and rests in the ledge, constructed inside the digester for this purpose. The drum collects gas, which is produced from the slurry inside the digester, as it gets decomposed and rises upward, being lighter than air. The biogas can be used for cooking, heating, and power generation purpose. 6.1.2 Advantages of Biogas Plant: Installation of our biogas plant will enable you to very conveniently treat your entire biodegradable waste and thereby maintain a clean, hygienic, pollution free environment and also avoid all hassles of storage and transportation of waste.

Electricity and water requirement is very low. Saving in terms of transport and labor costs for disposal of above waste from source of generation to the disposal site. Biogas, a renewable source of non-conventional energy generated, is proportional to the waste loaded per day. Maintenance cost is low since the operation of the equipment is periodic. We also undertake annual operation and maintenance contract or only preventive maintenance contract on separate mutually agreed terms and conditions. The biogas produced provides smoke free fuel to your kitchen, can be used to fire boilers or for electricity generation. The government has allowed 100% depreciation in the year of installation for this non-conventional source of energy and environmentally friendly waste disposal system.

The high quality manure generated, which would be weed less can be used directly in your garden as it has excellent organically rich fertilizer properties and no foul smell. The size of our plant is very compact, can be installed in the area close to the generation of waste.

6.1.3. Cost Analysis of Biogas Plant

Illustration 6: Sample Biogas plant which can be installed at BITS The above mentioned biogas plant can be installed at two locations in the campus as the total wastage is around two hundred kilogram and each of these plants would be having a capacity of hundred kilogram.

6.2. Solar Street Lights In this day and age, when the energy resources are being wasted every single second, it has become important for the people to go green. Solar street lights are a step taken up in that direction only. These lights dont run on conventional power, but are run by the solar energy. Solar Street lights are the invention of the latest technology. They help in reducing the electricity consumption of any country, dramatically. They are worth every single penny that goes in its installation. Installation cost is the only cost, which the government has to bear, rest it doesnt call for any maintenance. Solar street lights are economically viable and are being put to use in most of the developing countries. Change has begun in the right direction with the increase in use of these lights. Solar street lights dont require any excavation or any huge amount of labor work in their installation, as there are no cables attached to them. They have solar panels affixed to them that get charged by the sunlight and that makes them light up during the night. These panels must be properly aligned in the right direction, so that they can collect as much sunlight as possible. The operation of solar street lights, from dusk to dawn, is controlled by the photocell integrated within them. Solar street lights are getting popular by day because they make the roads safe at night at a very effective cost. Basically, the general public pays the taxes for such services, and when there will be no cost attached to the street lights working, automatically the taxes will lower down. It is a win-win situation for both the public and the environment, as it doesnt work on the power of fossil fuels. Another major advantage of solar street lights is that they work in any condition whether theres power or not. For example, after any natural calamity, like a storm, hurricane or a blizzard, many lights get damaged and they dont work because the power lines fail. But these lights work, because of suns natural power and they help in safeguarding the streets at night in a horrendous moment like the one aforesaid. Solar street lights have lower power consumption and higher power efficacy. These lights have a longer lifetime as well when compared to conventional street lights. Solar street lights can work up to 50,000 hours, if theres no major damage done to them. These lights dont require a regular maintenance; all they need is a regular check up to see if everything is working optimally.


Solar street lights are no doubt the lights of the future. They are getting accepted by the day, by all the countries because of their numerous advantages for the earth. Street lights are a necessity of every country and going solar with these lights, will definitely have a huge impact in the conservation of power. That day is not far away, when every street in the world will be lit up by the solar street lights and every country will go green with its usage. 6.2.1. Benefits

Simple An economical and sustainable lighting solution Supplied in both kit form and pre-assembled Timer operation No electricity supply required No trenching necessary between poles No day-to-day running costs Instant solution Positive and visible statement of a commitment to sustainability

6.2.2. Cost Analysis of Solar Street Lighting

[2] Illustration 7:Cost analysis of installing one solar powered street light As seen from the above illustration we can see that the cost of a single solar powered street light is Rs. 13,300. Currently, around 60 street lights are there in the BITS campus and the cost of completely switching to solar powered street lights would be around Rs. 8 lacs.


7. Interpretation of Data collected from Students through the Questionnaire On the basis of answers to the questionnaire, following points have been highlighted about the attitude of BITS students about renewable energy sources. 90% of the respondents from BITS supported use of renewable energy sources in India and majority of them also supported the same in BITS campus. When asked about the effectiveness of use of different renewable energy sources in BITS campus following results were found.

Effectiveness of different renewable energy sources

Biomass Wind

Illustration 8: Opinion of Respondents about different Renewable Energy Sources Majority of the respondents also supported the fact that Indian government should invest more in promotion and support of renewable energy sources. Respondents also believe that BITS administration should also invest in renewable energy sources. 7.1. View of Respondents about Solar Energy Most of the respondents agreed with the point that solar energy is the most easily available renewable energy source in places like Pilani. Students also believed that use of solar energy for thermal energy production is more effective as compared to electrical energy production. Respondents were found to be satisfied with solar water heaters placed in hostels. 7.2. View of Respondents about Wind Energy In general respondents were not found to be interested in implementation of wind energy projects in BITS campus. Students were not sure about the effectiveness of the wind energy projects considering the demography of the campus. But few respondents who supported


wind energy projects gave example of Colorado State University where they have signed a contract with a company to set up a very small wind energy farm. 7.3. View of Respondents about Biomass Energy Respondents believed that biomass energy can be a very good source of energy in villages and they believe that biomass energy can boom the economy of the Indian villages if implemented properly. They also agreed with the point that government should subsidize the biogas plant. Respondents also supported the point of implementing biogas plant in BITS messes considering the huge amount of wastage of food daily. In general, respondents were aware about the different renewable energy sources and their scope. They were very supportive of renewable energy sources and which shows their concern for the environment and willingness to pay a premium if it ensures a safe future.


8. Conclusion
Renewable energy sources are indigenous and can contribute towards reduction in dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy sources assume special significance in India when viewed in the context of the geographic diversity and size of the country, not to mention the size of its rural economy. Since renewable energy resources are diffused and decentralized, they are more appropriate as local energy systems to meet the ever expanding and diversified energy needs. This report is meant only as an overview in hopes that it will encourage even more rapid and extensive development of the renewable energy resources.

India is a nation in transition. Considered an "emerging economy," increasing GDP is driving the demand for additional electrical energy, as well as transportation fuels. India is a nation of extremes. Poverty remains in areas with no energy services, while wealth grows in the new business hubs. Coal fired generation currently provides two thirds of the generation capacity, and hydropower supplies the other third. Yet, India is blessed with vast resources of renewable energy in solar, wind, biomass and hydro. In fact, the technical potential of these renewables exceeds the present installed generation capacity. [3]

Unique in the world, India has the only Ministry that is dedicated to the development of Renewable energies: the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This bodes well for the acceleration of renewable development throughout the nation - both to meet the needs of millions of rural residents and the growing demand of an energy hungry economy. The study of the solar water heaters installed in the boys hostels of BITS, Pilani proved that they were very effective in cutting costs and being pollution free at the same time. The feasibility study of other renewable energy technologies showed that there is still scope for further implementation of renewable sources in the campus and thus reducing the dependency on traditional energy sources. The data collected from the respondents of the questionnaire brought forward interesting results. In general, respondents were aware about the different renewable energy sources and their scope. They were very supportive of renewable energy sources and which shows their concern for the environment and willingness to pay a premium if it ensures a safe future.


9. Recommendations

1. Awareness program should be carried out by the college administration and the government for spreading more awareness about the use of renewable energy sources among the students of BITS and the people of nearby villages. Socially active groups in BITS like NSS and Nirmaan should organize awareness camps in nearby villages about the advantages of using renewable energy sources. 2. BITS administration should install biogas plant in hostel messes which would decrease dependence of messes on LPG cylinders as a fuel. 3. Solar street lights should also be installed in the campus streets to reduce dependence on electrical energy from power plants. 4. Seeing the success of solar water heater in boys hostels, it should be installed in other major buildings and faculty houses. Solar concentrator should also be installed in messes for the purpose of boiling water and milk. 5. BITS faculty should also invest time in research and development of renewable energy sources. Students should also use their knowledge of engineering and come out with new ideas about renewable energy sources. New center committed to research and development of renewable energy sources should be set up.


10. Appendix 10.1. Questionnaire



11.Bibliography National resource institute, Energy alternatives India, Ministry of new and renewable energy, Smart energy portal, Wikipedia, N. H. Ravindranath 2000, Renewable Energy and Environment A Policy Analysis of India, Release India: Tata McGraw Hill Books. Colorado State University, Renewable Energy Management portal, http://www.renewable-energy- The Guardian Newspaper website, U-switch website, About Environment portal, Energy Star Department, Solar Thermal Magazine, Renewable Energy World portal,


12. References [1] [2] [3] Renewable Energy Sources Watt Commitee Report, Pg 32